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Sample records for cruzi histopathological lesions

  1. [Placental lesions in human Trypanosoma cruzi infection].

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Aguilar, Sergio; Lambot, Maria-Alexandra; Torrico, Faustino; Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Córdoba, Marysol; Suarez, Eduardo; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    This histopathological study analyzes placentas of babies congenitally infected with T. cruzi (M+B+), or babies not infected but born from infected- (M+B-), or non infected-mothers (M-B-). Placentas M+B+ showed lesions of chorionitis, chorioamnionitis and cord edema with lymphocyte infiltration, whereas such lesions were infiltrated only with polymorphonuclear cells in M+B- and M-B- placentas. Parasites were found in M+B+ placentas, in fibroblasts and macrophages of chorion, membranes, chorionic plate, mainly in the area of membrane insertion, as well as in cells of Wharton jelly and myocytes of umbilical cord vessels. These results suggest that the materno-fetal transmission of parasites occurs mainly through the marginal sinus, spreading into the chorionic plate infecting fibroblasts and macrophages so far as to found a fetal vessel, inducing a fetal infection by hematogenous route. PMID:16482822

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi: histopathology of endocrine system in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, K. S.; Lagrange, P. H.; da Costa, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally immunocompromised athymic mice, neonatal mice and adult outbred OFI mice treated with the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide (CY), dexamethasone (DM) and indomethacin (IM) were infected with trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi Y and CL strains. 10(4) parasites were used, except in the case of IM treatment, where mice received 10(3) trypomastigotes in one group and 10(5) in another. The course of parasitaemia, tissue distribution of amastigotes and time of mortality were compared with an infected thymus intact control group. Neonate and indomethacin treated mice presented the same pattern of parasitaemia. Death occurred as early as 9-10 days after infection. A single dose of CY 200 mg/kg given 5 days after infection enhanced the parasitaemia and increased the number of parasites in the tissues. All groups were similar in terms of colonization of the endocrine system by parasites and the adrenals showed the highest density of amastigotes nests. The thyroid gland (analysed only in neonates) showed intense amastigote accumulation. Colonization of the ovary was observed with amastigotes in both the theca interna and in the stroma. The testes (also examined only in the neonate) showed that the interstitial cells, the tunica albuginea of the seminiferous tubules and the loose connective tissue were infected. Athymic nude mice showed the most intense parasite colonization of the islets of Langerhans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7734334

  3. Variable histopathology of discovertebral lesion (spondylodiscitis) of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Reidbord, H E; Kraus, D R; Eisenbeis, C H

    1990-01-01

    Extensive discovertebral lesion is an infrequent complication of long-standing ankylosing spondylitis. Reported histopathological descriptions vary from predominantly inflammatory to fibrous granulation with reactive bone formation. We report variable histological findings in four symptomatic patients with extensive discovertebral lesions who required spinal fusion. PMID:2347137

  4. Histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the incidence of histopathological placental lesions in mild gestational hyperglycemia, gestational diabetes and overt diabetes at term and preterm gestation. Research design and methods One-hundred-and-thirty-one placental samples were collected from Diabetes mellitus (DM) positive screened patients. Two diagnostic tests, glycemic profile and 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in parallel identified 4 groups normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH), gestational DM (GDM) or overt DM (DM). Placental tissue specimens and sections from 4 groups were obtained by uniform random sampling and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Placentas from MGH group presented 17 types of histopathological change and higher rates of syncytial nodes and endarteritis. GDM placentas presented only nine types of histopathological change, high rates of dysmaturity, low rates of calcification and no syncytial nodes. Overt DM placentas showed 22 types of histopathological change, 21 of which were present in the preterm period. There were histopathological similarities between MGH and DM placentas, but the former exhibited a higher incidence of endarteritis, which has been described as a "post-mortem" phenomenon. Conclusion Our results confirmed that the distinct placental changes associated with DM and MGH depend on gestational period during which the diabetic insult occurs. It may reasonably be inferred that subclinical maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy, as showed in MGH group, is responsible for increased placental endarteritis, a postmortem lesion in the live fetus. PMID:21831283

  5. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In the months following the spill, over 1,000 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil spill-affected areas are known to have died. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters and to discuss possible pathogeneses of the lesions. Materials available included tissues from oil-contaminated and uncontaminated otters that died in rehabilitation centers following the oil spill and tissues from otters that were found dead in the oil spill-affected area with external oil present. Tissues from apparently normal sea otters from an area not contaminated by crude oil, were also examined.

  6. Clinical, histopathologic & immunologic features of cutaneous lesions in acute meningococcaemia.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Mukherjee, A; Chandra, M; Sehgal, S K; Saxena, U; Jain, A K; Wadhwa, A

    1990-01-01

    Fifty children with culture proven acute meningococcaemia were studied during the winter outbreak of the disease in 1986-87. Purpuric lesions were seen in 60 per cent, erythematous papules in 32 per cent, faint pink macules in 28 per cent, conjunctival petechiae in 10 per cent and herpes labialis in 20 per cent. Histopathology of skin lesions showed that the primary damage was to the dermal vessels, the extent of damage depending on the type of skin involvement. Diplococci in Gram's stained sections were seen frequently in purpuric as compared to the other skin lesions. They were located in degenerating neutrophils, endothelial cells, fibrin clots or freely in the vascular lumen. Electron microscopic study showed vascular changes accompanied by a perivascular phagocytic response. Both light and electronmicroscopy indicated the involvement of the coagulative mechanism in the pathogenesis of meningococcaemia. However, clinical parameters of clotting were often within normal limits. In the case of a child (who died eventually), a low platelet count and prolonged coagulation indices were observed. Sera from some of the children were tested for the presence of antibodies against meningococci by indirect immunofluorescence. Antibodies were detected in the sera and they may have a role in regulating the severity and course of the illness. The significance of immunoglobulin deposits in the skin lesions is not clear. PMID:2111800

  7. Histopathological changes in the placentas and fetuses of mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from the Myotis nigricans nigricans bat.

    PubMed

    Badra, E S; Sala, M A; Lopes, R A; Prado, J C; Albuquerque, S; Zucoloto, S; Carraro-Abrahão, A A

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological changes and placental transmission were studied in the late stages of pregnancy in mice infected with a strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, isolated from a Myotis nigricans nigricans bat. Large amastigote nests were observed in uterine muscles, as well as in decidual and endothelial placental cells. In addition, persistent coagulative and fibrotic vascular degeneration was observed. Large amastigote burdens were found in giant cells, spongioblasts and endothelial cells within the labyrinthine layer. Transplacental transmission was confirmed in 30% of the fetuses examined, in which amastigote nests were seen only in striated muscle. During the acute phase, intrauterine development was impaired as the result of parasitic invasion of the placenta, and fetal mortality rose to 10%. PMID:18640685

  8. Poor correlation between spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis and histopathology in melanoma and nonmelanoma lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terstappen, Karin; Suurküla, Mart; Hallberg, Håkan; Ericson, Marica B.; Wennberg, Ann-Marie

    2013-06-01

    Spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis (SIAscopy) is an imaging technique developed for diagnostics of pigmented skin lesions. By image analysis, the displayed images indicate the potential distribution and position of melanin, blood, and collagen within the lesion. A topographic comparison was performed between SIAscopic findings and histopathology. In total, 60 patients with suspicious pigmented skin lesions were included. The lesions were SIAscopically imaged and documented before excision and histopathological preparation. Topographical comparisons between SIAscopy findings and histopathology were made. A sensitivity and specificity of 24% and 84%, respectively, were obtained for invasive melanomas. The positive and negative predicted values were 58% and 54%, respectively. The features indicating dermal melanin, blood displacement and collagen holes did only show "no" to "slight" agreement with histopathology, i.e., κ≤0.21. It was concluded that (i) SIAscopy-based diagnosis has low diagnostic accuracy for melanoma, (ii) single SIAscopic features do not provide reliable diagnostic information relating to the lesions internal structure on histopathology examination and (iii) SIAscopy cannot be used as a guide for localizing the maximum tumor thickness when performing the histopathological examination. The importance of validating new optical tools for tumor diagnostics with histopathological findings was demonstrated.

  9. Consistency Rates of Clinical Diagnosis and Histopathological Reports of Oral Lesions: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Shirin; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Mostafazadeh, Samira; Gheisar, Azhdar

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. A correct diagnosis is the most important step in the treatment of oral lesions and each oral lesion has specific clinical features that provide clinical diagnosis; however, some of these features are common among different lesions. In these situations, biopsy and histopathological examination are indicated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clinical and histopathological diagnosis of patients referred to the Department of Oral Pathology, Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry, from 2009 to 2011. Materials and methods. In this retrospective study, individual data and clinical findings of 311 patients who had been referred to the Department of Oral Pathology during a three-year period were collected through questionnaires and compared with histopathological reports. Data were analyzed by using chi-squared and Fisher's tests. Results. In 80.7% of the cases the clinical diagnosis of the lesions was consistent with pathology reports. In 19.3% of the cases, the clinical diagnosis of the lesions was not confirmed histopathologically. The greatest consistency was observed for lichen planus (100%) and inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (epulis fissuratum) (94.3%). Conclusion. Although great consistency rates were observed in this study between clinical diagnoses and pathology reports, there was also a significant disagreement with the literature, indicating that comprehensive clinical examination, high consistency with oral lesion features and effective cooperation between surgeons and pathologists are necessary. PMID:25093056

  10. Benign breast lesions in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Nigeria: a 5 year multicentre histopathological audit

    PubMed Central

    Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. Methods This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. Results A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Conclusion Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state. PMID:25995790

  11. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, T P; Harris, R K; Moeller, R B; Pletcher, J M; Haebler, R J; Ballachey, B E

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress

  12. Oxidative stress enzyme and histopathological lesions in Colossoma macropomum (pisces, ariidae) for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Dantas, Janaina Gomes; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    This study used oxidative stress enzyme (Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase), histopathological lesions (Branchial lesions) and biometric data in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in an Environmental Protection Area at São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations (A1 = contaminated area and A2 = reference site) within the protected area on four occasions. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in C. macropomum was compared with biometric data and histopathological lesions. Results have shown that biometric data decreased significantly in fish (p<0.05) at the contaminated site. The activity of CAT was higher in fish specifically caught in A1. A significant difference was observed in the GST activity in the liver of C. macropomum when comparing fish from the contaminated site and those from the reference site (p<0.05).

  13. CHILD syndrome with mild skin lesions: histopathologic clues for the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gantner, Susanne; Rütten, Arno; Requena, Luis; Gassenmaier, Gerhard; Landthaler, Michael; Hafner, Christian

    2014-10-01

    CHILD syndrome is an acronym signifying congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects. A 27-year-old woman presented with chronic verrucous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions involving the left genital area, left hand and left foot since childhood. The histopathologic findings were consistent with verruciform xanthoma. In correlation with the clinical picture of a linear lesion, the diagnosis of CHILD nevus was made. Subsequent genetic analysis identified a germline c.324C>T (p.A105V) NSDHL mutation and confirmed a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome. This syndrome can be associated with only minimal clinical symptoms. The anatomical distribution of the lesions, a static clinical course and the typical histopathologic features of a CHILD nevus can serve as the clue to a diagnosis of CHILD syndrome in such cases. PMID:25093865

  14. Fish biomarkers for environmental monitoring: An integrated model supporting enzyme activity and histopathological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Torres Junior, Audalio Rebelo

    2014-10-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the association between glutathione-S-transferase activity and brachial lesions in the catfish, Sciades herzbergii (Ariidae) from a polluted port. The catfish were sampled from a port known to be contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds and from a natural reserve in São Marcos Bay, Brazil. Two biomarkers, hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and histopathological lesions, in gills tissue were measured. The values for GST activity were modeled with the occurrence of branchial lesions by fitting a third order polynomial. Results from the mathematical model indicate that GST activity has a strong polynomial relationship with the occurrence of branchial lesions in both the wet and the dry seasons, but only at the polluted port site. The model developed in this study indicates that branchial and hepatic lesions are initiated when GST activity reaches 2.15 μmol min-1 mg protein-1. Beyond this limit, GST activity decreased to very low levels and irreversible histopathological lesions occurred. This mathematical model provides a realistic approach to analyze predictive biomarkers of environmental health status.

  15. A 5 year retrospective study of biopsied jaw lesions with the assessment of concordance between clinical and histopathological diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Elif; Öğütlü, Faruk; Karaca, İnci Rana; Gültekin, Elif Sibel; Çakır, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The jaw can be affected by several lesions that manifest in the oral cavity, but little is known about their distribution patterns in various populations. Aims and Objectives: This study presents the frequency and distribution of biopsied jaw lesions recorded in Faculty of Dentistry and gathers the information including provisional and final diagnosis of the lesions. Material and Methods: Biopsy of 1938 lesions (2008–2013) was reviewed and 1473 lesions were included in this study. The provisional diagnosis and histopathological validations of lesions were compared. Data on the location of the lesion, as well as patient demographics, were also evaluated. The lesions were divided into three major groups as 1 - developmental/reactive and inflammatory lesions of the jaw, 2 - cystic lesion and 3 - tumor and tumor-like lesions. Statistical Analysis: The variables were recorded and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results and Observations: Three hundred and ninety-six lesions were in Group 1 and periapical granuloma was the most frequent diagnosis. Seven hundred and eighty-nine lesions were in Group 2 and the radicular cyst was the most frequent diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty-eight lesions were in Group 3 and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor was the most frequent. Two hundred and ninety-one biopsied lesions were in disagreement with respect to the diagnoses on clinical and histopathological examination. Conclusion: Consequently, a provisional diagnosis of some of the malignant lesions was reactive, inflammatory, cystic or benign lesions, therefore the importance of evaluation of the specimen is emphasized. PMID:27194866

  16. The Spectrum of Histopathological Lesions in Scarring Alopecia: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar U., Mahesh; Yelikar, Balasaheb Ramling

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the article was to study the histopathological features of various lesions of Scarring Alopecia (SA) and to classify Primary SA on the basis of the predominant type of inflammatory cell component. Scarring or cicatricial alopecias are those that are produced as a result of the malformation, damage or destruction of the pilosebaceous follicles, which are replaced by cicatricial tissue, in such a way that they cannot again produce hair. Material and Methods: This prospective study included 32 biopsy – proven cases of SA, who had attended our hospital. Primary SA was classified according to the North American Hair Research Society. The informed consents of the subjects and the institutional ethical clearance was obtained for the study. The SPSS, version 14 software was used to analyse the data. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the data. Results: During the study period, 32 cases of scarring alopecia were diagnosed, of which 24 were primary SA and 8 were secondary SA. Among the primary SA, there were 23 cases of lymphocyte associated primary scarring alopecias, of which, 19 of lupus erythematosus, 3 of lichen planopilaris (LPP) and one case of non specific SA. 1 case of neutrophil associated primary scarring (folliculitis decalvans) was also noted and among the secondary SA, there were 4 cases of morphea and 1 case each of lupus vulgaris, congenital absence of skin, burn and sarcoidosis. Conclusion: To conclude, histopathology is a dependable tool for identifying the underlying cause in scarring alopecia, which is helpful for an early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23998068

  17. Histopathological Characterization of the Lesions of Contagious Ovine Digital Dermatitis and Immunolabelling of Treponema-like Organisms.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Crosby-Durrani, H E; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D; Blundell, R

    2015-11-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a cause of severe lameness in sheep and the three Treponema phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis have been associated with clinical disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe the histopathological changes associated with each previously established grade of clinical lesion, and (2) to investigate immunohistochemically the association of the Treponema-like organisms with the observed histopathological changes. Early lesions were characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the distal digital skin, with suppurative coronitis and intracorneal pustules. In more advanced stages of the disease there was complete separation of the dorsal wall of the hoof with a necrotizing and fibrinosuppurative exudate and dermatitis. The later lesions were mostly resolved, but with milder suppurative changes remaining within the cornified layer and periosteal reaction of the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx. Large numbers of Treponema-like organisms were identified within early grade lesions (as well as later, more advanced grade lesions) and were specifically associated with the observed histopathological changes. The results of this study provide some evidence in support of the hypothesis that the three CODD-associated Treponema phylogroups are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26597022

  18. Histopathological study using computer database of 10 000 consecutive gastric specimens: (2) malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2016-02-01

    Using a computer database, the author investigated the histopathology of 10 000 consecutive gastric specimens collected in the last 12 years 2002-2013 at his pathology laboratory in a relatively large hospital in Japan. Examination of histological sections was done when appropriate. The gastric specimens were made up of 8579 benign conditions and 1421 malignant lesions. The latter comprised gastric carcinoma in 1342 cases (94.4%), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in 34 (2.4%), mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in 25 (1.8%), non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma in 19 (1.3%), and metastatic carcinoma in 1 case (0.1%). Of the 1342 cases of gastric carcinoma, the histological type was as follows: tubular adenocarcinoma in 755 cases, papillary adenocarcinoma in 176, mucinous adenocarcinoma in 147, signet ring cell carcinoma in 145, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 114, adenosquamous carcinoma in 4, and metastatic small cell carcinoma from the lung in 1. In surgically resected cases, the number of early gastric carcinomas was 258 and of advanced carcinoma, 521 cases. In GIST (n = 34), there were 2 cases of the epithelioid type and 32 of the spindle cell type. The size of GIST ranged from 1-15 cm, with a mean of 5.6 cm. KIT (CD117) was positive in 34/34 cases, CD34 in 31/34, desmin 2/34, and S100 4/34. A genetic analysis was performed in 6 cases of GIST, all of which showed point mutation of KIT and/or PDGFRA genes. In MALT lymphoma (n = 25), centrocyte-like cells and lymphoepithelial lesions were seen in every case. Helicobactor pylori infection was noted in 92%. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 19), 17 cases were of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 1 was peripheral T-cell lymphoma, while 1 was NK-cell lymphoma. PMID:25667235

  19. Comparison between histopathologic features of leprosy in reaction lesions in HIV coinfected and non-coinfected patients*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leprosy and HIV are diseases that have a major impact on public health in Brazil. Patients coinfected with both diseases, appear to be at higher risk to develop leprosy reactions. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to describe the histopathological aspects of cutaneous lesions during reactional states in a group of patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection, compared to patients with leprosy, without coinfection. METHODS Two groups were established: group 1 comprised of 40 patients coinfected with HIV-leprosy; group 2, comprised of 107 patients with leprosy only. Patients presenting reactional states of leprosy had their lesions biopsied and comparatively evaluated. RESULTS Reversal reaction was the most frequent feature in both groups, with dermis edema as the most common histopathological finding. Giant cells were seen in all group 1 histopathological examinations. Dermis edema was the most common finding in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. CONCLUSION Few histopathological differences were found in both groups, with reversal reaction as the most significant one, although this fact should be analyzed considering the predominant BT clinical form in the coinfected group and BB form in the group without HIV. Larger prospective studies in patients with HIV-leprosy coinfection are needed to confirm and broaden these results. PMID:25672296

  20. Histopathology of duodenal mucosal lesions in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease: statistical analysis to identify distinctive features.

    PubMed

    Hardee, Steven; Alper, Arik; Pashankar, Dinesh S; Morotti, Raffaella A

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGT) are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Pediatric patients have a higher incidence of IBD-associated gastritis and duodenitis than do adults. This study aimed to identify histopathologic features of duodenal lesions in the pediatric population that are characteristic of IBD, compared to duodenal pathology of different etiopathogenesis. We performed a retrospective analysis of UGT biopsies from pediatric patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of duodenitis (0-18 years of age) over a 7-year period. We identified 40 cases of duodenitis associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and 10 cases associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and compared the histopathologic characteristics of the duodenitis with age-matched controls consisting of 40 cases duodenitis associated with celiac disease and 40 non-Helicobacter pylori-associated (NOS) etiology duodenitis cases. The histologic features that were evaluated included presence of granulomas, duodenal cryptitis, erosion, lamina propria eosinophils, villous blunting, increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), and crypt hyperplasia, among others. Additionally, we evaluated the presence of associated gastritis in all of these groups. Statistical analysis to identify significant differences was performed using Kruskal-Wallis testing. Cryptitis was the most distinctive feature of IBD-associated duodenitis. Granulomas were exceptionally rare. The severity of villous blunting and presence of IELs was significantly different in the IBD versus the celiac group. There is a significant overlap with duodenal lesions of different etiopathogenesis, including villous blunting and eosinophilia. With the exclusion of granulomas, cryptitis seems the most distinctive feature of the duodenal lesions associated with IBD. PMID:25207874

  1. Histopathological Changes and Clinical Responses of Buruli Ulcer Plaque Lesions during Chemotherapy: A Role for Surgical Removal of Necrotic Tissue?

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Luc Valère; Dossou, Ange Dodji; Barogui, Yves Thierry; Johnson, Roch Christian; Pluschke, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is a necrotizing skin disease usually starting with a subcutaneous nodule or plaque, which may ulcerate and progress, if untreated, over months and years. During the currently recommended antibiotic treatment with rifampicin/streptomycin plaque lesions tend to ulcerate, often associated with retarded wound healing and prolonged hospital stays. Methodology/Principal Findings Included in this study were twelve laboratory reconfirmed, HIV negative BU patients presenting with plaque lesions at the CDTUB in Allada, Benin. Punch biopsies for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were taken before start of treatment and after four to five weeks of treatment. Where excision or wound debridement was clinically indicated, the removed tissue was also analyzed. Based on clinical judgment, nine of the twelve patients enrolled in this study received limited surgical excision seven to 39 days after completion of chemotherapy, followed by skin grafting. Lesions of three patients healed without further intervention. Before treatment, plaque lesions were characterized by a destroyed subcutis with extensive necrosis without major signs of infiltration. After completion of antibiotic treatment partial infiltration of the affected tissue was observed, but large necrotic areas remained unchanged. Conclusion/Significance Our histopathological analyses show that ulceration of plaque lesions during antibiotic treatment do not represent a failure to respond to antimycobacterial treatment. Based on our results we suggest formal testing in a controlled clinical trial setting whether limited surgical excision of necrotic tissue favours wound healing and can reduce the duration of hospital stays. PMID:21980547

  2. Histopathological lesions in the pancreas of the BB Wistar rat as a function of age and duration of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Yates, A; Sharma, H; Thibert, P

    1985-01-01

    Pancreatic histopathology was studied in 121 BBWd, 43 BBWnd, and 33 Wistar rats. Insulitis was the most common inflammatory lesion in both BBW and BBWnd rats. The incidence was inversely associated with age and with duration of diabetes in BBWd rats, but there was no age-related pattern in BBWnd rats. Small end-stage islets were typical of BBWd rats but were not seen in BBWnd rats. Several BBWd rats showed hyperplastic islets months after the onset of diabetes, a pattern that is also seen in a small percentage of human JOD patients. Several non-specific exocrine inflammatory lesions occurred in both BBWd and BBWnd rats: acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, eosinophilic infiltrates, granulomatous lesions and acute and/or chronic interstitial inflammation. Only chronic interstitial inflammation was seen in outbred Wistar rats. PMID:3882779

  3. Assessment of the histopathological lesions and chemical analysis of feral cats to the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires.

    PubMed

    Moeller, R B; Kalasinsky, V F; Razzaque, M; Centeno, J A; Dick, E J; Abdal, M; Petrov, I I; DeWitt, T W; al-Attar, M; Pletcher, J M

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-six adult or subadult feral cats were collected from Kuwait approximately 8 months after the ignition of the Kuwait oil wells. These animals were obtained from two sources: 12 animals from Kuwait City, a relatively smoke-free area, and 14 from the city of Ahmadi, an area with heavy smoke. Animals were euthanized and a complete set of tissues consisting of all major organs was taken for histopathology. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, urine, and blood were also taken for toxicology. Histopathological lesions observed in the lung were mild accumulations of anthracotic pigment in the lungs of 17 cats. Hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar gland in 8 cats, and smooth muscle hyperplasia of bronchioles in 14 cats. Tracheal gland hyperplasia was observed in 7 cats, and minimal squamous metaplasia of the tracheal mucosa in 17 cats, Laryngeal lesions consisted of submucosal gland hyperplasia in 2 cats and squamous metaplasia of the mucosa in 5 cats. Hyperplasia of the nasal submucosal glands was observed in 6 animals. The pharyngeal mucosa as well as other organs and organ systems were normal in all cats. Atomic absorption analysis for 11 metals was performed; vanadium and nickel levels (two metals that were present in the smoke from the oil fires) are not indicative of substantial exposure to the oil fires. Based on the histopathological findings and toxicological analysis, it is felt that inhalation of air contaminated with smoke from the oil fires had little or no long-term effect on the animals examined. PMID:7884645

  4. Revised Terminology for Cervical Histopathology and Its Implications for Management of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Alan G.; Chelmow, David; Darragh, Teresa M.; Lawson, Herschel; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianus, and anus. The recommended terminology is “low-grade” or “high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL).” This terminology is familiar to clinicians, because it parallels the terminology of the Bethesda System cytologic reports. Biopsy results using SIL terminology may be further qualified using “intraepithelial neoplasia” (IN) terminology in parentheses. Laboratory p16 tissue immunostaining is recommended to better classify histopathology lesions that morphologically would earlier have been diagnosed as IN 2. p16 is also recommended for differentiating between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign mimics. The LAST Project recommendations potentially affect the application of current guidelines for managing cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. The authors offer interim guidance for managing cervical lesions diagnosed using this new terminology with special attention paid to managing young women with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Clinicians should be aware of the LAST Project recommendations, which include important changes from prior terminology. PMID:23168774

  5. Revised terminology for cervical histopathology and its implications for management of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Alan G; Chelmow, David; Darragh, Teresa M; Lawson, Herschel; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianus, and anus. The recommended terminology is "low-grade" or "high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)." This terminology is familiar to clinicians, because it parallels the terminology of the Bethesda System cytologic reports. Biopsy results using SIL terminology may be further qualified using "intraepithelial neoplasia" (IN) terminology in parentheses. Laboratory p16 tissue immunostaining is recommended to better classify histopathology lesions that morphologically would earlier have been diagnosed as IN 2. p16 is also recommended for differentiating between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign mimics. The LAST Project recommendations potentially affect the application of current guidelines for managing cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. The authors offer interim guidance for managing cervical lesions diagnosed using this new terminology with special attention paid to managing young women with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Clinicians should be aware of the LAST Project recommendations, which include important changes from prior terminology. PMID:23168774

  6. Morphometric Identification, Gross and Histopathological Lesions of Eimeria Species in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Zaria, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umar, H. A.; Lawal, I. A.; Okubanjo, O. O.; Wakawa, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the species, gross and histopathological lesions of Eimeria in Japanese quails in Zaria. A total of 400 fresh faecal samples were collected and 10 quail birds were purchased from a quail farm. The faecal samples were processed using simple floatation technique. Oocysts shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. The intestines were observed for gross lesions and segments were analyzed using Giemsa stain and Haematoxylin and Eosin stain and then observed microscopically for the developmental stages of the parasite. Four species of Eimeria were identified in the study. Eimeria bateri of shape index of 1.36 conformed to the guidelines used while the other three Eimeria species with shape indices of 1.48, 1.03, and 1.40 were not confirmed. The main gross lesion seen was nonhaemorrhagic ballooning of the caeca. Intestinal scrapping smear revealed a developmental stage of the parasite (merozoites) in the jejunum. Histopathology also revealed a developmental stage (schizont) of the parasite in the caecum and desquamation of the epithelial lining with areas of necrosis. Further study is required using molecular techniques to properly identify the unknown species of Eimeria that were detected in the study. PMID:26464933

  7. Histopathological Spectrum of Tumor and 
Tumor-like Lesions of the Paratestis in a 
Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Pinto, R. G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tumors and tumor-like lesions (TLL) of the paratesticular region are rare. Very few studies depicting the spectrum of lesions of this location are available in the literature. Malignant neoplasms arising in the paratesticular region represent only 7.0% of malignant tumors presenting as a scrotal mass. TLL and benign tumors are of great interest, because of their topography they can simulate a neoplasm in the paratesticular structures. We sought to study the incidence, nature, pattern, clinical, immune, and histopathological characteristics of tumors and TLL of the paratestis. Methods In this six-year study, records of the cases were reviewed and the histopathology slides were reassessed. Blocks were retrieved and stained immunohistochemically for relevant markers. Results A total of 47 cases of tumor and TLL of the paratestis were diagnosed over a six-year period. The patients ranged from one to 76 years old and most presented with a scrotal mass. Of these, seven (14.9%) were benign. Lipoma was the most common benign tumor. One case each of adenomatoid tumor, scrotal hemangioma, solitary fibrous tumor, and papillary cyst adenoma were reported. The TLL (70.2%) comprised of 17 cases of epididymal cyst, seven cases of tuberculous epididymitis, four cases of filarial epididymitis, two cases each of non-specific granulomatous epididymitis and fibromatous periorchitis, and one case of mesothelial cyst. Seven malignant tumors (14.9%) were diagnosed all of which were sarcomas. All seven were primary to the paratesticular region. The most common malignant tumor was embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. One case each of malignant mesothelioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma, and myxoid liposarcoma were identified. Conclusion Neoplasms of the paratesticular region affect patients of all ages, with potentially life-threatening sequelae. Awareness of the entire spectrum and meticulous histopathological examination and

  8. A method for histopathological study of the multifocal nature of spinal cord lesions in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Boyden, Alexander W.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Lambertz, Allyn M.; Ofori-Amanfo, Georgina; Naumann, Paul W.; Goeken, J. Adam; Karandikar, Nitin J.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established mouse model for multiple sclerosis and is characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells and demyelination within the central nervous system along with the clinical symptoms of paralysis. EAE is a multifocal and random disease, which sometimes makes histopathologic analysis of lesions difficult as it may not be possible to predict where lesions will occur, especially when evaluating cross sections of spinal cord. Consequently, lesions may be easily missed due to limited sampling in traditional approaches. To evaluate the entire length of the spinal cord while maintaining anatomic integrity, we have developed a method to section the cord within the decalcified spinal column, which allows for the study of the multifocal nature of this disease and also minimizes handling artifact. HE and Luxol fast blue staining of these spinal cord sections revealed a paucity of lesions in some areas, while others showed marked inflammation and demyelination. The percentage of spinal cord affected by EAE was evaluated at four separate areas of longitudinally sectioned cord and it varied greatly within each animal. Immunohistochemical staining of in situ spinal cords which had undergone decalcification was successful for key immuno-markers used in EAE research including CD3 for T cells, B220 for B cells and F4/80 for murine macrophages. This method will allow investigators to look at the entire spinal cord on a single slide and evaluate the spinal cord with and without classic EAE lesions. PMID:26855861

  9. A bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (Nora's lesion) of metatarsus, a histopathological and etiological puzzlement.

    PubMed

    Doganavsargil, Basak; Argin, Mehmet; Sezak, Murat; Kececi, Burcin; Pehlivanoglu, Burcin; Oztop, Fikri

    2014-12-01

    Nora's lesion (bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation) is a rare, benign lesion that is composed of differing amounts of cartilage, bone, and spindle cells and an unusual form of calcified cartilage so-called "blue bone". Whether it represents a reactive proliferation or a neoplastic lesion still remains controversial. We present a 24-year-old woman having a 4.5cm two lobulated mass attached to second metatarsus of her left foot. The lesion was hyperintense on magnetic resonance imaging and accompanied by an extensive soft tissue and bone marrow edema. In resection specimen, smaller lobule appeared stuck-on the cortex while the larger one had a broader base and a 0.4cm cartilaginous cap-like formation. The histological picture was best fit to Nora's lesion however showed less fibroblastic tissue and cartilaginous pleomorphism. The lesion also showed areas with cortical invasion and a small focus of fracture callus accompanied by adjacent medullary edema and fat necrosis. The case is presented with the comparative radiologic, macroscopic and microscopic findings for its diagnostic difficulties and etiopathogenetic considerations in favour of a maturation phenomenon in parosteal ostecartilaginous lesions irrespective of the cause. PMID:25245639

  10. Assessment of the histopathological lesions and chemical analysis of feral cats to the smoke from the Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, R.B. Jr.; Dick, E.J.; Pletcher, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Twenty-six adult or subadult feral cats were collected from Kuwait approximately 8 months after the ignition of the Kuwait oil wells. These animals were obtained from two sources: 12 animals from Kuwait City, a relatively smoke-free area, and 14 from the city of Ahmadi, an area with heavy smoke. Animals were euthanized and a complete set of tissues consisting of all major organs was taken for histopathology. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, urine, and blood were also taken for toxicology. Histopathological lesions observed in the lung were mild accumulations of anthracotic pigment in the lungs of 17 cats. Hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar gland in 8 cats, and smooth muscle hyperplasia of bronchioles in 14 cats. Tracheal gland hyperplasia was observed in 7 cats, and minimal squamous metaplasia of the tracheal mucosa in 17 cats, Laryngeal lesions consisted of submucosal gland hyperplasia in 2 cats and squamous metaplasia of the mucosa in 5 cats. Hyperplasia of the nasal submucosal glands was observed in 6 animals. The pharyngeal mucosa as well as other organs and organ systems were normal in all cats. Atomic absorption analysis for 11 metals was performed; vanadium and nickel levels (two metals that were present in the smoke from the oil fires) are not indicative of substantial exposure to the oil fires. Based on the histopathological findings and toxicological analysis, it is felt that inhalation of air contaminated with smoke from the oil fires had little or no long-term effect on the animals examined. 36 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Assessment of the histopathological lesions and chemical analysis of feral cats to the smoke from Kuwait oil fires

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, R.B.; Kalasinsky, V.F.; Razzaque, M.; Centeno, J.A.; Dick, E.J.

    1994-12-31

    Twenty-six adult or subadult feral cats were collected from Kuwait approximately 8 months after the ignition of the Kuwait oil wells. These animals were obtained from two sources: 12 animals from Kuwait City, a relatively Co smoke-free area, and 14 from the city of Alimadi, an area with heavy smoke. Animals were euthanized and a complete set of tissues consisting of all 0 major organs was taken for histopathology. Samples of lung, liver, kidney, urine, and blood were also taken for toxicology. Histopathological lesions observed in the lung were mild accumulations of anthracotic pigment in the lungs of 17 cats. Hyperplasia of the bronchial and bronchiolar gland in 8 cats, and smooth muscle hyperplasia of bronchioles in 14 cats. Iracheal gland hyperplasia was observed in 7 cats, and minimal squamous metaplasia of the tracheal mucosa in 17 cats, Laryngeal lesions consisted of submucosal gland hyperplasia in 2 cats and squamous metaplasia of the mucosa in 5 cats. Hyperplasia of the nasal submucosal glands was observed in 6 animals. The pharyngeal mucosa as well as other organs and organ systems (a) were normal in all cats. Atomic absorption analysis for 11 metals was performed; vanadium and nickel levels (two metals that were present in the smoke from the oil fires) are not indicative of substantial exposure to the oil fires. Based on the histopathological findings and toxicological analysis, it is felt that inhalation of air contaminated with smoke from the oil fires had little or no long-term effect on the animals examined.

  12. Gross and histopathological findings in unusual lesions caused by Streptococcus suis in pigs. II. Central nervous system lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S E

    1987-01-01

    Subacute meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Streptococcus suis was diagnosed in 53 pigs over a four-year period. Affected pigs averaging 11 weeks of age with a range from five days to 26 weeks, had been treated with antibiotics and had partially recovered. Hyperemia of meningeal vessels and modest increase in cerebrospinal fluid were the most common gross central nervous system lesions. Histologically, fibrin, edema and a mixture of inflammatory cells were present in meninges and choroid plexus. Linear and perivascular infiltrates of neutrophils and mononuclear inflammatory cells invaded the brain and spinal cord and similar infiltrates were in lumina of ventricles and the spinal canal. Inflammatory cells also invaded the superficial layers of the brain directly from the overlying meninges. Bilateral subacute optic perineuritis and Gasserian ganglioneuritis also occurred. Segmental cortical necrosis of cerebellar folia characterized by degeneration, necrosis, neuronophagia and drop out of groups of Purkinje cells was a distinct lesion seen in 27 of the 53 pigs. Mild spongiosis of white matter in the cerebellum and brain stem accompanied these changes. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3453269

  13. Histopathology and ultrastructure of ocular lesions associated with gas bubble disease in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Speare, D J

    1990-11-01

    Ocular lesions associated with natural and experimental outbreaks of gas bubble disease (GBD) in commercial salmonids were assessed histologically and by scanning electron microscopy. Small gas emboli were first detected in the choroid gland of the posterior uvea. In subacute and chronic cases, bubble size increased markedly and localization in retrobulbar and periocular sites was favoured. During the acute phase of GBD, ocular lesions were limited to anatomical displacement of tissue and local degeneration of compressed tissues around the perimeter of bubbles. Subacute sequelae included the formation of anterior synechia, lens cataract, and suppurative panophthalmitis. During chronic stages, when large retrobulbar bubbles had caused severe exophthalmia, there was stretching of the optic nerve and of retinal blood vessels and severe distortion of the posterior aspects of the globe. The sequential development, pathogenesis and persistence of ocular lesions associated with GBD in fish are discussed. PMID:2079557

  14. Characterization and classification of psittacine atherosclerotic lesions by histopathology, digital image analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier G; Holder, Kali; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N; Wakamatsu, Nobuko

    2011-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a degenerative and inflammatory vascular disease characterized in mammals and birds by the accumulation of inflammatory cells, lipids, calcium, and formation of large fibrofatty lesions within the intima of arteries resulting in the disorganization of the arterial wall and stenosis of the lumen. Despite the high incidence of atherosclerosis in parrots and the high number of case reports, there are few pathologic investigations and the ultrastructural study of the lesions has not been documented. Sixty-three major arteries were collected from 24 psittacine birds of 11 species during routine post-mortem examinations. Samples from the major arteries were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and 1.25% glutaraldehyde, and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional samples were fixed in 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin for histological examination. Additional histochemical stains for calcium, elastic fibres, and lipid were performed. Toluidine blue-stained 0.5 µm-thick resin sections were also obtained. Digital image analysis was performed to provide objective quantitative information on the different lesions. The histopathology and ultrastructure of psittacine atherosclerosis were found to be similar to other avian and mammalian species. Seven lesion types could be described, which were similar to the human classification system. Digital image analysis, TEM, and SEM helped to further describe the lesions and refine the classification system. TEM findings were similar to other avian and mammalian species with the notable presence of macrophage-derived and smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells and extracellular lipid. SEM revealed various stages of endothelial surface defects and, occasionally, adherent blood cells. PMID:21879992

  15. A Histopathological Study of Multi-hormone Producing Proliferative Lesions in Estrogen-induced Rat Pituitary Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Takekoshi, Susumu; Yasui, Yuzo; Inomoto, Chie; Kitatani, Kanae; Nakamura, Naoya; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Rats with estrogen-induced prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma (E2-PRLoma) have been employed as an animal model of human PRL-producing pituitary adenoma in a large number of studies. Presently, we found that long-term administration of estrogen to SD rats resulted in the development of E2-PRLomas, some of which included multi-hormone producing nodules. We herein report results of histopathological analyses of these lesions. PRLoma models were created in female SD rats by 22 weeks or longer administration of a controlled-release preparation of estradiol at a dose of 10 mg/kg/2 weeks. Ten of the 11 PRLoma model rats had proliferative nodular lesions composed of large eosinophilic cells like gonadotrophs inside the PRLoma. These lesions were positive for PRL, TSHβ, and α subunits and were negative for GH, LHβ, ACTH, and S-100. Double immunostaining revealed that these large eosinophilic cells showed coexpression of PRL and TSHβ, PRL and α subunits, and TSHβ and α subunits. Those results clarified that long-term estrogen administration to female SD rats induced multi-hormone producing neoplastic pituitary nodules that expressed PRL, TSHβ, and α subunits. We studied these neoplastic nodules obtained by laser microdissection to acquire findings similar to those of the immuno­histochemical analysis. We consider that this animal model is useful for pathogenesis analyses and therapeutic agent development concerning human multi-hormone producing pituitary adenomas. PMID:25392569

  16. Zonal dermal separation: a distinctive histopathological lesion associated with hyperelastosis cutis in a Quarter Horse.

    PubMed

    Brounts, S H; Rashmir-Raven, A M; Black, S S

    2001-08-01

    This case report describes a distinctive deep cutaneous lesion in a 1-year-old Quarter Horse filly with hyperelastosis cutis. The horse had a typical clinical presentation of hyperelastic skin associated with a 6-month history of cutaneous wounds that developed following minor cutaneous trauma. Punch biopsies of skin from the affected horse were thinner than similar biopsies from an age- and breed-matched control. Significant microscopic lesions were not seen in cutaneous punch biopsies stained with haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stains, but the ultrastructure of the dermis from the affected horse was characterized by variation in collagen fibre diameter and loose packing of collagen fibres within bundles. The horse was euthanized and necropsied, and full-thickness sections of skin were collected and examined microscopically. Affected skin was of normal thickness; however, the deep dermis contained a distinctive horizontal linear zone in which separation of collagen bundles resulted in the formation of large empty cleft-like spaces between the upper and lower regions of the deep dermis. We suggest the term 'zonal dermal separation' for this microscopic lesion. Incisional full-thickness skin biopsies should be taken in suspected cases of equine hyperelastosis cutis because punch biopsies may not obtain enough deep dermis to adequately represent pathological change in the skin of horses with this disorder. PMID:11493407

  17. Histopathology of diode and argon laser lesions in rabbit retina. A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Brancato, R.; Pratesi, R.; Leoni, G.; Trabucchi, G.; Vanni, U.

    1989-07-01

    Argon lasers are the most frequently used laser source for retinal photocoagulation. These are expensive, bulky and low-efficiency devices. In contrast, diode semiconductor lasers have a number of characteristics that make them attractive for medical application: compact size, high electrical-to-optical efficiency, and long operating lifetime. Comparable irradiance lesions (about 120 Wcm2), ophthalmoscopically similar to those obtained therapeutically in humans, were obtained by a diode and an argon laser. Twenty-four hours after the treatment, a study of these lesions was made by light and electron microscopy. Argon irradiations resulted in damage to both the inner and the outer retinal layers, while the diode laser radiation produced damage to the outer retina and choroid. A sufficient diode laser light passed into the choroid to induce small vessel occlusions and/or edema. The histological characteristics of the lesions produced by the two lasers suggest the use of the diode lasers, as well as argon lasers, in the treatment of retinal and subretinal pathologies.

  18. Effect of selenium supplementation on aflatoxin B₁-induced histopathological lesions and apoptosis in bursa of Fabricius in broilers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kejie; Fang, Jing; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Jin; Wang, Fengyuan; Chen, Zhengli; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Lai, Weimin; Zhou, Yi

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1 (AFB 1), 200 male Avian broilers, divided into five groups, were fed with basal diet (control group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1 group), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.2 mg/kg Se (+Se group I), 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg Se (+Se group II) and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.6 mg/kg Se (+Se group III), respectively. Compared with the control group, decreased relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and contents of serum immunoglobulin, more vacuoles and debris in the bursal lymphoid follicle, and increased percentage of apoptotic bursal cells were observed in the AFB1 group. Sodium selenite, however, could increase the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and contents of serum immunoglobulin, and ameliorate histopathological lesions. The percentages of apoptotic bursal cells, through flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method, in the three +Se groups were lower than those in the AFB 1 group. Compared with the AFB 1 group, moreover, the mRNA expressions of Bax and Caspase-3 by qRT-PCR in the three +Se groups were decreased, while the expression of Bcl-2 was increased. The results indicate that sodium selenite in diet can protect chicken from AFB 1-induced impairment of humoral immune function by reducing bursal histopathological lesions and percentages of apoptotic bursal cells. PMID:25261862

  19. The Driving of Immune Response by Th1 Adjuvants in Immunization of Mice with Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei Elicits a Controversial Infection Control.

    PubMed

    Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Hernández, César Gómez; Rabelo, Rosiley Aparecida de Souza; Coelho, Raquel Fernandes; Morais, Fabiana Rossetto de; Marques, Tatiane; Batista, Lara Rocha; Meira, Wendell Sérgio Ferreira; Oliveira, Carlo José Freire de; Lages Silva, Eliane; Ramírez, Luis Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies, we have demonstrated that inoculation with a Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei (avirulent RM1 strain) was able to reduce parasitemia in mice challenged with T. cruzi, although it was not able to prevent histopathological lesions. Th1 response stimulation by immunization is necessary for T. cruzi infection control, but the resistance is also dependent on immunoregulatory mechanisms, which can be induced by adjuvants. Thus, we evaluated whether inoculation of T. cruzi marinkellei associated with administration of different adjuvants would be capable of inducing different patterns of immune response to maximize the immune response against T. cruzi (virulent Romildo strain) infection. Two hundred eighty nonisogenic mice were divided into 14 groups according to the immunization scheme and the subsequent challenge with virulent Romildo T. cruzi strain. Nonimmunized groups and animals inoculated without adjuvants were also included. Immune protection was not observed with Th2 adjuvants (incomplete Freund's adjuvant [IFA] and Alum) due to high parasitemia. Th1/Th2-polarizing adjuvants also did not induce immune protection because inulin was unable to maintain survival, and immune-stimulating complexes induced intense inflammatory processes. Animals sensitized with RM1 strain without adjuvants were able to reduce parasitemia, increase survival, and protect against severe histological lesions, followed by adequate cytokine stimulation. Finally, our results demonstrate that the early and balanced IFN-γ production becomes critical to promote protection and that Th1 adjuvant elicited a controversial infection control due to increased histopathological damage. Therefore, the host's immunomodulation remains one of the most important challenges in the research for effective protection against T. cruzi infection. Similarly, the identification of protective antigens in the RM1 strain of T. cruzi marinkellei may contribute to further studies on vaccine development

  20. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse)

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence. PMID:27446562

  1. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of the hepatic lesions experimentally induced by Entamoeba dispar

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C.A.X.; Brito, K.N.O.; Gomes, M.A.; Caliari, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The sequence of hepatic necrotic-inflammatory events produced by Entamoeba dispar are originally described in this work. For the first time the experimental lesions produced by E. dispar were described in details, as well as the distribution of the trophozoites detected by the immunohistochemistry. Animals experimentally infected with E. dispar presented necrosis, thrombosis and chronic granulomatous inflammation. Immunoreactive products derived from trofozoites were observed close or associated with trophozoites, epithelioid cells, leucocytes and hepatocytes. Few are the articles on the literature about virulence of E. dispar, which is approximately 9 times more frequent than to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Variation in the virulence is therefore expected and signalizing the need of the continuity of studies with E. dispar strains from different places in the world. Taking into account that E. dispar is a closely related species to E. histolytica, these studies could determine new elements involved with E. histolytica pathogenesis, helping us to better understand the disease. PMID:20819776

  2. The Morphometrical and Histopathological Changes which were Observed after Topical Ozone Therapy on an Exophytic Fibrous Gingival Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Punit Vaibhav; Gujjari, Sheela Kumar

    2013-01-01

    We are presenting 2 cases where ozone therapy was used in the form of ozonated oil on an exophytic fibrous gingival lesion. A 42-years female patient was selected, who presented with a mild to moderately painful, exophytic, fibrous lesion on the upper anterior gingiva. This gingival lesion was treated with 2ml of ozonated oil, thrice daily for one week. After the ozone therapy, the postoperative outcomes were measured and analyzed. Finally, the lesion was subjected to an excisional biopsy and a histopathological evaluation. After the ozone therapy, the patient revealed that there was less pain. On examination of the lesion, an improvement was observed in the clinical sign of the inflammation and also a reduction in the surface ulceration. During the final biopsy, less bleeding was observed. The morphometrical analysis showed a reduction in the size of the lesion. The histopathological analysis showed a reduction in the collagen fibres and in the inflammatory cells in the connective tissue stroma. Topical ozone therapy provides potential benefits for the treatment of exophytic gingival lesions. The observed benefits in present case report needs to be verified in future with well-controlled clinical trials. PMID:23905150

  3. A new species of philometrid parasite (Nematoda, Philometridae) and histopathological lesions in juvenile whitemouth croakers, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest).

    PubMed

    Montes, M M; Plaul, S E; Martorelli, S R

    2016-09-01

    A new species of nematode parasite, Philometroides tahieli sp. nov. is described. The juvenile whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri Desmarest, was collected during the spring and summer of the years 2008-2010 from estuarial environments of Argentina. During investigations of the parasite fauna a nematode encapsulated in the musculature of the operculum was found. The nematodes were removed from the host's muscle tissue and slide-mounted in lactophenol solution to clarify the specimens. Opercular muscle with the parasite was processed for histopathological examination. Philometroides tahieli sp. nov. can be identified by the location of gravid females in the host, presence of anterior oesophageal bulb, bosses on the surface of the body, presence of transversal mounds and 14 cephalic papillae in two circular rows. The pathogenicity of the parasite is low in the natural environment, but lesions are consistent with a chronic process. The appearance of caseous necrosis suggests the presence of a locally acting substance. Philometroides tahieli sp. nov. is the second species of this genera described from brackish waters, and since the discovery of Philometroides maplestoni in 1928, is the first species of this genus recorded for South America. PMID:26775636

  4. Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Lesions By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Its Histopathological Correlation in A Tertiary Care Center of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    C, Akshatha; Masilamani, Suresh; Jonathan, Srivani

    2015-01-01

    Background Salivary glands may enlarge either due to inflammation or neoplastic conditions and the diagnosis is possible by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Aim The present study was undertaken to determine utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 186 FNACs of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Of these, 146 cases had follow-up histopathological diagnosis. FNAC diagnoses were compared to histopathological diagnoses. Results The parotid glands were more commonly involved than others. Among the various diagnostic categories used in FNAC reports, Non neoplastic category was seen in 24 (16.4%), benign category in 86 (58.9%) and malignant category in 30 (20.6%) and unsatisfactory category in 6 (4.1%) of 146 cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions were 86.6%, 94.6%, 93.6%, 88.3%, and 94.6% respectively. Conclusion The present study concluded that FNAC in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions is highly sensitive, specific and accurate method. Hence, FNAC is a useful, quick and reliable diagnostic tool. It also appears to be a safe, cost effective and minimally invasive procedure, which provides information for management of salivary gland lesions. PMID:26266126

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi in marsupial didelphids (Philander frenata and Didelhis marsupialis): differences in the humoral immune response in natural and experimental infections.

    PubMed

    Legey, Ana Paula; Pinho, Ana Paula; Xavier, Samanta C C; Marchevsky, Renato; Carreira, João Carlos; Leon, Leonor L; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2003-01-01

    Philander frenata and Didelphis marsupialis harbor parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease and on the contrary to D. marsupialis, P. frenata maintains parasitism by T. cruzi II subpopulations. Here we compared the humoral immune response of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi II group, employing SDS-PAGE/Western blot techniques and by an Indirect immunofluorescence assay. We also studied the histopathological pattern of naturally and experimentally infected P. frenata with T. cruzi. P. frenata sera recognized more antigens than D. marsupialis, and the recognition pattern did not show any change over the course of the follow up of both didelphid species. Polypeptides of 66 and 90kDa were the most prominent antigens recognized by both species in the soluble and enriched membrane fractions. P. frenata recognized intensely also a 45kDa antigen. Our findings indicate that: 1) there were no quantitative or qualitative differences in the patent or subpatent phases in the recognition pattern of P. frenata; 2) the significant differences in the recognition pattern of parasitic antigens by P. frenata and D. marsupialis sera suggest that they probably "learned" to live in harmony with T. cruzi by different strategies; 3) although P. frenata do not display apparent disease, tissular lesions tended to be more severe than has been described in D. marsupialis; and 4) Both didelphids probably acquired infection by T. cruzi after their evolutionary divergence. PMID:12806461

  6. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  7. Histopathology of Incontinence-Associated Skin Lesions: Inner Tissue Damage Due to Invasion of Proteolytic Enzymes and Bacteria in Macerated Rat Skin.

    PubMed

    Mugita, Yuko; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Nakagami, Gojiro; Kishi, Chihiro; Ichikawa, Yoshie; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Abe, Masatoshi; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    A common complication in patients with incontinence is perineal skin lesions, which are recognized as a form of dermatitis. In these patients, perineal skin is exposed to digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora, as well as excessive water. The relative contributions of digestive enzymes and intestinal bacterial flora to skin lesion formation have not been fully shown. This study was conducted to reveal the process of histopathological changes caused by proteases and bacterial inoculation in skin maceration. For skin maceration, agarose gel containing proteases was applied to the dorsal skin of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 h, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation for 30 min. Macroscopic changes, histological changes, bacterial distribution, inflammatory response, and keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation were examined. Proteases induced digestion in the prickle cell layer of the epidermis, and slight bleeding in the papillary dermis and around hair follicles in the macerated skin without macroscopic evidence of erosion. Bacterial inoculation of the skin macerated by proteolytic solution resulted in the formation of bacteria-rich clusters comprising numerous microorganisms and inflammatory cells within the papillary dermis, with remarkable tissue damage around the clusters. Tissue damage expanded by day 2. On day 3, the proliferative keratinocyte layer was elongated from the bulge region of the hair follicles. Application of proteases and P. aeruginosa induced skin lesion formation internally without macroscopic erosion of the overhydrated area, suggesting that the histopathology might be different from regular dermatitis. The healing process of this lesion is similar to transepidermal elimination. PMID:26407180

  8. Papillary synovial metaplasia-like change in oral mucoceles: a rare and previously undescribed histopathologic variant of a common oral lesion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Angela C; Haigney, Raymond J; Spagnoli, Daniel B; Neville, Brad W; Richardson, Mary S

    2010-02-01

    The development of synovial membrane-like structures has been described previously only in association with breast implants, the bone-cement interface of hip prostheses, tendon implants, testicular implants, and traumatized skin. Previous investigators have theorized that this phenomenon-referred to as "synovial metaplasia"-develops in response to gliding trauma. In some cases, these lesions can exhibit a papillary growth pattern. We report 2 unusual cases of oral mucoceles exhibiting papillary synovial metaplasia-like change: the first arising in the lower lip of an 11-year old African-American boy and the second in the lower lip of a 12-year-old European-American girl. We propose that these cases represent a rare and previously undescribed histopathologic variant of the oral mucocele. These lesions should be distinguished from other oral lesions that may exhibit a papillary cystic growth pattern. PMID:19969479

  9. Biological characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from domestic and sylvatic vectors in Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Meneses, Jair; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana María; Triana-Chávez, Omar

    2008-10-01

    Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta is one of the most endemic regions of Chagas disease in Colombia. In this study, we compared the biological behavior and genetic features of Trypanosoma cruzi stocks that were isolated from domestic and sylvatic insects in this area. Rhodnius prolixus (from domestic environments) and Triatoma dimidiata (from sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic environments) are the most important vectors in this region. Genetic characterization showed that all stocks corresponded to T. cruzi I, but LSSP-PCR analyses indicated that some genotypes were present in both environments. Biological characterization in vitro showed a low growth rate in sylvatic T. cruzi stocks and in some domestic T. cruzi stocks, possibly indicating the presence of stocks with similar behavior in both transmission cycles. In parallel, in vivo behavioral analysis also indicated that T. cruzi stocks are variable and this species did not show a correlation between the environments where they were isolated. In addition, all stocks demonstrated a low mortality rate and histopathological lesions in heart, skeletal muscle and colon tissue. Moreover, our data indicated that experimentally infected chagasic mice displayed a relation between their myocardial inflammation intensity, parasitism tissue and parasite load using the qPCR. In conclusion, our results indicate that the T. cruzi stocks present in SNSM have similar biological behavior and do not show a correlation with the different transmission cycles. This could be explained by the complex transmission dynamics of T. cruzi in Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, where hosts, vectors (e.g., T. dimidiata) and reservoirs circulate in both environments due to the close contact between the two transmission cycles, favoring environment overlapping. This knowledge is an important key to understanding the epidemiology and pathology of Chagas disease in this Colombian region. Furthermore, our findings could be of significant use in the design of

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi Causes Paralyzing Systemic Necrotizing Vasculitis Driven by Pathogen-Specific Type I Immunity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Roffê, Ester; Marino, Ana Paula M P; Weaver, Joseph; Wan, Wuzhou; de Araújo, Fernanda F; Hoffman, Victoria; Santiago, Helton C; Murphy, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Infectious agents are often considered potential triggers of chronic inflammatory disease, including autoimmunity; however, direct evidence is usually lacking. Here we show that following control of acute infection of mice with the myotropic Colombiana strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, parasites persisted in tissue at low levels associated with development of systemic necrotizing vasculitis. Lesions occurred in many but not all organs and tissues, with skeletal muscle arteries being the most severely affected, and were associated with myositis, atrophy, paresis/paralysis, and death. Histopathology showed fibrinoid vascular necrosis, rare amastigote nests within skeletal muscle myocytes, and massive leukocyte infiltrates composed mainly of inflammatory monocytes, F4/80(+)macrophages, and T. cruzi tetramer-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes capable of producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but not interleukin-17 (IL-17). T. cruzi-specific IgG was detected in sera from infected mice, but antibody deposits and neutrophilic inflammation were not features of the lesions. Thus,T. cruzi infection of mice may be a specific infectious trigger of paralyzing systemic necrotizing vasculitis most severely affecting skeletal muscle, driven by pathogen-specific type I immune responses. PMID:26857570

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV+-AIDS Patient: Pathological Diagnosis Confirmed by PCR Using Formalin-Fixed- and Paraffin-Embedded-Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Céspedes, Ghislaine; Romero, Sandra; Fuentes, Isabel; Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Cañavate, Carmen; Flores-Chávez, María

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV+ patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL) developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE) and meningoencephalitis (NME). The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF-) and paraffin-embedded- (PE-) tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease. PMID:25763312

  12. Evaluation of Gastric Lesions Based on Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter-Like Organisms (HLOs) in Cats; A Histopathological and Bacteriological Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Farhang; Javanbakht, Javad; Kabir, Farrokh Reza; Agha Mohammad Hassan, Mehdi; Pashaei, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The lesions induced by Helicobacter pylori in a candidate animal model should always be examined thoroughly. The resemblance of these lesions to those observed in humans can indicate whether the usage of this model will contribute to the understanding of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of human H. pylori-associated diseases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to perform a histopathological and bacteriological evaluation of gastric lesions based on H. pylori and Helicobacter-like organisms (HLOs) in cats. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 28 cat’s (13 male and 15 female cases) gastric mucosae, which were tested by bacteriological and histopathological methods. Biochemical tests such as catalase, oxidase and urease were utilized in addition to Gram and Giemsa staining. Results: This research demonstrated that solely one case of H. pylori was isolated by gastric mucosal culture. Microscopically, the infected stomachs by HLOs comprised a mild to severe diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration into the subglandular and gastric mucosa. Lymphoid follicles were also marked, particularly within pyloric tissues and mostly in displaced mucosal glands. For 75% of the gastritis cases, both HLOs and rapid urease tests were positive, whereas 83% of cases were more than one-year-old with gastritis. Furthermore, 75% of cats indicated gastritis, though 25% encompassed no gastritis; hence 20% had negative results for the rapid urease test and 25% for the Giemsa staining test. Such results may indicate that cats without gastritis were considered as free of HLOs pathogenic bacteria. Conclusions: These results suggest that most cases of gastritis were located in the antral region. Additionally, the isolation of H. pylori from domestic cats raises the possibility of zoonotic characteristics for the slightly pathogen; therefore transmission occurs from cats to human and vice versa. PMID:25371810

  13. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Methyl Eugenol-induced Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Neuroendocrine Cell Lesions in Glandular Stomach of Rats.

    PubMed

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Rebolloso, Yvette; Hurlburt, Geoffrey; Olson, David; Lyght, Otis; Clayton, Natasha P; Gruebbel, Margarita; Picut, Catherine; Shackelford, Cynthia; Herbert, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Methyl eugenol induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell hyperplasia and tumors in F344/N rat stomach. Detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization of these tumors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to fill that data gap. Archived slides and paraffin blocks were retrieved from the National Toxicology Program Archives. NE hyperplasias and tumors were stained with chromogranin A, synaptophysin, amylase, gastrin, H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), pepsinogen, somatostatin, and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) antibodies. Many of the rats had gastric mucosal atrophy, due to loss of chief and parietal cells. The hyperplasias and tumors were confined to fundic stomach, and females were more affected than the males. Hyperplasia of NE cells was not observed in the pyloric region. Approximately one-third of the females with malignant NE tumors had areas of pancreatic acinar differentiation. The rate of metastasis was 21%, with liver being the most common site of metastasis. Immunohistochemically, the hyperplasias and tumors stained consistently with chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Neoplastic cells were also positive for amylase and CK18 and negative for gastrin, somatostatin, H(+)/K(+) ATPase, and pepsinogen. Metastatic neoplasms histologically similar to the primary neoplasm stained positively for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Based on the histopathological and IHC features, the neoplasms appear to arise from enterochromaffin-like cells. PMID:25452433

  14. Myenteric plexus is differentially affected by infection with distinct Trypanosoma cruzi strains in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Paiva, Nívia Carolina; Fonseca, Kátia da Silva; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Diniz, Lívia Figueiredo; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Moura, Sandra Aparecida Lima; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Guedes, Paulo Marcos da Matta; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2013-01-01

    Chagasic megaoesophagus and megacolon are characterised by motor abnormalities related to enteric nervous system lesions and their development seems to be related to geographic distribution of distinct Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations. Beagle dogs were infected with Y or Berenice-78 (Be-78) T. cruzi strains and necropsied during the acute or chronic phase of experimental disease for post mortem histopathological evaluation of the oesophagus and colon. Both strains infected the oesophagus and colon and caused an inflammatory response during the acute phase. In the chronic phase, inflammatory process was observed exclusively in the Be-78 infected animals, possibly due to a parasitism persistent only in this group. Myenteric denervation occurred during the acute phase of infection for both strains, but persisted chronically only in Be-78 infected animals. Glial cell involvement occurred earlier in animals infected with the Y strain, while animals infected with the Be-78 strain showed reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive area of enteric glial cells in the chronic phase. These results suggest that although both strains cause lesions in the digestive tract, the Y strain is associated with early control of the lesion, while the Be-78 strain results in progressive gut lesions in this model. PMID:24271001

  15. Diode laser (808 nm) applied to oral soft tissue lesions: a retrospective study to assess histopathological diagnosis and evaluate physical damage.

    PubMed

    Angiero, Francesca; Parma, Luisa; Crippa, Rolando; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    The diode laser is today widely used in oral pathology to excise lesions; however, some controversy surrounds laser surgery, specifically the accuracy of pathological diagnosis and the control over thermal tissue damage. This study aimed to establish if physical damage induced by the diode laser could affect the histopathological diagnosis and to evaluate the damage caused to the resection margins. Between 2005 and 2010, at S. Gerardo Hospital, Milan, 608 cases of soft tissue lesions localized in the oral cavity (cheek, gingiva, buccal mucosa, tongue, and lips) were examined. Specimens were excised with an 808-nm diode laser, output 1.6-2.7 W, in continuous-wave mode with fibers of 320 μm. Specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution and examined separately under an optical microscope by two pathologists. In all of the specimens, changes to the epithelium, connective tissue and blood vessels, shape of incision damage, and overall width of modified tissues were evaluated. The data for specimens larger than 3 mm excised with the diode laser were not significant in terms of stromal changes or vascular stasis, while epithelial and stromal changes were significantly more frequent in specimens with a mean size below 3 mm; the diagnosis was not achievable in 46.15%. Our data show that the diode laser is a valid therapeutic instrument for excising oral lesions larger than 3 mm in diameter, but induces serious thermal effects in small lesions (mean size below 3 mm). However, from a clinical standpoint, it is suggested necessary that the specimens taken have in vivo a diameter of at least 5 mm in order to have a reliable reading of the histological sample. PMID:21387158

  16. Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements.

    PubMed

    Frizzo, Laureano S; Zbrun, María V; Soto, Lorena P; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J; Marti, Luis E; Signorini, Marcelo L; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 10(9) CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 10(10) CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

  17. Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements

    PubMed Central

    Zbrun, María V.; Soto, Lorena P.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Marti, Luis E.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

  18. Characterization of different tissue changes in normal, betel chewers, potentially malignant lesions, conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma using reflectance confocal microscopy: correlation with routine histopathology.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Sherlin, Herald J; Anuja, N; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Chandrasekar, T

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the features of normal mucosa, mucosa in betel chewers and smokers, potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa using reflectance confocal microscopy. Oral cavity biopsies were acquired from 25 patients from College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University who underwent screening for suspected lesions of Oral precancer and Oral cancer along with normal patients who underwent impaction. Biopsies were acquired from the clinically suspicious area and immediately placed in Dulbecco modified eagles growth medium (DMEM). Reflectance confocal images were obtained at multiple image plane depths from biopsies within 6h of excision. After imaging, biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for routine histopathological examination by an experienced oral and maxillofacial pathologist. Reflectance confocal images were compared with histological images from the same sample to determine the tissue features which contribute to early cellular changes, image contrast and early diagnosis. The confocal images were obtained to a depth of up to 150 microns on intact biopsy specimens and subsequent 3-dimensional images, keratin thickness measurements, cell measurements, cell density analysis and graphical representations were performed using Leica image analysis software. In normal mucosa keratin deposition were seen as alternating dark and bright stacks and in different cell layers the nuclei were seen as disks of varying intensities. In pre-cancerous lesions the keratin thickness and cell nuclear density were found to be increased when compared to normal controls. In OSMF cases confocal images of fibrosis show scattering from individual fibres as hyperdense areas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases demonstrated extensive variations in cell size, nuclear size and nuclear morphology. At cellular level, dysplastic features like increased nuclear density, increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear and cellular

  19. Effects of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics on Lipid Metabolism, Antioxidative Status, Histopathological Lesions, and Related Gene Expression in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Shituleni, Shituleni Andreas; Mengistu, Berhe Mekonnen; Liu, Yunhuan; Khan, Alam Zeb; Gan, Fang; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Huang, Kehe

    2016-06-01

    A total of 80 female albino mice were randomly allotted into five groups (n = 16) as follows: (A) normal control, (B) high-fat diet (HFD),; (C) HFD + probiotics (P), (D) HFD + sodium selenite (SS), and (E) HFD + selenium-enriched probiotics (SP). The selenium content of diets in groups A, B, C, D, and E was 0.05, 0.05, 0.05, 0.3, and 0.3 μg/g, respectively. The amount of probiotics contained in groups C and E was similar (Lactobacillus acidophilus 0.25 × 10(11)/mL and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0.25 × 10(9)/mL colony-forming units (CFU)). The high-fat diet was composed of 15 % lard, 1 % cholesterol, 0.3 % cholic acid, and 83.7 % basal diet. At the end of the 4-week experiment, blood and liver samples were collected for the measurements of lipid metabolism, antioxidative status, histopathological lesions, and related gene expressions. The result shows that HFD significantly increased the body weights and liver damages compared to control, while P, SS, or SP supplementation attenuated the body weights and liver damages in mice. P, SS, or SP supplementation also significantly reversed the changes of alanine aminotransferase (AST), aspartate aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein (TP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalasa (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels induced by HFD. Generally, adding P, SS, or SP up-regulated mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT2), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase II (ACAT2), acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and down-regulated mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) involved in lipid metabolism. Among the group

  20. Non-lesions, Misdiagnoses, Missed Diagnoses, and Other Interpretive Challenges in Fish Histopathology Studies: A Guide for Investigators, Authors, Reviewers, and Readers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differentiating salient histopathologic changes from normal anatomic features or tissue artifacts can be decidedly challenging, especially for the novice fish pathologist. As a consequence, findings of questionable accuracy may be reported inadvertently, and the potential negativ...

  1. Monoaminergic PET imaging and histopathological correlation in unilateral and bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat models of Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Gago, Belén; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Juri, Carlos; Collantes, María; Delgado, Mercedes; Prieto, Elena; Ecay, Margarita; Iglesias, Elena; Marín, Concepció; Peñuelas, Iván; Obeso, José A

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-11 labeled dihydrotetrabenazine ((11)C-DTBZ) binds to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and has been used to assess nigro-striatal integrity in animal models and patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we applied (11)C-DTBZ positron emission tomography (PET) to obtain longitudinally in-vivo assessment of striatal dopaminergic loss in the classic unilateral and in a novel bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model. Forty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 sub-groups: 1. 6-OHDA-induced unilateral lesion in the medial forebrain bundle, 2. bilateral lesion by injection of 6-OHDA in the third ventricle, and 3. vehicle injection in either site. (11)C-DTBZ PET studies were investigated in the same animals successively at baseline, 1, 3 and 6weeks after lesion using an anatomically standardized volumes-of-interest approach. Additionally, 12 rats had PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to construct a new (11)C-DTBZ PET template. Behavior was characterized by rotational, catalepsy and limb-use asymmetry tests and dopaminergic striatal denervation was validated post-mortem by immunostaining of the dopamine transporter (DAT). (11)C-DTBZ PET showed a significant decrease of striatal binding (SB) values one week after the unilateral lesion. At this point, there was a 60% reduction in SB in the affected hemisphere compared with baseline values in 6-OHDA unilaterally lesioned animals. A 46% symmetric reduction over baseline SB values was found in bilaterally lesioned rats at the first week after lesion. SB values remained constant in unilaterally lesioned rats whereas animals with bilateral lesions showed a modest (22%) increase in binding values at the 3rd and 6th weeks post-lesion. The degree of striatal dopaminergic denervation was corroborated histologically by DAT immunostaining. Statistical analysis revealed a high correlation between (11)C-DTBZ PET SB and striatal DAT immunostaining values (r=0.95, p<0.001). The data presented here indicate

  2. [Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in the placenta and fetuses of mice with Chagasic acute infection].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Maritza; Pérez, Mary Carmen; Villarreal, Juana; Araujo, Sonia; Goncalves, Loredana; González, Anajulia; Moreno, Elio; Lugo-Yarbuh, Ana

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in the placenta and fetal tissues of NMRI mice (Mus musculus) inoculated with 22 x 10(3) trypomastigotes metacyclic of the M/HOM/BRA/53/Y strain by intraperitoneal route. Mice were pregnant in the acute phase of the infection. The course of patent parasitemia by T. cruzi was evaluated before mating and during pregnancy. At day twenty of gestation, animals were sacrificed and the fetuses and their placentas were removed to evaluate T. cruzi infection. Samples of fetal placenta, heart and skeletal muscle were fixed in 10%, formalin, included in paraffin and stained with hematoxilin and eosin (HE). The histopathological study of sections of fetal tissues revealed inflammatory infiltrates with mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells and without parasitism in these tissues. The amplification of T. cruzi DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) showed a positive reaction in 18% of placental tissue of pregnant infected mice. The samples of heart and skeletal muscle of the fetuses of mothers infected with T. cruzi did not show the presence T. cruzi DNA. The placenta and skeletal muscle of the fetuses analyzed by Peroxidase anti Peroxidase inmunostaining showed T. cruzi antigens in those tissues. Negative results by PCR in fetal tissues might be related with the virulence and tropism associated with the biological and genetic characteristic Of the T. cruzi strain used in the experimental infection of female mice. PMID:19961056

  3. Histopathologic findings and diagnostic difficulties posed with use of escharotic agents for treatment of skin lesions: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anna M; Helm, Klaus F

    2008-04-01

    Escharotic agents have been used as alternative therapy for treatment of skin cancer and skin problems for centuries. Internet web sites such as online health product stores and eBay have made them widely available to the general public. The use of these agents carries risk of incomplete removal of tumor, damage of surrounding healthy tissues and marked scarring with poor cosmetic outcome. We report the case of a 27-year-old man who presented with history of moles and self-treatment with an escharotic agent containing bloodroot in order to document the histopathologic findings of topical bloodroot treatment and to show the clinical consequences that may occur in the unsuspecting public. To the best of our knowledge, the histological features following use of bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) have not yet been documented. PMID:18333901

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi and myoid cells from seminiferous tubules: interaction and relation with fibrous components of extracellular matrix in experimental Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Pereira; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lucia; Hardoim, Daiana de Jesús; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Mendes, Verônica Gonçalves; da Costa, Sylvio Celso Gonçalves; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The main transmission route of Trypanosoma cruzi is by triatomine bugs. However, T. cruzi is also transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplantation, ingestion of contaminated food or fluids, or is congenital. Sexual transmission, although suggested since the discovery of Chagas’ disease, has remained unproven. Sexual transmission would require T. cruzi to be located at the testes and ovaries. Here we investigated whether T. cruzi is present in the gonads of mice infected with 104 T. cruzi trypomastigotes from the CL strain. Fourteen days after experimental infection, histopathological examination showed alterations in the extracellular matrix of the lamina propria of the seminiferous tubules. Furthermore, amastigotes were present in seminiferous tubules, within myoid cells, and in the adjacencies of the basal compartment. These results indicate that T. cruzi is able to reach seminiferous tubule lumen, thus suggesting that Chagas’ disease could potentially be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Complementary studies are required to demonstrate that Chagas’ disease can be transmitted by coitus. PMID:19200251

  5. 99Tcm-MIBI scintimammography in the evaluation of breast lesions and axillary involvement: a comparison with mammography and histopathological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Arslan, N; Oztürk, E; Ilgan, S; Urhan, M; Karaçalioglu, O; Pekcan, M; Tufan, T; Bayhan, H

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the diagnostic value of prone lateral 99Tcm-MIBI scintimammography in the detection of primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement in patients with breast lesions. We evaluated 83 palpable and 22 non-palpable lesions in 77 consecutive patients with a clinically palpable mass and/or suspicious mammographic finding. Early and late scintimammograms were performed after the intravenous injection of 740 MBq 99Tcm-MIBI. The overall sensitivity of both scintimammography and mammography in the detection of primary breast cancer was 94%. The overall specificity was 84% and 56% for scintimammography and mammography respectively. In the patients with palpable masses, the sensitivity of scintimammography was 97% and the specificity was 84%; in those with non-palpable masses, the sensitivity was 35% and the specificity 100%. For the detection of axillary lymph node involvement, the sensitivity and specificity of scintimammography were 68% and 93% respectively. However, conventional mammography showed 37% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In conclusion, scintimammography is an accurate and clinically valuable tool for evaluating palpable and non-palpable breast abnormalities. In addition to its high sensitivity, it improves the specificity of mammography both in the evaluation of breast masses and in the detection of axillary involvement. PMID:10319351

  6. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated

  7. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  8. Nucleologenesis in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Lara-Martínez, Reyna; Hernández, Roberto; Segura-Valdez, María de Lourdes; Jiménez-García, Luis F

    2016-06-01

    Nucleolar assembly is a cellular event that requires the synthesis and processing of ribosomal RNA, in addition to the participation of pre-nucleolar bodies (PNBs) at the end of mitosis. In mammals and plants, nucleolar biogenesis has been described in detail, but in unicellular eukaryotes it is a poorly understood process. In this study, we used light and electron microscopy cytochemical techniques to investigate the distribution of nucleolar components in the pathway of nucleolus rebuilding during closed cell division in epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis. Silver impregnation specific for nucleolar organizer regions and an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid regressive procedure to preferentially stain ribonucleoprotein revealed the conservation and dispersion of nucleolar material throughout the nucleoplasm during cell division. Furthermore, at the end of mitosis, the argyrophilic proteins were concentrated in the nucleolar organizer region. Unexpectedly, accumulation of nucleolar material in the form of PNBs was not visualized. We suggest that formation of the nucleolus in epimastigotes of T. cruzi occurs by a process that does not require the concentration of nucleolar material within intermediate nuclear bodies such as mammalian and plant PNBs. PMID:27126372

  9. Survey of Feral Swine ( Sus scrofa ) Infection with the Agent of Chagas Disease ( Trypanosoma cruzi ) in Texas, 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Comeaux, Juliette M; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Cummings, Kevin J; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    : Feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) are an invasive species and reservoir of numerous zoonotic pathogens in the US, and Texas leads the nation in the estimated population size of feral hogs. Texas also harbors enzootic transmission cycles of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , agent of Chagas disease. Given previous evidence that swine can serve as reservoirs of T. cruzi in Latin America and new evidence of triatomines (kissing bugs) feeding on swine in Texas, we measured the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in feral swine in Texas. From 2013 to 2014, we sampled blood and/or cardiac tissue from 78 feral swine across 14 Texas counties (seven with and seven without prior documentation of kissing bug occurrence) and used PCR and histopathology to detect T. cruzi infection. We determined an overall infection prevalence of 6% (3 of 54) based on PCR evaluation of cardiac tissue, and no blood samples were positive (n=72). All three positive pigs were from counties where kissing bugs are documented. No T. cruzi amastigotes were noted on histopathology (n=54). Sarcocysts were observed in 10 (18%) of the samples, five of which also had mild focal areas of degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Eco-epidemiologic investigations can provide an assessment of contributions of feral hogs to maintenance of T. cruzi across a landscape to help protect human and animal health. PMID:27224214

  10. Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiribao, María Laura; Libisch, Gabriela; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Robello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response), a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NFκB family members), and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids). These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination. PMID:24812617

  11. Functional Characterization of 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Isabela Cecília; de Moura, Michelle Barbi; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Franco, Glória Regina; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Van Houten, Bennett; Machado, Carlos Renato

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative lesion 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is removed during base excision repair by the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1). This lesion can erroneously pair with adenine, and the excision of this damaged base by Ogg1 enables the insertion of a guanine and prevents DNA mutation. In this report, we identified and characterized Ogg1 from the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (TcOgg1), the causative agent of Chagas disease. Like most living organisms, T. cruzi is susceptible to oxidative stress, hence DNA repair is essential for its survival and improvement of infection. We verified that the TcOGG1 gene encodes an 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase by complementing an Ogg1-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Heterologous expression of TcOGG1 reestablished the mutation frequency of the yeast mutant ogg1−/− (CD138) to wild type levels. We also demonstrate that the overexpression of TcOGG1 increases T. cruzi sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Analysis of DNA lesions using quantitative PCR suggests that the increased susceptibility to H2O2 of TcOGG1-overexpressor could be a consequence of uncoupled BER in abasic sites and/or strand breaks generated after TcOgg1 removes 8-oxoG, which are not rapidly repaired by the subsequent BER enzymes. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that TcOGG1-overexpressors have reduced levels of 8-oxoG both in the nucleus and in the parasite mitochondrion. The localization of TcOgg1 was examined in parasite transfected with a TcOgg1-GFP fusion, which confirmed that this enzyme is in both organelles. Taken together, our data indicate that T. cruzi has a functional Ogg1 ortholog that participates in nuclear and mitochondrial BER. PMID:22876325

  12. Clathrin expression in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clathrin-mediated vesicular trafficking, the mechanism by which proteins and lipids are transported between membrane-bound organelles, accounts for a large proportion of import from the plasma membrane (endocytosis) and transport from the trans-Golgi network towards the endosomal system. Clathrin-mediated events are still poorly understood in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. In this study, clathrin heavy (TcCHC) and light (TcCLC) chain gene expression and protein localization were investigated in different developmental forms of T. cruzi (epimastigotes, trypomastigotes and amastigotes), using both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against T. cruzi recombinant proteins. Results Analysis by confocal microscopy revealed an accumulation of TcCHC and TcCLC at the cell anterior, where the flagellar pocket and Golgi complex are located. TcCLC partially colocalized with the Golgi marker TcRAB7-GFP and with ingested albumin, but did not colocalize with transferrin, a protein mostly ingested via uncoated vesicles at the cytostome/cytopharynx complex. Conclusion Clathrin heavy and light chains are expressed in T. cruzi. Both proteins typically localize anterior to the kinetoplast, at the flagellar pocket and Golgi complex region. Our data also indicate that in T. cruzi epimastigotes clathrin-mediated endocytosis of albumin occurs at the flagellar pocket, while clathrin-independent endocytosis of transferrin occurs at the cytostome/cytopharynx complex. PMID:24947310

  13. Activities of Psilostachyin A and Cynaropicrin against Trypanosoma cruzi In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cristiane França; Batista, Denise da Gama Jaen; De Araújo, Julianna Siciliano; Batista, Marcos Meuser; Lionel, Jessica; de Souza, Elen Mello; Hammer, Erica Ripoll; da Silva, Patricia Bernardino; De Mieri, Maria; Adams, Michael; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Hamburger, Matthias; Brun, Reto; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo activities against Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated for two sesquiterpene lactones: psilostachyin A and cynaropicrin. Cynaropicrin had previously been shown to potently inhibit African trypanosomes in vivo, and psilostachyin A had been reported to show in vivo effects against T. cruzi, albeit in another test design. In vitro data showed that cynaropicrin was more effective than psilostachyin A. Ultrastructural alterations induced by cynaropicrin included shedding events, detachment of large portions of the plasma membrane, and vesicular bodies and large vacuoles containing membranous structures, suggestive of parasite autophagy. Acute toxicity studies showed that one of two mice died at a cynaropicrin dose of 400 mg/kg of body weight given intraperitoneally (i.p.). Although no major plasma biochemical alterations could be detected, histopathology demonstrated that the liver was the most affected organ in cynaropicrin-treated animals. Although cynaropicrin was as effective as benznidazole against trypomastigotes in vitro, the treatment (once or twice a day) of T. cruzi-infected mice (up to 50 mg/kg/day cynaropicrin) did not suppress parasitemia or protect against mortality induced by the Y and Colombiana strains. Psilostachyin A (0.5 to 50 mg/kg/day given once a day) was not effective in the acute model of T. cruzi infection (Y strain), reaching 100% animal mortality. Our data demonstrate that although it is very promising against African trypanosomes, cynaropicrin does not show efficacy compared to benznidazole in acute mouse models of T. cruzi infection. PMID:23939901

  14. Enhanced Histopathology of the Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    The spleen is the largest secondary lymphoid organ, is considered the draining site for compounds that are administered intravenously, and is therefore considered an important organ to evaluate for treatment-related lesions. Due to the presence of B and T lymphocytes, the immunotoxic effects of xenobiotics or their metabolites on these cell populations may be reflected in the spleen. Therefore it is one of the recommended organs to evaluate for enhanced histopathology of the immune system. The two major functional zones of the spleen are the hematogenous red pulp and the lymphoid white pulp (periarteriolar sheaths, follicles and marginal zones). For enhanced histopathology, these splenic compartments should be evaluated separately for changes in size and cellularity, and descriptive rather than interpretive terminology should be used to characterize any changes (Haley et al., 2005). Moreover, germinal center development within the lymphoid follicles should be noted as increased or decreased. PMID:17067950

  15. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE AND EFFECTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology can be an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of chemical exposure in fish at the level of the individual. Although somewhat qualitative, the histopathological approach is especially valuable because observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  16. Endothelial Transmigration by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Bria M.; Sullivan, David P.; Makanji, Ming Y.; Du, Nga Y.; Olson, Cheryl L.; Muller, William A.; Engman, David M.; Epting, Conrad L.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas heart disease, the leading cause of heart failure in Latin America, results from infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Although T. cruzi disseminates intravascularly, how the parasite contends with the endothelial barrier to escape the bloodstream and infect tissues has not been described. Understanding the interaction between T. cruzi and the vascular endothelium, likely a key step in parasite dissemination, could inform future therapies to interrupt disease pathogenesis. We adapted systems useful in the study of leukocyte transmigration to investigate both the occurrence of parasite transmigration and its determinants in vitro. Here we provide the first evidence that T. cruzi can rapidly migrate across endothelial cells by a mechanism that is distinct from productive infection and does not disrupt monolayer integrity or alter permeability. Our results show that this process is facilitated by a known modulator of cellular infection and vascular permeability, bradykinin, and can be augmented by the chemokine CCL2. These represent novel findings in our understanding of parasite dissemination, and may help identify new therapeutic strategies to limit the dissemination of the parasite. PMID:24312535

  17. Immunological response to re-infections with clones of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi with different degrees of virulence: influence on pathological features during chronic infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Marcos Lazaro da Silva; Morais, Isa Rita Brito; Andrade, Sonia Gumes

    2015-01-01

    Re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi are an aggravating factor for Chagas disease morbidity. The Colombian strain of T. cruzi represents multiclonal populations formed by clonally propagating organisms with different tropisms and degrees of virulence. In the present study, the influence of successive inoculations with clones of the Colombian strain, exhibiting different degrees of virulence, on chronic myocarditis and the humoral and cellular immune responses (Col-C1 high virulence, Col-C8 medium virulence and Col-C5 low virulence) were demonstrated. Mice from three groups with a single infection were evaluated during the acute (14th-30th day) and chronic phases for 175 days. An immunofluorescence assay, ELISA and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) cutaneous test were also performed. Mice with a triple infection were studied on the 115th-175th days following first inoculation. The levels of IgM and IgG2a were higher in the animals with a triple infection. DTH showed a higher intensity in the inflammatory infiltrate based on the morphometric analysis during a 48 h period of the triple infection and at 24 h with a single infection. The histopathology of the heart demonstrated significant exacerbation of cardiac inflammatory lesions confirmed by the morphometric test. The humoral responses indicate a reaction to the triple infection, even with clones of the same strain. PMID:25946153

  18. Blood viscosity changes in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Berra, H H; Piaggio, E; Revelli, S S; Luquita, A

    2005-01-01

    Microcirculatory alterations would explain focal lesions found in Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection induces host blood properties modifications and defensive responses capable of producing blood hyperviscosity, an ischemic risk factor able to affect microvascular blood flow. We studied whole blood viscosity (eta(b)) and plasmatic and cellular factors influencing it in rats, 7 and 14 days after experimental infection with T. cruzi. Increased plasma viscosity (eta(p)) was found in infected versus control rats and it was correlated with high blood parasite levels at 7 days and enhanced gamma-globulin fraction concentration at 14 days. The hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and eta(b) were higher in 14 days infected rats vs. 7 days and control animals. Also, electron microscopy observation showed morphological changes in red blood cells (RBC) at 7 and 14 days post-infection, with increased proportion of echinocyte and stomatocyte shapes transformation. In our rat model of Chagas' disease, BPL, increased plasmatic protein concentration, enhanced MCV and RBC shapes transformation would determine blood hyperviscosity, cause of microvascular blood flow abnormalities. PMID:15851836

  19. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL BIOMARKERS AS INTEGRATORS OF ANTHROPOGENIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histopathology is an extremely useful tool for assessing effects of exposure to stressors at the level of the individual. Even though the histopathological approach is somewhat qualitative, it is very valuable because the observed lesions represent an integration of cumulative e...

  20. Histopathology and the future

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    A plea is made for a revolution in diagnostic histopathology. In the present account a brief analysis is given of the drawbacks to existing methods used in the histopathological laboratory and suggestions are made for research in those methods which could lead to progress in the speed and sensitivity of diagnosis and to great economies in histopathological practice. The abolition or replacement of certain techniques used at present is proposed. PMID:4912667

  1. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  2. Pigmented lesion of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  3. Histopathology of laser skin resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Baldwin, Bonnie; Chi, Eric; Ellard, Jeff; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed carbon-dioxide laser skin resurfacing is a purportedly 'non-thermal' procedure enjoying wide application as a cosmetic treatment for skin wrinkles. Treatment success has been based on clinical assessments of skin smoothness. Skin lesions (1 cm2) created by one, two or three superimposed carbon-dioxide laser passes were placed on the backs of 28 'fuzzy' Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. The variable laser irradiation parameters included measured energies ranging from 112 to 387/pulse with pulse widths of 65 and 125 microseconds and a repetition rate of 8 Hz. The square, flat laser beam measured 3 mm2 at the focal point. The lesions were collected from 0 to 10 days after treatment for qualitative and quantitative histopathology. Thermal damage and treatment effect tended to increase in severity and, to a lesser extent, depth with increased delivery parameters. In acute lesions, the vacuolated and fragmented, desiccated and thermally coagulated epidermis was partially removed exposing the underlying thermally coagulated dermal collagen and cells. Epidermal and dermal necrosis and slough occurred between 24 to 72 hours after treatment. Epithelial regeneration originated from the adnexa and the lesion edges. Dermal fibrous scar formation began at 5 days below the regenerated epidermis and became more prominent at 7 and 10 days.

  4. Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi, T. cruzi marinkellei, T. dionisii and T. vespertilionis by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Petry, K; Baltz, T; Schottelius, J

    1986-03-01

    Anti-T. dionisii and anti-T. vespertilionis monoclonal antibodies secreted by 17 hybridoma clones were tested against various strains of T. dionisii, T. vespertilionis, T. cruzi and T. cruzi marinkellei. Strain and species specific antigens were detected for the homologous immunizing strains. The common antigenic determinants of the tested trypanosome species include a component of the flagellum and different cell structures. Seventeen T. cruzi strains could be classified into two groups when tested with anti-T. dionisii monoclonal antibodies. The cross reactions between T. dionisii and T. cruzi demonstrate a strong correlation between T. dionisii and T. cruzi group 2. On the other hand T. cruzi group 1 and T. cruzi marinkellei show very similar antigenic character. PMID:2424290

  5. Protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Kohei; Gillespie, John R.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (PGGT-I) and protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) occur in many eukaryotic cells. Both consist of two subunits, the common αsubunit and a distinct β subunit. In the gene database of protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, a putative protein that consists of 401 amino acids with ∼20% amino acid sequence identity to the PGGT-I β of other species was identified, cloned, and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments show that the T. cruzi ortholog contains all three of the zinc-binding residues and several residues uniquely conserved in the β subunit of PGGT-I. Co-expression of this protein and the α subunit of T. cruzi PFT in Sf9 insect cells yielded a dimeric protein that forms a tight complex selectively with [3H]geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, indicating a key characteristic of a functional PGGT-I. Recombinant T. cruzi PGGT-I ortholog showed geranylgeranyltransferase activity with distinct specificity toward the C-terminal CaaX motif of protein substrates compared to that of the mammalian PGGT-I and T. cruzi PFT. Most of the CaaX-containing proteins with X=Leu are good substrates of T. cruzi PGGT-I, and those with X=Met are substrates for both T. cruzi PFT and PGGT-I, whereas unlike mammalian PGGT-I, those with X=Phe are poor substrates for T. cruzi PGGT-I. Several candidates for T. cruzi PGGT-I or PFT substrates containing the C-terminal CaaX motif are found in the T. cruzi gene database. Among five C-terminal peptides of those tested, a peptide of a Ras-like protein ending with CVLL was selectively geranylgeranylated by T. cruzi PGGT-I. Other peptides with CTQQ (Tcj2 DNAJ protein), CAVM (TcPRL-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase), CHFM (a small GTPase like protein), and CQLF (TcRho1 GTPase) were specific substrates for T. cruzi PFT but not for PGGT-I. The mRNA and protein of the T. cruzi PGGT-I β ortholog were detected in three life-cycle stages of T. cruzi. Cytosol fractions from

  6. Impact of Benznidazole on Infection Course in Mice Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi I, II, and IV

    PubMed Central

    Gruendling, Ana Paula; Massago, Miyoko; Teston, Ana Paula M.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Kaneshima, Edilson N.; Araújo, Silvana M.; Gomes, Mônica L.; Barbosa, Maria das Graças V.; Toledo, Max Jean O.

    2015-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis is an emerging zoonosis in the Brazilian Amazon. Studies on benznidazole (BZ) chemotherapy with Trypanosoma cruzi from this region have great relevance, given the different discrete typing units (DTUs) that infect humans in the Amazon and other regions of Brazil. We performed a parasitological, histopathological, and molecular analysis of mice inoculated with strains of T. cruzi I, II, and IV that were BZ-treated during the acute phase of infection. Groups of Swiss mice were inoculated; 13 received oral BZ, whereas the other 13 comprised the untreated controls. Unlike parasitemia, the infectivity and mortality did not vary among the DTUs. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in all tissues analyzed and the proportion of organs parasitized varied with the parasite DTU. The BZ treatment reduced the most parasitological parameters, tissue parasitism and the inflammatory processes at all infection stages and for all DTUs. However, the number of significant reductions varied according to the DTU and infection phase. PMID:25940197

  7. Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Perniciaro, Leon; Yabsley, Michael J.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Balsamo, Gary; Diaz, James; Wesson, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Autochthonous transmission of the Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was detected in a patient in rural New Orleans, Louisiana. The patient had positive test results from 2 serologic tests and hemoculture. Fifty-six percent of 18 Triatoma sanguisuga collected from the house of the patient were positive for T. cruzi by PCR. PMID:17553277

  8. Orientation of histopathology specimens.

    PubMed

    Burns, A; Adams, J; Endersby, S

    2004-02-01

    We present a simple way of orientating large specimens being sent to the laboratory for histopathological examination by supplementing the pinning of the specimen on a cork board with Polaroid photographs of the specimen and numbered tags. PMID:14706306

  9. Intermediary metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Urbina, J A

    1994-03-01

    In this article, Julio Urbino discusses the characteristics o f the intermediary metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative agent of Chagas disease), which are responsible for the unusual capacity of this parasite to use carbohydrates or amino acids as carbon and energy sources without drastic changes in its catabolic enzyme levels(1-3). Many, but not all, o f the metabolic capabilities of this organism are shared with Leishmania and the procyclic form o f the African trypanosomes, and the reviewer presents a metabolic model which is also consistent with the information available on these other parasites(2,4). PMID:15275492

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi congenital transmission in wild bats.

    PubMed

    Añez, Néstor; Crisante, Gladys; Soriano, Pascual J

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi congenital transmission in wild bats (Molossus molossus), associated with infected Rhodnius prolixus in a natural habitat from a rural locality in western Venezuela, is reported. T. cruzi blood circulating trypomastigotes in a pregnant bat were detected by parasitological methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays carried out in samples from the heart and the fetus of the same infected female, revealed the presence of T. cruzi-specific DNA in both of the tissues, demonstrating transmission of the infection from the mother to the offspring. Eighty percent of the captured bats and 100% of the examined fetuses from pregnant specimens were shown to be infected by T. cruzi, indicating that M. molossus is a very susceptible species for this parasite, and that T. cruzi congenital transmission is a common phenomenon in nature. To our knowledge, this seems to be the first report on congenital T. cruzi transmission in wild bats in Venezuela. The circulation of T. cruzi lineage I in the study area was demonstrated by typing the isolates from bats and triatomine bugs captured in the same habitat. The potential epidemiological implication of these findings in areas where Chagas disease is endemic is discussed. PMID:18823929

  11. Enzymes of the antioxidant network as novel determiners of Trypanosoma cruzi virulence

    PubMed Central

    Piacenza, L.; Zago, M.P.; Peluffo, G.; Alvarez, M.N.; Basombrio, M.A.; Radi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi depends on a variety of genetic and biochemical factors. It has been proposed that components of the parasites' antioxidant system may play a key part in this process by pre-adapting the pathogen to the oxidative environment encountered during host cell invasion. Using several isolates (10 strains) belonging to the two major phylogenetic lineages (T. cruzi-I and T. cruzi-II), we investigated whether there was an association between virulence (ranging from highly aggressive to attenuated isolates at the parasitemia and histopathological level) and the antioxidant enzyme content. Antibodies raised against trypanothione synthetase (TcTS), ascorbate peroxidase (TcAPX), mitochondrial and cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidases (TcMPX and TcCPX) and trypanothione reductase (TcTR) were used to evaluate the antioxidant enzyme levels in epimastigote and metacyclic trypomastigote forms in the T. cruzi strains. Levels of TcCPX, TcMPX and TcTS were shown to increase during differentiation from the non-infective epimastigote to the infective metacyclic trypomastigote stage in all parasite strains examined. Peroxiredoxins were found to be present at higher levels in the metacyclic infective forms of the virulent isolates compared with the attenuated strains. Additionally, an increased resistance of epimastigotes from virulent T. cruzi populations to hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite challenge was observed. In mouse infection models, a direct correlation was found between protein levels of TcCPX, TcMPX and TcTS, and the parasitemia elicited by the different isolates studied (Pearson's coefficient: 0.617, 0.771, 0.499; respectively, P < 0.01). No correlation with parasitemia was found for TcAPX and TcTR proteins in any of the strains analyzed. Our data support that enzymes of the parasite antioxidant armamentarium at the onset of infection represent new virulence factors involved in the establishment of disease. PMID:19505468

  12. [Histopathology of central nervous system cavernomas].

    PubMed

    Mosnier, J-F; Brunon, J; Nuti, C

    2007-06-01

    Central nervous system cavernomas are vascular malformations, which occur in two circumstances: sporadic forms and familial autosomal dominant forms. The lesion consists of enlarged, closely packed vessels without interposition of brain parenchyma, surrounded by hemosiderin and gliosis, calcified in few cases. In 80% of sporadic forms the lesion is unique, multiple lesions are rare (median: 4). In familial forms the lesions are always multiple. Cavernomas are often associated with other vascular malformations, especially with venous developmental anomalies. The size of cavernomas is variable from 1 mm to several centimeters. About 70% of cases are supratentorial and 30% in the posterior fossa, particularly in the brain stem. Macroscopic and histopathological findings are typical and the diagnostic is generally easy. PMID:17498756

  13. Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Elizabeth M; Tiniakos, Dina G

    2010-01-01

    Histological analysis of liver biopsies remains a standard against which other methods of assessment for the presence and amount of hepatic injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are measured. Histological evaluation remains the sole method of distinguishing steatosis from advanced forms of NAFLD, i.e. nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Included in the lesions of NAFLD are steatosis, lobular and portal inflammation, hepatocyte injury in the forms of ballooning and apoptosis, and fibrosis. However, patterns of these lesions are as distinguishing as the lesions themselves. Liver injury in adults and children due to NAFLD may have different histological patterns. In this review, the rationale for liver biopsy, as well as the histopathological lesions, the microscopically observable patterns of injury, and the differential diagnoses of NAFLD and NASH are discussed. PMID:21072891

  14. Large Penile Mass With Unusual Benign Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nate; Voznesensky, Maria; VerLee, Graham

    2015-09-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an extremely rare condition presenting as a lesion on the glans penis in older men. Physical exam without biopsy cannot differentiate malignant from nonmalignant growth. We report a case of large penile mass in an elderly male with a history of lichen sclerosis, highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequent surgical removal and biopsy demonstrated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, an unusual benign histopathologic diagnosis with unclear prognosis. We review the literature and discuss options for treatment and surveillance. PMID:26793536

  15. Immunization of mice with a Trypanosoma cruzi-like strain isolated from a bat: predictive factors for involvement of eosinophiles in tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Meira, Wendell Sérgio Ferreira; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramírez, Luis Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The granules of eosinophiles are cytotoxic to Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote and amastigote forms and to several cell types of the host, revealing their role in either parasite elimination or the production of tissue lesions. In this study, we evaluated the biological characteristics of T. cruzi infection that are responsible for the increase in tissue eosinophile levels in mice previously immunized with a bat isolated T. cruzi-like strain that does not infect mice. Nonisogeneic mice were divided into 24 groups that received from zero to three inoculations of T. cruzi-like RM1 strain, with or without adjuvant, followed by challenge with T. cruzi VIC or JG strains. Uni- and multivariate comparisons were performed comparing the tissue eosinophile levels with the parasitemia peak, severity of myositis in skeletal muscle, phase of infection, and the immunization strategies induced by the T. cruzi-like strain (adjuvant, number of reinoculations, and parasites). Although the severity of inflammation was higher in the acute phase, the score of tissue eosinophiles was similar in the acute and chronic phases of infection. In addition, there was a positive correlation among eosinophile levels and parasitemia peak. In the chronic phase, a greater eosinophile count was accompanied by an augmentation of myositis. Regardless of the phase of infection, we observed a positive correlation between the intensity of eosinophile infiltration and the number of sensitizations with T. cruzi-like strain. The multivariate analysis showed that the peak of parasitemia, number of inoculations with the T. cruzi-like strain, and severity of myositis were associated with greater tissue eosinophilia, in comparison with adjuvant, T. cruzi strains used in the challenge or tissue parasitism. Therefore, tissue eosinophile levels proved to be an important parameter in the pathogenesis of experimental Chagas disease in the acute and chronic phases of infection and might be related to reinfections

  16. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission. PMID:27220254

  17. The effect of placental subfractions on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Frank, F; Sartori, M J; Asteggiano, C; Lin, S; de Fabro, S P; Fretes, R E

    2000-10-01

    Five subfractions were collected from six term placentas by mincing and differential centrifugation: homogenate, nuclear, mitochondrial, lysosomal, and supernatant. The effect of each subfraction on Trypanosoma cruzi was assessed by trypan blue exclusion, relative infectivity of mice, and penetration of susceptible cultured VERO cells. Ultrastructural changes in trypomastigotes were identified after high cell mortality was shown by dye exclusion following treatment with lysosomal and supernatant fractions. Trypomastigotes treated with other subfractions or preheated subfractions, those recovered from infected VERO cells, and controls remained unaffected. This was confirmed by the ability of treated trypomastigotes to infect mice or to penetrate susceptible cultured VERO cells. There were a 48% decrease in parasitemia and fewer myocardial lesions in Balb/c mice following treatment with the lysosomal subfraction compared to homogenate and controls. VERO cells were invaded about half as often after lysosomal treatment compared to controls (P < 0. 05); an 11% decrease in cell invasion following homogenate treatment was not significant. Placental lysosomal enzyme activity was unaffected by trypomastigotes. Human placentas contain one or more heat-labile substances in lysosomal and supernatant subfractions which inhibit or injure trypomastigotes of T. cruzi in cell-free systems. PMID:11001862

  18. Value of routine histopathological examination of appendices in Hong Kong.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, W; Fu, K H

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the histopathological findings of more than 11,443 appendices submitted as surgical specimens over 14 years was performed in this department. In most cases routine histopathological examination added little clinically important information to other clinical and operative gross findings, but a variety of interesting and uncommon lesions were identified. In 85 cases clinically important pathological findings were first discovered on routine histopathological examination. These included enterobiasis, schistosomiasis, mucocele, trichuriasis, tuberculosis, ascariasis, endometriosis, mucinous cystadenoma, granuloma, carcinoid tumour, neuroma, clonorchiasis, primary adenocarcinoma and secondary carcinoma. PMID:3584486

  19. Clinical and Histopathological Investigation of Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Nam Kyung; Hahn, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2016-01-01

    Background Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is one of the most common epidermal tumors of the skin. However, only a few large-scale clinicohistopathological investigations have been conducted on SK or on the possible correlation between histopathological SK subtype and location. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and histopathological features of a relatively large number of cases of diagnosed SK. Methods Two hundred and seventy-one pathology slides of skin tissue from patients with clinically diagnosed SK and 206 cases of biopsy-proven SK were analyzed. The biopsy-proven cases of SK were assessed for histopathological subclassification. The demographic, clinical, and histopathological data of the patients were collected for analysis of associated factors. Results The most frequent histopathological subtype was the acanthotic type, followed by mixed, hyperkeratotic, melanoacanthoma, clonal, irritated, and adenoid types; an unexpectedly high percentage (9.2%) of the melanoacanthoma variant was observed. The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites than in sun-protected sites (p=0.028). Premalignant and malignant entities together represented almost one-quarter (24.2%) of the clinicopathological mismatch cases (i.e., mismatch between the clinical and histopathological diagnoses). Regarding the location of SK development, the frequency of mismatch for the sun-exposed areas was significantly higher than that for sun-protected areas (p=0.043). Conclusion The adenoid type was more common in sun-exposed sites. Biopsy sampling should be performed for lesions situated in sun-exposed areas to exclude other premalignant or malignant diseases. PMID:27081260

  20. Variants of dermatofibroma - a histopathological study*

    PubMed Central

    Alves, João Vítor Pina; Matos, Diogo Miguel; Barreiros, Hugo Frederico; Bártolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Several variants of dermatofibroma have been described. They are essentially distinguished by their clinical and histopathological features. To review the mainfeaturesof these variants, a retrospective study of skin biopsies and tissue excisions of dermatofibromasperformed in the dermatology and venereology service at the Hospital Garcia de Orta between May 2007 and April 2012 was carried out. During that period, 192 dermatofibromas were diagnosed in 181 patients, the lesions being more common in women. Median age of the study population was 48 years. The most common lesion site was the limbs (74% of patients). The histopathological types found were common fibrous histiocytoma (80%) and the aneurysmal (5.7%),hemosiderotic (5.7%), epithelioid (2.6%), cellular (2.1%), lipidized (2.1%), atrophic (1.0) and clear cell (0.5%) variants. Based on these findings, this review focuses on the clinical and histological features of the various variants of dermatofibroma in terms of their clinical presentation, distinct histopathological features, differential diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24937822

  1. Unusual Histopathological Findings in Childhood Appendectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Ucak, Ramazan; Buyukbese, Mehmet Akif; Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Deniz, Hale

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the unusual findings in the childhood appendectomy specimens and their incidence. The clinicopathological data of 1,306 patients whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 were retrospectively collected. Histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens taken from patients who had a prediagnosis of appendicitis were obtained. Incidental appendectomies were not included in the research. Unusual findings were reevaluated in the histopathological assessment of appendectomy specimens. The number of patients whose pathological findings are considered unusual is 25 (1.91 %). Nine of the patients were girls and 16 of them were boys. Their ages ranged from 6 to 15. Pathological results revealed that there were 16 (1.22 %) cases of parasitosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of granulomatosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of eosinophilic appendicitis, 2 (0.15 %) cases of carcinoid tumors, and 1 (0.08 %) case of appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All patients underwent a standard appendectomy. Uncommon histopathological findings in childhood appendectomy specimens are more common than those in adulthood. This kind of certain unexpected lesions of the appendix may require advanced diagnostics, careful clinical care, follow-up for years, and a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens must be performed routinely. PMID:26730070

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection through the Oral Route Promotes a Severe Infection in Mice: New Disease Form from an Old Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-de-Albuquerque, Juliana; Silva-dos-Santos, Danielle; Pérez, Ana Rosa; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; de Santana-van-Vliet, Eliane; Farias-de-Oliveira, Désio Aurélio; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Roggero, Eduardo; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carla Eponina; Jurberg, José; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; de Meis, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Oral transmission of Chagas disease has been documented in Latin American countries. Nevertheless, significant studies on the pathophysiology of this form of infection are largely lacking. The few studies investigating oral route infection disregard that inoculation in the oral cavity (Oral infection, OI) or by gavage (Gastrointestinal infection, GI) represent different infection routes, yet both show clear-cut parasitemia and heart parasitism during the acute infection. Herein, BALB/c mice were subjected to acute OI or GI infection using 5x104 culture-derived Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. OI mice displayed higher parasitemia and mortality rates than their GI counterparts. Heart histopathology showed larger areas of infiltration in the GI mice, whereas liver lesions were more severe in the OI animals, accompanied by higher Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase serum contents. A differential cytokine pattern was also observed because OI mice presented higher pro-inflammatory cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF) serum levels than GI animals. Real-time PCR confirmed a higher TNF, IFN-γ, as well as IL-10 expression in the cardiac tissue from the OI group compared with GI. Conversely, TGF-β and IL-17 serum levels were greater in the GI animals. Immunolabeling revealed macrophages as the main tissue source of TNF in infected mice. The high mortality rate observed in the OI mice paralleled the TNF serum rise, with its inhibition by an anti-TNF treatment. Moreover, differences in susceptibility between GI versus OI mice were more clearly related to the host response than to the effect of gastric pH on parasites, since infection in magnesium hydroxide-treated mice showed similar results. Overall, the present study provides conclusive evidence that the initial site of parasite entrance critically affects host immune response and disease outcome. In light of the occurrence of oral Chagas disease outbreaks, our results raise important implications in terms of the current

  3. Histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters. Marine mammal study 6-10. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resources damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared oiled, were in danger of becoming oiled, or were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Oil exposure was assessed by visual examination on arrival at the centers. Tissues from 51 oiled sea otters and from 6 unoiled sea otters that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from 5 sea otters found dead with external oil present shortly after the spill. Necropsies were performed on 214 sea otters that had been collected and frozen in the period following the oil spill. Tissues from 6 apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by the oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that pulmonary interstitial emphysema, gastric erosion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis were associated with exposure to crude oil in sea otters.

  4. High Trypanosoma cruzi infection prevalence associated with minimal cardiac pathology among wild carnivores in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Lewis, Barbara C; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-08-01

    Infection with the zoonotic vector-borne protozoal parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease in humans and dogs throughout the Americas. Despite the recognized importance of various wildlife species for perpetuating Trypanosoma cruzi in nature, relatively little is known about the development of cardiac disease in infected wildlife. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected cardiac tissue and blood from hunter-donated wildlife carcasses- including raccoon (Procyon lotor), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) - from central Texas, a region with established populations of infected triatomine vectors and increasing diagnoses of Chagas disease in domestic dogs. Based on PCR analysis, we found that 2 bobcats (14.3%), 12 coyotes (14.3%), 8 foxes (13.8%), and 49 raccoons (70.0%) were positive for T. cruzi in at least one sample (right ventricle, apex, and/or blood clot). Although a histologic survey of right ventricles showed that 21.1% of 19 PCR-positive hearts were characterized by mild lymphoplasmocytic infiltration, no other lesions and no amastigotes were observed in any histologic section. DNA sequencing of the TcSC5D gene revealed that raccoons were infected with T. cruzi strain TcIV, and a single racoon harbored a TcI/TcIV mixed infection. Relative to other wildlife species tested here, our data suggest that raccoons may be important reservoirs of TcIV in Texas and a source of infection for indigenous triatomine bugs. The overall high level of infection in this wildlife community likely reflects high levels of vector contact, including ingestion of bugs. Although the relationship between the sylvatic cycle of T. cruzi transmission and human disease risk in the United States has yet to be defined, our data suggest that hunters and wildlife professionals should take precautions to avoid direct contact with potentially infected wildlife tissues. PMID:27330982

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor p55-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castaños-Velez, Esmeralda; Maerlan, Stephanie; Osorio, Lyda M.; Åberg, Frederik; Biberfeld, Peter; Örn, Anders; Rottenberg, Martín E.

    1998-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 (TNFRp55) mediates host resistance to several pathogens by allowing microbicidal activities of phagocytes. In the studies reported here, TNFRp55−/− mice infected with the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi showed clearly higher parasitemia and cumulative mortality than wild-type (WT) controls did. However, gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-activated macrophages from TNFRp55−/− mice produced control levels of nitric oxide and killed the parasite efficiently in vitro. Trypanocidal mechanisms of nonphagocytic cells (myocardial fibroblasts) from both TNFRp55−/− and WT mice were also activated by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent way. However, IFN-γ-activated TNFRp55−/− nonphagocytes showed less effective killing of T. cruzi than WT control nonphagocytes, even when interleukin 1β (IL-1β) was added as a costimulator. In vivo, T. cruzi-infected TNFRp55−/− mice and WT mice released similar levels of NO and showed similar levels of IFN-γ mRNA and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in their tissues. Instead, increased susceptibility to T. cruzi of TNFRp55−/− mice was associated with reduced levels of parasite-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) (but not IgM) antibodies during infection, which is probably linked to abnormal B-cell differentiation in secondary lymphoid tissues of the mutant mice. Surprisingly, T. cruzi-infected TNFRp55−/− mice showed increased inflammatory and necrotic lesions in several tissues, especially in skeletal muscles, indicating that TNFRp55 plays an important role in controlling the inflammatory process. Accordingly, levels of Mn2+ superoxide dismutase mRNA, a TNF-induced enzyme which protects the cell from the toxic effects of superoxide, were lower in mutant than in WT infected mice. PMID:9596773

  6. The Histopathological Spectrum of Pyogenic Granuloma: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sajeev

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pyogenic granuloma is a reactive tumor-like lesion commonly affecting the oral cavity. These lesions usually appear as localized solitary nodule with a sessile or pedunculated base and colour varying from red, purplish, or pink, depending on the vascularity of the lesion. Pyogenic granuloma shows predilection for gingiva and is usually slow growing, but at times it shows rapid growth. The natural course of this lesion can be categorized into three distinct phases, namely, (i) cellular phase, (ii) capillary phase/vascular phase, and (iii) involutionary phase. Histopathologically, pyogenic granuloma is classified into lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) and non-lobular capillary hemangioma (non-LCH). Case Presentation. In this series, four cases (varied age groups and both genders) of pyogenic granuloma showing varying histopathological presentation in relation to its clinical course have been described. The lesion in its early phase reveals diffuse endothelial cells, with few budding into capillaries. Among the capillary phase, the LCH type shows numerous blood vessels organized into lobular aggregates whereas the non-LCH type does not show any such organization and resembles granulation tissue. The involutionary phase shows healing of the lesion and is characterized by extensive fibrosis in the connective tissue. Conclusion. In conclusion, knowledge of the various histopathological presentation of this lesion is necessary for proper identification. PMID:27382492

  7. How Trypanosoma cruzi handles cell cycle arrest promoted by camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zuma, Aline Araujo; Mendes, Isabela Cecília; Reignault, Lissa Catherine; Elias, Maria Carolina; de Souza, Wanderley; Machado, Carlos Renato; Motta, Maria Cristina M

    2014-02-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately 8 million people in Latin America. This parasite contains a single nucleus and a kinetoplast, which harbors the mitochondrial DNA (kDNA). DNA topoisomerases act during replication, transcription and repair and modulate DNA topology by reverting supercoiling in the DNA double-strand. In this work, we evaluated the effects promoted by camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor that promotes protozoan proliferation impairment, cell cycle arrest, ultrastructure alterations and DNA lesions in epimastigotes of T. cruzi. The results showed that inhibition of cell proliferation was reversible only at the lowest drug concentration (1μM) used. The unpacking of nuclear heterochromatin and mitochondrion swelling were the main ultrastructural modifications observed. Inhibition of parasite proliferation also led to cell cycle arrest, which was most likely caused by nuclear DNA lesions. Following camptothecin treatment, some of the cells restored their DNA, whereas others entered early apoptosis but did not progress to late apoptosis, indicating that the protozoa stay alive in a "senescence-like" state. This programmed cell death may be associated with a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these results indicate that the inhibition of T. cruzi proliferation is related to events capable of affecting cell cycle, DNA organization and mitochondrial activity. PMID:24530483

  8. Elevated IgG antibody to Sarcocystis cruzi associated with eosinophilic myositis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ely, R W; Fox, J C

    1989-01-01

    Blood sera, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle from 24 bovine carcasses condemned for eosinophilic myositis by US Department of Agriculture meat inspection veterinarians were compared with similar specimens from 35 random carcasses passed for human consumption. Fluorescence values determined by using a fluorometric immunoassay system were used to measure the specific antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi. The values were significantly elevated in carcasses condemned for eosinophilic myositis as compared to carcasses passed for human consumption. The elevated fluorescence values appeared to be more than coincidental, suggesting that S. cruzi may be a causative agent of eosinophilic myositis. Microscopic examination of affected muscle revealed lesions typical of eosinophilic myositis. Lesions were characterized by extensive multifocal areas of myofiber hyaline degeneration, necrosis with sarcoplasmic fragmentation, mineralization of occasional myofibers, and atrophy of fibers with varied stages of fibrosis. Inflammatory cell exudates were predominantly eosinophils, with some macrophages and lymphocytes, and extravasated erythrocytes within, and adjacent to, affected myofibers. Affected muscles contained more S. cruzi than unaffected muscle from passed carcasses. However, a distinct cause and effect relationship could not be determined between the parasite and the presence of eosinophilic myositis. PMID:2518705

  9. The Trypanosoma cruzi Diamine Transporter Is Essential for Robust Infection of Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasne, Marie-Pierre; Soysa, Radika; Ullman, Buddy

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is incapable of synthesizing putrescine or cadaverine de novo, and, therefore, salvage of polyamines from the host milieu is an obligatory nutritional function for the parasite. A high-affinity diamine transporter (TcPOT1) from T. cruzi has been identified previously that recognizes both putrescine and cadaverine as ligands. In order to assess the functional role of TcPOT1 in intact parasites, a Δtcpot1 null mutant was constructed by targeted gene replacement and characterized. The Δtcpot1 mutant lacked high-affinity putrescine-cadaverine transport capability but retained the capacity to transport diamines via a non-saturable, low-affinity mechanism. Transport of spermidine and arginine was not impacted by the Δtcpot1 lesion. The Δtcpot1 cell line exhibited a significant but not total defect in its ability to subsist in Vero cells, although initial infection rates were not affected by the lesion. These findings reveal that TcPOT1 is the sole high-affinity diamine permease in T. cruzi, that genetic obliteration of TcPOT1 impairs the ability of the parasite to maintain a robust infection in mammalian cells, and that a secondary low-affinity uptake mechanism for this key parasite nutrient is operative but insufficient for optimal infection. PMID:27050410

  10. Artefacts in histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Shailja

    2014-01-01

    Histopathology is the science of slide analysis for the diagnostic and research purposes. However, sometimes the presence of certain artefacts in a microscopic section can result in misinterpretations leading to diagnostic pitfalls that can result in increased patient morbidity. This article reviews the common artefacts encountered during slide examination alongside the remedial measures which can be undertaken to differentiate between an artefact and tissue constituent. PMID:25364159

  11. Unveiling the Trypanosoma cruzi Nuclear Proteome

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Júnior, Agenor de Castro Moreira; Kalume, Dário Eluan; Camargo, Ricardo; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Correa, José Raimundo; Charneau, Sébastien; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; de Lima, Beatriz Dolabela; Ricart, Carlos André Ornelas

    2015-01-01

    Replication of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, displays peculiar features, such as absence of chromosome condensation and closed mitosis. Although previous proteome and subproteome analyses of T. cruzi have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this protozoan has not been described. Here, we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the isolation and proteome analysis of T. cruzi nuclear fraction. For that, T. cruzi epimastigote cells were lysed and subjected to cell fractionation using two steps of sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 864 proteins. Among those, 272 proteins were annotated as putative uncharacterized, and 275 had not been previously reported on global T. cruzi proteome analysis. Additionally, to support our enrichment method, bioinformatics analysis in DAVID was carried out. It grouped the nuclear proteins in 65 gene clusters, wherein the clusters with the highest enrichment scores harbor members with chromatin organization and DNA binding functions. PMID:26383644

  12. Unveiling the Trypanosoma cruzi Nuclear Proteome.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Júnior, Agenor de Castro Moreira; Kalume, Dário Eluan; Camargo, Ricardo; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana Paola; Correa, José Raimundo; Charneau, Sébastien; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; de Lima, Beatriz Dolabela; Ricart, Carlos André Ornelas

    2015-01-01

    Replication of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, displays peculiar features, such as absence of chromosome condensation and closed mitosis. Although previous proteome and subproteome analyses of T. cruzi have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this protozoan has not been described. Here, we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the isolation and proteome analysis of T. cruzi nuclear fraction. For that, T. cruzi epimastigote cells were lysed and subjected to cell fractionation using two steps of sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 864 proteins. Among those, 272 proteins were annotated as putative uncharacterized, and 275 had not been previously reported on global T. cruzi proteome analysis. Additionally, to support our enrichment method, bioinformatics analysis in DAVID was carried out. It grouped the nuclear proteins in 65 gene clusters, wherein the clusters with the highest enrichment scores harbor members with chromatin organization and DNA binding functions. PMID:26383644

  13. Comparative study of the biological properties of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in a murine experimental model.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Lissa; Vivas, Angie; Montilla, Marleny; Hernández, Carolina; Flórez, Carolina; Parra, Edgar; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis in Latin America and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This kinetoplastid displays remarkable genetic variability, allowing its classification into six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) from TcI to TcVI. T. cruzi I presents the broadest geographical distribution in the continent and has been associated to severe forms of cardiomyopathies. Recently, a particular genotype associated to human infections has been reported and named as TcIDOM (previously named TcIa-b). This genotype shows to be clonal and adapted to the domestic cycle but so far no studies have determined the biological properties of domestic (TcIDOM) and sylvatic TcI strains (previously named TcIc-e). Hence, the aim of this study was to untangle the biological features of these genotypes in murine models. We infected ICR-CD1 mice with five TcI strains (two domestic, two sylvatic and one natural mixture) and determined the course of infection during 91 days (acute and chronic phase of the disease) in terms of parasitemia, tissue tropism, immune response (IgG titers) and tissue invasion by means of histopathology studies. Statistically significant differences were observed in terms of parasitemia curves and prepatent period between domestic (TcIDOM) and sylvatic strains. There were no differences in terms of IgG antibodies response across the mice infected with the five strains. Regarding the histopathology, our results indicate that domestic strains present higher parasitemias and low levels of histopathological damage. In contrast, sylvatic strains showed lower parasitemias and high levels of histopathological damage. These results highlight the sympatric and behavioral differences of domestic and sylvatic TcI strains; the clinical and epidemiological implications are herein discussed. PMID:25461848

  14. Electrocorticographic–Histopathologic Correlations Implying Epileptogenicity of Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Kota; Iida, Koji; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Katagiri, Masaya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Hashizume, Akira; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Arihiro, Koji; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Based on intracranial-video electroencephalography (EEG), histopathological features, and postoperative seizure outcome, we elucidated the epileptogenicity in patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Five patients (P1–P5) pathologically diagnosed with DNT underwent intracranial-video EEG to identify the ictal onset zone and irritative zone. We evaluated the correlations of ictal onset zone and irritative zone with the magnetic resonance imaging-visible lesion (MRI-lesion) and their histopatho-logical features. Intracranial-video EEG located the ictal onset zone adjacent to the MRI-lesion margin in four patients with complex/simple forms of DNT subcategory, and on the MRI-lesion in P3 with a nonspecific DNT form. The irritative zone extended to surrounding regions of the ictal onset zone in all patients. Histopathologically, MRI-lesions were characterized by specific glioneuronal elements, whereas the ictal onset zone and irritative zone were represented with dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells in four (P1, P2, P4, and P5) of five patients. Cortical dysplasia was identified with typical histopathologic features in the irritative zone remote from the MRI-lesion in P5. P3, with a nonspecific form, indicated prominent component of dysplastic cortex with oligodendroglia-like cells scattered in the MRI-lesion. Lesionectomy of MRI-lesion with additional cortical resections (including the ictal onset zone and irritative zone) yielded postoperative seizure freedom (Engel Class I) in P3, P4, and P5, while P1 and P2 (with only lesionectomy) experienced postoperative residual seizure (Class II and III in each patient). Our results suggest the intrinsic epileptogenicity of DNT. The topographical correlation indicated that the dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells was more epileptogenic than the specific glioneuronal elements itself. Meticulous intracranial-video EEG analysis delineating the MRI nonvisible ictal

  15. Electrocorticographic-histopathologic correlations implying epileptogenicity of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Kota; Iida, Koji; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Katagiri, Masaya; Nishimoto, Takeshi; Hashizume, Akira; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Arihiro, Koji; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Based on intracranial-video electroencephalography (EEG), histopathological features, and postoperative seizure outcome, we elucidated the epileptogenicity in patients with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Five patients (P1-P5) pathologically diagnosed with DNT underwent intracranial-video EEG to identify the ictal onset zone and irritative zone. We evaluated the correlations of ictal onset zone and irritative zone with the magnetic resonance imaging-visible lesion (MRI-lesion) and their histopathological features. Intracranial-video EEG located the ictal onset zone adjacent to the MRI-lesion margin in four patients with complex/simple forms of DNT subcategory, and on the MRI-lesion in P3 with a nonspecific DNT form. The irritative zone extended to surrounding regions of the ictal onset zone in all patients. Histopathologically, MRI-lesions were characterized by specific glioneuronal elements, whereas the ictal onset zone and irritative zone were represented with dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells in four (P1, P2, P4, and P5) of five patients. Cortical dysplasia was identified with typical histopathologic features in the irritative zone remote from the MRI-lesion in P5. P3, with a nonspecific form, indicated prominent component of dysplastic cortex with oligodendroglia-like cells scattered in the MRI-lesion. Lesionectomy of MRI-lesion with additional cortical resections (including the ictal onset zone and irritative zone) yielded postoperative seizure freedom (Engel Class I) in P3, P4, and P5, while P1 and P2 (with only lesionectomy) experienced postoperative residual seizure (Class II and III in each patient). Our results suggest the intrinsic epileptogenicity of DNT. The topographical correlation indicated that the dysplastic cortex accompanying oligodendroglia-like cells was more epileptogenic than the specific glioneuronal elements itself. Meticulous intracranial-video EEG analysis delineating the MRI nonvisible ictal onset

  16. Biological characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Escario, J A; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Gómez-Barrio, A

    2001-01-01

    Biological parameters of five Trypanosoma cruzi strains from different sources were determined in order to know the laboratory behaviour of natural populations. The parameters evaluated were growth kinetics of epimastigotes, differentiation into metacyclic forms, infectivity in mammalian cells grown in vitro and parasite susceptibility to nifurtimox, benznidazole and gentian violet. Differences in transformation to metacyclic, in the percentage of infected cells as well as in the number of amastigotes per cell were observed among the strains. Regarding to pharmacological assays, Y strain was the most sensitive to the three assayed compounds. These data demonstrate the heterogeneity of natural populations of T. cruzi, the only responsible of infection in humans. PMID:11285475

  17. Susceptibility of radiation chimeras to Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Trischmann, T.M.

    1982-05-01

    Reciprocal bone marrow transfers were performed with C3H/HeJ mice, which are susceptible to infection with the Brazil strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, and resistant F1 (C3H/HeJ X C57BL/6J) mice. Mice reconstituted after lethal irradiation with syngeneic bone marrow displayed the resistance phenotype of the strain used, but neither C3H mice reconstituted with F1 bone marrow cells nor F1 mice reconstituted with C3H bone marrow cells survived challenge. Resistance to T. cruzi appears to be dependent upon factors associated both with host background and with bone marrow-derived cells.

  18. CD8+ T-Cells Expressing Interferon Gamma or Perforin Play Antagonistic Roles in Heart Injury in Experimental Trypanosoma Cruzi-Elicited Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cipitelli, Márcio da Costa; Vinagre, Nathália Ferreira; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2012-01-01

    In Chagas disease, CD8+ T-cells are critical for the control of Trypanosoma cruzi during acute infection. Conversely, CD8+ T-cell accumulation in the myocardium during chronic infection may cause tissue injury leading to chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Here we explored the role of CD8+ T-cells in T. cruzi-elicited heart injury in C57BL/6 mice infected with the Colombian strain. Cardiomyocyte lesion evaluated by creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme activity levels in the serum and electrical abnormalities revealed by electrocardiogram were not associated with the intensity of heart parasitism and myocarditis in the chronic infection. Further, there was no association between heart injury and systemic anti-T. cruzi CD8+ T-cell capacity to produce interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and to perform specific cytotoxicity. Heart injury, however, paralleled accumulation of anti-T. cruzi cells in the cardiac tissue. In T. cruzi infection, most of the CD8+ T-cells segregated into IFNγ+ perforin (Pfn)neg or IFNγnegPfn+ cell populations. Colonization of the cardiac tissue by anti-T. cruzi CD8+Pfn+ cells paralleled the worsening of CCC. The adoptive cell transfer to T. cruzi-infected cd8−/− recipients showed that the CD8+ cells from infected ifnγ−/−pfn+/+ donors migrate towards the cardiac tissue to a greater extent and caused a more severe cardiomyocyte lesion than CD8+ cells from ifnγ+/+pfn−/− donors. Moreover, the reconstitution of naïve cd8−/− mice with CD8+ cells from naïve ifnγ+/+pfn−/− donors ameliorated T. cruzi-elicited heart injury paralleled IFNγ+ cells accumulation, whereas reconstitution with CD8+ cells from naïve ifnγ−/−pfn+/+ donors led to an aggravation of the cardiomyocyte lesion, which was associated with the accumulation of Pfn+ cells in the cardiac tissue. Our data support a possible antagonist effect of CD8+Pfn+ and CD8+IFNγ+ cells during CCC. CD8+IFNγ+ cells may exert a beneficial role, whereas CD8+Pfn+ may play a detrimental role

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Neotropical Wild Carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora): At the Top of the T. cruzi Transmission Chain

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; de Lima, Juliane Saab; Cheida, Carolina Carvalho; Lemos, Frederico Gemesio; de Azevedo, Fernanda Cavalcanti; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Bilac, Daniele; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Mourão, Guilherme; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua) harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU) and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis’ isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores’ literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be

  20. Enteric Neuronal Damage, Intramuscular Denervation and Smooth Muscle Phenotype Changes as Mechanisms of Chagasic Megacolon: Evidence from a Long-Term Murine Model of Tripanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Duz, Ana Luiza Cassin; Cartelle, Christiane Teixeira; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel murine model of long-term infection with Trypanosoma cruzi with the aim to elucidate the pathogenesis of megacolon and the associated adaptive and neuromuscular intestinal disorders. Our intent was to produce a chronic stage of the disease since the early treatment should avoid 100% mortality of untreated animals at acute phase. Treatment allowed animals to be kept infected and alive in order to develop the chronic phase of infection with low parasitism as in human disease. A group of Swiss mice was infected with the Y strain of T. cruzi. At the 11th day after infection, a sub-group was euthanized (acute-phase group) and another sub-group was treated with benznidazole and euthanized 15 months after infection (chronic-phase group). Whole colon samples were harvested and used for studying the histopathology of the intestinal smooth muscle and the plasticity of the enteric nerves. In the acute phase, all animals presented inflammatory lesions associated with intense and diffuse parasitism of the muscular and submucosa layers, which were enlarged when compared with the controls. The occurrence of intense degenerative inflammatory changes and increased reticular fibers suggests inflammatory-induced necrosis of muscle cells. In the chronic phase, parasitism was insignificant; however, the architecture of Aüerbach plexuses was focally affected in the inflamed areas, and a significant decrease in the number of neurons and in the density of intramuscular nerve bundles was detected. Other changes observed included increased thickness of the colon wall, diffuse muscle cell hypertrophy, and increased collagen deposition, indicating early fibrosis in the damaged areas. Mast cell count significantly increased in the muscular layers. We propose a model for studying the long-term (15 months) pathogenesis of Chagasic megacolon in mice that mimics the human disease, which persists for several years and has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that the long

  1. Enteric Neuronal Damage, Intramuscular Denervation and Smooth Muscle Phenotype Changes as Mechanisms of Chagasic Megacolon: Evidence from a Long-Term Murine Model of Tripanosoma cruzi Infection.

    PubMed

    Campos, Camila França; Cangussú, Silvia Dantas; Duz, Ana Luiza Cassin; Cartelle, Christiane Teixeira; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel murine model of long-term infection with Trypanosoma cruzi with the aim to elucidate the pathogenesis of megacolon and the associated adaptive and neuromuscular intestinal disorders. Our intent was to produce a chronic stage of the disease since the early treatment should avoid 100% mortality of untreated animals at acute phase. Treatment allowed animals to be kept infected and alive in order to develop the chronic phase of infection with low parasitism as in human disease. A group of Swiss mice was infected with the Y strain of T. cruzi. At the 11th day after infection, a sub-group was euthanized (acute-phase group) and another sub-group was treated with benznidazole and euthanized 15 months after infection (chronic-phase group). Whole colon samples were harvested and used for studying the histopathology of the intestinal smooth muscle and the plasticity of the enteric nerves. In the acute phase, all animals presented inflammatory lesions associated with intense and diffuse parasitism of the muscular and submucosa layers, which were enlarged when compared with the controls. The occurrence of intense degenerative inflammatory changes and increased reticular fibers suggests inflammatory-induced necrosis of muscle cells. In the chronic phase, parasitism was insignificant; however, the architecture of Aüerbach plexuses was focally affected in the inflamed areas, and a significant decrease in the number of neurons and in the density of intramuscular nerve bundles was detected. Other changes observed included increased thickness of the colon wall, diffuse muscle cell hypertrophy, and increased collagen deposition, indicating early fibrosis in the damaged areas. Mast cell count significantly increased in the muscular layers. We propose a model for studying the long-term (15 months) pathogenesis of Chagasic megacolon in mice that mimics the human disease, which persists for several years and has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that the long

  2. Expression and the Peculiar Enzymatic Behavior of the Trypanosoma cruzi NTH1 DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Ormeño, Fernando; Barrientos, Camila; Ramirez, Santiago; Ponce, Iván; Valenzuela, Lucía; Sepúlveda, Sofía; Bitar, Mainá; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Machado, Carlos Renato; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Galanti, Norbel

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, presents three cellular forms (trypomastigotes, epimastigotes and amastigotes), all of which are submitted to oxidative species in its hosts. However, T. cruzi is able to resist oxidative stress suggesting a high efficiency of its DNA repair machinery.The Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway is one of the main DNA repair mechanisms in other eukaryotes and in T. cruzi as well. DNA glycosylases are enzymes involved in the recognition of oxidative DNA damage and in the removal of oxidized bases, constituting the first step of the BER pathway. Here, we describe the presence and activity of TcNTH1, a nuclear T. cruzi DNA glycosylase. Surprisingly, purified recombinant TcNTH1 does not remove the thymine glycol base, but catalyzes the cleavage of a probe showing an AP site. The same activity was found in epimastigote and trypomastigote homogenates suggesting that the BER pathway is not involved in thymine glycol DNA repair. TcNTH1 DNA-binding properties assayed in silico are in agreement with the absence of a thymine glycol removing function of that parasite enzyme. Over expression of TcNTH1 decrease parasite viability when transfected epimastigotes are submitted to a sustained production of H2O2.Therefore, TcNTH1 is the only known NTH1 orthologous unable to eliminate thymine glycol derivatives but that recognizes and cuts an AP site, most probably by a beta-elimination mechanism. We cannot discard that TcNTH1 presents DNA glycosylase activity on other DNA base lesions. Accordingly, a different DNA repair mechanism should be expected leading to eliminate thymine glycol from oxidized parasite DNA. Furthermore, TcNTH1 may play a role in the AP site recognition and processing. PMID:27284968

  3. Combined Treatment of Heterocyclic Analogues and Benznidazole upon Trypanosoma cruzi In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Denise da Gama Jaén; Batista, Marcos Meuser; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo; Britto, Constança Carvalho; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Mondaine; Stephens, Chad E.; Boykin, David W.; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré Correia

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America but no vaccines or safe chemotherapeutic agents are available. Combined therapy is envisioned as an ideal approach since it may enhance efficacy by acting upon different cellular targets, may reduce toxicity and minimize the risk of drug resistance. Therefore, we investigated the activity of benznidazole (Bz) in combination with the diamidine prodrug DB289 and in combination with the arylimidamide DB766 upon T. cruzi infection in vivo. The oral treatment of T.cruzi-infected mice with DB289 and Benznidazole (Bz) alone reduced the number of circulating parasites compared with untreated mice by about 70% and 90%, respectively. However, the combination of these two compounds decreased the parasitemia by 99% and protected against animal mortality by 100%, but without providing a parasitological cure. When Bz (p.o) was combined with DB766 (via ip route), at least a 99.5% decrease in parasitemia levels was observed. DB766+Bz also provided 100% protection against mice mortality while Bz alone provided about 87% protection. This combined therapy also reduced the tissular lesions induced by T. cruzi infection: Bz alone reduced GPT and CK plasma levels by about 12% and 78% compared to untreated mice group, the combination of Bz with DB766 resulted in a reduction of GPT and CK plasma levels of 56% and 91%. Cure assessment through hemocultive and PCR approaches showed that Bz did not provide a parasitological cure, however, DB766 alone or associated with Bz cured ≥13% of surviving animals. PMID:21814568

  4. Influence of Parasite Load on Renal Function in Mice Acutely Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Ricardo Cambraia; Miguel, Renata Botelho; de Paula Rogerio, Alexandre; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Chica, Javier Emilio Lazo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite the vast number of studies evaluating the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, the influence of parasite burden on kidney lesions remains unclear. Thus, the main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of T. cruzi infection on renal function and determine whether there was a correlation between parasite load and renal injury using an acute experimental model of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Low, medium and high parasite loads were generated by infecting C57BL/6 mice with 300 (low), 3,000 (medium) or 30,000 (high) numbers of “Y” strain trypomastigotes. We found that mice infected with T. cruzi trypomastigotes show increased renal injury. The infection resulted in reduced urinary excretion and creatinine clearance. We also observed a marked elevation in the ratio of urine volume to kidney and body weight, blood urea nitrogen, chloride ion, nitric oxide, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the number of leukocytes in the blood and/or renal tissues of infected mice. Additionally, we observed the presence of the parasite in the cortical/medullary and peri-renal region, an increase of inflammatory infiltrate and of vascular permeability of the kidney. Overall, most renal changes occurred mainly in animals infected with high parasitic loads. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that T. cruzi impairs kidney function, and this impairment is more evident in mice infected with high parasitic loads. Moreover, these data suggest that, in addition to the extensively studied cardiovascular effects, renal injury should be regarded as an important indicator for better understanding the pan-infectivity of the parasite and consequently for understanding the disease in experimental models. PMID:23951243

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi screening in Texas blood donors, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M N; Woc-Colburn, L; Rossmann, S N; Townsend, R L; Stramer, S L; Bravo, M; Kamel, H; Beddard, R; Townsend, M; Oldham, R; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P J; Murray, K O

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease is an important emerging disease in Texas that results in cardiomyopathy in about 30% of those infected with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Between the years 2008 and 2012, about 1/6500 blood donors were T. cruzi antibody-confirmed positive. We found older persons and minority populations, particularly Hispanic, at highest risk for screening positive for T. cruzi antibodies during routine blood donation. Zip code analysis determined that T. cruzi is associated with poverty. Chagas disease has a significant disease burden and is a cause of substantial economic losses in Texas. PMID:25170765

  6. Malignant hyperechoic breast lesions at ultrasound: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Tiang, Stephen; Metcalf, Cecily; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Malignant breast lesions are typically hypoechoic at sonography. However, a small subgroup of hyperechoic malignant breast lesions is encountered in clinical practice. We present a pictorial essay of a number of different hyperechoic breast malignancies with mammographic, sonographic and histopathologic correlation. Suspicious sonographic features in a hyperechoic lesion include inhomogeneity in echogenic pattern, an irregular margin, posterior acoustic shadowing and internal vascularity. A hyperechoic lesion at ultrasound does not discount the need to undertake histological assessment of a mammographically suspicious lesion. PMID:27216965

  7. HISTOPATHOLOGIC LESIONS IN SEA OTTERS EXPOSED TO CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. xposure t...

  8. Humoral immune response kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis infected and immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi employing an immunofluorescence antibody test.

    PubMed

    Legey, A P; Pinho, A P; Chagas Xavier, S C; Leon, L L; Jansen, A M

    1999-01-01

    Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1) IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2) both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3) experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4) the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi. PMID:10348985

  9. Microscopical and serological studies on Sarcocystis infection with first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Assiut, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Asmaa M; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Al-Hosary, Amira A; Omar, Mosaab A

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed for the purpose of investigating the prevalence and the species composition of Sarcocystis spp. in buffaloes in Assiut province, Egypt. Macroscopically we reported the infection of buffaloes with Sarcocystis fusiformis, while microscopically three Sarcocystis species (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis hominis) cysts were recognized, and were differentiated by their morphological features using both histopathological sections and electron microscope scanning. Regarding the prevalence of Sarcocystis species among buffaloes in Assiut province, we reported that, using gross examination of 90 buffaloes' esophagus, only 23 samples out of 90 (25.5 %) were found to be infected; on the other hand, by using microscopical examination, the prevalence was 27.7 % (25 samples out of 90 samples were found to be infected). Using ELISA, 85 samples out of 90 (94.4 %) were found positive, an overall prevalence of 94.4 %. In this work we concluded that customary meat inspection methods in abattoirs in Egypt are insufficient for detecting Sarcocystis infection. Due to the presence of hidden or microscopic cysts, we strongly recommend the use of combined microscopical examination and ELISA for Sarcocystis diagnosis, to avoid human infection of such zoonotic parasite and to control the consequent disease. In addition, this study introduced the first report of S. cruzi in buffaloes in Egypt, and proved the hypothesis that S. cruzi is able to use animals such as water buffalo as intermediate hosts. PMID:25320487

  10. The N-myristoylome of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam J; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Protein N-myristoylation is catalysed by N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), an essential and druggable target in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. Here we have employed whole cell labelling with azidomyristic acid and click chemistry to identify N-myristoylated proteins in different life cycle stages of the parasite. Only minor differences in fluorescent-labelling were observed between the dividing forms (the insect epimastigote and mammalian amastigote stages) and the non-dividing trypomastigote stage. Using a combination of label-free and stable isotope labelling of cells in culture (SILAC) based proteomic strategies in the presence and absence of the NMT inhibitor DDD85646, we identified 56 proteins enriched in at least two out of the three experimental approaches. Of these, 6 were likely to be false positives, with the remaining 50 commencing with amino acids MG at the N-terminus in one or more of the T. cruzi genomes. Most of these are proteins of unknown function (32), with the remainder (18) implicated in a diverse range of critical cellular and metabolic functions such as intracellular transport, cell signalling and protein turnover. In summary, we have established that 0.43-0.46% of the proteome is N-myristoylated in T. cruzi approaching that of other eukaryotic organisms (0.5-1.7%). PMID:27492267

  11. The N-myristoylome of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam J.; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Protein N-myristoylation is catalysed by N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), an essential and druggable target in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas’ disease. Here we have employed whole cell labelling with azidomyristic acid and click chemistry to identify N-myristoylated proteins in different life cycle stages of the parasite. Only minor differences in fluorescent-labelling were observed between the dividing forms (the insect epimastigote and mammalian amastigote stages) and the non-dividing trypomastigote stage. Using a combination of label-free and stable isotope labelling of cells in culture (SILAC) based proteomic strategies in the presence and absence of the NMT inhibitor DDD85646, we identified 56 proteins enriched in at least two out of the three experimental approaches. Of these, 6 were likely to be false positives, with the remaining 50 commencing with amino acids MG at the N-terminus in one or more of the T. cruzi genomes. Most of these are proteins of unknown function (32), with the remainder (18) implicated in a diverse range of critical cellular and metabolic functions such as intracellular transport, cell signalling and protein turnover. In summary, we have established that 0.43–0.46% of the proteome is N-myristoylated in T. cruzi approaching that of other eukaryotic organisms (0.5–1.7%). PMID:27492267

  12. Shelter Dogs as Sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission across Texas

    PubMed Central

    Tenney, Trevor D.; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment. PMID:25062281

  13. Human and sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in California.

    PubMed Central

    Navin, T R; Roberto, R R; Juranek, D D; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Mortenson, E W; Clover, J R; Yescott, R E; Taclindo, C; Steurer, F; Allain, D

    1985-01-01

    In August 1982, a 56-year-old woman from Lake Don Pedro, California, developed acute Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis). She had not traveled to areas outside the United States with endemic Chagas' disease, she had never received blood transfusions, and she did not use intravenous drugs. Trypanosoma cruzi cultured from the patient's blood had isoenzyme patterns and growth characteristics similar to T. cruzi belonging to zymodeme Z1. Triatoma protracta (a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi) infected with T. cruzi were found near the patient's home, a trypanosome resembling T. cruzi was cultured from the blood of two of 19 ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi), and six of 10 dogs had antibody to T. cruzi. A serosurvey of three groups of California residents revealed antibody to T. cruzi by complement fixation in six of 237 (2.5 per cent) individuals living near the patient and in 12 of 1,706 (0.7 per cent) individuals living in a community 20 miles northeast of the patient's home, but in only one of 637 (0.2 per cent) blood donors from the San Francisco Bay area. This is the first case of indigenously acquired Chagas' disease reported from California and the first case recognized in the United States since 1955. This investigation suggests that transmission of sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection to humans occurs in California but that Chagas' disease in humans is rare. PMID:3919598

  14. How Trypanosoma cruzi feasts upon its mammalian host.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nicola S; Ullman, Buddy

    2013-01-16

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex relationship with its mammalian host in which parasite and host metabolic networks are intertwined. A genome-wide functional screen of T. cruzi infection in HeLa cells (Caradonna et al., 2013) divulges host metabolic functions and signaling pathways that impact intracellular parasite replication and reveals potential targets for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:23332151

  15. Shelter dogs as sentinels for Trypanosoma cruzi transmission across Texas.

    PubMed

    Tenney, Trevor D; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Snowden, Karen F; Hamer, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Chagas disease, an infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly diagnosed among humans in the southern United States. We assessed exposure of shelter dogs in Texas to T. cruzi; seroprevalence across diverse ecoregions was 8.8%. Canine serosurveillance is a useful tool for public health risk assessment. PMID:25062281

  16. Histopathological Image Analysis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Boucheron, Laura; Can, Ali; Madabhushi, Anant; Rajpoot, Nasir; Yener, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic increases in computational power and improvement in image analysis algorithms have allowed the development of powerful computer-assisted analytical approaches to radiological data. With the recent advent of whole slide digital scanners, tissue histopathology slides can now be digitized and stored in digital image form. Consequently, digitized tissue histopathology has now become amenable to the application of computerized image analysis and machine learning techniques. Analogous to the role of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms in medical imaging to complement the opinion of a radiologist, CAD algorithms have begun to be developed for disease detection, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction to complement to the opinion of the pathologist. In this paper, we review the recent state of the art CAD technology for digitized histopathology. This paper also briefly describes the development and application of novel image analysis technology for a few specific histopathology related problems being pursued in the United States and Europe. PMID:20671804

  17. Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Barbabosa, Alberto; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C.; Martinez-Perez, Miguel A.; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas. PMID:16704811

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi: correlations of biological aspects of the life cycle in mice and triatomines.

    PubMed

    Lima, V S; Mangia, R H; Carreira, J C; Marchevsky, R S; Marchewski, R S; Jansen, A M

    1999-01-01

    The infection pattern in Swiss mice and Triatomine bugs (Rhodnius neglectus) of eleven clones and the original stock of a Trypanosoma cruzi isolate, derived from a naturally infected Didelphis marsupialis, were biochemically and biologically characterized. The clones and the original isolate were in the same zymodeme (Z1) except that two clones were found to be in zymodeme 2 when tested with G6PDH. Although infective, neither the original isolate nor the clones were highly virulent for the mice and lesions were only observed in mice infected with the original stock and one of the clones (F8). All clones and the original isolate infected bugs well while only the original isolate and clones E2 and F3 yielded high metacyclogenesis rates. An observed correlation between absence of lesions in the mammal host and high metacyclogenesis rates in the invertebrate host suggest a evolutionary trade off i.e. a fitness increase in one trait which is accompanied by a fitness reduction in a different one. Our results suggest that in a species as heterogeneous as T. cruzi, a cooperation effect among the subpopulations should be considered. PMID:10348990

  19. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  20. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features. PMID:23878772

  1. Phyllodes tumor: diagnostic imaging and histopathology findings.

    PubMed

    Venter, Alina Cristiana; Roşca, Elena; Daina, Lucia Georgeta; Muţiu, Gabriela; Pirte, Adriana Nicoleta; Rahotă, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all primary tumors of the breast. Histologically, phyllodes tumors can be divided into benign (60%), borderline (20%) and malignant (20%). The mammography examination was performed by means of a digital mammography system Giotto 3D Images; the ultrasound examination was performed through a GE Logiq P6 device and histological confirmation was possible after surgery or following the histological biopsy. We grouped the nine patients who presented clinically palpable nodules into two groups, namely: the six patients presenting histological benign results into Group I, and Group II where we included those with borderline and malignant histological results. Mammography performed in 77.7% revealed a well-circumscribed round or oval opacity or with contour lobules. Ultrasound examination was performed in all patients. Mammography and ultrasound have limitation in differentiating between benign lesion and phyllodes tumor. In the nine analyzed cases, mammographic and ultrasound examinations did not allow the differentiation into the three groups of phyllodes tumor. Histopathological examination is considered the golden standard for their diagnosis. Correlations between mammographic and microscopic aspects were inconclusive for determining the degree of differentiation, ultrasound changes could be correlated with the histopathological aspects. PMID:26743286

  2. Correlations Between Histopathologic Changes and Clinical Features in Pterygia

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Hamid; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Molaei, Saber; Hashemi, Hassan; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlations between clinical findings and histopathologic changes in eyes with pterygium. Methods: This prospective study included 70 eyes with primary pterygia undergoing surgical excision. Prior to surgery, clinical features of the pterygia including extension over the cornea, redness, fleshiness (based on obscuration of the underlying episcleral vessels), and obliteration of the plica semilunaris were determined. Postoperatively, pterygium specimens were examined by hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining to evaluate histopathologic characteristics including vascular density, leukocytic infiltration, stromal elastosis, stromal fibrosis and subepithelial fibrosis. Correlations between clinical findings and histopathologic changes were then investigated. Results: There was a marginally significant correlation between the redness and the fleshiness of pterygium (P = 0.06). Both redness and fleshiness of the pterygium had significant positive correlation with dimensions of the lesion over the cornea. Moreover, larger pterygia were associated with obliteration of the plica semilunaris. Pterygium redness showed a significant correlation with vascular density (P = 0.04), and pterygium fleshiness had a significant correlation with stromal fibrosis (P = 0.04). Pterygium dimensions over the cornea demonstrated a positive correlation with vascular density and a negative correlation with stromal elastosis. Conclusion: Redness and fleshiness of pterygium were only marginally correlated with each other, and each one showed a correlation with different histopathologic features. Larger pterygia were associated with more significant changes at the clinical and histopathologic levels.

  3. Value of histopathologic analysis of skin excisions by GPs

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Pieter AJ; Chorus, Rob MH; van Diest, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The clinical diagnoses of skin lesions in general practice may sometimes not be very accurate. The aim of this study was to compare clinical versus final histopathological diagnosis status (benign, pre-malignant/malignant) in 4595 consecutive submissions by GPs. The final diagnosis was pre-malignant or malignant in 215 cases (4.7%). From the 4436 lesions clinically diagnosed as benign, 134 (3.0%) were pre-malignant or malignant on final histological diagnosis. From the 159 lesions clinically diagnosed as pre-malignant or malignant, 78 (49.1%) were in fact benign, and 81 (50.9%) were indeed pre-malignant or malignant on final diagnosis. The sensitivity for a malignant diagnosis was 38%, and the specificity 98%. The proportion of pre-malignancies or malignancies was 0.9% below and 9.2% above the age of 40 years. In conclusion, histopathological investigation of skin excisions by GPs yields a high percentage of unexpected pre-malignancies and malignancies. The number of misdiagnoses was age dependent, with a proportion of 1% and 9% of pre-malignancies/malignancies in patients below and above the age of 40 years, respectively. This indicates that all skin excisions by GPs must undergo routine histopathological investigation to ensure that serious malignancies are not missed. PMID:15970070

  4. The Japanese Viewpoint on the Histopathology of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Jansen, Marnix; Kushima, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Japanese histopathologists have traditionally had greater opportunity to study the histology and clinical course of early gastric cancer because of technological developments including double contrast radiography and endoscopy systems, combined with the higher incidence of gastric cancer in the general population in Japan. Endoscopic resection is now considered best practice for treatment of early gastric cancers with a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. Histopathologic evaluation plays a critical role in assessing the likelihood of lymph node metastasis on endoscopically resected specimens. There remains disparity between Western and Japanese histopathologists in the conceptual approach to the histopathologic evaluation of neoplastic lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract, in particular regarding lesions straddling the borderline between noninvasive and invasive disease. Although in routine practice, the clinical impact of these conceptual differences is small, this disparity does complicate international exchange of datasets and the development of globally applicable formal definitions. Here we review the current practice in histological diagnosis of early gastric cancer in Japan and discuss some of the conceptual differences between Japanese and Western histopathological assessment of lesions in the neoplastic stomach. PMID:27573779

  5. Desaturation of fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    de Lema, M.G.; Aeberhard, E.E.

    1986-11-01

    Uptake and metabolism of saturated (16:0, 18:0) and unsaturated (18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 18:3(n-3)) fatty acids by cultured epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were studied. Between 17.5 and 33.5% of the total radioactivity of (1-/sup 14/C)labeled fatty acids initially added to the culture medium was incorporated into the lipids of T. cruzi and mostly choline and ethanolamine phospholipids. As demonstrated by argentation thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and ozonolysis of the fatty acids synthesized, exogenous palmitic acid was elongated to stearic acid, and the latter was desaturated to oleic acid and 18:2 fatty acid. The 18:2 fatty acid was tentatively identified as linoleic acid with the first bond in the delta 9 position and the second bond toward the terminal methyl end. Exogenous stearic acid was also desaturated to oleic and 18:2 fatty acid, while oleic acid was only converted into 18:2. All of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids investigated were also converted to a small extent (2-4%) into polyunsaturated fatty acids. No radioactive aldehyde methyl ester fragments of less than nine carbon atoms were detected after ozonolysis of any of the fatty acids studied. These results demonstrate the existence of delta 9 and either delta 12 or delta 15 desaturases, or both, in T. cruzi and suggest that delta 6 desaturase or other desaturases of the animal type are likely absent in cultured forms of this organism.

  6. Occurrence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Bruce, J.I., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    During 1954-1960, 2005 mammals of 18 species collected at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, were examined for trypanosomes. T. cruzi was found in 10 raccoons between October 31 and November 30. Infection occurred in 2 percent of all raccoons sampled, and in 11.3 percent of the 80 raccoons sampled in November. Examination was by direct smears, stained smears and cultures of heart blood. Although, in previous studies, at least two experimentally infected raccoons exhibited extended parasitemia (14 and 8 weeks), no such continuing parasitemia was observed in the natural infections. No trypanosomes were found in any of the other mammals examined.

  7. Genomic variation of Trypanosoma cruzi: involvement of multicopy genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, W; So, M

    1990-01-01

    By using improved pulsed field gel conditions, the karyotypes of several strains of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed and compared with those of Leishmania major and two other members of the genus Trypanosoma. There was no difference in chromosome migration patterns between different life cycle stages of the T. cruzi strains analyzed. However, the sizes and numbers of chromosomal bands varied considerably among T. cruzi strains. This karyotype variation among T. cruzi strains was analyzed further at the chromosomal level by using multicopy genes as probes in Southern hybridizations. The chromosomal location of the genes encoding alpha- and beta-tubulin, ubiquitin, rRNA, spliced leader RNA, and an 85-kilodalton protein remained stable during developmental conversion of the parasite. The sizes and numbers of chromosomes containing these sequences varied among the different strains analyzed, implying multiple rearrangements of these genes during evolution of the parasites. During continuous in vitro cultivation of T. cruzi Y, the chromosomal location of the spliced leader gene shifted spontaneously. The spliced leader gene encodes a 35-nucleotide RNA that is spliced in trans from a 105-nucleotide donor RNA onto all mRNAs in T. cruzi. The spliced leader sequences changed in their physical location in both the cloned and uncloned Y strains. Associated with the complex changes was an increase in the infectivity of the rearranged variant for tissue culture cells. Our results indicate that the spliced leader gene clusters in T. cruzi undergo high-frequency genomic rearrangements. Images PMID:2169461

  8. Interferon-Gamma Promotes Infection of Astrocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael Rodrigues; Mariante, Rafael M.; Silva, Andrea Alice; dos Santos, Ana Luiza Barbosa; Roffê, Ester; Santiago, Helton; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is crucial for immunity against intracellular pathogens such as the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). IFNγ is a pleiotropic cytokine which regulates activation of immune and non-immune cells; however, the effect of IFNγ in the central nervous system (CNS) and astrocytes during CD is unknown. Here we show that parasite persists in the CNS of C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain despite the increased expression of IFNγ mRNA. Furthermore, most of the T. cruzi-bearing cells were astrocytes located near IFNγ+ cells. Surprisingly, in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with IFNγ promoted the infection of astrocytes by T. cruzi increasing uptake and proliferation of intracellular forms, despite inducing increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Importantly, the effect of IFNγ on T. cruzi uptake and growth is completely blocked by the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody Infliximab and partially blocked by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME. These data support that IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi and critically implicate IFNγ-stimulated T. cruzi-infected astrocytes as sources of TNF and NO, which may contribute to parasite persistence and CNS pathology in CD. PMID:25695249

  9. Interferon-gamma promotes infection of astrocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael Rodrigues; Mariante, Rafael M; Silva, Andrea Alice; dos Santos, Ana Luiza Barbosa; Roffê, Ester; Santiago, Helton; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is crucial for immunity against intracellular pathogens such as the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). IFNγ is a pleiotropic cytokine which regulates activation of immune and non-immune cells; however, the effect of IFNγ in the central nervous system (CNS) and astrocytes during CD is unknown. Here we show that parasite persists in the CNS of C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain despite the increased expression of IFNγ mRNA. Furthermore, most of the T. cruzi-bearing cells were astrocytes located near IFNγ+ cells. Surprisingly, in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with IFNγ promoted the infection of astrocytes by T. cruzi increasing uptake and proliferation of intracellular forms, despite inducing increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Importantly, the effect of IFNγ on T. cruzi uptake and growth is completely blocked by the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody Infliximab and partially blocked by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME. These data support that IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi and critically implicate IFNγ-stimulated T. cruzi-infected astrocytes as sources of TNF and NO, which may contribute to parasite persistence and CNS pathology in CD. PMID:25695249

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century. PMID:21976603

  11. Serologic survey of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in coyotes and red foxes from Pennsylvania and Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Smith, Trynecia; Alexander, Andrew; Weaver, Melanie; Stewart, Richard; Houston, Allan; Gerhold, Richard; Van Why, Kyle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a zoonotic parasite of humans and other mammalian hosts with distribution throughout the Americas. Domestic and wild canine species are reservoirs for human T. cruzi infections. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi in wild canids from the United States. Sera from 13 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 263 coyotes (Canis latrans), originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee, were assayed for antibodies to T. cruzi with immunochromatographic tests. Antibodies to T. cruzi were found in 2 of 276 (0.72%) of all wild canids tested. Both T. cruzi-positive wild canids were coyotes and represented 2 of 21 (9.52%) wild canids assayed from Tennessee. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in red fox. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies were not found in any wild canids from Pennsylvania. These results suggest that coyotes are exposed to T. cruzi in Tennessee but not in Pennsylvania. PMID:25632700

  12. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi by Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Márquez, María Elizabeth; Concepción, Juan Luis; González-Marcano, Eglys; Mondolfi, Alberto Paniz

    2016-01-01

    American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is an infectious disease caused by the hemoflagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by reduviid bugs. T. cruzi infection occurs in a broad spectrum of reservoir animals throughout North, Central, and South America and usually evolves into an asymptomatic chronic clinical stage of the disease in which diagnosis is often challenging. This chapter describes the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA including protocols for sample preparation, DNA extraction, and target amplification methods. PMID:26843052

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of human infective Trypanosoma cruzi lineages with the bat-restricted subspecies T. cruzi marinkellei

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei is a bat-associated parasite of the subgenus Schizotrypanum and it is regarded as a T. cruzi subspecies. Here we report a draft genome sequence of T. c. marinkellei and comparison with T. c. cruzi. Our aims were to identify unique sequences and genomic features, which may relate to their distinct niches. Results The T. c. marinkellei genome was found to be ~11% smaller than that of the human-derived parasite T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10. The genome size difference was attributed to copy number variation of coding and non-coding sequences. The sequence divergence in coding regions was ~7.5% between T. c. marinkellei and T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10. A unique acetyltransferase gene was identified in T. c. marinkellei, representing an example of a horizontal gene transfer from eukaryote to eukaryote. Six of eight examined gene families were expanded in T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10. The DGF gene family was expanded in T. c. marinkellei. T. c. cruzi Sylvio X10 contained ~1.5 fold more sequences related to VIPER and L1Tc elements. Experimental infections of mammalian cell lines indicated that T. c. marinkellei has the capacity to invade non-bat cells and undergo intracellular replication. Conclusions Several unique sequences were identified in the comparison, including a potential subspecies-specific gene acquisition in T. c. marinkellei. The identified differences reflect the distinct evolutionary trajectories of these parasites and represent targets for functional investigation. PMID:23035642

  14. Mucocele of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn: clinical and histopathologic analysis of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Itoh, Hiroto; Matsumoto, Koichi; Wang, Jun; Noguchi, Tadahide

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the clinical and histopathologic features of 26 cases of mucocele of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn. There was a female predominance, and most patients were younger than 20 years. Fifteen patients first visited a medical doctor and 9 visited a dentist before being referred to our department. The average duration from the time the lesion was first noticed to the patient's visit was 3.6 months. All lesions were located on the ventral surface of the tongue. In 17 patients, mucoceles were seen at the tip of the tongue, whereas 9 lesions occurred more posteriorly. Lesions were situated at the midline in 19 patients and laterally in 7 patients. All lesions presented as an exophytic mass, often with a polypoid appearance. All mucoceles were histopathologically of the extravasation type, suggesting that trauma may represent a frequent initiating factor. PMID:12686932

  15. Oral mucocele: A clinical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184

  16. Subcellular proteomics of Trypanosoma cruzi reservosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Celso; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Pereira, Miria G.; Lourenço, Daniela; de Souza, Wanderley; Almeida, Igor C.; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa L.

    2009-01-01

    Reservosomes are the endpoint of the endocytic pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. These organelles have the particular ability to concentrate proteins and lipids obtained from medium together with the main proteolytic enzymes originated from the secretory pathway, being at the same time a storage organelle and the main site of protein degradation. Subcellular proteomics have been extensively used for profiling organelles in different cell types. Here, we combine cell fractionation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify reservosome-resident proteins. Starting from a purified reservosome fraction, we established a protocol to isolate reservosome membranes. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to confirm the purity of the fractions. To achieve a better coverage of identified proteins we analyzed the fractions separately and combined the results. LC-MS/MS analysis identified in total 709 T. cruzi-specific proteins; of these, 456 had predicted function and 253 were classified as hypothetical proteins. We could confirm the presence of most of the proteins validated by previous work and identify new proteins from different classes such as enzymes, proton pumps, transport proteins and others. The definition of the reservosome protein profile is a good tool to assess their molecular signature, identify molecular markers, and understand their relationship with different organelles. PMID:19288526

  17. Contemporary cryptic sexuality in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Guhl, Felipe; Messenger, Louisa A; Lewis, Michael D; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunuba, Zulma; Miles, Michael A; Llewellyn, Martin S

    2012-09-01

    Clonal propagation is considered to be the predominant mode of reproduction among many parasitic protozoa. However, this assumption may overlook unorthodox, infrequent or cryptic sexuality. Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease, is known to undergo non-Mendelian genetic exchange in the laboratory. In the field, evidence of extant genetic exchange is limited. In this study, we undertook intensive sampling of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Unit I in endemic eastern Colombia. Using Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we generated 269 biological clones from 67 strains. Each clone was genotyped across 24 microsatellite loci. Subsequently, 100 representative clones were typed using 10 mitochondrial sequence targets (3.76 Kbp total). Clonal diversity among humans, reservoir hosts and vectors suggested complex patterns of superinfection and/or coinfection in oral and vector-borne Chagas disease cases. Clonal diversity between mother and foetus in a congenital case demonstrates that domestic TcI genotypes are infective in utero. Importantly, gross incongruence between nuclear and mitochondrial markers is strong evidence for widespread genetic exchange throughout the data set. Furthermore, a confirmed mosaic maxicircle sequence suggests intermolecular recombination between individuals as a further mechanism of genetic reassortment. Finally, robust dating based on mitochondrial DNA indicates that the emergence of a widespread domestic TcI clade that we now name TcI(DOM) (formerly TcIa/VEN(Dom)) occurred 23 000 ± 12 000 years ago and was followed by population expansion, broadly corresponding with the earliest human migration into the Americas. PMID:22774844

  18. The Uptake of GABA in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Galvez Rojas, Robert L; Ahn, Il-Young; Suárez Mantilla, Brian; Sant'Anna, Celso; Pral, Elizabeth Mieko Furusho; Silber, Ariel Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is widely known as a neurotransmitter and signal transduction molecule found in vertebrates, plants, and some protozoan organisms. However, the presence of GABA and its role in trypanosomatids is unknown. Here, we report the presence of intracellular GABA and the biochemical characterization of its uptake in Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Kinetic parameters indicated that GABA is taken up by a single transport system in pathogenic and nonpathogenic forms. Temperature dependence assays showed a profile similar to glutamate transport, but the effect of extracellular cations Na(+) , K(+) , and H(+) on GABA uptake differed, suggesting a different uptake mechanism. In contrast to reports for other amino acid transporters in T. cruzi, GABA uptake was Na(+) dependent and increased with pH, with a maximum activity at pH 8.5. The sensitivity to oligomycin showed that GABA uptake is dependent on ATP synthesis. These data point to a secondary active Na(+) /GABA symporter energized by Na(+) -exporting ATPase. Finally, we show that GABA occurs in the parasite's cytoplasm under normal culture conditions, indicating that it is regularly taken up from the culture medium or synthesized through an still undescribed metabolic pathway. PMID:25851259

  19. Phosphatidylinositol kinase activities in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Alba Marina; Gesumaría, María Celeste; Schoijet, Alejandra C; Alonso, Guillermo D; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Racagni, Graciela E; Machado, Estela E

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) metabolism through phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIKs) activities plays a central role in different signaling pathways. In Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, PIKs have been proposed as target for drug design in order to combat this pathogen. In this work, we studied the classes of PI4K, PIPK and PI3K that could participate in signaling pathways in T. cruzi epimastigote forms. For this reason, we analyzed their enzymatic parameters and detailed responses to avowed kinase inhibitors (adenosine, sodium deoxycholate, wortmannin and LY294002) and activators (Ca(2+), phosphatidic acid, spermine and heparin). Our results suggest the presence and activity of a class III PI4K, a class I PIPK, a class III PI3K previously described (TcVps34) and a class I PI3K. Class I PI3K enzyme, here named TcPI3K, was cloned and expressed in a bacterial system, and their product was tested for kinase activity. The possible participation of TcPI3K in central cellular events of the parasite is also discussed. PMID:26493613

  20. Immunopathological Aspects of Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Borges, Diego Costa; da Silva, Crislaine Aparecida; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Besides the host-related factors, such as immune response and genetic background, the parasite, strain, and occurrences of reinfection episodes, may influence disease outcome. Our results demonstrate that both the primary infection and the reinfection with the Colombiana strain are connected with lower survival rate of the mice. After reinfection, parasitaemia is approximately ten times lower than in primary infected animals. Only Colombiana, Colombiana/Colombiana, and Y/Colombiana groups presented amastigote nests in cardiac tissue. Moreover, the mice infected and/or reinfected with the Colombiana strain had more T. cruzi nests, more intense inflammatory infiltrate, and higher in situ expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ than Y strain. Antigen-stimulated spleen cells from infected and/or reinfected animals produced higher levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10. Our results reinforce the idea that Chagas disease outcome is influenced by the strain of the infective parasite, being differentially modulated during reinfection episodes. It highlights the need of control strategies involving parasite strain characterization in endemic areas for Chagas disease. PMID:25050370

  1. Oral mucoceles: a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Jamile Gomes; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Ramos, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves; De Aquino Xavier, Flávia Caló; Schlaepfer-Sales, Caroline Brandi; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features of oral mucoceles and the immunohistochemical expression of cellular and extracellular matrix components in these lesions. One hundred cases of oral mucoceles were examined for clinicopathological features. The expression of mast cell tryptase, CD68, MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and CD34 was investigated immunohistochemically in 32 cases. The lesions arose as nodules or blisters of variable color. The mean age was 23.2 years and a higher male frequency was observed. The most common locations were the lower lip (92%), followed by the floor of the mouth (7%), and palate (1%). The lesion size ranged from 0.4 to 3.0cm. Unusual histopathological findings as superficial mucoceles (n=16, 16%), pseudopapillary projections (n=3, 3%), epithelioid histiocytes (n=4, 4%), multinucleated giant cells (n=1, 1%) and myxoglobulosis (n=9, 9%) were also seen. Mast cells and CD68-positive macrophages, MMP-1, MMP-9 and CD34-positive blood vessels were seen in all cases. A significant association was seen between mast cells and MMP-1 (p=0.03) and between macrophages and MMP-1 (p=0.01). This study provided important insight into the demographic and histopathological occurrence of oral mucoceles. The tissue remodeling seen in these lesions mainly involved the migration and interaction of mast cells, macrophages and MMP-1. PMID:23726142

  2. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides With Lichen Sclerosus-Like Clinical and Histopathological Features.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Burak; Kempf, Werner; Seckin, Dilek; Ergun, Tulin; Yucelten, Deniz; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2016-02-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) simulates a variety of dermatologic disorders histopathologically and clinically, well deserving the designation of a great mimicker. Interstitial MF is a rare, but well-recognized histopathological variant resembling the interstitial form of granuloma annulare or the inflammatory phase of morphea. From a clinical standpoint, MF can have a wide array of manifestations, including an anecdotal presentation with lesions clinically suggestive of lichen sclerosus (LS). We herein report a 25-year-old man with a history of patch-stage MF who later developed widespread LS-like lesions histopathologically consistent with interstitial MF. In some biopsies, additional features resembling LS were discerned. We think that our case might represent a unique variant of interstitial MF presenting with LS-like lesions. The diagnostic challenge arising from this uncommon presentation is discussed together with review of the literature. PMID:26630682

  3. Histopathology reconstruction on digital imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Lieberman, Rich W.; Nie, Sixiang; Xie, Yihua; Eldred, Michael; Oyama, Jody

    2009-02-01

    Diagnosing cervical cancer in a woman is a multi-step procedure involving examination of the cervix, possible biopsy and follow-up. It is open to subjective interpretation and highly dependent upon the skills of cytologists, colposcopists, and pathologists. In an effort to reduce the subjectiveness of the colposcopist-directed biopsy and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy, we have developed new colposcopic imaging systems with accompanying computer aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to guide a colposcopist in deciding if and where to biopsy. If the biopsy's histopathology, the identification of the disease state at the cellular and near-cellular level, is to be used as the gold standard for CAD, then the location of the histopathologic analysis must match exactly to the location of the biopsy tissue in the digital image. Otherwise, no matter how perfect the histopathology and the quality of the digital imagery, the two data sets cannot be matched and the true sensitivity and specificity of the CAD cannot be ascertained. We report here on new approaches to preserving, continuously, the location and orientation of a biopsy sample with respect to its location in the digital image of the cervix so as to preserve the exact spatial relationship throughout the mechanical aspects of the histopathologic analysis. This new approach will allow CAD to produce a linear diagnosis and pinpoint the location of the tissue under examination.

  4. Enalapril in Combination with Benznidazole Reduces Cardiac Inflammation and Creatine Kinases in Mice Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Penitente, Arlete Rita; Leite, Ana Luísa Junqueira; de Paula Costa, Guilherme; Shrestha, Deena; Horta, Aline Luciano; Natali, Antônio J; Neves, Clóvis A; Talvani, Andre

    2015-11-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi triggers an inflammatory process in mammalian heart causing events such as fibrosis, changes in the architecture and functionality in this organ. Enalapril, an angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitor, is a drug prescribed to ameliorate this heart dysfunction, and appears to exert a potential role in immune system regulation. Our aim was to evaluate the chronic cardiac inflammatory parameters after therapeutic treatment with enalapril and benznidazole in C57BL/6 mice infected with the VL-10 strain of T. cruzi. After infection, animals were treated with oral doses of enalapril (25 mg/kg), benznidazole (100 mg/kg), or both during 30 days. Morphometric parameters and levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL5), IL-10, creatine kinases (CKs), and C-reactive protein were evaluated in the heart and serum at the 120th day of infection. Enalapril alone or in combination with benznidazole did not change the number of circulating parasites, but reduced cardiac leukocyte recruitment and total collagen in the cardiac tissue. Interestingly, the combination therapy (enalapril/benznidazole) also reduced the levels of chemokines, CK and CK-MB, and C-reactive proteins in chronic phase. In conclusion, during the chronic experimental T. cruzi infection, the combination therapy using enalapril plus benznidazole potentiated their immunomodulatory effects, resulting in a low production of biomarkers of cardiac lesions. PMID:26350447

  5. Cystic lesions of the pancreas: challenging issues in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyoung-Chul; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hwang, Chang Yun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong-Wan; Lee, Sung Koo

    2008-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas are being recognized with increasing frequency and have become a common finding in clinical practice. Cystic lesions of the pancreas display a wide spectrum of histopathology and biologic behavior. Differentiating among lesions and choosing an optimal therapy is challenging, and evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis, management, and follow-up for cystic lesions of the pancreas are needed. This review describes the epidemiology and typical features of cystic lesions of the pancreas, including a summary of commonly used descriptive terms, as well as the primary issues in the differential diagnosis and management of these lesions. PMID:18076739

  6. Sarcocystis cruzi infection in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Seaton, C Tom; Sinnett, David; Ball, Erin; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-05-30

    Endangered wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) is the largest terrestrial mammal in the American continent. Animal health is an important issue in their conservation, and Sarcocystis cruzi may be a cause of clinical disease in Bovidae. Hearts of eight wood bison from Alaska, USA were examined for sarcocysts by histology, transmission electron microscopy, pepsin digestion, and molecularly. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were found in pepsin digests of all eight and sarcocysts were found in histologic sections of myocardium of four bison. Sarcocysts were thin-walled and ultrastructurally consistent with S. cruzi. Characterization of DNA obtained from lysis of pepsin liberated bradyzoites by PCR-RFLP and subsequent phylogenetic analyses matched with that previously reported for S. cruzi infecting cattle in the USA. Collectively, data indicate that wood bison is a natural intermediate host for S. cruzi. PMID:25868849

  7. The evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi: the 'bat seeding' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Patrick B; Teixeira, Marta M G; Stevens, Jamie R

    2012-04-01

    Recent discussions on the evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi have been dominated by the southern super-continent hypothesis, whereby T. cruzi and related parasites evolved in isolation in the mammals of South America, Antarctica and Australia. Here, we consider recent molecular evidence suggesting that T. cruzi evolved from within a broader clade of bat trypanosomes, and that bat trypanosomes have successfully made the switch into other mammalian hosts in both the New and Old Worlds. Accordingly, we propose an alternative hypothesis--the bat seeding hypothesis--whereby lineages of bat trypanosomes have switched into terrestrial mammals, thereby seeding the terrestrial lineages within the clade. One key implication of this finding is that T. cruzi may have evolved considerably more recently than previously envisaged. PMID:22365905

  8. Host metabolism regulates intracellular growth of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Kacey L; Engel, Juan C; Jacobi, David; Lee, Chih-Hao; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2013-01-16

    Metabolic coupling of intracellular pathogens with host cells is essential for successful colonization of the host. Establishment of intracellular infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi leads to the development of human Chagas' disease, yet the functional contributions of the host cell toward the infection process remain poorly characterized. Here, a genome-scale functional screen identified interconnected metabolic networks centered around host energy production, nucleotide metabolism, pteridine biosynthesis, and fatty acid oxidation as key processes that fuel intracellular T. cruzi growth. Additionally, the host kinase Akt, which plays essential roles in various cellular processes, was critical for parasite replication. Targeted perturbations in these host metabolic pathways or Akt-dependent signaling pathways modulated the parasite's replicative capacity, highlighting the adaptability of this intracellular pathogen to changing conditions in the host. These findings identify key cellular process regulating intracellular T. cruzi growth and illuminate the potential to leverage host pathways to limit T. cruzi infection. PMID:23332160

  9. Host metabolism regulates intracellular growth of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Kacey L.; Engel, Juan C.; Jacobi, David; Lee, Chih-Hao; Burleigh, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Metabolic coupling of intracellular pathogens with host cells is essential for successful colonization of the host. Establishment of intracellular infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi leads to the development of human Chagas disease, yet the functional contributions of the host cell toward the infection process remain poorly characterized. Here, a genome-scale functional screen identified interconnected metabolic networks centered around host energy production, nucleotide metabolism, pteridine biosynthesis, and fatty acid oxidation as key processes that fuel intracellular T. cruzi growth. Additionally, the host kinase Akt, which plays essential roles in various cellular processes, was critical for parasite replication. Targeted perturbations in these host metabolic pathways or Akt-dependent signaling pathways modulated the parasite’s replicative capacity, highlighting the adaptability of this intracellular pathogen to changing conditions in the host. These findings identify key cellular process regulating intracellular T. cruzi growth and illuminate the potential to leverage host pathways to limit T. cruzi infection. PMID:23332160

  10. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  11. Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase with liver regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C; Flawiá, M M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

    1986-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase catalytic subunits may interact with regulatory factors from rat liver membranes, reconstituting heterologous systems which are catalytically active in assay mixtures containing MgATP. The systems show stimulatory responses to glucagon and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or fluoride. Reconstitution was obtained by three different methods: fusion of rat liver membranes (pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide) to T. cruzi membranes; interaction of detergent extracts of rat liver membranes with T. cruzi membranes; or interaction of purified preparations of T. cruzi adenylate cyclase and of liver membrane factors in phospholipid vesicles. The liver factors responsible for the guanine nucleotide effect were characterized as the NS protein. Data also indicate that reconstitution requires the presence of a membrane substrate. PMID:2947568

  12. The Interaction of Classical Complement Component C1 with Parasite and Host Calreticulin Mediates Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Christian; Ramírez, Galia; Valck, Carolina; Aguilar, Lorena; Maldonado, Ismael; Rosas, Carlos; Galanti, Norbel; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Ferreira, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Background 9 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin America, plus more than 300,000 in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. Approximately 30% of infected individuals develop circulatory or digestive pathology. While in underdeveloped countries transmission is mainly through hematophagous arthropods, transplacental infection prevails in developed ones. Methodology/Principal Findings During infection, T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, TcCRT acts as virulence factor since it binds maternal classical complement component C1q that recognizes human calreticulin (HuCRT) in placenta, with increased parasite infectivity. As measured ex vivo by quantitative PCR in human placenta chorionic villi explants (HPCVE) (the closest available correlate of human congenital T. cruzi infection), C1q mediated up to a 3–5-fold increase in parasite load. Because anti-TcCRT and anti-HuCRT F(ab′)2 antibody fragments are devoid of their Fc-dependent capacity to recruit C1q, they reverted the C1q-mediated increase in parasite load by respectively preventing its interaction with cell-bound CRTs from both parasite and HPCVE origins. The use of competing fluid-phase recombinant HuCRT and F(ab′)2 antibody fragments anti-TcCRT corroborated this. These results are consistent with a high expression of fetal CRT on placental free chorionic villi. Increased C1q-mediated infection is paralleled by placental tissue damage, as evidenced by histopathology, a damage that is ameliorated by anti-TcCRT F(ab′)2 antibody fragments or fluid-phase HuCRT. Conclusions/Significance T. cruzi infection of HPCVE is importantly mediated by human and parasite CRTs and C1q. Most likely, C1q bridges CRT on the parasite surface with its receptor orthologue on human placental cells, thus facilitating the first encounter between the parasite and the fetal derived placental tissue. The results

  13. Parathyroid lesions: Difficult diagnosis on cytology.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-08-01

    Cytology of parathyroid lesion (PL) is often confused with that of thyroid lesions. Differentiation between thyroid and PL is very difficult on cytomorphology because of their similar features and close anatomical proximity. Three cases of PLs reported on cytology in last one year were retrieved from archives of cytology department. Their cytomorphological details were studied and were correlated with the available biochemical parameters. Histopathology was available in two cases. Radiological assistance and parathyroid hormone (PTH) assessment in our cases formed the basis of diagnosing PLs on cytology. We discuss the differential diagnosis and pitfalls in cytological diagnosis of PLs. However, histopathology remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Interpretation of PLs on cytology remains problematic due to its rarity and limited available literature. The cytomorphology combined with clinical and biochemical data supported by histopathology are necessary to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of PLs. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:704-709. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27246113

  14. Ultrastructural and transmission evidence of Sarcocystis cruzi associated with eosinophilic myositis in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Gajadhar, A A; Marquardt, W C

    1992-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, diaphragm, tongue, esophagus and heart of beef carcasses that were condemned for eosinophilic myositis and those that were unaffected were collected at an abattoir in Colorado and studied to determine the involvement of Sarcocystis spp. All affected carcasses contained similar granulomatous lesions with adjacent infiltrations of leukocytes. Intact or fragments of sarcocysts were found within 32 of 363 granulomas, and whole sarcocysts were present in nearby unaffected muscle cells. Light and electron microscopic examinations revealed that sarcocysts, affected or unaffected by cellular response in condemned carcasses, as well as those found in unaffected carcasses, were consistent with those of S. cruzi. Transmission experiments confirmed that S. cruzi were present in all carcasses, and that dogs, but not cats, were the definitive hosts. The results of pepsin-HCl digestion assays showed that unaffected carcasses that were approved for human consumption generally contained more infective parasites than carcasses that were condemned for eosinophilic myositis. This study provides evidence to support the suggestion that dogs, rather than cats, and unaffected rather than eosinophilic myositis-affected carcasses, have greater potential for contributing to the perpetuation of eosinophilic myositis in the cattle industry. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1586892

  15. Brazilian Green Propolis: Effects In Vitro and In Vivo on Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Salomão, Kelly; de Souza, Eniuce M.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Barbosa, Helene S.; de Castro, Solange L.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of a Brazilian green propolis ethanolic extract (Et-Bra) and its effect on Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes and other pathogenic microorganisms have already been reported. Here, we further investigated Et-Bra targets in T. cruzi and its effect on experimental infection of mice. The IC50/4 days for inhibition of amastigote proliferation was 8.5 ± 1.8 μg mL−1, with no damage to the host cells. In epimastigotes Et-Bra induced alterations in reservosomes, Golgi complex and mitochondrion. These effects were confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. In trypomastigotes, Et-Bra led to the loss of plasma membrane integrity. The in vitro studies indicate that Et-Bra interferes in the functionality of the plasma membrane in trypomastigotes and of reservosomes and mitochondrion in epimastigotes. Acutely infected mice were treated orally with Et-Bra and the parasitemia, mortality and GPT, GOT, CK and urea levels were monitored. The extract (25–300 mg kg−1 body weight/day for 10 days) reduced the parasitemia, although not at significant levels; increased the survival of the animals and did not induce any hepatic, muscular lesion or renal toxicity. Since Et-Bra was not toxic to the animals, it could be assayed in combination with other drugs. Et-Bra could be a potential metacyclogenesis blocker, considering its effect on reservosomes, which are an important energy source during parasite differentiation. PMID:19213854

  16. Sentinel lesions of primary CNS lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, L; Fetell, M R; Sisti, M; Hochberg, F; Cohen, M; Louis, D N

    1996-01-01

    Some patients ultimately diagnosed with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) have transient symptomatic contrast enhancing lesions. These "sentinel lesions" of PCNSL recede spontaneously or with corticosteroid treatment and present an important diagnostic dilemma because they show variable, but non-diagnostic histopathological features. Four previously healthy, immunocompetent patients aged 49 to 58 years had contrast enhancing intraparenchymal brain lesions. Before biopsy, three of the four were treated with corticosteroids. Initial biopsies showed demyelination with axonal sparing in two, non-specific inflammation in one, and normal brain in one. Infiltrating lymphocytes predominantly expressed T cell markers with rare B cells. All four patients recovered within two to four weeks after the initial biopsy and imaging studies showed resolution of the lesions. The CSF was normal in three of the four patients tested; oligoclonal bands were absent in both of the two tested. After seven to 11 months, each patient developed new symptomatic lesions in a different region of the brain, biopsy of which showed a B cell PCNSL. The mechanism of spontaneous involution of sentinel lesions is not understood, but may represent host immunity against the tumour. Sentinel lesions of PCNSL should be considered in patients with contrast enhancing focal parenchymal lesions that show non-specific or demyelinative histopathological changes. Close clinical and radiographic follow up is essential if PCNSL is to be diagnosed early in such patients. Images PMID:8558135

  17. Chronic Achilles tendinopathy. A survey of surgical and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Aström, M; Rausing, A

    1995-07-01

    The surgical findings and the histopathology are reported for 163 patients (134 males, 29 females; mean age, 38 years; range, 13-72 years; 75% athletes) with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Biopsy specimens from symptomatic (155 cases) and nonsymptomatic (90 cases) parts of the tendon and from the paratenon (97 cases) were obtained. Surgical reports were reviewed and histopathology was evaluated according to a standardized protocol. Eighteen tendons also were analyzed by immunofluorescence for fibrinogen, immunoglobulins, and complement. Degenerative changes (tendinosis) characterized by abnormal fiber structure, focal hypercellularity, and vascular proliferation were noted in 90% of biopsy specimens from symptomatic parts of the tendons and, to a lesser degree, in 20% from nonsymptomatic parts. Fibrinogen could be identified in most lesion biopsy specimens. Partial tendon ruptures were present in 19% of the patients and always occurred in areas afflicted with tendinosis. The paratenon was mostly normal or revealed only slight changes. Increasing age and male gender were associated with more pronounced histopathologic changes. Tendinosis, sometimes complicated by partial rupture, appears to be the major lesion in chronic Achilles tendinopathy; the paratenon is rarely involved. Important features are a lack of inflammatory cells and a poor healing response. PMID:7634699

  18. Association between dynamic contrast enhanced MRI imaging features and WHO histopathological grade in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JUAN; YU, JIANQUN; PENG, YULAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and World Health Organization (WHO) histopathological grade in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. A retrospective analysis on the results of DCE-MRI of 92 patients, who were diagnosed with invasive ductal breast cancer following surgery or biopsy, and these results were correlated with WHO histopathological grade. The statistical analysis demonstrated that the tumor size, shape and characteristics of early enhancement were associated with the WHO histopathological grade: The larger the lesion's long diameter, the higher the WHO histopathological grade; the WHO histopathological grades of round and oval masses were relatively lower, while those of lobulated and irregular masses were higher; and tumors with heterogeneous and ring-like enhancement exhibited higher WHO histopathological grades, while those of homogeneous enhancement were lower. The lesion's margin shape was not associated with the WHO histopathological grade. The present study demonstrates that features of DCE-MRI and WHO histopathological grade in patients with invasive ductal breast cancer are correlated, and these MRI features could be used to evaluate the biological behavior and prognosis of lesions. PMID:27123145

  19. Preparation and applicability of Sarcocystis cruzi antigens and their anti-S. cruzi rabbit sera for serodiagnosis of bovine sarcocystosis.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Ohuchi, Y; Kobayashi, M; Haritani, M; Itagaki, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcocystis cruzi antigens and their antisera were prepared for the seroimmunological diagnosis of bovine sarcocystosis. Fresh S. cruzi cysts directly removed from cardial muscle of slaughtered cattle were digested with trypsin to release bradyzoites. By twelve cycles of freezing at-22 degrees C and thawing at 37 degrees C, bradyzoites were let to leach out soluble material. The soluble antigens were inoculated four times to rabbits at a dose of 343 micrograms protein and anti-S. cruzi sera were prepared with blood of the rabbits. Gel immunodiffusion test showed no cross-reaction between the present antigens and any of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Hammondia hammondi and -Besnoitia wallacei rabbit sera. Avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) technique with the present anti-S. curzi rabbit sera showed clear positive reaction against S. cruzi cysts in the muscular sections of infected cattle. PMID:7948400

  20. The gingival Stillman’s clefts: histopathology and cellular characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cassini, Maria Antonietta; Cerroni, Loredana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Orlandi, Augusto; Pilloni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study Stillman’s cleft is a mucogingival triangular-shaped defect on the buccal surface of a root with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine the Stillman’s cleft obtained from excision during root coverage surgical procedures at an histopathological level. Materials and method Harvesting of cleft was obtained from two periodontally healthy patients with a scalpel and a bevel incision and then placed in a test tube with buffered solution to be processed for light microscopy. Results Microscopic analysis has shown that Stillman’s cleft presented a lichenoid hand-like inflammatory infiltration, while in the periodontal patient an inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia was identified. Conclusion Stillman’s cleft remains to be investigated as for the possible causes of such lesion of the gingival margin, although an inflammatory response seems to be evident and active from a strictly histopathological standpoint. PMID:26941897

  1. Primary adenocarcinoma of ureter: A rare histopathological variant

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Prekshi; Agarwal, Rashi; Srinivasan, Shashank; Singh, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of ureter is an uncommon malignancy. Of which, mostly are transitional cell carcinomas followed by squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas being the rarest histopathology encountered. We report a case of adenocarcinoma ureter in a middle-aged male along with its clinical scenario. A 62-year-old male, presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Computerized tomography urogram showed a soft tissue lesion at the right ureterovesical junction. Cystoscopic biopsy reported villous adenoma. Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid scan reported nonfunctioning right kidney. He underwent laparoscopic right nephroureterectomy, and histopathology reported adenocarcinoma of the right lower third of ureter, with positive distal and close radial margins. The patient received external beam radiation to the postoperative bed and lymph nodes, and he is disease-free till date. PMID:27453661

  2. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  3. Necrotizing Sialometaplasia of the Hard Palate: A Rare Entity of Dilemma on Cytology, Confirmatory on Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Chowdappa, Vijaya; Devasamudra, Chidananda R.; Janardhan, Jayalakshmi Valligari

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a rare, benign reactive necrotizing lesion, involving sites where salivary gland tissue is usually present. The importance of this lesion is that it mimics malignancy clinically leading to treatments ranging from conservative excision to total maxillectomy. Cytologically and histologically also the lesion is often confused with neoplasms. We present a case of a lady with a hard palatal swelling, which was non – ulcerative unlike typical cases of necrotizing sialometaplsia. FNAC features made us strongly suspect a low grade mucoepidermiod carcinoma, following which the swelling was excised. Histopathology came to the rescue, on which the final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate was made. Necrotizing siaometaplasia is often misdiagnosed by the inexperienced cytologist, with histopathological examination being confirmatory. We also emphasize the fact that lesions like necrotizing sialometaplasia need a high degree of suspicion along with clinical co relation before subjecting the patient to unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:26816899

  4. Lymphoproliferative lesions of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Cerroni, L

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most difficult areas in dermatopathology, and biopsies are often taken to rule out a cutaneous lymphoma in patients with “unclear” or “therapy‐resistant” skin lesions. Histopathological features alone often enable a given case to be classified to a diagnostic group (eg, epidermotropic lymphomas), but seldom allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Performing several biopsies from morphologically different lesions is suggested, especially in patients with suspicion of mycosis fungoides. Immunohistochemistry is often crucial for proper classification of the cases, but in some instances is not helpful (eg, early lesions of mycosis fungoides). Although molecular techniques provide new, powerful tools for diagnosing cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders, results of molecular methods should always be interpreted with the clinicopathological features, keeping in mind the possibility of false positivity and false negativity. In many cases, a definitive diagnosis can be made only on careful correlation of the clinical with the histopathological, immunophenotypical and molecular features. PMID:16873563

  5. Cell Death and Serum Markers of Collagen Metabolism during Cardiac Remodeling in Cavia porcellus Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Paico, Henry; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Ccopa, Fredy; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    We studied cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in cardiac remodeling produced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In addition, we evaluated collagen I, III, IV (CI, CIII and CIV) deposition in cardiac tissue, and their relationship with serum levels of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) and procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (PIIINP). Eight infected and two uninfected guinea pigs were necropsied at seven time points up to one year post-infection. Cell death by necrosis and apoptosis was determined by histopathological observation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. Deposition of cardiac collagen types was determined by immunohistochemistry and serum levels of PICP, PIIINP, and anti-T. cruzi IgG1 and IgG2 by ELISA. IgG2 (Th1 response) predominated throughout the course of infection; IgG1 (Th2 response) was detected during the chronic phase. Cardiac cell death by necrosis predominated over apoptosis during the acute phase; during the chronic phase, both apoptosis and necrosis were observed in cardiac cells. Apoptosis was also observed in lymphocytes, endothelial cells and epicardial adipose tissue, especially in the chronic phase. Cardiac levels of CI, CIII, CIV increased progressively, but the highest levels were seen in the chronic phase and were primarily due to increase in CIII and CIV. High serum levels of PICP and PIIINP were observed throughout the infection, and increased levels of both biomarkers were associated with cardiac fibrosis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.038, respectively). These results confirm the role of apoptosis in cell loss mainly during the chronic phase and the utility of PICP and PIIINP as biomarkers of fibrosis in cardiac remodeling during T. cruzi infection. PMID:23409197

  6. Cell death and serum markers of collagen metabolism during cardiac remodeling in Cavia porcellus experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Gilman, Robert H; Paico, Henry; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Ccopa, Fredy; Bern, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    We studied cell death by apoptosis and necrosis in cardiac remodeling produced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In addition, we evaluated collagen I, III, IV (CI, CIII and CIV) deposition in cardiac tissue, and their relationship with serum levels of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) and procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide (PIIINP). Eight infected and two uninfected guinea pigs were necropsied at seven time points up to one year post-infection. Cell death by necrosis and apoptosis was determined by histopathological observation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. Deposition of cardiac collagen types was determined by immunohistochemistry and serum levels of PICP, PIIINP, and anti-T. cruzi IgG1 and IgG2 by ELISA. IgG2 (Th1 response) predominated throughout the course of infection; IgG1 (Th2 response) was detected during the chronic phase. Cardiac cell death by necrosis predominated over apoptosis during the acute phase; during the chronic phase, both apoptosis and necrosis were observed in cardiac cells. Apoptosis was also observed in lymphocytes, endothelial cells and epicardial adipose tissue, especially in the chronic phase. Cardiac levels of CI, CIII, CIV increased progressively, but the highest levels were seen in the chronic phase and were primarily due to increase in CIII and CIV. High serum levels of PICP and PIIINP were observed throughout the infection, and increased levels of both biomarkers were associated with cardiac fibrosis (p = 0.002 and p = 0.038, respectively). These results confirm the role of apoptosis in cell loss mainly during the chronic phase and the utility of PICP and PIIINP as biomarkers of fibrosis in cardiac remodeling during T. cruzi infection. PMID:23409197

  7. Type I interferons increase host susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Chessler, Anne-Danielle C; Caradonna, Kacey L; Da'dara, Akram; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2011-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes human Chagas' disease, induces a type I interferon (IFN) (IFN-α/β) response during acute experimental infection in mice and in isolated primary cell types. To examine the potential impact of the type I IFN response in shaping outcomes in experimental T. cruzi infection, groups of wild-type (WT) and type I IFN receptor-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) 129sv/ev mice were infected with two different T. cruzi strains under lethal and sublethal conditions and several parameters were measured during the acute stage of infection. The results demonstrate that type I IFNs are not required for early host protection against T. cruzi. In contrast, under conditions of lethal T. cruzi challenge, WT mice succumbed to infection whereas IFNAR(-/-) mice were ultimately able to control parasite growth and survive. T. cruzi clearance in and survival of IFNAR(-/-) mice were accompanied by higher levels of IFN-γ production by isolated splenocytes in response to parasite antigen. The suppression of IFN-γ in splenocytes from WT mice was independent of IL-10 levels. While the impact of type I IFNs on the production of IFN-γ and other cytokines/chemokines remains to be fully determined in the context of T. cruzi infection, our data suggest that, under conditions of high parasite burden, type I IFNs negatively impact IFN-γ production, initiating a detrimental cycle that contributes to the ultimate failure to control infection. These findings are consistent with a growing theme in the microbial pathogenesis field in which type I IFNs can be detrimental to the host in a variety of nonviral pathogen infection models. PMID:21402764

  8. Value of histopathologic analysis of subcutis excisions by general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Buis, Pieter AJ; Verweij, Wim; van Diest, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    Background Only around 60% of skin lesions excised by GPs are referred to a pathologist. Clinical diagnoses of skin excisions by GPs may not be very accurate. Subcutis excisions are rarely done by GPs, and there is hence little information in the literature on the histopathological yield of subcutis excisions by GPs with regard to malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of histopathological investigation of a relatively large group of subcutis excisions by GPs, with special emphasis on discrepancies between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of malignancy. Methods We investigated a series of 90 subcutis excisions, which was derived from a database of consecutive GP submissions from the years 1999–2000 where in the same time period 4595 skin excisions were performed by the same group of GPs. This underlines the apparent reluctance of GPs to perform subcutis excisions. Results The final diagnosis was benign in 88 cases (97.8%) and malignant in 2 cases (2.2%). Seven cases had no clinical diagnosis, all of which were benign. Of the 83 clinically benign cases, 81 (97.6%) were indeed benign and 2 (2.4%) were malignant: one Merkel cell carcinoma and one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. The former was clinically thought to be a lipoma, and the latter a trichilemmal cyst. The dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented at the age of 27, and the Merkel cell carcinoma at the age of 60. Both were incompletely removed and required re-excision by a surgical oncologist. Conclusion Histopathological investigation of subcutis excisions by GPs yields unexpected and rare malignancies in about 2% of cases that may initially be excised inadequately. Based on these data, and because of the relatively rareness of these type of excisions, it could be argued that it may be worthwhile to have all subcutis excisions by GPs routinely investigated by histopathology. PMID:17257417

  9. Histopathological examination of spine tumors after treatment with radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zwagerman, Nathan T; McDowell, Michael M; Hamilton, Ronald L; Monaco, Edward A; Flickinger, John C; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Increased survival time after diagnosis of neoplastic disease has resulted in a gradual increase in spine tumor incidence. Radiosurgery is frequently a viable alternative to operative management in a population with severe medical comorbidities. The authors sought to assess the histopathological consequences of radiosurgery in the subset of patients progressing to operative intervention. METHODS Eighteen patients who underwent radiosurgery for spine tumors between 2008 and 2014 subsequently progressed to surgical treatment. A histopathological examination of these cases was performed. Indications for surgery included symptomatic compression fractures, radiographic instability, and symptoms of cord or cauda equina compression. Biopsy samples were obtained from the tumor within the radiosurgical zone in all cases and were permanently fixated. Viable tumor samples were stained for Ki 67. RESULTS Fifteen patients had metastatic lesions and 3 patients had neurofibromas. The mean patient age was 57 years. The operative indication was symptomatic compression in 10 cases (67%). The most frequent metastatic lesions were breast cancer (4 cases), renal cell carcinoma (3), prostate cancer (2), and endometrial cancer (2). In 9 (60%) of the 15 metastatic cases, histological examination of the lesions showed minimal evidence of inflammation. Viable tumor at the margins of the radiosurgery was seen in 9 (60%) of the metastatic cases. Necrosis in the tumor bed was frequent, as was fibrotic bone marrow. Vascular ectasia was seen in 2 of 15 metastatic cases, but sclerosis with ectasia was frequent. No evidence of malignant conversion was seen in the periphery of the lesions in the 3 neurofibroma cases. In 1 case of neurofibroma, the lesion demonstrated some small areas of remnant tumor in the radiosurgical target zone. CONCLUSIONS This case series demonstrates important histopathological characteristics of spinal lesions treated by SRS. Regions with the highest exposure to

  10. A Cross-sectional Study of Clinical, Histopathological and Direct Immunofluorescence Spectrum of Vesiculobullous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    S., Arundhathi; S., Ragunatha; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions of skin requires evaluation of clinical, histopathologic and immunofluorescence findings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 68 patients to evaluate the clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) features in the diagnosis of cutaneous vesiculobullous disorders. The patients with vesiculobullous lesions were subjected to clinical examination regarding socio-demographic and clinical data. Two biopsy specimens were taken, one from intact vesicle for histopathological study and another from perilesional normal looking skin or oral mucosa for DIF. Results: Vesiculobullous lesions constituted 22.08% of total number of skin biopsies. The most common clinical diagnosis was pemphigus vulgaris (PV) in 36 cases, followed by bullous pemphigoid (BP) in 8 cases, pemphigus foliaceous (PF) in 6 cases, and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) in 4 cases. Characteristic histopathological features were present in 26 cases of PV, 9 cases of BP and 4 cases of PF, and 17.7% showed non- specific changes. DIF was positive in 24 cases of PV, 9 cases of BP and 3 cases of PF, and negative in 34.92% of cases. Conclusion: Clinical, histopathological and DIF features together or in combination help in the final diagnosis of vesiculobullous disorders. Individually, none of these methods are diagnostic in each and every case. PMID:24551638

  11. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf. PMID:24334611

  12. Histopathology in diagnosis of broiler chicken and layer diseases--review of cases 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Sapierzyński, R; Bielecki, W; Malicka, E; Zbikowski, A; Szeleszczuk, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the different organs in relation to the commercial-type and the age of birds (i.e. broiler chickens and layers). During the period 1999-2010 a total of 189 cases was submitted to the Division of Animal Pathomorphology, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics at WULS. Most cases were found in broiler chickens (66.7%). The majority of the histopathological lesions were detected in the liver and lymphoid organs. In of 29% cases of hepatic injury pathognomonic lesions associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were found. The mean age of birds was 23 days. Among IBH cases proventriculitis (58%) was more often found than gizzard lesions (25.8%). Interestingly, we noted some intranuclear inclusions in the epithelial cells within the proventriculus. A low percentage of histopathological evidence of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was reported in chickens. The gastrointestinal tract was the second most frequent predilection site for histopathological lesions. Histopathological findings within the heart and lungs were less common and were more often seen in the upper respiratory tract. Cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were registered in broiler chickens (3.2%, mean age 37 days) and in layers (4.8%; mean age 196 days). Lesions associated with Marek's disease, avian leukosis and fowl pox were recognized only in layers, respectively in 3.2% (mean age 176 days), 1.6% (mean age 205 days) and 1.1% (mean age 196 days) of all cases. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was noted only in 0.5% of all cases. PMID:23390769

  13. Histopathological changes in sheep experimentally infected with Babesia ovis.

    PubMed

    Habela, M A; Reina, D; Navarrete, I; Redondo, E; Hernández, S

    1991-01-01

    Histopathological study was made of 12 Merino sheep - five splenectomized and seven intact - experimentally infected with Babesia ovis. Non-purulent encephalitis; initially exudative and subsequently interstitial pneumonia; pericarditis, myocarditis and haemorrhagic endocarditis; centrilobular necrotic hepatitis; hyperplasia of the lymphoreticular system; necrosis and vascular changes in adrenal glands were observed. The kidney was the most severely affected organ, exhibiting acute tubular necrosis typical of kidney shock syndrome. The lesions observed were suggestive of hypovolemic shock culminating in haemorrhagic diathesis owing to consumptive coagulopathy. Additionally, the massive release of catabolites from lysis and necrosis apparently produced endotoxic shock. PMID:2024425

  14. Histopathological spectrum of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Surya, Varun; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Joy, Tabita; Verma, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA) are distinctive salivary gland neoplasms, with an almost exclusive propensity to arise from the minor salivary glands. PLGA frequently manifests as an asymptomatic, slow-growing mass within the oral cavity, which must be separated from adenoid cystic carcinoma and benign mixed tumor for therapeutic and prognostic considerations. We report a case of a 67-year-old male, who presented with a long-standing mass in the palate. This lesion was diagnosed as PLGA based on histopathological findings, which was further confirmed by the immunohistochemical marker. PMID:26604510

  15. Histopathology of mallards dosed with lead and selected substitute shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Irby, H.D.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    The histopathological response of male game farm mallards fed lead, three types of plastic-coated lead, two lead-magnesium alloys, iron, copper, zinc-coated iron, and molybdenum-coated iron shot was studied. Mallards fed lead, plastic-coated lead, or lead-magnesium alloy shot developed a similar pathological response, including the formation of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys. Birds fed iron or molybdenum-coated iron shot developed hemosiderosis of the liver. Two of four mallards fed zinc-coated iron shot also developed hemosiderosis of the liver. No lesions were found in mallards fed copper shot.

  16. Exclusive facial porokeratosis: histopathologically showing follicular cornoid lamellae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Porokeratosis is a heterogeneous group of disorders that are mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It has a wide variety of clinical manifestations with a characteristic histological finding of cornoid lamella. Porokeratosis usually affects the trunk or the extremities. Exclusive facial lesions are rare, although 15% of patients with disseminated, superficial, actinic porokeratosis do have facial lesions. Herein, we discuss the case of a 25-year-old woman who noticed the appearance of well-defined, brownish, macular lesions located on both cheeks. She had no other symptoms. A skin examination showed well-demarcated, multiple, brownish macules with raised hyperkeratotic borders on both cheeks and a half-palm-sized, arcuate-shaped lesion formed by grouped macules on the right cheek. No other parts of the body were affected. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen obtained from the hyperkeratotic margin gave a diagnosis of porokeratosis with follicular involvement of the cornoid lamellae. Topical pimecrolimus was applied twice a day to the lesions, although little improvement was achieved after 2 months. PMID:21933257

  17. Histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Sperling, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Establishing a definitive diagnosis for any form of alopecia can be challenging. Adding to the diagnostic complexity is the fact that many patients have more than one form of alopecia contributing to their hair loss. We conducted a review of 1360 consecutive scalp biopsy specimens submitted for the evaluation of scalp hair loss over a 16-month period, demonstrating that 12.5% of cases had a combination of diagnoses (multifactorial alopecia) accounting for their hair loss. An approach to the histopathologic diagnosis of multifactorial alopecia, particularly multiple forms of alopecia found in a single biopsy, is here presented. PMID:26956781

  18. Monte Carlo modeling of pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James

    2014-03-01

    Colors observed in clinical dermoscopy are critical to diagnosis but the mechanisms that lead to the spectral components of diffuse reflectance are more than meets the eye: combinations of the absorption and scattering spectra of the biomolecules as well as the "structural color" effect of skin anatomy. We modeled diffuse remittance from skin based on histopathology. The optical properties of the tissue types were based on the relevant chromophores and scatterers. The resulting spectral images mimic the appearance of pigmented lesions quite well when the morphology is mathematically derived but limited when based on histopathology, raising interesting questions about the interaction between various wavelengths with various pathological anatomical features.

  19. Transcriptional and phenotypical heterogeneity of Trypanosoma cruzi cell populations.

    PubMed

    Seco-Hidalgo, Víctor; De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Osuna, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex life cycle comprising pools of cell populations which circulate among humans, vectors, sylvatic reservoirs and domestic animals. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated the importance of clonal variations for parasite population dynamics, survival and evolution. By limiting dilution assays, we have isolated seven isogenic clonal cell lines derived from the Pan4 strain of T. cruzi. Applying different molecular techniques, we have been able to provide a comprehensive characterization of the expression heterogeneity in the mucin-associated surface protein (MASP) gene family, where all the clonal isogenic populations were transcriptionally different. Hierarchical cluster analysis and sequence comparison among different MASP cDNA libraries showed that, despite the great variability in MASP expression, some members of the transcriptome (including MASP pseudogenes) are conserved, not only in the life-cycle stages but also among different strains of T. cruzi. Finally, other important aspects for the parasite, such as growth, spontaneous metacyclogenesis or excretion of different catabolites, were also compared among the clones, demonstrating that T. cruzi populations of cells are also phenotypically heterogeneous. Although the evolutionary strategy that sustains the MASP expression polymorphism remains unknown, we suggest that MASP clonal variability and phenotypic heterogeneities found in this study might provide an advantage, allowing a rapid response to environmental pressure or changes during the life cycle of T. cruzi. PMID:26674416

  20. Mechanisms of host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Kacey L; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    One of the more accepted concepts in our understanding of the biology of early Trypanosoma cruzi-host cell interactions is that the mammalian-infective trypomastigote forms of the parasite must transit the host cell lysosomal compartment in order to establish a productive intracellular infection. The acidic environment of the lysosome provides the appropriate conditions for parasite-mediated disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole and release of T. cruzi into the host cell cytosol, where replication of intracellular amastigotes occurs. Recent findings indicate a level of redundancy in the lysosome-targeting process where T. cruzi trypomastigotes exploit different cellular pathways to access host cell lysosomes in non-professional phagocytic cells. In addition, the reversible nature of the host cell penetration process was recently demonstrated when conditions for fusion of the nascent parasite vacuole with the host endosomal-lysosomal system were not met. Thus, the concept of parasite retention as a critical component of the T. cruzi invasion process was introduced. Although it is clear that host cell recognition, attachment and signalling are required to initiate invasion, integration of this knowledge with our understanding of the different routes of parasite entry is largely lacking. In this chapter, we focus on current knowledge of the cellular pathways exploited by T. cruzi trypomastigotes to invade non-professional phagocytic cells and to gain access to the host cell lysosome compartment. PMID:21884886

  1. Identification of the nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Niño, Carlos H; Forero-Baena, Nicolás; Contreras, Luis E; Sánchez-Lancheros, Diana; Figarella, Katherine; Ramírez, María H

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, a public health concern with an increasing incidence rate. This increase is due, among other reasons, to the parasite's drug resistance mechanisms, which require nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Furthermore, this molecule is involved in metabolic and intracellular signalling processes necessary for the survival of T. cruzi throughout its life cycle. NAD+ biosynthesis is performed by de novo and salvage pathways, which converge on the step that is catalysed by the enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) (enzyme commission number: 2.7.7.1). The identification of the NMNAT of T. cruzi is important for the development of future therapeutic strategies to treat Chagas disease. In this study, a hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) for NMNAT was identified in the genome of T. cruzi. The corresponding putative protein was analysed by simulating structural models. The ORF was amplified from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction and was further used for the construction of a corresponding recombinant expression vector. The expressed recombinant protein was partially purified and its activity was evaluated using enzymatic assays. These results comprise the first identification of an NMNAT in T. cruzi using bioinformatics and experimental tools and hence represent the first step to understanding NAD+ metabolism in these parasites. PMID:26560979

  2. Transcriptional and phenotypical heterogeneity of Trypanosoma cruzi cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Seco-Hidalgo, Víctor; De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Osuna, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex life cycle comprising pools of cell populations which circulate among humans, vectors, sylvatic reservoirs and domestic animals. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated the importance of clonal variations for parasite population dynamics, survival and evolution. By limiting dilution assays, we have isolated seven isogenic clonal cell lines derived from the Pan4 strain of T. cruzi. Applying different molecular techniques, we have been able to provide a comprehensive characterization of the expression heterogeneity in the mucin-associated surface protein (MASP) gene family, where all the clonal isogenic populations were transcriptionally different. Hierarchical cluster analysis and sequence comparison among different MASP cDNA libraries showed that, despite the great variability in MASP expression, some members of the transcriptome (including MASP pseudogenes) are conserved, not only in the life-cycle stages but also among different strains of T. cruzi. Finally, other important aspects for the parasite, such as growth, spontaneous metacyclogenesis or excretion of different catabolites, were also compared among the clones, demonstrating that T. cruzi populations of cells are also phenotypically heterogeneous. Although the evolutionary strategy that sustains the MASP expression polymorphism remains unknown, we suggest that MASP clonal variability and phenotypic heterogeneities found in this study might provide an advantage, allowing a rapid response to environmental pressure or changes during the life cycle of T. cruzi. PMID:26674416

  3. Intraepidermal epidermotropic metastatic melanoma: a clinical and histopathological mimicker of melanoma in situ occurring in multiplicity.

    PubMed

    Lestre, Sara; João, Alexandre; Ponte, Pedro; Peixoto, Ana; Vieira, Joana; Teixeira, Manuel R; Fidalgo, Ana

    2011-06-01

    The distinction between primary melanoma and melanoma metastatic to the skin has major prognostic implications. We report a case of a 67-year-old male with a diagnosis of a superficial spreading melanoma (stage IB) rendered 6 years earlier who presented clinically with an atypical nevus on his left thigh. Histopathological examination showed an intraepidermal melanocytic proliferation that was interpreted as melanoma in situ. Subsequently, 45 additional pigmented macules appeared in crops over a 9-month period. Clinically and dermoscopically, these lesions were extremely polymorphic. Histopathological findings were compatible with melanoma in situ, as each lesion consisted of a wholly intraepidermal proliferation of markedly atypical melanocytes arranged singly and in nests. A complete gastrointestinal study showed multiple pigmented metastatic lesions throughout the stomach and small bowel, which supported a diagnosis of metastatic melanoma with gastrointestinal and epidermotropic skin involvement. Monosomy of chromosome 9 and a BRAF V600E mutation were detected in the primary tumor sample and in macro-dissected secondary lesions. No CDKN2A or CDK4 germline mutations were found. Intraepidermal epidermotropic metastases of melanoma have been rarely described in literature. In this case, histopathology alone was insufficient to distinguish metastatic melanoma from multiple in situ melanomas. The recognition of epidermotropic metastases should be based on the correlation between clinical, dermoscopic, histopathological and molecular findings. PMID:21352266

  4. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  5. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  6. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the assessment and evaluation of the potential human health effects of..., brain, and gonads shall be weighed wet, as soon as possible after dissection to avoid drying. (iii) The... possible future histopathological examination: All gross lesions; brain-including sections of...

  9. Spectral topography of histopathological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Jeremy M.; Lu, Thomas T.; Vari, Sandor G.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of imaging spectroscopy is to obtain independent spectra from individual objects in a field-of-view. In the case of biological materials, such as histopathology samples, it has been well established that spectral characteristic can be indicative of specific diseases including cancer. Diagnosis can be enhanced by the use of probes and stains to indicate the presence of individual genome or other biologically active cell components or substances. To assess a specimen through a microscope is directly analogous to serving the Earth from space to assess natural features. This paper describes a simple and inexpensive imaging spectrometer, with an origin in remote sensing, that demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly identify evidence of disease in histopathology samples using spatially resolved spectral data. The PARISS imaging spectrometer enables a researcher to acquire multi-spectral images that yield functional maps, showing what and where biological molecules are located within a structure. It is the powerful combination of imaging and spectroscopy that provides the tools not readily available to the Life Sciences. The PARISS system incorporates a powerful hybrid neural network analysis to break the data logjam that is often associated with the acquisition and processing of multiple spectra.

  10. Ultrasound, x-ray mammography, and histopathology of cystosarcoma phylloides.

    PubMed

    Cole-Beuglet, C; Soriano, R; Kurtz, A B; Meyer, J E; Kopans, D B; Goldberg, B B

    1983-02-01

    Ultrasound and x-ray mammograms were obtained in 8 patients with palpable breast masses, which were subsequently proven to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Histopathologic examination of the 8 tumors showed benign cystosarcoma phylloides in 5, recurrent benign tumor in 1, coexistent invasive papillary carcinoma in 1, and coexistent in situ duct cancer and in situ lobular cancer in 1. A retrospective review of the B-scan images was undertaken to list the descriptive ultrasound features of cystosarcoma phylloides. The ultrasound findings included low-level internal echoes, smooth walls, and good through transmission. The carcinomas were indistinguishable from the benign lesions, although ultrasound was able to distinguish the cystosarcoma phylloides lesions as predominantly solid lobulated masses. PMID:6294737

  11. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  12. Infection of Kissing Bugs with Trypanosoma cruzi, Tucson, Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Gena; Guerenstein, Pablo G.; Gregory, Teresa; Dotson, Ellen; Hildebrand, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Triatomine insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), commonly known as kissing bugs, are a potential health problem in the southwestern United States as possible vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Although this disease has been traditionally restricted to Latin America, a small number of vector-transmitted autochthonous US cases have been reported. Because triatomine bugs and infected mammalian reservoirs are plentiful in southern Arizona, we collected triatomines inside or around human houses in Tucson and analyzed the insects using molecular techniques to determine whether they were infected with T. cruzi. We found that 41.5% of collected bugs (n = 164) were infected with T. cruzi, and that 63% of the collection sites (n = 22) yielded >1 infected specimens. Although many factors may contribute to the lack of reported cases in Arizona, these results indicate that the risk for infection in this region may be higher than previously thought. PMID:20202413

  13. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe Dos Santos; Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa de; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-03-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi invasion is associated with trogocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shankar; Mukhopadhyay, Aparna; Andriani, Grasiella; Machado, Fabiana Simño; Ashton, Anthony W.; Huang, Huan; Weiss, Louis M; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2014-01-01

    Trogocytosis was originally thought to be restricted to the interaction of cells of the immune system and interactions of these cells with cancer cells. Such membrane exchanges are probably a general process in cell biology, and membrane exchange has been demonstrated to occur between non-immune cells within an organism. Herein, we report that membrane and protein exchange, consistent with trogocytosis, between Trypanosoma cruzi (both the Brazil and Tulahuen strains) and the mammalian cells it infects. Transfer of labeled membrane patches was monitored by labeling of either parasites or host cells, i.e. human foreskin fibroblasts and rat myoblasts. Trypomastigotes and amastigotes transferred specific surface glycoproteins to the host cells along with membranes. Exchange of membranes between the parasite and host cells occurred during successful invasion. Extracellular amastigotes did not transfer membrane patches and heat killed trypomastigotes were did not transfer either membranes or proteins to the host cells. Membrane exchange was also found to occur between interacting epimastigotes in cell-free culture and may be important in parasite-parasite interactions as well. Further studies should provide new insights into pathogenesis and provide targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25448052

  15. Cruzipain Promotes Trypanosoma cruzi Adhesion to Rhodnius prolixus Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Lívia Almeida; Moreira, Otacílio C.; Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Azambuja, Patrícia; Lima, Ana Paula Cabral Araujo; Britto, Constança; dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Branquinha, Marta Helena; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini

    2012-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Cysteine peptidases are relevant to several aspects of the T. cruzi life cycle and are implicated in parasite-mammalian host relationships. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to the parasite-insect host interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated whether cruzipain could be involved in the interaction of T. cruzi with the invertebrate host. We analyzed the effect of treatment of T. cruzi epimastigotes with anti-cruzipain antibodies or with a panel of cysteine peptidase inhibitors (cystatin, antipain, E-64, leupeptin, iodocetamide or CA-074-OMe) on parasite adhesion to Rhodnius prolixus posterior midgut ex vivo. All treatments, with the exception of CA074-OMe, significantly decreased parasite adhesion to R. prolixus midgut. Cystatin presented a dose-dependent reduction on the adhesion. Comparison of the adhesion rate among several T. cruzi isolates revealed that the G isolate, which naturally possesses low levels of active cruzipain, adhered to a lesser extent in comparison to Dm28c, Y and CL Brener isolates. Transgenic epimastigotes overexpressing an endogenous cruzipain inhibitor (pCHAG), chagasin, and that have reduced levels of active cruzipain adhered to the insect gut 73% less than the wild-type parasites. The adhesion of pCHAG parasites was partially restored by the addition of exogenous cruzipain. In vivo colonization experiments revealed low levels of pCHAG parasites in comparison to wild-type. Parasites isolated after passage in the insect presented a drastic enhancement in the expression of surface cruzipain. Conclusions/Significance These data highlight, for the first time, that cruzipain contributes to the interaction of T. cruzi with the insect host. PMID:23272264

  16. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route. PMID:26826555

  17. Chagas cardiomyopathy: The potential effect of benznidazole treatment on diastolic dysfunction and cardiac damage in dogs chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fabiane M; Mazzeti, Ana L; Caldas, Sérgio; Gonçalves, Karolina R; Lima, Wanderson G; Torres, Rosália M; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac involvement represents the main cause of mortality among patients with Chagas disease, and the relevance of trypanocidal treatment to improving diastolic dysfunction is still doubtful. In the present study, we used a canine model infected with the benznidazole-sensitive Berenice-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strain to verify the efficacy of an etiologic treatment in reducing the parasite load and ameliorating cardiac muscle tissue damage and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in the chronic phase of the infection. The effect of the treatment on reducing the parasite load was monitored by blood PCR and blood culture assays, and the effect of the treatment on the outcome of heart tissue damage and on diastolic function was evaluated by histopathology and echo Doppler cardiogram. The benefit of the benznidazole-treatment in reducing the parasite burden was demonstrated by a marked decrease in positive blood culture and PCR assay results until 30days post-treatment. At this time, the PCR and blood culture assays yielded negative results for 82% of the treated animals, compared with only 36% of the untreated dogs. However, a progressive increase in the parasite load could be detected in the peripheral blood for one year post-treatment, as evidenced by a progressive increase in positive results for both the PCR and the blood culture assays at follow-up. The parasite load reduction induced by treatment was compatible with the lower degree of tissue damage among animals euthanized in the first month after treatment and with the increased cardiac damage after this period, reaching levels similar to those in untreated animals at the one-year follow-up. The two infected groups also presented similar, significantly smaller values for early tissue septal velocity (E' SIV) than the non-infected dogs did at this later time. Moreover, in the treated animals, an increase in the E/E' septal tissue filling pressure ratio was observed when compared with basal values as well as with

  18. A histopathological outlook on nephrotic syndrome: A pediatric perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arif, M. K.; Arif, M.; Amjad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The developing world is observing changing histopathological patterns of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, the true burden of non-minimal change disease (non-MCD) presenting as INS remains unestimated owing to a paucity of data on renal biopsies. Data were collected from January 2006 to June 2014 on 75 children up to 16 years of age who underwent renal biopsies for INS. Mean age at biopsy was 11.2 ± 3.7 years. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. A total of 25 (33.3%) children were steroid sensitive, 36 (48%) were steroid resistant, 10 (13.3%) were steroid dependent and 4 (5.3%) came with relapse of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histopathological subtype observed in 35 (46.8%) children followed by membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) in 11 (14.7%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MSGN) in 4 (5.3%) each and IgA nephropathy in one (1.3%). MCD was the histological lesion in 19 (25.3%) children. The histopathology established FSGS as the main underlying cause of steroid resistant NS. The study highlights the emergence of non-MCD as the common cause of INS in the pediatric population and signifies the importance of renal biopsies in children with INS. PMID:27194833

  19. Comparison of optical coherence tomography imaging of cataracts with histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, Cheryl D.; Roach, William P.; Gagliano, Donald A.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hammer, Daniel X.; Cox, Ann B.; Fujimoto, James G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) captured cataract images to subsequent histopathological examination of the lenticular opacities. OCT imaging was performed on anesthetized Rhesus monkeys, known as the delayed effects colony (DEC), with documented cataracts. These monkeys were exposed to several types of radiation during the mid and late 1960s. The radiation and age related cataracts in these animals were closely monitored using a unique grading system developed specifically for the DEC. In addition to this system, a modified version of a common cataract grading scheme for use in humans was applied. Of the original 18 monkeys imaged, lenses were collected at necropsy from seven of these animals, processed, and compared to OCT images. Results showed a direct correlation between the vertical OCT images and the cataractous lesions seen on corresponding histopathological sections of the lenses. Based on the images obtained and their corresponding documented comparison to histopathology, OCT showed tremendous potential to aid identification and characterization of cataracts. There can be artifactual problems with the images related to movement and shadows produced by opacities. However, with the advent of increased speed in imaging and multiplanar imaging, these disadvantages may easily be overcome.

  20. Histopathologic aid to diagnosis of sarcoidosis: report of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Manonukul, Jane; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Wisuthsarewong, Wanee; Thirapote, Panitta

    2006-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. The disease is common in blacks and is very rare in Thailand. It presents as one of the most variable manifestations usually affecting the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. Other organs such as liver, spleen, joints and eyes including skin are also involved The common cutaneous lesions are maculopapular, erythematous plaque, subcutaneous nodule, scar and lupus pernio. No reliable indicator is useful for diagnosis except the histopathologic change which is the only way for approaching this disease. Sarcoidosis is the disease of exclusion. Various infections producing granulomas should be excluded histologically. The ultimate diagnosis requires clinical correlation, laboratory investigations, chest X-ray as well as available tissue culture. Herein, the authors reported eight cases of sarcoidosis by retrospective study primarily diagnosed by histopathological findings at Siriraj Hospital from January, 1997 to December, 2004 with many different clinical presentations. Despite the diverse clinical pictures, interestingly, the presented patients almost had the same histopathologic findings as small, uniform, discrete naked granulomas usually without necrosis. These findings act as a hallmark for diagnosis of this disease. PMID:16850689

  1. Histopathological Image Classification Using Discriminative Feature-Oriented Dictionary Learning.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tiep Huu; Mousavi, Hojjat Seyed; Monga, Vishal; Rao, Ganesh; Rao, U K Arvind

    2016-03-01

    In histopathological image analysis, feature extraction for classification is a challenging task due to the diversity of histology features suitable for each problem as well as presence of rich geometrical structures. In this paper, we propose an automatic feature discovery framework via learning class-specific dictionaries and present a low-complexity method for classification and disease grading in histopathology. Essentially, our Discriminative Feature-oriented Dictionary Learning (DFDL) method learns class-specific dictionaries such that under a sparsity constraint, the learned dictionaries allow representing a new image sample parsimoniously via the dictionary corresponding to the class identity of the sample. At the same time, the dictionary is designed to be poorly capable of representing samples from other classes. Experiments on three challenging real-world image databases: 1) histopathological images of intraductal breast lesions, 2) mammalian kidney, lung and spleen images provided by the Animal Diagnostics Lab (ADL) at Pennsylvania State University, and 3) brain tumor images from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, reveal the merits of our proposal over state-of-the-art alternatives. Moreover, we demonstrate that DFDL exhibits a more graceful decay in classification accuracy against the number of training images which is highly desirable in practice where generous training is often not available. PMID:26513781

  2. A histopathological outlook on nephrotic syndrome: A pediatric perspective.

    PubMed

    Arif, M K; Arif, M; Amjad, N

    2016-01-01

    The developing world is observing changing histopathological patterns of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, the true burden of non-minimal change disease (non-MCD) presenting as INS remains unestimated owing to a paucity of data on renal biopsies. Data were collected from January 2006 to June 2014 on 75 children up to 16 years of age who underwent renal biopsies for INS. Mean age at biopsy was 11.2 ± 3.7 years. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. A total of 25 (33.3%) children were steroid sensitive, 36 (48%) were steroid resistant, 10 (13.3%) were steroid dependent and 4 (5.3%) came with relapse of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histopathological subtype observed in 35 (46.8%) children followed by membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) in 11 (14.7%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MSGN) in 4 (5.3%) each and IgA nephropathy in one (1.3%). MCD was the histological lesion in 19 (25.3%) children. The histopathology established FSGS as the main underlying cause of steroid resistant NS. The study highlights the emergence of non-MCD as the common cause of INS in the pediatric population and signifies the importance of renal biopsies in children with INS. PMID:27194833

  3. Melanoma--clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological morphological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Situm, Mirna; Buljan, Marija; Kolić, Maja; Vučić, Majda

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most malignant skin tumors with constantly rising incidence worldwide, especially in fair-skinned populations. Melanoma is usually diagnosed at the average age 50, but, nowadays is also diagnosed more frequently in younger adults, and very rarely in childhood. There is no unique or specific clinical presentation of a melanoma. The clinical presentation of melanomas varies depending on the anatomic localization and the type of growth, i.e., the histopathological type of the cancer. There are four major histopathological types of melanoma--superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma. Although dermatoscopy is a very useful tool in early melanoma detection, dermatoscopical features of melanomas are also variable. Therefore, experience and education in dermatoscopy is crucial in the evaluation of skin tumors. Differential diagnosis of melanomas includes a wide range of benign and malignant skin lesions, due to their clinical presentation and resemblance to various dermatological entities. In this review we present the most important aspects of clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological features of melanomas. PMID:24813835

  4. Histopathology of a wavy medaka

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Kota; Kuroda, Yusuke; Mimori, Norihiko; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Tsuji, Naho; Sugiyama, Akihiko; Furukawa, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Wavy medakas are medakas that exhibit spinal curvature characterized by dorsoventrally curved vertebrae. We found a spontaneous wavy medaka in our experimental stock and subjected it to a histopathological examination. Macroscopically, the wavy medaka’s spine formed an M shape, and its vertebrae displayed a dorsoventral curvature that started at the third vertebral bone. Microscopically, the vertebral cavities were filled with fibrous tissue, which was similar to that seen in the central parts of the intervertebral discs of a normal medaka. The vertebral joints were composed of vacuolated notochord cells without intervertebral disc formation. These changes were also observed in the caudal region, which exhibited less curvature. In the normal medaka, the intervertebral discs form via the regression of the notochord that plays a key role in the development of vertebrae and disc formation. We concluded that notochordal subinvolution had induced intervertebral disc dysplasia, leading to lordokyphosis, in the wavy medaka. PMID:27182116

  5. Statistical analysis of histopathological endpoints.

    PubMed

    Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Saulnier, Amy N; Swintek, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Histopathological assessments of fish from aquatic ecotoxicology studies are being performed with increasing frequency. Aquatic ecotoxicology studies performed for submission to regulatory agencies are usually conducted with multiple subjects (e.g., fish) in each of multiple vessels (replicates) within a water control and within each of several concentrations of a test substance. A number of histopathological endpoints are evaluated in each fish, and a severity score is generally recorded for each endpoint. The severity scores are often recorded using a nonquantitative scale of 0 to 4, with 0 indicating no effect, 1 indicating minimal effect, through 4 for severe effect. Statistical methods often used to analyze these scores suffer from several shortcomings: computing average scores as though scores were quantitative values, considering only the frequency of abnormality while ignoring severity, ignoring any concentration-response trend, and ignoring the possible correlation between responses of individuals within test vessels. A new test, the Rao-Scott Cochran-Armitage by Slices (RSCABS), is proposed that incorporates the replicate vessel experimental design and the biological expectation that the severity of the effect tends to increase with increasing doses or concentrations, while retaining the individual subject scores and taking into account the severity as well as frequency of scores. A power simulation and examples demonstrate the performance of the test. R-based software has been developed to carry out this test and is available free of charge at www.epa.gov/med/Prods_Pubs/rscabs.htm. The SAS-based RSCABS software is available from the first and third authors. PMID:24464649

  6. Autoimmune hepatitis. Definition--classification--histopathology--immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H; Dienes, H P

    1996-09-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a distinct form of acute and chronic inflammatory liver disease in which immune reactions against host antigens are found to be the major pathological mechanism. If left untreated it carries an unfavourable prognosis, and the diagnosis should be made as soon as possible. The diagnostic approach has been greatly facilitated by the establishment of a panel of marker autoantibodies, which do not define distinct therapeutic groups of AIH, but do allow a subgrouping based on differences in patient populations, some clinical features and prognosis. The characterization of organ-specific components of the liver cell surface as targets of cellular and humoral autoimmune reactions give new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease, even though the primary event triggering the disease remains to be defined. The most important disease-promoting factor seems to be a genetically determined background for autoimmunity. Without this different environmental factors, including viruses, toxins, cytokines and drugs, are only able to induce transient autoimmune phenomena and not autoimmune disease. The histopathology of AIH is in keeping with the present pathogenetic concept. Although there is no pathognomonic feature distinguishing this type of hepatitis from virus-induced forms, some distinct morphological lesions are regarded as characteristic. Clinical research on AIH has benefited greatly from observations of experimental AIH in mice. Recognition of the critical role of autoreactive T-lymphocytes in the pathogenesis and the observation of spontaneous recovery from AIH in the animal model associated with antigen-specific and antigen-non-specific T-cell suppression have made basic contributions to our improved understanding of the natural course of AIH in humans. PMID:8865847

  7. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  8. Histopathology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunocompetent laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    KIM, HYUN-SOO; DO, SUNG-IM; KIM, YOUN WHA

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of idiopathic pulmonary lesions in laboratory rats, characterized by lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia with dense perivascular lymphoid cuffs, has been reported over the past decade. Although the term rat respiratory virus (RRV) was adopted to confer a putative viral etiology to the idiopathic pulmonary lesions, the etiology of this disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, inflammatory lesions have been observed in the lungs of immunocompetent laboratory rats similar to those previously described. Based on the latest evidence indicating that Pneumocystis carinii (P. carinii), and not putative RRV, causes infectious interstitial pneumonia in laboratory rats, the present study investigated whether the pulmonary lesions observed were caused by P. carinii infection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, free of known pathogens, were introduced into a rat colony positive for RRV-type lesions. Routine histopathological examinations were performed on the rat lung tissues following exposure. The presence of Pneumocystis organisms was confirmed using Grocott’s methenamine silver (GMS) staining. At week 3 following introduction, a few small lymphoid aggregates were located adjacent to the edematous vascular sheath. By week 5, foci of dense perivascular lymphoid cuffing were observed. Multifocal lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia and prominent lymphoid perivascular cuffs were observed between week 7 and 10. GMS staining confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis cysts. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrated that P. carinii caused lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia in a group of laboratory rats. The observations strongly support the conclusion that P. carinii infection in immunocompetent laboratory rats causes the lung lesions that were previously attributed to RRV. PMID:25009598

  9. Diagnosis of Placental Abruption: Relationship between Clinical and Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Elsasser, Denise A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Prasad, Vinay; Vintzileos, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the extent to which histologic lesions bearing a diagnosis of abruption conform to a diagnosis based on established clinical criteria. We further examined the profile of chronic and acute histologic lesions associated with clinical abruption. Methods Data from the New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study – a multi-center, case-control study – were utilized to compare the clinical and histologic criteria for abruption. The study was based on 162 women with clinically diagnosed abruption and 173 controls. We examined the concordance between clinical indicators for abruption with those of a histopathological diagnosis. The clinical criteria for a diagnosis of abruption included (i) evidence of retroplacental clot(s); (ii) abruption diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound; or (iii) vaginal bleeding accompanied by nonreassuring fetal status or uterine hypertonicity. The pathological criteria for abruption diagnosis included hematoma, fibrin deposition, compressed villi, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes in cases with older hematomas. Acute lesions included chorioamnionitis, funisitis, acute deciduitis, meconium stained membranes, villous stromal hemorrhage, and villous edema. Chronic lesions included chronic deciduitis, decidual necrosis, decidual vasculopathy, placental infarctions, villous maldevelopment (delayed or accelerated maturation), hemosiderin deposition, intervillous thrombus, and chronic villitis. Results Of clinically diagnosed cases, the sensitivity and specificity for a histologic confirmation of abruption were 30.2% and 100%, respectively. Presence of retroplacental clots remained the single most common finding (77.1%) among clinically diagnosed cases. Among the acute lesions, chorioamnionitis and funisitis were associated with abruption. The only chronic histologic lesion associated with abruption was placental infarctions. Conclusions The concordance between clinical and pathologic criteria for abruption diagnosis is poor. The criteria

  10. [Current perspectives on endodontic treatment of teeth with chronic periapical lesions].

    PubMed

    Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    The author study in this article histopathological aspects of periapical lesions, intra-granulomatous epithelial proliferation phenomenon as pathogenic mechanism of microscopic cystic cavities formation, diagnostic problems of them all, as well as the most actual therapeutic perspectives. PMID:1964067

  11. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Das, A L; Vaishampayan, S S; Vaidya, Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory. PMID:16394461

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Differentiates and Multiplies within Chimeric Parasitophorous Vacuoles in Macrophages Coinfected with Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Carina Carraro; Ferreira, Éden Ramalho; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Rabinovitch, Michel; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Real, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The trypanosomatids Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi are excellent models for the study of the cell biology of intracellular protozoan infections. After their uptake by mammalian cells, the parasitic protozoan flagellates L. amazonensis and T. cruzi lodge within acidified parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs). However, whereas L. amazonensis develops in spacious, phagolysosome-like PVs that may enclose numerous parasites, T. cruzi is transiently hosted within smaller vacuoles from which it soon escapes to the host cell cytosol. To investigate if parasite-specific vacuoles are required for the survival and differentiation of T. cruzi, we constructed chimeric vacuoles by infection of L. amazonensis amastigote-infected macrophages with T. cruzi epimastigotes (EPIs) or metacyclic trypomastigotes (MTs). These chimeric vacuoles, easily observed by microscopy, allowed the entry and fate of T. cruzi in L. amazonensis PVs to be dynamically recorded by multidimensional imaging of coinfected cells. We found that although T. cruzi EPIs remained motile and conserved their morphology in chimeric vacuoles, T. cruzi MTs differentiated into amastigote-like forms capable of multiplying. These results demonstrate that the large adaptive vacuoles of L. amazonensis are permissive to T. cruzi survival and differentiation and that noninfective EPIs are spared from destruction within the chimeric PVs. We conclude that T. cruzi differentiation can take place in Leishmania-containing vacuoles, suggesting this occurs prior to their escape into the host cell cytosol. PMID:26975994

  13. Agreement between clinical and histopathologic diagnoses and completeness of oral biopsy forms.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Marina; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Sant'ana, Manoel; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the rate of agreement between clinical and histopathological diagnoses and to report the frequency of completed forms for specimens that were subjected to histopathological examination and retrospectively examined. Data from 8,168 specimens submitted to histopathological examination were retrieved from the records. A total of 5,368 cases were included. Agreement was defined based on the definition of lesion nature according to its diagnostic category. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for each diagnostic category. The highest rate of agreement was observed for periapical lesions (92.6%), followed by potentially malignant disorders (90.1%) and non-neoplastic proliferative disorders (89.3%). Low rates of histopathological confirmation of the clinical impression were observed for mesenchymal tumors (25.0%) and cysts (44.2%). Sensitivity values were > 0.70 for all lesions, except for cysts (0.51). Specificity was relatively high, ranging from 0.97 to 1.00. The frequency of incomplete biopsy forms ranged from 16.8% (malignant tumors of oral mucosal epithelium) to 51.0% (nonspecific inflammatory reaction). The most frequently completed biopsy forms corresponded to epithelial malignant tumors (83.2%) and glandular inflammation (72.3%). In conclusion, there was an acceptable level of agreement. The low level of completeness of biopsy forms indicates little awareness about the relevance of gathering detailed information during clinical examination. PMID:27556681

  14. [A girl with hypopigmented skin lesions].

    PubMed

    Martens, Bibi; Abdul Hamid, Myrurgia; Martens, Herm

    2014-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl visited the department of Dermatology with an asymptomatic hypopigmented skin eruption on her upper legs, groins and trunk since 7 years. Histopathological analysis established the diagnosis of hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, a rare subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which is most commonly seen at younger age. The lesions are successfully treated with clobetasol 0.05% ointment 4 days a week. PMID:25027222

  15. Curcumin treatment provides protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dazhi; Weiss, Louis M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, causes an acute myocarditis and chronic cardiomyopathy. The current therapeutic agents for this disease are not always effective and often have severe side effects. Curcumin, a plant polyphenol, has demonstrated a wide range of potential therapeutic effects. In this study, we examined the effect of curcumin on T. cruzi infection in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin pretreatment of fibroblasts inhibited parasite invasion. Treatment reduced the expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor, which is involved in T. cruzi host cell invasion. Curcumin treatment of T. cruzi-infected CD1 mice reduced parasitemia and decreased the parasitism of infected heart tissue. This was associated with a significant reduction in macrophage infiltration and inflammation in both the heart and liver; moreover, curcumin-treated infected mice displayed a 100% survival rate in contrast to the 60% survival rate commonly observed in untreated infected mice. These data are consistent with curcumin modulating infection-induced changes in signaling pathways involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. These data suggest that curcumin and its derivatives could be a suitable drug for the amelioration of chagasic heart disease. PMID:22215192

  16. Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi present distinct DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana B F; Rocha, João P Vieira da; Costa-Silva, Héllida M; Alves, Ceres L; Machado, Carlos R; Cruz, Angela K

    2016-05-01

    Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi are medically relevant parasites and interesting model organisms, as they present unique biological processes. Despite increasing data regarding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation, there is little information on how the DNA damage response (DDR) occurs in trypanosomatids. We found that L. major presented a higher radiosensitivity than T. cruzi. L. major showed G1 arrest and displayed high mortality in response to ionizing radiation as a result of the inefficient repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Conversely, T. cruzi exhibited arrest in the S/G2 cell cycle phase, was able to efficiently repair DSBs and did not display high rates of cell death after exposure to gamma irradiation. L. major showed higher resistance to alkylating DNA damage, and only L. major was able to promote DNA repair and growth recovery in the presence of MMS. ASF1c overexpression did not interfere with the efficiency of DNA repair in either of the parasites but did accentuate the DNA damage checkpoint response, thereby delaying cell fate after damage. The observed differences in the DNA damage responses of T. cruzi and L. major may originate from the distinct preferred routes of genetic plasticity of the two parasites, i.e., DNA recombination versus amplification. PMID:27188657

  17. Purification and Partial characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, S C; Meirelles, M N; Pacheco, R S; De Simone, S G

    1998-01-01

    The enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TPI, EC 5.3.1.1) was purified from extracts of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The purification steps included: hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, CM-Sepharose, and high performance liquid gel filtration chromatography. The CM-Sepharose material contained two bands (27 and 25 kDa) with similar isoelectric points (pI 9.3-9.5) which could be separated by gel filtration in high performance liquid chromatography. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the porcine TPI detected one single polypeptide on western blot with a molecular weight (27 kDa) identical to that purified from T. cruzi. These antibodies also recognized only one band of identical molecular weight in western blots of several other trypanosomatids (Blastocrithidia culicis, Crithidia desouzai, Phytomonas serpens, Herpertomonas samuelpessoai). The presence of only one enzymatic form of TPI in T. cruzi epimastigotes was confirmed by agarose gel activity assay and its localization was established by immunocytochemical analysis. The T. cruzi purified TPI (as well as other trypanosomatid' TPIs) is a dimeric protein, composed of two identical subunits with an approximate mw of 27,000 and it is resolved on two dimensional gel electrophoresis with a pI of 9.3. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal portion of the 27 kDa protein revealed a high homology to Leishmania mexicana and T. brucei proteins. PMID:9698898

  18. Environment, interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi and its host, and health.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antonio R L; Gomes, Clever; Lozzi, Silene P; Hecht, Mariana M; Rosa, Ana de Cássia; Monteiro, Pedro S; Bussacos, Ana Carolina; Nitz, Nadjar; McManus, Concepta

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological chain involving Trypanosoma cruzi is discussed at the environmental level, and in terms of fine molecular interactions in invertebrate and vertebrate hosts dwelling in different ecosystems. This protozoan has a complex, genetically controlled plasticity, which confers adaptation to approximately 40 blood-sucking triatomine species and to over 1,000 mammalian species, fulfilling diverse metabolic requirements in its complex life-cycle. The Tr. cruzi infections are deeply embedded in countless ecotypes, where they are difficult to defeat using the control methods that are currently available. Many more field and laboratory studies are required to obtain data and information that may be used for the control and prevention of Tr. cruzi infections and their various disease manifestations. Emphasis should be placed on those sensitive interactions at cellular and environmental levels that could become selected targets for disease prevention. In the short term, new technologies for social mobilization should be used by people and organizations working for justice and equality through health information and promotion. A mass media directed program could deliver education, information and communication to protect the inhabitants at risk of contracting Tr. cruzi infections. PMID:19287864

  19. Molecular Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolates, United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emily L.; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Steurer, Frank J.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have characterized Trypanosoma cruzi from parasite-endemic regions. With new human cases, increasing numbers of veterinary cases, and influx of potentially infected immigrants, understanding the ecology of this organism in the United States is imperative. We used a classic typing scheme to determine the lineage of 107 isolates from various hosts. PMID:18598637

  20. Preferential brain homing following intranasal administration of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Kacey; Pereiraperrin, Mercio

    2009-04-01

    The Chagas' disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi commonly infects humans through skin abrasions or mucosa from reduviid bug excreta. Yet most studies on animal models start with subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injections, a distant approximation of the skin abrasion route. We show here that atraumatic placement of T. cruzi in the mouse nasal cavity produced low parasitemia, high survival rates, and preferential brain invasion compared to the case with subcutaneously injected parasites. Brain invasion was particularly prominent in the basal ganglia, peaked at a time when parasitemia was no longer detectable, and elicited a relatively large number of inflammatory foci. Yet, based on motor behavioral parameters and staining with Fluoro-Jade C, a dye that specifically recognizes apoptotic and necrotic neurons, brain invasion did not cause neurodegenerative events, in contrast to the neurodegeneration in the enteric nervous system. The results indicate that placement of T. cruzi on the mucosa in the mouse nasal cavity establishes a systemic infection with a robust yet harmless infection of the brain, seemingly analogous to disease progression in humans. The model may facilitate studies designed to understand mechanisms underlying T. cruzi infection of the central nervous system. PMID:19168740

  1. Surface electrical charge of bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Bloodstream trypomastigotes of some Trypanosoma cruzi strains were processed through DEAE-cellulose columns under standardized conditions. The results obtained suggest mainly that these strains present different surface charges, that there are subpopulations of bloodstream trypomastigotes as regards electrical charges and that the broad forms are less negative than the slender ones. PMID:6443631

  2. CD8+ T Cells in Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tarleton, Rick L.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease remains among the most neglected of the neglected tropical diseases. Despite this, studies of the immune response to T. cruzi have provided new insights in immunology and guidance for approaches for prevention and treatment of the disease. T. cruzi represents one of the very best systems in which to study CD8+ T cell biology; Mice, dogs, and primates (and many other mammals) are all natural hosts for this parasite, the robust T cell responses generated in these hosts can be readily monitored using the full range of cutting edge techniques, and the parasite can be easily modified to express (or not) a variety of tags, reporters, immune enhances and endogenous or model antigens. The infection in most hosts is characterized by vigorous and largely effective immune responses, including CD8+ T cells capable of controlling T. cruzi at the level of the infected host cells. However this immune control is only partially effective and most hosts maintain a low level infection for life. This review addresses the interplay of highly effective CD8+ T cell responses with elaborate pathogen immune evasion mechanisms, including the generation and simultaneous expression of highly variant CD8+ T cell targets and a host cell invasion mechanisms that largely eludes innate immune detection. PMID:25921214

  3. Comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes by Sarcocystis cruzi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controversy exists concerning whether cattle and water buffalo sustain infections with cysts distinct arrays species in the genus Sarcocystis. In particular, morphologically similar parasites have been alternately ascribed to S. cruzi or to S. levinei, depending on their occurrence in cattle and wa...

  4. Nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, A. B.; Kitice, N. A.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Lancheros, C. A. C.; Yamauchi, L. M.; Pinge-Filho, P.; Yamada-Ogatta, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and the disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Several papers report that the killing of the parasite is dependent on the production of nitric oxide (NO). The endogenous free radical NO is an important cellular signalling molecule that plays a key role in the defense against pathogens, including T. cruzi. As T. cruzi is able to compromise host macrophages decreasing endogenous NO production, the administration of exogenous NO donors represents an interesting strategy to combat Chagas disease. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of NO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against T. cruzi. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles composed of chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of free thiols (SH) groups of MSA were performed by the addition of equimolar amount of sodium nitrite (NaNO2), leading to the formation of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles. These polymeric nanoparticles act as spontaneous NO donors, with free NO release. The results show the formation of nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 270 to 500 nm, average of polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency in the range of 99%. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The microbicidal activity of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles was evaluated by incubating NO-releasing nanoparticles (200 - 600 μg/mL) with replicative and non-infective epimastigote, and non-replicative and infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In addition, a significant decrease in the percentage of macrophage-infected (with amastigotes) and

  5. Landscape ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    López-Cancino, Sury Antonio; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; De la Cruz-Felix, Himmler Keynes; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos Napoleón; Izeta-Alberdi, Amaia; Pech-May, Angélica; Mazariegos-Hidalgo, Carlos Jesús; Valdez-Tah, Alba; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    Landscape interactions of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) with Triatoma dimidiata (Td) depend on the presence and relative abundance of mammal hosts. This study analyzed a landscape adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, composed of conserved areas, crop and farming areas, and the human community of Zoh Laguna with reported Chagas disease cases. Sylvatic mammals of the Chiroptera, Rodentia, and Marsupialia orders were captured, and livestock and pets were sampled along with T. dimidiata in all habitats. Infection by T. cruzi was analyzed using mtDNA markers, while lineage and DTU was analyzed using the mini-exon. 303 sylvatic specimens were collected, corresponding to 19 species during the rainy season and 114 specimens of 18 species during dry season. Five bats Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Sturnira ludovici, Dermanura phaeotis (Dp) and one rodent Heteromys gaumeri were collected in the three habitats. All but Dp, and including Carollia brevicauda and Myotis keaysi, were infected with predominately TcI in the sylvatic habitat and TcII in the ecotone. Sigmodon hispidus was the rodent with the highest prevalence of infection by T. cruzi I and II in ecotone and domestic habitats. Didelphis viginiana was infected only with TcI in both domestic and sylvatic habitats; the only two genotyped human cases were TcII. Two main clades of T. cruzi, lineages I (DTU Ia) and II (DTU VI), were found to be sympatric (all habitats and seasons) in the Zoh-Laguna landscape, suggesting that no species-specific interactions occur between the parasite and any mammal host, in any habitat. We have also found mixed infections of the two principal T. cruzi clades in individuals across modified habitats, particularly in livestock and pets, and in both haplogroups of T. dimidiata. Results are contradictory to the dilution hypothesis, although we did find that most resilient species had an important role as T. cruzi hosts. Our study detected some complex trends in

  6. The potential of canine sentinels for reemerging Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Chu, Lily Chou; Quispe-Machaca, Victor; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Mazuelos, Milagros Bastos; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease transmitted by triatomine bugs and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in the Americas. In Arequipa, Peru, indoor residual insecticide spraying campaigns are routinely conducted to eliminate Triatoma infestans, the only vector in this area. Following insecticide spraying, there is risk of vector return and reinitiation of parasite transmission. Dogs are important reservoirs of T. cruzi and may play a role in reinitiating transmission in previously sprayed areas. Dogs may also serve as indicators of reemerging transmission. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional serological screening to detect T. cruzi antibodies in dogs, in conjunction with an entomological vector collection survey at the household level, in a disease endemic area that had been treated with insecticide 13 years prior. Spatial clustering of infected animals and vectors was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic, and the odds of being seropositive for dogs proximate to infected colonies was estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 106 triatomine-infested houses (41.1%), and 45 houses infested with T. cruzi-infected triatomine insects (17.4%). Canine seroprevalence in the area was 12.3% (n=154); all seropositive dogs were 9 months old or older. We observed clustering of vectors carrying the parasite, but no clustering of seropositive dogs. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio between seropositivity to T. cruzi and proximity to an infected triatomine (≤50m) was 5.67 (95% CI: 1.12 – 28.74; p=0.036). Conclusions Targeted control of reemerging transmission can be achieved by improved understanding of T. cruzi in canine populations. Our results suggest that dogs may be useful sentinels to detect re-initiation of transmission following insecticide treatment. Integration of canine T. cruzi blood sampling into existing interventions for zoonotic disease control (e.g. rabies vaccination programs

  7. Unilateral non-pigmented palpebral conjunctival lesions due to cosmetics use.

    PubMed

    Pao, Kristina Y; Murchison, Ann P; Eagle, Ralph C

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman with a history of dry eyes was found to have unilateral pedunculated, nonpigmented palpebral conjunctival lesions. Excisional biopsy was performed, and the lesions were studied histopathologically. Microscopic examination of the lesions demonstrated exuberant granulation tissue with a granulomatous foreign body giant cell reaction surrounding pigmented and partially birefringent foreign material. Histopathologic examination of the patient's cosmetics revealed that the pigmented foreign bodies seen on the biopsy specimens were compatible with her mascara and/or eyeliner. While cosmetics have been reported to have ophthalmic sequelae, palpebral lesions such as these have not been reported to the authors' knowledge. PMID:22327635

  8. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  9. Clinicopathologic Correlation of White, Non scrapable Oral Mucosal Surface Lesions: A Study of 100 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Vandana; Karpe, Tanveer; Akifuddin, Syed; Imran, Shahid; Dhurjati, Venkata Naga Nalini; Aleem, Mohammed Ahtesham; Khatoon, Farheen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction White, non scrapable lesions are commonly seen in the oral cavity. Based on their history and clinical appearance, most of these lesions can be easily diagnosed, but sometimes diagnosis may go wrong. In order to arrive to a confirmative diagnosis, histopathological assessment is needed in many cases, if not all. Aims 1) To find out the prevalence of clinically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 2) To find out the prevalence of histopathologically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 3) To correlate the clinical and histopathological diagnosis in the above lesions. Materials and Methods A total of 100 cases of oral white, non scrapable lesions were included in the study. Based on their history and clinical presentation, clinical provisional diagnosis was made. Then biopsy was done and confirmatory histopathological diagnosis was given and both were correlated. In order to correlate clinical and histopathological diagnosis Discrepancy Index (DI) was calculated for all the cases. Results Based on clinical diagnosis, there were 59 cases (59%) of leukoplakia, 29 cases (29%) of lichen planus and six cases (6%) of lichenoid reaction; whereas, based on histopathological diagnosis, there were 66 cases (66%) of leukoplakia epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis (leukoplakia) and 30 cases (30%) of lichen planus. Seventy eight clinically diagnosed cases (78%) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis and 22 cases (22%) did not correlate. The total discrepancy index was 22%. Conclusion A clinician needs to be aware of oral white, non scrapable lesions. Due to the overlapping of many clinical features in some of these lesions and also due to their malignant potential, a histopathological confirmative diagnosis is recommended. PMID:27042583

  10. Should Trypanosoma cruzi be called "cruzi" complex? a review of the parasite diversity and the potential of selecting population after in vitro culturing and mice infection.

    PubMed

    Devera, Rodolfo; Fernandes, Octavio; Coura, José Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Morpho-biological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi has been known since Chagas' first works in 1909. Several further studies confirmed the morphological differences among the parasite strains, which were isolated from different reservoirs and vectors, as well as from human beings. In the early sixties, antigenic differences were found in the parasite strains from various sources. These differences, coupled to the observation of regional variations of the disease, led to the proposal of the term cruzi complex to designate the taxon T. cruzi. Since then this protozoan has been typed in distinct biodemes, zymodemes and lineages which were consensually grouped into T. cruzi I, T. cruzi II and into non-grouped strains. T. cruzi genotypic characterization, initially carried out by schizodeme analysis and more recently by various other techniques, has shown a great diversity of the parasite strains. In fact, T. cruzi is formed by groups of heterogeneous sub-population, which present specific characteristics, including distinct histotropism. The interaction of the different infecting clones of the cruzi complex and the human host will determine the morbidity of the disease. PMID:12700855

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) genotypes in neotropical bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Pinho, Ana Paula; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Gerhardt, Marconny; Cupolillo, Elisa; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the role played by the order Chiroptera in the sylvatic transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi or their putative association with the main genotypes of the parasite. Here, the purpose was to enlarge the knowledge of this issue, in this sense, 93 specimens of bats included in 4 families, respectively Molossidae, Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae collected in distinct regions of Brazil were submitted to fresh blood smears and hemocultures. No patent parasitemia was observed but positive hemocultures by T. cruzi were observed in 14% (13/93) of examined samples. The majority of the parasite isolates were obtained from Phyllostomus hastatus (80%) captured in one same buriti hollow palm tree in the Cerrado region. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) analyses showed that the genetic distance among these isolates was 0.35, almost the same observed when all the isolates (excluding the reference strains) were analyzed (0.40). No correlation of zymodeme with bat genera, species or geographic region of its origin could be observed, moreover, correlation of zymodeme and genotype of the parasite was not strict. Ten out of 14 T. cruzi isolates obtained from bats corresponded to the TCII genotype. Chiropterans with TCI, TCII/TCIII mixed infection as well as Trypanosoma rangeli in single or mixed infections were observed. These results show that bats may harbor and are probably important maintainers of the main genotypes (TCI, TCII, TCIII/Z3) of T. cruzi. These results support the absence of an association of TCII with any mammal order and show that bats, mainly P. hastatus, may act as amplifier hosts of TCII subpopulations of T. cruzi. PMID:18650015

  12. Histopathology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Nishi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) arise from neuroendocrine cells distributed mainly in the mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NENs of the digestive system was changed, categorizing these tumors as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade-2NET, neuroendocrine carcinoma (large- or small-cell type), or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Such a classification is based on the Ki-67 index and mitotic count in histological material. For the accurate pathological diagnosis and grading of NENs, it is important to clearly recognize the characteristic histological features of GI-NENs and to understand the correct method of counting Ki-67 and mitoses. In this review, we focus on the histopathological features of GI-NENs, particularly regarding biopsy and cytological diagnoses, neuroendocrine markers, genetic and molecular features, and the evaluation of the Ki-67 index and mitotic count. In addition, we will address the histological features of GI-NEN in specific organs. PMID:23346552

  13. Histopathology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Nishi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) arise from neuroendocrine cells distributed mainly in the mucosa and submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NENs of the digestive system was changed, categorizing these tumors as grade 1 neuroendocrine tumor (NET), grade-2NET, neuroendocrine carcinoma (large- or small-cell type), or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Such a classification is based on the Ki-67 index and mitotic count in histological material. For the accurate pathological diagnosis and grading of NENs, it is important to clearly recognize the characteristic histological features of GI-NENs and to understand the correct method of counting Ki-67 and mitoses. In this review, we focus on the histopathological features of GI-NENs, particularly regarding biopsy and cytological diagnoses, neuroendocrine markers, genetic and molecular features, and the evaluation of the Ki-67 index and mitotic count. In addition, we will address the histological features of GI-NEN in specific organs. PMID:23346552

  14. The histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Silva-Souza, Angela Teresa; Eiras, Jorge C

    2002-04-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 microm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host. PMID:12048579

  15. Histopathological indices in sole (Solea solea) and hake (Merluccius merluccius) for implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive along the Basque continental shelf (SE Bay of Biscay).

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Nagore; Zorita, Izaskun; Costa, Pedro M; Quincoces, Iñaki; Larreta, Joana; Franco, Javier

    2015-05-15

    Sole and hake, together with sediments, were collected during two campaigns along the Basque continental shelf to study the utility of two existing histopathological indices for assessing the biological effects of contaminants to implement the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Hepatic and gonadal histopathology were measured, and metal and/or organic contaminants were determined in both liver and sediments. Sediments from the Basque continental shelf were found to be moderately impacted by metals but non-impacted by organic compounds. Metal bioaccumulation and histopathological lesions in liver were higher in sole than in hake, although non-specific and early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions were observed in both species. No gross alterations were recorded in gonad. The two histopathological indices applied were highly correlated in both organs but the lack of correlation between sediment contamination levels, bioaccumulation and histopathological indices suggests that other factors, rather than pollution alone, are responsible for the biological effects observed. PMID:25772424

  16. Stray dogs as reservoirs of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in an urban area of Chiapas in southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Guiris-Andrade, Dario M; Martinez-Figueroa, Laura; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2010-03-01

    This investigation determined the presence and prevalence of the zoonotic agents Leptospira interrogans, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Aspergillus spp. in the stray dog population (a total of 224 stray dogs) in an urban area of Southern Mexico. Blood serum samples were taken from all dogs, and root hair samples were taken from dogs with skin lesions and partial alopecia. IgG antibodies for L. interrogans from 10 serovars were detected using the microscopic agglutination test. Immunofluorescence antibody test and Western blot assay were used for serologic diagnosis of T. cruzi. The Sabouraud medium was used to isolate Aspergillus spp. Prevalence of L. interrogans was 4.9%, which was determined by identifying only serovars Pyrogenes, which accounted for 3.6%, and Tarassovi, which constituted 1.3%, with titers from 1:100 to 1:800. Additionally, T. cruzi antibodies were detected in 4.5% of the dogs. Skin lesions were found in 43% of the dogs (98/224), and 35 cultures were positive for Aspergillus spp. (35.7%, p < 0.05, 95% confidence interval 2.45-3.67), identified as A. niger (82.8%), A. flavus (14.3%), and A. terreus (2.9%). This study demonstrates the presence of certain zoonotic agents (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi) in stray dogs living within the studied area. Dogs play an important role in the transmission of diseases that are potentially harmful to humans. Although the prevalence of canine leptospirosis and trypanosomiasis is not high in Southern Mexico compared with other tropical regions of Mexico, the presence of these zoonotic agents in the stray dog population demonstrates that the stray dog population in this region is a significant reservoir and potential source of infection in humans. Special care should be taken when handling stray dogs that exhibit skin lesions with partial alopecia, since a pathological Aspergillus sp. fungus may be present. PMID:19514808

  17. TNF-α is expressed at sites of parasite and tissue destruction in the spleen of mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, ELIANITA SUZART; ANDRADE, ZILTON A; ANDRADE, SONIA G

    2001-01-01

    Mice infected with a macrophagotropic strain of Trypanosoma cruzi develop progressive splenomegaly due to reactive hyperplasia with increased number of lymphocytes and macrophages, culminating in parasite disintegration and necrosis of parasitized cells. Necrotic changes have been attributed to the liberation of toxic cytokines, including TNF-α, from parasitized macrophages. In the present study, the presence of TNF‐α was investigated in situ. In addition the participation of destroyed parasites in inducing the liberation of TNF-α was examined in two highly susceptible mice strains (C3H and Swiss) and a more resistant strain (DBA). Swiss (90) C3H/He (83) and DBA (30) mice were infected with the Peruvian strain of T. cruzi. Nineteen infected Swiss mice, and 22 infected C3H/He were treated with Benznidazole (one or two doses, 100 mg/kg bw/day), on the 8th and 9th days after infection. Necrotic splenic lesions occurred in both susceptible and resistant strains of mice. Although differing in degree, lesions were more intense in C3H and Swiss than in DBA mice. Comparing untreated and treated susceptible mice, necrotic lesions were significantly less intense in the latter. By specific monoclonal antibody immunolabelling, TNF-α was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of macrophages and within necrotic areas, from Swiss, C3H/He and DBA mouse spleens. In conclusion, TNF-α, probably synthesized by macrophages, was strongly expressed at the sites of parasite and cell destruction, thus appearing to play a pivotal role in splenic necrotic changes associated with severe experimental T. cruzi infection. PMID:11846839

  18. Bioenergetic profiling of Trypanosoma cruzi life stages using Seahorse extracellular flux technology.

    PubMed

    Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Pereira, Camila F A; Dumoulin, Peter C; Caradonna, Kacey L; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Energy metabolism is an attractive target for the development of new therapeutics against protozoan pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas disease. Despite emerging evidence that mitochondrial electron transport is essential for the growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes in mammalian cells, fundamental knowledge of mitochondrial energy metabolism in this parasite life stage remains incomplete. The Clark-type electrode, which measures the rate of oxygen consumption, has served as the traditional tool to study mitochondrial energetics and has contributed to our understanding of it in T. cruzi. Here, we evaluate the Seahorse XF(e)24 extracellular flux platform as an alternative method to assess mitochondrial bioenergetics in isolated T. cruzi parasites. We report optimized assay conditions used to perform mitochondrial stress tests with replicative life cycle stages of T. cruzi using the XF(e)24 instrument, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of this methodology, as applied to T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids. PMID:27392747

  19. The characterization of anti-T. cruzi activity relationships between ferrocenyl, cyrhetrenyl complexes and ROS release.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, César; Romero, Valentina; Arancibia, Rodrigo; Klahn, Hugo; Montorfano, Ignacio; Armisen, Ricardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Simon, Felipe; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Nifurtimox is the most used drug against the T. cruzi, this drug increases intermediaries nitro group, being mainly responsible for the high toxicity component, for this reason it is important to study new organic compounds and thus improve therapeutic strategies against Chagas disease. The electronic effects of ferrocenyl and cyrhetrenyl fragments were investigated by DFT calculation. A close correlation was found between HOMO-LUMO gap of nitro radical NO 2 (-) with the experimental reduction potential found for nitro group and IC50 of two forms the T. cruzi (epimastigote and trypomastigote). The IC50 on human hepatoma cells is higher for both compounds compared to IC50 demonstrated in the two forms the T. cruzi, and additionally show reactive oxygen species release. The information obtained in this paper could generate two new drugs with anti-T. cruzi activity, but additional studies are needed. PMID:27460450

  20. Histopathological gill changes in wild leaping grey mullet (Liza saliens) from the Esmoriz-Paramos coastal lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Conceição; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António; Monteiro, Sandra Mariza; Salgado, Maria Antónia

    2007-08-01

    The histopathological changes are among the most recognized responses to environmental stressors, namely heavy metals. Liza saliens were sampled, in the Portuguese Esmoriz-Paramos coastal lagoon to assess their gill histopathological response to Cu and Zn contaminated sediments. A lesion prevalence index, severity, and extension scores of each lesion, as well as an assessment value (severity x extension), were determined to evaluate the effect of environmental heavy metal exposure. The main histopathological changes observed were aneurisms, hyperplasia, lifting, and vasodilation. A high prevalence for each lesion (65-85%) was found, in addition to a high number of simultaneous lesions. Vasodilation and hyperplasia were the lesions that showed higher prevalence indexes. Lifting, followed by hyperplasia, were the lesions with highest assessment value. The prevalence of the number of the lesions found in L. saliens collected from the Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon was high when compared with mullet caught in the sea. A previous work revealed that fish collected in the lagoon showed elevated Cu and Zn levels in their gills, in a positive correlation with age. However, no positive correlation was observed between assessment value and gill metal levels. PMID:17607735

  1. Histopathological diagnosis of atopic eruption of pregnancy and polymorphic eruption of pregnancy: a study on 41 cases.

    PubMed

    Massone, Cesare; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Heidrun, Neureiter; Brunasso, Alexandra M G; Nunzi, Enrico; Gulia, Andrea; Ambros-Rudolph, Christina M

    2014-10-01

    The specific dermatoses of pregnancy represent a recently reclassified heterogeneous group of pruritic inflammatory skin diseases unique to pregnancy that include pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy (AEP). Among them, PEP and AEP are the most frequent ones. We performed a histopathological study of a series of PEP and AEP patients (n = 41). Twenty-two patients had PEP that started in the third trimester in 16 (73%) patients and postpartum in 6 (27%) patients. Histopathology revealed a superficial or superficial and deep perivascular dermatitis with eosinophils in all biopsies and signs of a lymphocytic vasculitis in 5 (23%) cases. Epidermal changes, including epidermal hyperplasia, spongiosis, and parakeratosis, occurred in 8 cases, in particular in elder lesions. Nineteen patients had AEP that started earlier [less than third trimester, 14 (74%) patients; third trimester, 5 (26%) patients]. Clinically, 5 (26%) patients showed eczematous lesions, 7 (37%) papular lesions, 3 (16%) presented both eczematous and prurigo lesions, and 4 (21%) experienced exacerbation of preexisting atopic dermatitis. Histopathologically, AEP was characterized by a perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with frequent eosinophils (74%) and epidermal changes in all but most of P-type biopsies. No definitive differential histopathological criteria between PEP and AEP were found. Only lymphocytic vasculitis with a mixed infiltrate with eosinophils was more frequent in PEP patients. Timing of onset, morphology of skin lesions, and a detailed clinicopathologic correlation are essential for diagnosis. PMID:25243396

  2. Experimental infection of raccoon dogs with Sarcocystis cruzi and S. miescheriana.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Itagaki, H

    1994-08-01

    Raccoon dogs were successfully infected with Sarcocystis cruzi and S. miescheriana by oral inoculation of infected cardiac muscle of cattle and pigs slaughtered in Saitama and Okinawa prefectures, respectively. Oocysts and sporocysts passed by raccoon dogs were similar in measurements and morphological features as reported of S. cruzi and S. miescheriana respectively. The prepatent and patent periods of both S. cruzi and S. miescheriana were 9 and 66-72 days respectively in raccoon dogs. PMID:7999889

  3. A cardiac myosin-specific autoimmune response is induced by immunization with Trypanosoma cruzi proteins.

    PubMed

    Leon, Juan S; Daniels, Melvin D; Toriello, Krista M; Wang, Kegiang; Engman, David M

    2004-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' heart disease, a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy prevalent in Central and South America. Infection with T. cruzi induces cardiac myosin autoimmunity in susceptible humans and mice, and this autoimmunity has been suggested to contribute to cardiac inflammation. To address how T. cruzi induces cardiac myosin autoimmunity, we investigated whether immunity to T. cruzi antigens could induce cardiac myosin-specific autoimmunity in the absence of live parasites. We immunized A/J mice with a T. cruzi Brazil-derived protein extract emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and found that these mice developed cardiac myosin-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and autoantibodies in the absence of detectable cardiac damage. The induction of autoimmunity was specific since immunization with extracts of the related protozoan parasite Leishmania amazonensis did not induce myosin autoimmunity. The immunogenetic makeup of the host was important for this response, since C57BL/6 mice did not develop cardiac myosin DTH upon immunization with T. cruzi extract. Perhaps more interesting, mice immunized with cardiac myosin developed T. cruzi-specific DTH and antibodies. This DTH was also antigen specific, since immunization with skeletal myosin and myoglobin did not induce T. cruzi-specific immunity. These results suggest that immunization with cardiac myosin or T. cruzi antigen can induce specific, bidirectionally cross-reactive immune responses in the absence of detectable cardiac damage. PMID:15155647

  4. In vivo imaging of mice infected with bioluminescent Trypanosoma cruzi unveils novel sites of infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of techniques that allow the imaging of animals infected with parasites expressing luciferase opens up new possibilities for following the fate of parasites in infected mammals. Methods D-luciferin potassium salt stock solution was prepared in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 15 mg/ml. To produce bioluminescence, infected and control mice received an intraperitoneal injection of luciferin stock solution (150 mg/kg). All mice were immediately anesthetized with 2% isofluorane, and after 10 minutes were imaged. Ex vivo evaluation of infected tissues and organs was evaluated in a 24-well plate in 150 μg/ml D-luciferin diluted in PBS. Images were captured using the IVIS Lumina image system (Xenogen). Dissected organs were also evaluated by microscopy of hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Results Here we describe the results obtained using a genetically modified Dm28c strain of T. cruzi expressing the firefly luciferase to keep track of infection by bioluminescence imaging. Progression of infection was observed in vivo in BALB/c mice at various intervals after infection with transgenic Dm28c-luc. The bioluminescent signal was immediately observed at the site of T. cruzi inoculation, and one day post infection (dpi) it was disseminated in the peritoneal cavity. A similar pattern in the cavity was observed on 7 dpi, but the bioluminescence was more intense in the terminal region of the large intestine, rectum, and gonads. On 14 and 21 dpi, bioluminescent parasites were also observed in the heart, snout, paws, hind limbs, and forelimbs. From 28 dpi to 180 dpi in chronically infected mice, bioluminescence declined in regions of the body but was concentrated in the gonad region. Ex vivo evaluation of dissected organs and tissues by bioluminescent imaging confirmed the in vivo bioluminescent foci. Histopathological analysis of dissected organs demonstrated parasite nests at the rectum and snout, in muscle fibers of mice infected with Dm28c

  5. Colon Preneoplastic Lesions in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions. PMID:24526805

  6. Recent, Independent and Anthropogenic Origins of Trypanosoma cruzi Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael D.; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Yeo, Matthew; Acosta, Nidia; Gaunt, Michael W.; Miles, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The single celled eukaryote Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite transmitted by numerous species of triatomine bug in the Americas, causes Chagas disease in humans. T. cruzi generally reproduces asexually and appears to have a clonal population structure. However, two of the six major circulating genetic lineages, TcV and TcVI, are TcII-TcIII inter-lineage hybrids that are frequently isolated from humans in regions where chronic Chagas disease is particularly severe. Nevertheless, a prevalent view is that hybridisation events in T. cruzi were evolutionarily ancient and that active recombination is of little epidemiological importance. We analysed genotypes of hybrid and non-hybrid T. cruzi strains for markers representing three distinct evolutionary rates: nuclear GPI sequences (n = 88), mitochondrial COII-ND1 sequences (n = 107) and 28 polymorphic microsatellite loci (n = 35). Using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches we dated key evolutionary events in the T. cruzi clade including the emergence of hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI, which we estimated to have occurred within the last 60,000 years. We also found evidence for recent genetic exchange between TcIII and TcIV and between TcI and TcIV. These findings show that evolution of novel recombinants remains a potential epidemiological risk. The clearly distinguishable microsatellite genotypes of TcV and TcVI were highly heterozygous and displayed minimal intra-lineage diversity indicative of even earlier origins than sequence-based estimates. Natural hybrid genotypes resembled typical meiotic F1 progeny, however, evidence for mitochondrial introgression, absence of haploid forms and previous experimental crosses indicate that sexual reproduction in T. cruzi may involve alternatives to canonical meiosis. Overall, the data support two independent hybridisation events between TcII and TcIII and a recent, rapid spread of the hybrid progeny in domestic transmission cycles concomitant with, or as a

  7. Clear cell acanthoma of the areola and nipple: clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of two Brazilian cases*

    PubMed Central

    da Veiga, Rossana Ruth Garcia; Barros, Renata Silva; dos Santos, Josie Eiras Bisi; Abreu Junior, José Maria de Castro; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Miranda, Mario Fernando Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell acanthoma or Degos' acanthoma is a distinct disease concerning its clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features. Its pathologic nature - whether neoplastic or reactive - is still under dispute among researchers. The disease shows a chronic course and often presents with a single papulonodular lesion on the lower limbs of adults. However, cases with multiple lesions, sometimes occurring in an eruptive fashion, and with clear variation in the size and shape of the cutaneous lesions have been reported. So far, five cases in which the lesions were exclusively located in the nipple area have been reported, all in Korean women. Four of these cases mimicked eczema and one, a polypoid nodule. The aim of this article is to present clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of two additional cases in Brazilian women with similar nipple topography. PMID:23539008

  8. [Non-neoplastic lesions of the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Tzankov, A

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is a complex body region of limited space but containing numerous organs of different embryonic origins. A variety of lesions that are difficult to distinguish from each other can occur here. Non-neoplastic lesions of the mediastinum represent important differential diagnostic pitfalls to mediastinal tumors, clinically, radiologically and histopathologically. It is important to bear these lesions in mind and to adequately verify or exclude them before starting further differential diagnostic considerations on mediastinal neoplasms. The most common non-neoplastic lesions in this region include cysts and lymphadenopathies. Mediastinal cysts result from abnormal events in the branching of the tracheobronchial tree, the pharyngeal pouches, the primary intestines, the pleuropericardial membranes and the brain meninges or are complications of inflammatory and hydrostatic processes. The histogenesis of the lining epithelium and the cyst wall structure are decisive for the exact classification. The histopathologically most prevalent patterns of mediastinal lymphadenopathies are those accompanied by increased histiocytes and Castleman's disease. Sclerosis is a non-specific reaction pattern of the mediastinum and can be associated with many processes; therefore, when establishing the diagnosis of sclerosing mediastinitis, several differential diagnoses have to be excluded. Simple thymic hyperplasia can be accompanied by considerable increase in organ size with severe local symptoms, while follicular thymic hyperplasia is often associated with myasthenia gravis and represents the most common findings in non-thymoma thymectomy specimens. PMID:27465275

  9. In vivo MR guided boiling histotripsy in a mouse tumor model evaluated by MRI and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Martijn; Eikelenboom, Dylan; den Brok, Martijn H; Veltien, Andor; Wassink, Melissa; Wesseling, Pieter; Dumont, Erik; Fütterer, Jurgen J; Adema, Gosse J; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-06-01

    Boiling histotripsy (BH) is a new high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation technique to mechanically fragmentize soft tissue into submicrometer fragments. So far, ultrasound has been used for BH treatment guidance and evaluation. The in vivo histopathological effects of this treatment are largely unknown. Here, we report on an MR guided BH method to treat subcutaneous tumors in a mouse model. The treatment effects of BH were evaluated one hour and four days later with MRI and histopathology, and compared with the effects of thermal HIFU (T-HIFU). The lesions caused by BH were easily detected with T2 w imaging as a hyper-intense signal area with a hypo-intense rim. Histopathological evaluation showed that the targeted tissue was completely disintegrated and that a narrow transition zone (<200 µm) containing many apoptotic cells was present between disintegrated and vital tumor tissue. A high level of agreement was found between T2 w imaging and H&E stained sections, making T2 w imaging a suitable method for treatment evaluation during or directly after BH. After T-HIFU, contrast enhanced imaging was required for adequate detection of the ablation zone. On histopathology, an ablation zone with concentric layers was seen after T-HIFU. In line with histopathology, contrast enhanced MRI revealed that after BH or T-HIFU perfusion within the lesion was absent, while after BH in the transition zone some micro-hemorrhaging appeared. Four days after BH, the transition zone with apoptotic cells was histologically no longer detectable, corresponding to the absence of a hypo-intense rim around the lesion in T2 w images. This study demonstrates the first results of in vivo BH on mouse tumor using MRI for treatment guidance and evaluation and opens the way for more detailed investigation of the in vivo effects of BH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27061290

  10. Cutaneous Phototoxicity: Clinical Observations versus Histopathological Findings.

    PubMed

    Learn, Douglas B; Elliott, Michelle W

    2016-06-01

    Determination of test material-induced cutaneous phototoxicity for risk assessment has traditionally been based on visually observed skin reactions such as erythema, edema, and flaking. Because of its role in determining a toxic effect, the use of histopathological evaluation in this determination arises from time to time. However, there is little published information regarding the time course and types of histopathologic changes in the skin after test material-induced phototoxic insult nor any regulatory requirement or precedent for its use. This work evaluated both the visual and histopathological time course of the phototoxic response of the skin of the Long-Evans rat after oral administration of the phototoxins sparfloxacin and 8-methoxypsoralen (MOP) followed by a single exposure to solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation. Both sparfloxacin and 8-MOP elicited visual cutaneous reactions and microscopic changes consistent with a phototoxic response. The visually observed cutaneous time course and elicited histopathologic changes differed in response and extent for each phototoxin, but in both instances, microscopic evaluation did not alter the determination of a phototoxic response based on visual observations. These results indicate that, though histopathologic evaluations may have value for investigating mechanisms of phototoxicity, histopathologic evaluation of the skin is not warranted for determination of phototoxic potential in safety assessment intended for regulatory submission. PMID:27073086

  11. Histopathology and contaminant concentrations in fish from Kuwait's marine environment.

    PubMed

    Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A; Massoud, M S; Al-Enezi, M; Smith, A J; Bignell, J P; Green, M J; Askem, C; Bolam, T P C; Barber, J L; Bersuder, P; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    Kuwait has witnessed major socioeconomic and industrial development in recent decades. Consequently, a variety of contaminants related to these activities have been discharged directly into the marine environment. This paper describes the application of a histopathology baseline survey in two potential sentinel species, the Giant sea catfish (Arius thalassinus) and the Fourlined terapon (Pelates quadrilineatus) to assess the health of biota inhabiting Kuwait's marine environment. Histological analysis revealed several lesion types in both species, although the prevalence was generally considered low with no discernible differences between sampling locations. The analysis of contaminant burdens (metals, PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDD) in A. thalassinus, along with the analysis of bile for PAH metabolites in both species, indicated that levels of contaminant exposure was low. Overall the data show that both species appear to be susceptible to pathologies associated with environmental contaminants and therefore suitable for further investigation as sentinel organisms for biological effects monitoring. PMID:26209126

  12. Delay in the histopathologic diagnosis of mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Skov, Anne G; Gniadecki, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is difficult in early stages and is based on a combination of clinical findings and histopathologic criteria. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic delay in MF and to investigate the rationale for multiple biopsies in a single-centre, retrospective study of 157 patients with MF. The first biopsy was diagnostic for MF in 25% of cases. The median diagnostic delay was 2.3 years and depended on whether the diagnosis was established after one or multiple biopsies. The chance of a biopsy resulting in a diagnosis of MF was 25% irrespective of the number of the biopsy in the sequence. There was a significant diagnostic delay, especially in patients in whom the initial biopsy was not specific. Sampling error and unnecessary postponement of subsequent biopsies are likely factors and therefore multiple biopsies should be considered in patients with skin lesions suggesting MF. PMID:25228392

  13. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ruju; Yoon, Michael K; Stacy, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided. PMID:25025390

  14. Interpreting histopathology in the epididymis

    PubMed Central

    De Grava Kempinas, Wilma; Klinefelter, Gary Robert

    2014-01-01

    While most of this Special Issue is devoted to the testis (which is where most drug and chemically induced toxicity of the male reproductive tract is identified), being able to recognize and understand the potential effects of toxicants on the epididymis is immensely important and an area that is often overlooked. The epididymis is the organ where the post-testicular sperm differentiation occurs, through a complex and still not completely understood sperm maturation process, allowing them to fertilize the oocyte. Also in the epididymis, sperm are stored until ejaculation, while being protected from immunogenic reaction by a blood-epididymis barrier. From a toxicologic perspective the epididymis is inherently complicated as its structure and function can be altered both indirectly and directly. In this review we will discuss the factors that must be considered when attempting to distinguish between indirect and direct epididymal toxicity and highlight what is currently known about mechanisms of epididymal toxicants, using the rat as a reference model. We identify 2 distinguishable signature lesions – one representing androgen deprivation (secondary to Leydig cell toxicity in the testis) and another representing a direct acting toxicant. Other commonly observed alterations will also be shown and discussed. Finally, we point out that many of the key functions of the epididymis can be altered in the absence of a detectable change in tissue structure. Collectively, we hope this will provide pathologists with increased confidence in identification of epididymal toxicity and enable more informed guidance as mechanism of action is considered. PMID:26413396

  15. Dealing with environmental challenges: mechanisms of adaptation in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Protozoan parasites have a significant impact upon global health, infecting millions of people around the world. With limited therapeutic options and no vaccines available, research efforts are focused upon unraveling cellular mechanisms essential for parasite survival. During its life cycle, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, is exposed to multiple external conditions and different hosts. Environmental cues are linked to the differentiation process allowing the parasite to complete its life cycle. Successful transmission depends on the ability of the cells to trigger adaptive responses and cope with stressors while regulating proliferation and transition to different life stages. This review focuses upon different aspects of the stress response in T. cruzi, proposing new hypotheses regarding cross-talk and cross-tolerance with respect to environmental changes and discussing open questions and future directions. PMID:24508488

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Subjected to Heat Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hurtado, Gerardo; Martínez-Espinosa, Rodrigo; Espinoza, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to sudden temperature changes during its life cycle. Adaptation to these variations is crucial for parasite survival, reproduction, and transmission. Some of these conditions may change the pattern of genetic expression of proteins involved in homeostasis in the course of stress treatment. In the present study, the proteome of T. cruzi epimastigotes subjected to heat shock and epimastigotes grow normally was compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification. Twenty-four spots differing in abundance were identified. Of the twenty-four changed spots, nineteen showed a greater intensity and five a lower intensity relative to the control. Several functional categories of the identified proteins were determined: metabolism, cell defense, hypothetical proteins, protein fate, protein synthesis, cellular transport, and cell cycle. Proteins involved in the interaction with the cellular environment were also identified, and the implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:22287837

  17. Electron Microscopy Analysis of the Nucleolus of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Hernández, Roberto; López-Villaseñor, Imelda; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Segura-Valdez, María De L.; Jiménez-García, Luis F.

    2005-08-01

    The nucleolus is the main site for synthesis and processing of ribosomal RNA in eukaryotes. In mammals, plants, and yeast the nucleolus has been extensively characterized by electron microscopy, but in the majority of the unicellular eukaryotes no such studies have been performed. Here we used ultrastructural cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques as well as three-dimensional reconstruction to analyze the nucleolus of Trypanosoma cruzi, which is an early divergent eukaryote of medical importance. In T. cruzi epimastigotes the nucleolus is a spherical intranuclear ribonucleoprotein organelle localized in a relatively central position within the nucleus. Dense fibrillar and granular components but not fibrillar centers were observed. In addition, nuclear bodies resembling Cajal bodies were observed associated to the nucleolus in the surrounding nucleoplasm. Our results provide additional morphological data to better understand the synthesis and processing of the ribosomal RNA in kinetoplastids.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi: single cell live imaging inside infected tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Bianca Lima; Orikaza, Cristina Mary; Cordero, Esteban Mauricio; Mortara, Renato Arruda

    2016-06-01

    Although imaging the live Trypanosoma cruzi parasite is a routine technique in most laboratories, identification of the parasite in infected tissues and organs has been hindered by their intrinsic opaque nature. We describe a simple method for in vivo observation of live single-cell Trypanosoma cruzi parasites inside mammalian host tissues. BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice infected with DsRed-CL or GFP-G trypomastigotes had their organs removed and sectioned with surgical blades. Ex vivo organ sections were observed under confocal microscopy. For the first time, this procedure enabled imaging of individual amastigotes, intermediate forms and motile trypomastigotes within infected tissues of mammalian hosts. PMID:26639617

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi in Persons without Serologic Evidence of Disease, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Basquiera, Ana L.; Sembaj, Adela; Aguerri, Ana M.; Reyes, María E.; Omelianuk, Mirtha; Fernández, Ruth A.; Enders, Julio; Palma, Atilio; Barral, José Moreno; Madoery, Roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    Current diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease relies on serologic detection of specific immunoglobulin G against Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the presence of parasites detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients without positive conventional serologic testing has been observed. We determined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of persons with seronegative results for T. cruzi DNA detected by PCR in a population at high risk for chronic American trypanosomiasis. We studied a total of 194 persons from two different populations: 110 patients were recruited from an urban cardiology clinic, and 84 persons were nonselected citizens from a highly disease-endemic area. Eighty (41%) of persons had negative serologic findings; 12 (15%) had a positive PCR. Three patients with negative serologic findings and positive PCR results had clinical signs and symptoms that suggested Chagas cardiomyopathy. This finding challenges the current recommendations for Chagas disease diagnosis, therapy, and blood transfusion policies. PMID:14720396

  20. Vascular leg ulcers: histopathologic study of 293 patients.

    PubMed

    Misciali, Cosimo; Dika, Emi; Baraldi, Carlotta; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Mirelli, Michele; Stella, Andrea; Bertoncelli, Marco; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2014-12-01

    Vascular leg ulcers remain a challenge for the modern health care, and a systematic pathological study on this kind of lesions has not been reported so far. A total of 293 consecutive white patients with chronic leg ulcers (present for a minimum of 6 months and up to several years) referred to the Wound Care Unit (Dermatology, University of Bologna) between March 2008 and June 2011. Thirty-four patients affected by other than vascular ulcers, neoplastic or inflammatory conditions, were excluded. The remaining 259 patients affected by vascular leg ulcers were enrolled in this study. Assessment of the patients general health, skin biopsy, and vascular Doppler of the lower limbs were performed to determine the etiology and to formulate an appropriate management plan, whereas 2 punch biopsies of 3 mm were performed on the border and on the bed of each ulcer. Doppler evaluation showed the presence of vascular hemodynamic impairment in 259 patients. Of these, 181 (69.9%) patients were affected by venous insufficiency, 58 (22.4%) by venous and arterial insufficiency, and 20 (7.7%) by arterial insufficiency. Histopathologic features revealed significant differences, thus, reflecting the clinicopathologic correlation with the underlying hemodynamic impairments. In conclusion, histopathologic and hemodynamic data correlation could provide the basis for future analysis of leg ulcers pathogenesis and may improve treatment protocols. We should underline that this observational study represents a single-institute experience and that larger series are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:25072681

  1. Solitary trichoepithelioma in an 8-year-old child: clinical, dermoscopic and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Fotiadou, Christina; Patsatsi, Aikaterini; Fotiadu, Anastasia; Kyrmanidou, Eirini; Kemanetzi, Christina; Ionnides, Demetrios

    2014-04-01

    Solitary trichoepithelioma (TE) is a rare, benign tumor of follicular origin that in certain cases is difficult to differentiate from basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with a pale pink, soft lesion on the neck. The clinical image of the lesion was equivocal, while some dermoscopic findings-blue-gray globules and arborizing vessels-could not exclude the presence of BCC from the differential diagnosis, although that would have been a very unlikely case considering the age of the patient. The histopathologic examination established the diagnosis of TE. Given the occasion of this challenging case we try to list the key clinical, dermoscopic and histopathological characteristics of TE and BCC in order to elucidate the differential diagnosis of these two entities. PMID:24855576

  2. Agminated cellular blue naevi of the penis: dermoscopic, confocal and histopathological correlation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Collgros, H; Vicente, A; Díaz, A M; Rodríguez-Carunchio, L; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2016-07-01

    Blue naevi may present rarely as multiple lesions grouped in a circumscribed area, described as agminated blue naevi. This clinical presentation may mimic metastatic malignant melanoma. We present two cases of agminated cellular blue naevi of the penis, with dermoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy and histopathological correlation. Dermoscopy of the area showed multiple grouped lesions of homogeneous dark-brown to blue colour. Using reflectance confocal microscopy, focusing on the bluish areas, predominantly bright dendritic cells were visible at the dermoepidermal junction and papillary dermis, while in the brownish areas the presence of dendritic and bright cells predominated in the basal layer. Our patients are of special interest as they are the first cases, to our knowledge, reported of agminated blue naevi on the penis, studied by both dermoscopy and confocal microscopy, confirming the diagnosis with histopathological correlation. Moreover, one case represented a divided or 'kissing' blue naevus of the penis. PMID:26801517

  3. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-12-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  4. Larvicidal and Histopathological Effects of Cassia siamea Leaf Extract against Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2015-01-01

    A traditional Thai medicinal extract from Cassia siamea was evaluated with respect to its larvicidal properties by determining the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h against the fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, which is a carrier of mosquito-borne diseases, by studying the histopathological alterations. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were 394.29, 350.24, 319.17 and 272.42 ppm, respectively. The histopathological lesions after exposure to 25% of the 24-h LC50 were observed primarily in the midgut of the larva. Lesions with edema, swelling, and deformation or elongation of the epithelial cells were observed. Moreover, cells protruding into the lumen and absent microvilli were also found in some areas. The present study reveals that aqueous C. siamea leaf extracts have natural biopesticide properties. PMID:26868707

  5. Repertoire, genealogy and genomic organization of cruzipain and homologous genes in Trypanosoma cruzi, T. cruzi-like and other trypanosome species.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana; Ortiz, Paola A; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Alves, João Marcelo P; Serrano, Myrna G; Cortez, Alane P; Alfieri, Silvia C; Buck, Gregory A; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, is a complex of genetically diverse isolates highly phylogenetically related to T. cruzi-like species, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma dionisii, all sharing morphology of blood and culture forms and development within cells. However, they differ in hosts, vectors and pathogenicity: T. cruzi is a human pathogen infective to virtually all mammals whilst the other two species are non-pathogenic and bat restricted. Previous studies suggest that variations in expression levels and genetic diversity of cruzipain, the major isoform of cathepsin L-like (CATL) enzymes of T. cruzi, correlate with levels of cellular invasion, differentiation, virulence and pathogenicity of distinct strains. In this study, we compared 80 sequences of genes encoding cruzipain from 25 T. cruzi isolates representative of all discrete typing units (DTUs TcI-TcVI) and the new genotype Tcbat and 10 sequences of homologous genes from other species. The catalytic domain repertoires diverged according to DTUs and trypanosome species. Relatively homogeneous sequences are found within and among isolates of the same DTU except TcV and TcVI, which displayed sequences unique or identical to those of TcII and TcIII, supporting their origin from the hybridization between these two DTUs. In network genealogies, sequences from T. cruzi clustered tightly together and closer to T. c. marinkellei than to T. dionisii and largely differed from homologues of T. rangeli and T. b. brucei. Here, analysis of isolates representative of the overall biological and genetic diversity of T. cruzi and closest T. cruzi-like species evidenced DTU- and species-specific polymorphisms corroborating phylogenetic relationships inferred with other genes. Comparison of both phylogenetically close and distant trypanosomes is valuable to understand host-parasite interactions, virulence and pathogenicity. Our findings corroborate cruzipain as valuable target for drugs, vaccine

  6. Repertoire, Genealogy and Genomic Organization of Cruzipain and Homologous Genes in Trypanosoma cruzi, T. cruzi-Like and Other Trypanosome Species

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luciana; Ortiz, Paola A.; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Alves, João Marcelo P.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Cortez, Alane P.; Alfieri, Silvia C.; Buck, Gregory A.; Teixeira, Marta M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, is a complex of genetically diverse isolates highly phylogenetically related to T. cruzi-like species, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma dionisii, all sharing morphology of blood and culture forms and development within cells. However, they differ in hosts, vectors and pathogenicity: T. cruzi is a human pathogen infective to virtually all mammals whilst the other two species are non-pathogenic and bat restricted. Previous studies suggest that variations in expression levels and genetic diversity of cruzipain, the major isoform of cathepsin L-like (CATL) enzymes of T. cruzi, correlate with levels of cellular invasion, differentiation, virulence and pathogenicity of distinct strains. In this study, we compared 80 sequences of genes encoding cruzipain from 25 T. cruzi isolates representative of all discrete typing units (DTUs TcI-TcVI) and the new genotype Tcbat and 10 sequences of homologous genes from other species. The catalytic domain repertoires diverged according to DTUs and trypanosome species. Relatively homogeneous sequences are found within and among isolates of the same DTU except TcV and TcVI, which displayed sequences unique or identical to those of TcII and TcIII, supporting their origin from the hybridization between these two DTUs. In network genealogies, sequences from T. cruzi clustered tightly together and closer to T. c. marinkellei than to T. dionisii and largely differed from homologues of T. rangeli and T. b. brucei. Here, analysis of isolates representative of the overall biological and genetic diversity of T. cruzi and closest T. cruzi-like species evidenced DTU- and species-specific polymorphisms corroborating phylogenetic relationships inferred with other genes. Comparison of both phylogenetically close and distant trypanosomes is valuable to understand host-parasite interactions, virulence and pathogenicity. Our findings corroborate cruzipain as valuable target for drugs, vaccine

  7. Novel drug design for Chagas disease via targeting Trypanosoma cruzi tubulin: Homology modeling and binding pocket prediction on Trypanosoma cruzi tubulin polymerization inhibition by naphthoquinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ogindo, Charles O; Khraiwesh, Mozna H; George, Matthew; Brandy, Yakini; Brandy, Nailah; Gugssa, Ayele; Ashraf, Mohammad; Abbas, Muneer; Southerland, William M; Lee, Clarence M; Bakare, Oladapo; Fang, Yayin

    2016-08-15

    Chagas disease, also called American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Recent findings have underscored the abundance of the causative organism, (T. cruzi), especially in the southern tier states of the US and the risk burden for the rural farming communities there. Due to a lack of safe and effective drugs, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic options for treating Chagas disease. We report here our first scientific effort to pursue a novel drug design for treating Chagas disease via the targeting of T. cruzi tubulin. First, the anti T. cruzi tubulin activities of five naphthoquinone derivatives were determined and correlated to their anti-trypanosomal activities. The correlation between the ligand activities against the T. cruzi organism and their tubulin inhibitory activities was very strong with a Pearson's r value of 0.88 (P value <0.05), indicating that this class of compounds could inhibit the activity of the trypanosome organism via T. cruzi tubulin polymerization inhibition. Subsequent molecular modeling studies were carried out to understand the mechanisms of the anti-tubulin activities, wherein, the homology model of T. cruzi tubulin dimer was generated and the putative binding site of naphthoquinone derivatives was predicted. The correlation coefficient for ligand anti-tubulin activities and their binding energies at the putative pocket was found to be r=0.79, a high correlation efficiency that was not replicated in contiguous candidate pockets. The homology model of T. cruzi tubulin and the identification of its putative binding site lay a solid ground for further structure based drug design, including molecular docking and pharmacophore analysis. This study presents a new opportunity for designing potent and selective drugs for Chagas disease. PMID:27345756

  8. Transcriptome Remodeling in Trypanosoma cruzi and Human Cells during Intracellular Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Okrah, Kwame; Belew, A Trey; Choi, Jungmin; Caradonna, Kacey L; Padmanabhan, Prasad; Ndegwa, David M; Temanni, M Ramzi; Corrada Bravo, Héctor; El-Sayed, Najib M; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2016-04-01

    Intracellular colonization and persistent infection by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, underlie the pathogenesis of human Chagas disease. To obtain global insights into the T. cruzi infective process, transcriptome dynamics were simultaneously captured in the parasite and host cells in an infection time course of human fibroblasts. Extensive remodeling of the T. cruzi transcriptome was observed during the early establishment of intracellular infection, coincident with a major developmental transition in the parasite. Contrasting this early response, few additional changes in steady state mRNA levels were detected once mature T. cruzi amastigotes were formed. Our findings suggest that transcriptome remodeling is required to establish a modified template to guide developmental transitions in the parasite, whereas homeostatic functions are regulated independently of transcriptomic changes, similar to that reported in related trypanosomatids. Despite complex mechanisms for regulation of phenotypic expression in T. cruzi, transcriptomic signatures derived from distinct developmental stages mirror known or projected characteristics of T. cruzi biology. Focusing on energy metabolism, we were able to validate predictions forecast in the mRNA expression profiles. We demonstrate measurable differences in the bioenergetic properties of the different mammalian-infective stages of T. cruzi and present additional findings that underscore the importance of mitochondrial electron transport in T. cruzi amastigote growth and survival. Consequences of T. cruzi colonization for the host include dynamic expression of immune response genes and cell cycle regulators with upregulation of host cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways, which may serve to fuel intracellular T. cruzi growth. Thus, in addition to the biological inferences gained from gene ontology and functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes in parasite and host, our

  9. Transcriptome Remodeling in Trypanosoma cruzi and Human Cells during Intracellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Okrah, Kwame; Belew, A. Trey; Choi, Jungmin; Caradonna, Kacey L.; Padmanabhan, Prasad; Ndegwa, David M.; Temanni, M. Ramzi; Corrada Bravo, Héctor; El-Sayed, Najib M.; Burleigh, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular colonization and persistent infection by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, underlie the pathogenesis of human Chagas disease. To obtain global insights into the T. cruzi infective process, transcriptome dynamics were simultaneously captured in the parasite and host cells in an infection time course of human fibroblasts. Extensive remodeling of the T. cruzi transcriptome was observed during the early establishment of intracellular infection, coincident with a major developmental transition in the parasite. Contrasting this early response, few additional changes in steady state mRNA levels were detected once mature T. cruzi amastigotes were formed. Our findings suggest that transcriptome remodeling is required to establish a modified template to guide developmental transitions in the parasite, whereas homeostatic functions are regulated independently of transcriptomic changes, similar to that reported in related trypanosomatids. Despite complex mechanisms for regulation of phenotypic expression in T. cruzi, transcriptomic signatures derived from distinct developmental stages mirror known or projected characteristics of T. cruzi biology. Focusing on energy metabolism, we were able to validate predictions forecast in the mRNA expression profiles. We demonstrate measurable differences in the bioenergetic properties of the different mammalian-infective stages of T. cruzi and present additional findings that underscore the importance of mitochondrial electron transport in T. cruzi amastigote growth and survival. Consequences of T. cruzi colonization for the host include dynamic expression of immune response genes and cell cycle regulators with upregulation of host cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways, which may serve to fuel intracellular T. cruzi growth. Thus, in addition to the biological inferences gained from gene ontology and functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes in parasite and host, our

  10. Interactions Between Trypanosoma cruzi the Chagas Disease Parasite and Naturally Infected Wild Mepraia Vectors of Chile.

    PubMed

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Ortiz, Sylvia; Cordova, Ivan; Bruneau, Nicole; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Solari, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease, which ranks among the world's most neglected diseases, is a chronic, systemic, parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Mepraia species are the wild vectors of this parasite in Chile. Host-parasite interactions can occur at several levels, such as co-speciation and ecological host fitting, among others. Thus, we are exploring the interactions between T. cruzi circulating in naturally infected Mepraia species in all areas endemic of Chile. We evaluated T. cruzi infection rates of 27 different haplotypes of the wild Mepraia species and identified their parasite genotypes using minicircle PCR amplification and hybridization tests with genotype-specific DNA probes. Infection rates were lower in northern Chile where Mepraia gajardoi circulates (10-35%); in central Chile, Mepraia spinolai is most abundant, and infection rates varied in space and time (0-55%). T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI, TcII, TcV, and Tc VI were detected. Mixed infections with two or more DTUs are frequently found in highly infected insects. T. cruzi DTUs have distinct, but not exclusive, ecological and epidemiological associations with their hosts. T. cruzi infection rates of M. spinolai were higher than in M. gajardoi, but the presence of mixed infection with more than one T. cruzi DTU was the same. The same T. cruzi DTUs (TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI) were found circulating in both vector species, even though TcI was not equally distributed. These results suggest that T. cruzi DTUs are not associated with any of the two genetically related vector species nor with the geographic area. The T. cruzi vectors interactions are discussed in terms of old and recent events. By exploring T. cruzi DTUs present in Mepraia haplotypes and species from northern to central Chile, we open the analysis on these invertebrate host-parasite interactions. PMID:26771702

  11. Optimized Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Scheme for Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Diosque, Patricio; Tomasini, Nicolás; Lauthier, Juan José; Messenger, Louisa Alexandra; Monje Rumi, María Mercedes; Ragone, Paula Gabriela; Alberti-D'Amato, Anahí Maitén; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Lewis, Michael David; Llewellyn, Martin Stephen; Miles, Michael Alexander; Yeo, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease possess extensive genetic diversity. This has led to the development of a plethora of molecular typing methods for the identification of both the known major genetic lineages and for more fine scale characterization of different multilocus genotypes within these major lineages. Whole genome sequencing applied to large sample sizes is not currently viable and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, the previous gold standard for T. cruzi typing, is laborious and time consuming. In the present work, we present an optimized Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme, based on the combined analysis of two recently proposed MLST approaches. Here, thirteen concatenated gene fragments were applied to a panel of T. cruzi reference strains encompassing all known genetic lineages. Concatenation of 13 fragments allowed assignment of all strains to the predicted Discrete Typing Units (DTUs), or near-clades, with the exception of one strain that was an outlier for TcV, due to apparent loss of heterozygosity in one fragment. Monophyly for all DTUs, along with robust bootstrap support, was restored when this fragment was subsequently excluded from the analysis. All possible combinations of loci were assessed against predefined criteria with the objective of selecting the most appropriate combination of between two and twelve fragments, for an optimized MLST scheme. The optimum combination consisted of 7 loci and discriminated between all reference strains in the panel, with the majority supported by robust bootstrap values. Additionally, a reduced panel of just 4 gene fragments displayed high bootstrap values for DTU assignment and discriminated 21 out of 25 genotypes. We propose that the seven-fragment MLST scheme could be used as a gold standard for T. cruzi typing, against which other typing approaches, particularly single locus approaches or systematic PCR assays based on amplicon size, could be compared. PMID:25167160

  12. Oral Lesions in Elderly Patients in Referral Centers for Oral Lesions of Bahia

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Sarah; Alves, Técia; Santos, Jean; Oliveira, Márcio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aging population phenomenon is occurring on a global scale; aging affects all of the structures of organisms, including the oral cavity. Objective To estimate the frequency of oral lesions, according to the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses, and to describe the sociodemographic profile of the elderly treated at the referral centers of oral lesions of public universities in Bahia, Brazil. Methods A descriptive epidemiologic study with transverse characteristics was conducted with elderly patients between August 2010 and January 2012. A form was used to collect data. The descriptive analysis consisted of calculating the simple and relative frequencies of sociodemographic variables and oral lesions. Results The population was predominantly black women, and the minority of elderly people were retired. Fibroid (13%) and squamous cell carcinoma (145%) were more prevalent clinical diagnoses, with squamous cell carcinoma (30.7%) and fibrous hyperplasia more prevalent histopathologic diagnoses. Conclusion A prevention policy needs to be implemented to reduce new cases of oral lesions in Bahia, Brazil and to aid in early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of oral lesions. PMID:26491471

  13. [Digestive tract dilation in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi].

    PubMed

    Guillén-Pernía, B; Lugo-Yarbuh, A; Moreno, E

    2001-09-01

    This paper will analyze alterations in the digestive tract (DT) of mice with chronic Chagas' disease infection produced by Trypanosoma cruzi from different sources. X-rays of the DT of 18 mice infected with T. cruzi and 6 control mice were compared after the ingestion of a barium sulfate solution over a period of 6 hours. 120 days post-infection (pi) the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1A infected with trypanosomes DMI isolated from the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, and 4 mice in group 2A infected with the isolate EP taken from a patient with acute Chagas' disease, showed swelling of the stomach and the colon (C). 180 days pi, the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1B infected with isolated DMI and the 4 mice in group 2B infected with isolate EP, showed an even greater swelling of the C. Histological examination of the DT of all infected mice showed extensive changes of the intestinal muscle layer, such as the diminution of the muscular and mucous layers and the loss of colonic folds and myoenteric plexus. These results suggest that T. cruzi populations caused severe alterations in the digestive system of the mice used in the experiment, and that the same alterations could occur in the digestive organs of humans, especially those living in areas where Chagas' disease is endemic, but where these abnormalities have not yet been reported. PMID:11552508

  14. Oxidative stress fuels Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Claudia N.; Feijó, Daniel F.; Dutra, Fabianno F.; Carneiro, Vitor C.; Freitas, Guilherme B.; Alves, Letícia S.; Mesquita, Jacilene; Fortes, Guilherme B.; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Souza, Heitor S.P.; Fantappié, Marcelo R.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage contributes to microbe elimination during macrophage respiratory burst. Nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2, like 2 (NRF2) orchestrates antioxidant defenses, including the expression of heme-oxygenase–1 (HO-1). Unexpectedly, the activation of NRF2 and HO-1 reduces infection by a number of pathogens, although the mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. We studied Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice in which NRF2/HO-1 was induced with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP). CoPP reduced parasitemia and tissue parasitism, while an inhibitor of HO-1 activity increased T. cruzi parasitemia in blood. CoPP-induced effects did not depend on the adaptive immunity, nor were parasites directly targeted. We also found that CoPP reduced macrophage parasitism, which depended on NRF2 expression but not on classical mechanisms such as apoptosis of infected cells, induction of type I IFN, or NO. We found that exogenous expression of NRF2 or HO-1 also reduced macrophage parasitism. Several antioxidants, including NRF2 activators, reduced macrophage parasite burden, while pro-oxidants promoted it. Reducing the intracellular labile iron pool decreased parasitism, and antioxidants increased the expression of ferritin and ferroportin in infected macrophages. Ferrous sulfate reversed the CoPP-induced decrease in macrophage parasite burden and, given in vivo, reversed their protective effects. Our results indicate that oxidative stress contributes to parasite persistence in host tissues and open a new avenue for the development of anti–T. cruzi drugs. PMID:22728935

  15. Conservation and divergence within the clathrin interactome of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Ligia Cristina; Frederico, Yohana Camila A; Boehm, Cordula; Moreira, Claudia Maria do Nascimento; Soares, Maurilio José; Field, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa with a significant burden on human health. African and American trypanosomes are causative agents of Nagana and Chagas disease respectively, and speciated about 300 million years ago. These parasites have highly distinct life cycles, pathologies, transmission strategies and surface proteomes, being dominated by the variant surface glycoprotein (African) or mucins (American) respectively. In African trypanosomes clathrin-mediated trafficking is responsible for endocytosis and post-Golgi transport, with several mechanistic aspects distinct from higher organisms. Using clathrin light chain (TcCLC) and EpsinR (TcEpsinR) as affinity handles, we identified candidate clathrin-associated proteins (CAPs) in Trypanosoma cruzi; the cohort includes orthologs of many proteins known to mediate vesicle trafficking, but significantly not the AP-2 adaptor complex. Several trypanosome-specific proteins common with African trypanosomes, were also identified. Fluorescence microscopy revealed localisations for TcEpsinR, TcCLC and TcCHC at the posterior region of trypomastigote cells, coincident with the flagellar pocket and Golgi apparatus. These data provide the first systematic analysis of clathrin-mediated trafficking in T. cruzi, allowing comparison between protein cohorts and other trypanosomes and also suggest that clathrin trafficking in at least some life stages of T. cruzi may be AP-2-independent. PMID:27502971

  16. Sarcocystis cruzi: First Molecular Identification from Cattle in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Narges; Bayani, Masomeh; Ghaffari, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Sarcocystis is a genus of cyst-forming parasites infecting both animals and human. This study aimed to isolate coccidian tissue cysts from muscle of infected animals by a simple method in addition to molecular identification of Sarcocystis cruzi from the samples. The samples were obtained from commercial source in Babol, Northern Iran. Five grams of calf muscle was cut into 2-3 pieces in 30 ml of phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.1% Tween 80 and homogenized with IKA T25, DIGITAL ULTRA-TURRAX. The homogenate was filtrated twice and used for microscopy examination and molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal gene were used to identify the Sarcocystis species. Giemsa stain of the filtrated calf muscle samples showed that the sample had ellipse to around tissue cysts contained crescent-shaped bodies. The PCR of the 18SrDNA yielded an 1100 bp DNA band on agarose gel and sequence analysis of the DNA confirmed the isolate as S. cruzi. The sequence was deposited in GenBank by Accession No.KC508514. This is the first molecular identification of an isolate of S. cruzi in Iran. PMID:24551802

  17. Conservation and divergence within the clathrin interactome of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Ligia Cristina; Frederico, Yohana Camila A.; Boehm, Cordula; Moreira, Claudia Maria do Nascimento; Soares, Maurilio José; Field, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa with a significant burden on human health. African and American trypanosomes are causative agents of Nagana and Chagas disease respectively, and speciated about 300 million years ago. These parasites have highly distinct life cycles, pathologies, transmission strategies and surface proteomes, being dominated by the variant surface glycoprotein (African) or mucins (American) respectively. In African trypanosomes clathrin-mediated trafficking is responsible for endocytosis and post-Golgi transport, with several mechanistic aspects distinct from higher organisms. Using clathrin light chain (TcCLC) and EpsinR (TcEpsinR) as affinity handles, we identified candidate clathrin-associated proteins (CAPs) in Trypanosoma cruzi; the cohort includes orthologs of many proteins known to mediate vesicle trafficking, but significantly not the AP-2 adaptor complex. Several trypanosome-specific proteins common with African trypanosomes, were also identified. Fluorescence microscopy revealed localisations for TcEpsinR, TcCLC and TcCHC at the posterior region of trypomastigote cells, coincident with the flagellar pocket and Golgi apparatus. These data provide the first systematic analysis of clathrin-mediated trafficking in T. cruzi, allowing comparison between protein cohorts and other trypanosomes and also suggest that clathrin trafficking in at least some life stages of T. cruzi may be AP-2-independent. PMID:27502971

  18. Gene Discovery through Expressed Sequence Tag Sequencing in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Verdun, Ramiro E.; Di Paolo, Nelson; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Rondinelli, Edson; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Sanchez, Daniel O.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) constitutes a useful approach for gene identification that, in the case of human pathogens, might result in the identification of new targets for chemotherapy and vaccine development. As part of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome project, we have partially sequenced the 5′ ends of 1,949 clones to generate ESTs. The clones were randomly selected from a normalized CL Brener epimastigote cDNA library. A total of 14.6% of the clones were homologous to previously identified T. cruzi genes, while 18.4% had significant matches to genes from other organisms in the database. A total of 67% of the ESTs had no matches in the database, and thus, some of them might be T. cruzi-specific genes. Functional groups of those sequences with matches in the database were constructed according to their putative biological functions. The two largest categories were protein synthesis (23.3%) and cell surface molecules (10.8%). The information reported in this paper should be useful for researchers in the field to analyze genes and proteins of their own interest. PMID:9784549

  19. Altered Cardiomyocyte Function and Trypanosoma cruzi Persistence in Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jader Santos; Santos-Miranda, Artur; Sales-Junior, Policarpo Ademar; Monti-Rocha, Renata; Campos, Paula Peixoto; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Roman-Campos, Danilo

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the triatominae Trypanosoma cruzi, is one of the leading causes of heart malfunctioning in Latin America. The cardiac phenotype is observed in 20-30% of infected people 10-40 years after their primary infection. The cardiac complications during Chagas disease range from cardiac arrhythmias to heart failure, with important involvement of the right ventricle. Interestingly, no studies have evaluated the electrical properties of right ventricle myocytes during Chagas disease and correlated them to parasite persistence. Taking advantage of a murine model of Chagas disease, we studied the histological and electrical properties of right ventricle in acute (30 days postinfection [dpi]) and chronic phases (90 dpi) of infected mice with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi and their correlation to parasite persistence. We observed an increase in collagen deposition and inflammatory infiltrate at both 30 and 90 dpi. Furthermore, using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we detected parasites at 90 dpi in right and left ventricles. In addition, we observed action potential prolongation and reduced transient outward K(+) current and L-type Ca(2+) current at 30 and 90 dpi. Taking together, our results demonstrate that T. cruzi infection leads to important modifications in electrical properties associated with inflammatory infiltrate and parasite persistence in mice right ventricle, suggesting a causal role between inflammation, parasite persistence, and altered cardiomyocyte function in Chagas disease. Thus, arrhythmias observed in Chagas disease may be partially related to altered electrical function in right ventricle. PMID:26976879

  20. Histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa in active and retired nickel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Torjussen, W.; Solberg, L. A.; Høgetveit, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Histological examinations were made on nasal biopsy specimens from the middle turbinate in 318 active and 15 retired nickel workers and in 57 controls, to study the prevalence of nasal carcinoma or possible precancerous mucosal changes in nickel-exposed individuals. The histopathological changes were evaluated according to a point-score scale, and the results were correlated to age, smoking habits, duration and type of nickel exposure and to nickel concentrations in nasal mucosa, plasma and urine. The explanatory values of these factors on the histopathology were estimated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Two nickel workers from the roasting/smelting department (0.6%), both employed 28 years at the plant, had nasal carcinoma. Epithelial dysplasia was found in about 12% of active and 47% of retired nickel workers. One of the controls, a male carpenter, had dysplasia. These histopathological changes may be precancerous lesions, as they are almost exclusively found in active and retired nickel workers with enhanced risk of nasal carcinoma. Loss of respiratory epithelium and development of squamous epithelium were regarded as unspecific histopathological changes. These changes were seen in all groups, even though in significantly higher incidence in the nickel-exposed groups. Duration of nickel exposure, type of nickel-refining work and tobacco consumption were the independent variable that, taken altogether, had the highest explanatory values for the histopathological changes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:497107

  1. Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research. Results Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies. Conclusion Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project. PMID:23800279

  2. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man. PMID:25824116

  3. Relationship between biological behaviour and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profiles of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Escario, J A; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Gómez-Barrio, A

    2001-02-01

    Once known some biological characteristics of six Trypanosoma cruzi strains, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was made. Cluster analysis by UPGMA (unweighted pair group method analysis) was then applied both to biological parameters and RAPD profiles. Inspection of the UPGMA phenograms indicates identical clusters, so supporting that usefulness of biological parameters to characterization of T. cruzi strains still remains. PMID:11285506

  4. Thrombospondin-1 interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi surface calreticulin to enhance cellular infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candice A; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y; Ikejiani, Adaeze O; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N; Cardenas, Tatiana C; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A; Lima, Maria F; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  5. Sequence variation in the IL4 gene and resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Bolivians

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado Arnez, Lucia Elena; Venegas, Evaristo N.; Ober, Carole; Thompson, Emma E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Variation in the IL4 gene has been associated with parastic infections, but has not been studied in Bolivians infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results suggest that variation at IL4 influences susceptibility to T. cruzi infection in Bolivians. PMID:21211660

  6. Thrombospondin-1 Interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Calreticulin to Enhance Cellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candice A.; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y.; Ikejiani, Adaeze O.; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N.; Cardenas, Tatiana C.; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A.; Lima, Maria F.; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  7. Shotgun Sequencing Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi I Sylvio X10/1 and Comparison with T. cruzi VI CL Brener

    PubMed Central

    Franzén, Oscar; Ochaya, Stephen; Sherwood, Ellen; Lewis, Michael D.; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Miles, Michael A.; Andersson, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, which affects more than 9 million people in Latin America. We have generated a draft genome sequence of the TcI strain Sylvio X10/1 and compared it to the TcVI reference strain CL Brener to identify lineage-specific features. We found virtually no differences in the core gene content of CL Brener and Sylvio X10/1 by presence/absence analysis, but 6 open reading frames from CL Brener were missing in Sylvio X10/1. Several multicopy gene families, including DGF, mucin, MASP and GP63 were found to contain substantially fewer genes in Sylvio X10/1, based on sequence read estimations. 1,861 small insertion-deletion events and 77,349 nucleotide differences, 23% of which were non-synonymous and associated with radical amino acid changes, further distinguish these two genomes. There were 336 genes indicated as under positive selection, 145 unique to T. cruzi in comparison to T. brucei and Leishmania. This study provides a framework for further comparative analyses of two major T. cruzi lineages and also highlights the need for sequencing more strains to understand fully the genomic composition of this parasite. PMID:21408126

  8. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-09-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety. PMID:24574660

  9. Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi by DNA hybridization with nonradioactive probes.

    PubMed

    Solari, A; Venegas, J; Gonzalez, E; Vasquez, C

    1991-01-01

    Total or kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) from 72 isolates and clones of Trypanosoma cruzi as well as from nine related trypanosomatids were analyzed by dot hybridization using nonradioactive kDNA or cloned minicircle fragments as probes. Biotinylated-kDNA probes generated by nick-translation proved reliable for distinguishing Zymodeme 1 and Zymodeme 2bol of T. cruzi parasites. In contrast, digoxigenin-labeled kDNA obtained by random-priming did not distinguish among T. cruzi isolates but did distinguish among New World leishmanias. Cloned minicircle fragments labeled with digoxigenin gave the same results as digoxigenin-labeled kDNA, except for a 10-fold decrease in sensitivity. Digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes proved useful in unambiguously detecting T. cruzi from different geographic regions of America. However, T. rangeli and T. cruzi marinkellei were not distinguished by these probes. PMID:1667933

  10. Histopathological features of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in horse.

    PubMed

    Amininajafi, Fatemeh; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Arman; Fattahi, Rooholla; Taghizadeh, Mehdi; Hasanzadeh, Sardar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of study was to describe clinico histopathological manifestations of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in horse. The adult worms live on the wall of the stomach and cutaneous of the host without internal migration. A 5 year old 700 kg warm-blood, cross gelding was referred to the Tehran School of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The horse presented skin lesions around. In our survey, several raised granulomatous nodules with a cystic space and parasites within the cysts were observed. Also gastric rupture at greater curvature due to abscess and perforation through the serosa causing diffused peritonitis and subsequent death. Eosinophils and other inflammatory cells were present in large numbers. Furthermore, cutaneous lesions were characterized by single or multiple ulcerated timorous masses with eosinophil epithelioid cell infiltration and scattered necrotic debris. Granulation tissue and neutrophils were observed along the ulcerated area. In this report a case of cutaneous and gastric habronemiasis in a horse in Iran is described with special attention to confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. PMID:27605815

  11. Male median raphe cysts: serial retrospective analysis and histopathological classification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To review the clinical and pathological characteristics of median raphe cysts and to classify the lesions according to pathogenesis and histopathological findings. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with median raphe cysts between 2001 and 2010 were reviewed to document the clinical presentation and pathological findings of the cysts. Results Most patients were asymptomatic; however, 9 patients had inflammatory or infectious cysts that were tender or painful. Four patients who had cysts on the parameatus and distal prepuce had difficulty voiding. Hematuria and hematospermia were noted in 2 cases. Thirty-one cysts were lined with an urothelium-like epithelium, and a squamous epithelium lining was found in 3 cases. In 2 cases, a well-formed mucinous glandular structure was observed. The other 20 cysts consisted of mixed epithelia. After excision of the cysts under local or general anesthesia, an urethral fistula developed as a complication in only 1 case. Conclusions Median raphe cysts are benign lesions formed due to tissue trapping during the development of urethral folds. The cysts can be defined into 4 types based on pathological findings: urethral, epidermoid, glandular, and mixed. The associated symptoms and signs should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for the cysts. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http//http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7727074877500751 PMID:22978603

  12. Histopathological Features of Tungiasis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Tantalean, Manuel E.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by Tunga penetrans and Tunga trimamillata. There is a lack of histopathological studies that evaluate the recognition of this flea in tissues. We describe the ex vivo dermoscopic and the histopathological patterns of six cases and relate the findings to the developmental stage of the parasite as defined by the Fortaleza classification: two were classified as Fortaleza 3b, 3 as 4a, and 1 as 4b. Two dermoscopic patterns were observed: a brown pigmented ring and a radial crown with a central pore. The most common histopathological findings were an eosinophilic cuticle, eggs in different stages of development, tracheal rings (parasite), and basal hyperplasia (host). The eosinophilic cuticle, eggs in different stages of evolution, and tracheal rings can help to establish the diagnosis when other parts of the parasite are lacking. The Fortaleza staging may represent a tool for pathology reporting purposes. PMID:23478579

  13. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Shibal; Ichhpujani, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juxtacanalicular (JXT) trabecular meshwork and endothelial lining of Schlemm’s canal have been cited as the loci of aqueous outflow resistance, both in a normal as well as a glaucomatous eye. In this review, we attempt to understand the currently available surgical modalities in light of the available histopathological evidence, regarding localization of outflow resistance. How to cite this article: Bhartiya S, Ichhpujani P, Shaarawy T. Surgery on the Trabecular Meshwork: Histopathological Evidence. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(2):51-61. PMID:26997835

  14. Mastitis, a Radiographic, Clinical, and Histopathologic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Reddy, Vijaya; Solmos, Gene; Watkins, Latanja; Cimbaluk, David; Bitterman, Pincas; Ghai, Ritu; Gattuso, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a benign inflammatory process of the breast with heterogeneous histopathological findings, which clinically and radiographically may mimic a mammary carcinoma. We undertook a retrospective study on 37 cases of mastitis in our institution to correlate the radiographic imaging features and the clinical presentation with the histopathological findings. Histologically, there were 21 granulomatous, 7 fibrous, 3 plasma cell, 3 lupus, 2 lymphocytic, and 1 case of acute mastitis. Radiographically, 16/25 (64%) patients with ultrasound studies showed irregular hypoechoic masses suspicious for malignancy. Clinically, 38% of patients had an associated systemic disease. PMID:25940456

  15. The diversity and expansion of the trans-sialidase gene family is a common feature in Trypanosoma cruzi clade members.

    PubMed

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Cortez, Danielle R; Lima, Fábio M; Cortez, Caroline; Ramírez, José Luis; Martins, Andre G; Serrano, Myrna G; Teixeira, Marta M G; da Silveira, José Franco

    2016-01-01

    Trans-sialidase (TS) is a polymorphic protein superfamily described in members of the protozoan genus Trypanosoma. Of the eight TS groups recently described, TS group I proteins (some of which have catalytic activity) are present in the distantly related Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi phylogenetic clades, whereas other TS groups have only been described in some species belonging to the T. cruzi clade. In the present study we analyzed the repertoire, distribution and phylogenetic relationships of TS genes among species of the T. cruzi clade based on sequence similarity, multiple sequence alignment and tree-reconstruction approaches using TS sequences obtained with the aid of PCR-based strategies or retrieved from genome databases. We included the following representative isolates of the T. cruzi clade from South America: T. cruzi, T. cruzi Tcbat, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma conorhini. The cloned sequences encoded conserved TS protein motifs Asp-box and VTVxNVxLYNR but lacked the FRIP motif (conserved in TS group I). The T. conorhini sequences were the most divergent. The hybridization patterns of TS probes with chromosomal bands confirmed the abundance of these sequences in species in the T. cruzi clade. Divergence and relationship analysis placed most of the TS sequences in the groups defined in T. cruzi. Further examination of members of TS group II, which includes T. cruzi surface glycoproteins implicated in host cell attachment and invasion, showed that sequences of T. cruzi Tcbat grouped with those of T. cruzi genotype TcI. Our analysis indicates that different members of the T. cruzi clade, with different vertebrate hosts, vectors and pathogenicity, share the extensive expansion and sequence diversification of the TS gene family. Altogether, our results are congruent with the evolutionary history of the T. cruzi clade and represent a contribution to the understanding of the molecular

  16. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p <0.05). RESULTS Mean patient age was 40.5 years. A total of 29.7% individuals were female and 70.2% were male, and 40.4% of the patients were farmers. The ulcerative form was found in 53.2% of patients, of whom 59.6% had lesions in the limbs. The average time to diagnosis was 22.3 months. The following positive correlations were significant: age and duration of the disease, Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Brain Histopathology In Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Brooks, William M.; Kornfeld, Mario; Hart, Blaine L.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.; Roldan, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often demonstrates brain lesions in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSL). The present study compared post-mortem histopathology with pre-mortem MRI in NPSL. Methods 200 subjects with NPSLE were studied prospectively with MRI over a 10-year period during which 22 subjects died. In 14 subjects, a brain autopsy with histopathology that permitted direct comparison with pre mortem MRI was successfully obtained. Surface anatomy was used to determine the approximate location of individual lesions. Results Pre mortem MRI findings in fatal NPSLE were small focal white matter lesions (100%), cortical atrophy (64%), ventricular dilation (57%), cerebral edema (50%), diffuse white matter abnormalities (43%), focal atrophy (36%), cerebral infarction (29%), acute leukoencephalopathy (25%), intracranial hemorrhage (21%), and calcifications (7%). Microscopic findings in fatal NPSLE included global ischemic changes (57%), parenchymal edema (50%), microhemorrhages (43%), glial hyperplasia (43%), diffuse neuronal/axonal loss (36%), resolved cerebral infarction (33%), microthomboemboli (29%), blood vessel remodeling (29%), acute cerebral infarction (14%), acute macrohemorrhages (14%), and resolved intracranial hemorrhages (7%). Cortical atrophy and ventricular dilation seen by MRI predicted brain mass at autopsy (r = -0.72, p = 0.01, and r = -0.77, p =0.01, respectively). Cerebral autopsy findings, including infarction, cerebral edema, intracranial hemorrhage, calcifications, cysts, and focal atrophy were also predicted accurately by pre mortem MRI. Conclusion Brain lesions in NPSLE detected by MRI accurately represent serious underlying cerebrovascular and parenchymal brain injury on pathology. PMID:19880162

  18. Spectrum of Typical and Atypical Clinico-Histopathological and Radiological Presentation of Soft Tissue and Muscular Cysticercosis in Mid-Western and Far-Western Region of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Pragya Gautam; Rana, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Soft tissue and muscular involvement in cysticercosis is a relatively rarer presentation. Materials and Methods Twenty seven histopathologically confirmed cases of soft tissue and muscular cysticercosis were collected and the clinical, radiological data was reviewed. Results There was female predominance for the lesions (19 cases among 27 cases). The most common location for the lesion was in the arm (9 cases), thigh (4 cases), forearm (7 cases), abdominal wall (4 cases) followed by nape of the neck (2 cases). Lesion ranged from 8 mm to 5 cm in size. Ultrasound was diagnostic in 24 cases and inconclusive in three cases. Histopathologically, intact cyst wall was noted in 12 cases, scolex in 5 cases. Seven cases showed degenerating cyst wall surrounded by inflammatory cells, granulation tissue and fibrosis. Conclusion Fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathological assessment is prudent in the diagnosis of soft tissue and muscular cysticercosis in cases posing clinical diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26500910

  19. Adverse effects of fillers and their histopathology.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2014-12-01

    Injectable fillers nowadays represent a pillar in facial rejuvenation and make a significant contribution to the success of the treatment. Despite their obvious benefits, a wide range of possible complications such as immediate, late, delayed, temporary, or irreversible adverse effects have to be respected. Differentiating the various filler materials, these effects are assigned to histopathology findings and currently available treatment options. PMID:25536126

  20. Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Duffield, Amy S

    2016-03-01

    Various hematolymphoid lesions involve the sinonasal tract, including aggressive B, T, and NK-cell neoplasms; myeloid sarcoma; low-grade lymphomas; indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations; and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Differentiating aggressive lymphomas from non-hematopoietic neoplasms such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, or sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma may pose diagnostic challenges. In addition, the necrosis, vascular damage, and inflammatory infiltrates that are associated with some hematolymphoid disorders can result in misdiagnosis as infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions. Here, we review hematolymphoid disorders involving the sinonasal tract including their key clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:26472692

  1. Cellular signaling during the macrophage invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mauricio; Dutra, Juliana M F; Carvalho, Tecia M U; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa L; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs; Souza, Wanderley

    2002-12-01

    We have reported that protein tyrosine kinases play an important role in the invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi into primary resident macrophages. In the present study we carry out immunofluorescence assays, using monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, to reveal an accumulation of tyrosine-phosphorylated residues at the site of parasite association with the macrophage surface, colocalizing with host cell F-actin-rich domains. SDS-PAGE analysis of macrophage cell line IC-21 tyrosine phosphoproteins, labeled with [(35)S] L-methionine, revealed several peptides with increased levels of phosphorylation upon interaction with the parasite. Among them, were detected bands of 140, 120, 112, 94, 73, 67, and 56 kDa that match the molecular weights of proteins described as being tyrosine phosphorylated during events that lead to actin assembly in mononuclear phagocytes. The pretreatment of IC-21 macrophages with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23 inhibited trypomastigote uptake showing that tyrosine phosphorylation is important for the parasite penetration in this particular cell line. Immunofluorescence microscopy, using antibodies against p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), placed this enzyme also in the same sites, in accordance to what is reported for phagocytosis. We suggest that once the components of T. cruzi trypomastigotes surface are recognized by macrophage receptors, they trigger the activation of a tyrosine phosphorylation cascade, PI 3-kinase recruitment, and assembly of actin filaments at the site of initial cell-to-cell contact, resembling the events described during phagocytosis. These achievements support the model for a phagocytic-like actin-dependent invasion mechanism for T. cruzi trypomastigotes into macrophages. PMID:12483314

  2. Polyamine depletion inhibits the autophagic response modulating Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Vanrell, María C.; Cueto, Juan A.; Barclay, Jeremías J.; Carrillo, Carolina; Colombo, María I.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Romano, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell process that in normal conditions serves to recycle cytoplasmic components and aged or damaged organelles. The autophagic pathway has been implicated in many physiological and pathological situations, even during the course of infection by intracellular pathogens. Many compounds are currently used to positively or negatively modulate the autophagic response. Recently it was demonstrated that the polyamine spermidine is a physiological inducer of autophagy in eukaryotic cells. We have previously shown that the etiological agent of Chagas disease, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, interacts with autophagic compartments during host cell invasion and that preactivation of autophagy significantly increases host cell colonization by this parasite. In the present report we have analyzed the effect of polyamine depletion on the autophagic response of the host cell and on T. cruzi infectivity. Our data showed that depleting intracellular polyamines by inhibiting the biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) suppressed the induction of autophagy in response to starvation or rapamycin treatment in two cell lines. This effect was associated with a decrease in the levels of LC3 and ATG5, two proteins required for autophagosome formation. As a consequence of inhibiting host cell autophagy, DFMO impaired T. cruzi colonization, indicating that polyamines and autophagy facilitate parasite infection. Thus, our results point to DFMO as a novel autophagy inhibitor. While other autophagy inhibitors such as wortmannin and 3-methyladenine are nonspecific and potentially toxic, DFMO is an FDA-approved drug that may have value in limiting autophagy and the spread of the infection in Chagas disease and possibly other pathological settings. PMID:23697944

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Response to Ionizing Radiation Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Helaine Graziele Santos; Grynberg, Priscila; Bitar, Mainá; Pires, Simone da Fonseca; Hilário, Heron Oliveira; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Andrade, Hélida Monteiro; Franco, Glória Regina

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation, enduring up to 1.5 kGy of gamma rays. Ionizing radiation can damage the DNA molecule both directly, resulting in double-strand breaks, and indirectly, as a consequence of reactive oxygen species production. After a dose of 500 Gy of gamma rays, the parasite genome is fragmented, but the chromosomal bands are restored within 48 hours. Under such conditions, cell growth arrests for up to 120 hours and the parasites resume normal growth after this period. To better understand the parasite response to ionizing radiation, we analyzed the proteome of irradiated (4, 24, and 96 hours after irradiation) and non-irradiated T. cruzi using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification. A total of 543 spots were found to be differentially expressed, from which 215 were identified. These identified protein spots represent different isoforms of only 53 proteins. We observed a tendency for overexpression of proteins with molecular weights below predicted, indicating that these may be processed, yielding shorter polypeptides. The presence of shorter protein isoforms after irradiation suggests the occurrence of post-translational modifications and/or processing in response to gamma radiation stress. Our results also indicate that active translation is essential for the recovery of parasites from ionizing radiation damage. This study therefore reveals the peculiar response of T. cruzi to ionizing radiation, raising questions about how this organism can change its protein expression to survive such a harmful stress. PMID:24842666

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi contains two galactokinases; molecular and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Lobo-Rojas, Ángel E; González-Marcano, Eglys B; Valera-Vera, Edward A; Acosta, Héctor R; Quiñones, Wilfredo A; Burchmore, Richard J S; Concepción, Juan L; Cáceres, Ana J

    2016-10-01

    Two different putative galactokinase genes, found in the genome database of Trypanosoma cruzi were cloned and sequenced. Expression of the genes in Escherichia coli resulted for TcGALK-1 in the synthesis of a soluble and active enzyme, and in the case of TcGALK-2 gene a less soluble protein, with predicted molecular masses of 51.9kDa and 51.3kDa, respectively. The Km values determined for the recombinant proteins were for galactose 0.108mM (TcGALK-1) and 0.091mM (TcGALK-2) and for ATP 0.36mM (TcGALK-1) and 0.1mM (TcGALK-2). Substrate inhibition by ATP (Ki 0.414mM) was only observed for TcGALK-2. Gel-filtration chromatography showed that natural TcGALKs and recombinant TcGALK-1 are monomeric. In agreement with the possession of a type-1 peroxisome-targeting signal by both TcGALKs, they were found to be present inside glycosomes using two different methods of subcellular fractionation in conjunction with mass spectrometry. Both genes are expressed in epimastigote and trypomastigote stages since the respective proteins were immunodetected by western blotting. The T. cruzi galactokinases present their highest (52-47%) sequence identity with their counterpart from Leishmania spp., followed by prokaryotic galactokinases such as those from E. coli and Lactococcus lactis (26-23%). In a phylogenetic analysis, the trypanosomatid galactokinases form a separate cluster, showing an affiliation with bacteria. Epimastigotes of T. cruzi can grow in glucose-depleted LIT-medium supplemented with 20mM of galactose, suggesting that this hexose, upon phosphorylation by a TcGALK, could be used in the synthesis of UDP-galactose and also as a possible carbon and energy source. PMID:27312997

  5. Synergistic Effect of Lupenone and Caryophyllene Oxide against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Polanco-Hernández, Glendy; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Rosado, María E.; Guzmán-Marín, Eugenia; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y.; Giménez-Turba, Alberto; Salamanca, Efraín; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro trypanocidal activity of a 1 : 4 mixture of lupenone and caryophyllene oxide confirmed a synergistic effect of the terpenoids against epimastigotes forms of T. cruzi (IC50 = 10.4 μg/mL, FIC = 0.46). In addition, testing of the terpenoid mixture for its capacity to reduce the number of amastigote nests in cardiac tissue and skeletal muscle of infected mice showed a reduction of more than 80% at a dose level of 20.8 mg·kg−1·day−1. PMID:23762135

  6. Toxicity and properties of the extract from Sarcocystis cruzi cysts.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Taguchi, K; Shibata, Y; Kobayashi, T; Shimura, K; Itagaki, H

    1995-12-01

    The extract from Sarcocystis cruzi cysts in bovine muscle was subcutaneously injected to mice, guinea pigs, chickens, and rabbits to detect its toxicity. Only rabbits showed reactions after administration of the extract at a dose of 25 micrograms. The main clinical signs of the rabbits were depression, reduction in body temperature and intermittent diarrhea and the hematological findings observed were elevation in WBC, RBC, PCV, TP, BUN, AST, AUT and creatinine values and reduction in glucose, K+ and pH of blood. The extract, crude toxin, was a water soluble, acid-alkali stable and thermolabile protein and estimated to be a molecular mass of 15-16 kd. PMID:8720045

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in B-cell-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, A M; Santoro, F; Afchain, D; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of neonatally initiated injections of anti-mu rabbit antiserum on immunity of rats against Trypanosoma cruzi infection was investigated in vivo. Anti-mu treatment resulted in a loss of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG2a synthesis and, subsequently, of antibody production. These rats so treated were shown to be significantly more susceptible to the acute phase of the infection than the control rats treated with normal rabbit serum, as measured by increased parasitemia and mortality. These results indicate the essential role of antibodies, probably in association with complement or effector cells or both, in immunity to acute Chagas' disease. PMID:6783543

  8. Identifying four Trypanosoma cruzi I isolate haplotypes from different geographic regions in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Claudia; Bargues, M Dolores; Fajardo, Anabella; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo; Guhl, Felipe

    2007-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has been classified into the groups T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II. The latter is subdivided into five smaller lineages based on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA, designated as IIa-IIe, which shows correspondence with rRNA/mini-exon lineages. Twelve previously characterised T. cruzi isolates from different hosts, including humans, Didelphis marsupialis, and triatomines were analysed to establish genetic variability in T. cruzi group T. cruzi I isolates from different geographical regions of Colombia. DNA samples were sequenced based on the mini-exon gene intergenic region. Sequences were analysed using Clustal W, Staden 1.5 and MEGA3 software, and using reported sequences from the GenBank as reference. The genetic distances were analysed using Kimura's two-parameter model. The isolates' joint alignment was of 350bp, and the calculated nucleotide divergence was of 17.5%. The differences consisted of 23 transitions (7.2%), 14 transversions (4.4%) and 19 insertion-deletions (5.9%). The Colombian T cruzi I isolates revealed sufficient genetic variability for us to propose the existence of four haplotypes identified through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion found in the mini-exon gene's non-transcribed spacer intergenic region. PMID:17287152

  9. Is the Antitumor Property of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Mediated by Its Calreticulin?

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Toloza, Galia; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of Chagas’ disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. Similar to other pathogens, T. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. Studies, performed 80 years ago in the Soviet Union, proposed that T. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. An antagonistic relationship between T. cruzi infection and cancer development was also proposed, but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Probably, a variety of T. cruzi molecules is involved. This review focuses on how T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), exteriorized from the endoplasmic reticulum, targets the first classical complement component C1 and negatively regulates the classical complement activation cascade, promoting parasite infectivity. We propose that this C1-dependent TcCRT-mediated virulence is critical to explain, at least an important part, of the parasite capacity to inhibit tumor development. We will discuss how TcCRT, by directly interacting with venous and arterial endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these TcCRT functions not only illustrate T. cruzi interactions with the host immune defensive strategies, but also illustrate a possible co-evolutionary adaptation to privilege a prolonged interaction with its host. PMID:27462315

  10. Nucleotide sequences provide evidence of genetic exchange among distantly related lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Carlos A.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2001-01-01

    Simple phylogenetic tests were applied to a large data set of nucleotide sequences from two nuclear genes and a region of the mitochondrial genome of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease. Incongruent gene genealogies manifest genetic exchange among distantly related lineages of T. cruzi. Two widely distributed isoenzyme types of T. cruzi are hybrids, their genetic composition being the likely result of genetic exchange between two distantly related lineages. The data show that the reference strain for the T. cruzi genome project (CL Brener) is a hybrid. Well-supported gene genealogies show that mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from T. cruzi cluster, respectively, in three or four distinct clades that do not fully correspond to the two previously defined major lineages of T. cruzi. There is clear genetic differentiation among the major groups of sequences, but genetic diversity within each major group is low. We estimate that the major extant lineages of T. cruzi have diverged during the Miocene or early Pliocene (3–16 million years ago). PMID:11416213

  11. Is the Antitumor Property of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Mediated by Its Calreticulin?

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Toloza, Galia; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of Chagas' disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. Similar to other pathogens, T. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. Studies, performed 80 years ago in the Soviet Union, proposed that T. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. An antagonistic relationship between T. cruzi infection and cancer development was also proposed, but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Probably, a variety of T. cruzi molecules is involved. This review focuses on how T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), exteriorized from the endoplasmic reticulum, targets the first classical complement component C1 and negatively regulates the classical complement activation cascade, promoting parasite infectivity. We propose that this C1-dependent TcCRT-mediated virulence is critical to explain, at least an important part, of the parasite capacity to inhibit tumor development. We will discuss how TcCRT, by directly interacting with venous and arterial endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these TcCRT functions not only illustrate T. cruzi interactions with the host immune defensive strategies, but also illustrate a possible co-evolutionary adaptation to privilege a prolonged interaction with its host. PMID:27462315

  12. B3-lesions of the breast and cancer risk - an analysis of mammography screening patients

    PubMed Central

    HOFFMANN, OLIVER; STAMATIS, GESINA ATHINA; BITTNER, ANN-KATHRIN; ARNOLD, GEORG; SCHNABEL, ROLF; KRÜGER, KARLGEORG; KIMMIG, RAINER; HEUBNER, MARTIN

    2016-01-01

    The use of mammography screening, followed by needle core biopsy (NCB), is associated with an increasing amount of invasive procedures. A considerable amount of specimens must be classified as lesions with uncertain malignant potential (B3-lesion). In these cases, an open biopsy is indicated for further diagnosis. We evaluated patients with B3-lesions to determine the risk of malignancy corresponding to the histopathological NCB results and the type of radiological lesion identified. A total of 95 patients participating in the German mammography screening program with a B3-lesion following NCB (104 B3-lesions in total) were included in our analysis. We analyzed the correlation between the initial histopathological findings from the NCB specimen and cancer risk. We further analyzed the correlations of malignant results with the type of mammographic lesion. In 23 cases (22%), histopathological examination following excision revealed a malignant lesion, including invasive and in situ carcinoma. The positive predictive value of the subgroups of B3-lesions ranged between 0.11 and 0.31; the B3-lesion associated with the highest cancer risk was the atypical ductal hyperplasia; however, no significant difference was observed between the B3-lesion subgroups (P=0.309) regarding the risk of malignancy. Comparing the different types of mammographic findings, such as radiological mass or microcalcifications, there was no significant difference in the risk for malignancy (P=0.379). The different types of B3-lesions did not exhibit differences in the risk for malignancy, and the morphological type of mammographic lesion does not appear to be correlated with cancer risk; therefore, our results underline the need for open biopsy in patients with B3-lesions following NCB. PMID:27123266

  13. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and polymerase chain reaction assays in the study of cases with fatal sporadic myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Bhatnagar, Julu; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Nolte, Kurt B; Klein, Dennis; Gookin, Michelle S; Peñaranda, Silvia; Oberste, M Steven; Jones, Tara; Smith, Chalanda; Pallansch, Mark A; Zaki, Sherif R

    2007-09-01

    Paraffin tissue blocks from 27 cases with sporadic myocarditis were collected during a 12-year period at a single medical examiner's office. Blocks were studied by using histopathology; immunohistochemistry for viruses (adenovirus, enterovirus, influenza A and B, and human herpes types 4 and 5), bacteria (Neisseria meningitidis, Ehrlichia sp, spotted fever group Rickettsia) and parasites (Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi); and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/RT-PCR for adenovirus and enterovirus. We identified enterovirus in 5 (18.5%) cases and Sarcocystis in a 36-year-old woman who had focal inflammation and myocyte necrosis. Immunohistochemical evidence of enteroviruses was found in the myocytes of 2 patients less than 6 months old who had diffuse mononuclear myocardial inflammation, interstitial pneumonitis; one also had encephalitis. In these 2 patients, the presence of enterovirus was confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the 5' nontranslated region and was serotyped as coxsackievirus B2 by sequencing the VP1 capsid region. In another 3 cases (ages 12, 47, and 54), enterovirus was detected by the 5' nontranslated region region; VP1 sequencing identified these as echoviruses 6, 13, and 7, respectively. Accurately identifying an infectious agent is the foundation for clinical and public health interventions. Despite using multiple diagnostic methods, an organism could only be detected in a small proportion of sporadic myocarditis cases. PMID:17602724

  14. Combined micro CT and histopathology for evaluation of skeletal metastasis in live animals

    PubMed Central

    Geffre, Christopher P; Pond, Erika; Pond, Gerald D; Sroka, Isis C; Gard, Jaime M; Skovan, Bethany A; Meek, William E; Landowski, Terry H; Nagle, Raymond B; Cress, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a favored site for solid tumor metastasis, especially among patients with breast, lung or prostate carcinomas. Micro CT is a powerful and inexpensive tool that can be used to investigate tumor progression in xenograft models of human disease. Many previous studies have relied on terminal analysis of harvested bones to document metastatic tumor activity. The current protocol uses live animals and combines sequential micro CT evaluation of lesion development with matched histopathology at the end of the study. The approach allows for both rapid detection and evaluation of bone lesion progression in live animals. Bone resident tumors are established either by direct (intraosseous) or arterial (intracardiac) injection, and lesion development is evaluated for up to eight weeks. This protocol provides a clinically relevant method for investigating bone metastasis progression and the development of osteotropic therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bone metastases. PMID:25901201

  15. Is the infectiousness of dogs naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi associated with poly-parasitism?

    PubMed

    Enriquez, G F; Garbossa, G; Macchiaverna, N P; Argibay, H D; Bua, J; Gürtler, R E; Cardinal, M V

    2016-06-15

    Interactions among different species of parasites co-infecting the same host could be synergistic or antagonistic. These interactions may modify both the frequency of infected hosts and their infectiousness, and therefore impact on transmission dynamics. This study determined the infectiousness of Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive dogs (using xenodiagnosis) and their parasite load (quantified by qPCR), and tested the association between both variables and the presence of concomitant endoparasites. A cross-sectional serosurvey conducted in eight rural villages from Pampa del Indio and neighboring municipalities (northeastern Argentina) detected 32 T. cruzi-seropositive dogs out of 217 individuals examined for infection. Both the infectiousness to the vector Triatoma infestans and parasite load of T. cruzi-seropositive dogs examined were heterogeneous. A statistically significant, nine-fold higher mean infectiousness was registered in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs co-infected with Ancylostoma caninum and a trematode than in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs without these infections. The median parasite load of T. cruzi was also significantly higher in dogs co-infected with these helminths. An opposite trend was observed in T. cruzi-seropositive dogs that were serologically positive to Toxoplasma gondii or Neospora caninum relative to dogs seronegative for these parasites. Using multiple logistic regression analysis with random effects, we found a positive and significant association between the infectiousness of T. cruzi-seropositive dogs and co-infections with A. caninum and a trematode. Our results suggest that co-infections may be a modifier of host infectiousness in dogs naturally infected with T. cruzi. PMID:27198799

  16. Serum Cytokines as Biomarkers of Early Trypanosoma cruzi infection by Congenital Exposure.

    PubMed

    Volta, Bibiana J; Bustos, Patricia L; Cardoni, Rita L; De Rissio, Ana M; Laucella, Susana A; Bua, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, leads to an activation of the immune system in congenitally infected infants. In this study, we measured a set of cytokines/chemokines and the levels of parasitemia by quantitative PCR in the circulation of neonates born to T. cruzi-infected mothers to evaluate the predictive value of these mediators as biomarkers of congenital transmission. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35 infants with congenital T. cruzi infection, of which 15 and 10 infants had been diagnosed by detection of parasites by microscopy in the first and sixth month after delivery, respectively, and the remaining 10 had been diagnosed by the presence of T. cruzi-specific Abs at 10-12 mo old. Uninfected infants born to either T. cruzi-infected or uninfected mothers were also evaluated as controls. The plasma levels of IL-17A, MCP-1, and monokine induced by IFN-γ were increased in infants congenitally infected with T. cruzi, even before they developed detectable parasitemia or seroconversion. Infants diagnosed between 6 and 12 mo old also showed increased levels of IL-6 and IL-17F at 1 mo of age. Conversely, infants who did not develop congenital T. cruzi infection had higher levels of IFN-γ than infected infants born to uninfected mothers. Monokine induced by IFN-γ, MCP-1, and IFN-γ production induced in T. cruzi-infected infants correlated with parasitemia, whereas the plasma levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-6 were less parasite load dependent. These findings support the existence of a distinct profile of cytokines and chemokines in the circulation of infants born to T. cruzi-infected mothers, which might predict congenital infection. PMID:27183607

  17. Secondary Buruli Ulcer Skin Lesions Emerging Several Months after Completion of Chemotherapy: Paradoxical Reaction or Evidence for Immune Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Chauty, Annick; Adeye, Ambroise; Ardant, Marie-Françoise; Koussemou, Hugues; Johnson, Roch Christian; Pluschke, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Background The neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic ulcerative skin lesions. Histopathological features are progressive tissue necrosis, extracellular clusters of acid fast bacilli (AFB) and poor inflammatory responses at the site of infection. After the recommended eight weeks standard treatment with rifampicin and streptomycin, a reversal of the local immunosuppression caused by the macrolide toxin mycolactone of M. ulcerans is observed. Methodology/Principal Findings We have conducted a detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of tissue specimens from two patients developing multiple new skin lesions 12 to 409 days after completion of antibiotic treatment. Lesions exhibited characteristic histopathological hallmarks of Buruli ulcer and AFB with degenerated appearance were found in several of them. However, other than in active disease, lesions contained massive leukocyte infiltrates including large B-cell clusters, as typically found in cured lesions. Conclusion/Significance Our histopathological findings demonstrate that the skin lesions emerging several months after completion of antibiotic treatment were associated with M. ulcerans infection. During antibiotic therapy of Buruli ulcer development of new skin lesions may be caused by immune response-mediated paradoxical reactions. These seem to be triggered by mycobacterial antigens and immunostimulators released from clinically unrecognized bacterial foci. However, in particular the lesions that appeared more than one year after completion of antibiotic treatment may have been associated with new infection foci resolved by immune responses primed by the successful treatment of the initial lesion. PMID:21829740

  18. Retrospective study of biopsied head and neck lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A study of the whole spectrum of biopsied head and neck (HN) diseases in Taiwan has not yet been performed. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide updated information about HN lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients for histopathological examination. Methods HN lesions (2000–2011) in patients with records of age, sex, and histological diagnoses were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Department of the institution. These lesions were classified into four main categories: tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, inflammatory/infective lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Results A total of 37,210 HN lesions were included in the current study. Most of these lesions were distributed in the group of tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, followed by the groups of inflammatory/infective lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common HN lesion, and was also the most frequent malignant lesion among the referral patients. Conclusion It was worthy of note that squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders comprised high percentages of all HN lesions for the present cohort of referral patients. PMID:25047214

  19. Challenges in imaging and histopathological assessment of a giant cell tumour with secondary aneurysmal cyst in the patella

    PubMed Central

    Low, Soo Fin; Hanafiah, Mohammad; Nurismah, Md Isa; Suraya, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    The patella is an uncommon site for all primary and metastatic bone tumours and primary intra-osseous tumours of the patella are very rare. A majority of the patella tumours are benign. We report a patient with a sudden onset swelling and pain of the right knee following a staircase fall. The plain radiograph showed an expansile multiseptated patella lesion and it was further assessed with an MRI. The radiological findings and the initial histopathological features from a limited sample were suggestive of a primary aneurysmal bone cyst. However, the final histopathological diagnosis from a more adequate specimen was a giant cell tumour with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. PMID:24057334

  20. First report of human Trypanosoma cruzi infection attributed to TcBat genotype.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J D; Hernández, C; Montilla, M; Zambrano, P; Flórez, A C; Parra, E; Cucunubá, Z M

    2014-11-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic disease of the American continent caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and divided into six discrete typing units (TcI - TcVI). Nearly 10 million people harbour the infection representing a serious issue in public health. Epidemiological surveillance allowed us to detect a bat-related T. cruzi genotype (henceforth named TcBat) in a 5-year-old female living in a forest area in northwestern Colombia. Molecular tools determined a mixed infection of T. cruzi I and TcBat genotypes. This represents the first report of TcBat infection in humans; the epidemiological consequences of this finding are discussed herein. PMID:25285940

  1. Prospects for T. cruzi lineage-specific serological surveillance of wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Mills, Emily A; Jansen, Ana Maria; Miles, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Sequence diversity in the Trypanosoma cruzi small surface molecule TSSA has yielded antigens for serology to investigate the T. cruzi lineage-specific infection history of patients with Chagas disease. Synthetic peptides can be used as the lineage-specific antigens. Here we consider the rationale, feasibility and potential of applying peptide-based lineage-specific serology to naturally infected wild mammals. The commercial availability of appropriate secondary antibodies encourages this further development, for discovery of new reservoir host species and to reveal the wider ecological distribution of T. cruzi lineages, currently hindered by the need to recover live isolates or to attempt genotyping of DNA extracted from blood samples. PMID:26116784

  2. Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zingales, Bianca; Miles, Michael A; Moraes, Carolina B; Luquetti, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe; Schijman, Alejandro G; Ribeiro, Isabela

    2014-01-01

    This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape. PMID:25317712

  3. Regulation and use of the extracellular matrix by Trypanosoma cruzi during early infection

    PubMed Central

    Nde, Pius N.; Lima, Maria F.; Johnson, Candice A.; Pratap, Siddharth; Villalta, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease, which was once thought to be confined to endemic regions of Latin America, has now gone global becoming a new worldwide challenge. For more than a century since its discovery, it has remained neglected with no effective drugs or vaccines. The mechanisms by which Trypanosoma cruzi regulates and uses the extracellular matrix (ECM) to invade cells and cause disease are just beginning to be understood. Here we critically review and discuss the regulation of the ECM interactome by T. cruzi, the use of the ECM by T. cruzi and analyze the molecular ECM/T. cruzi interphase during the early process of infection. It has been shown that invasive trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi use and modulate components of the ECM during the initial process of infection. Infective trypomastigotes up-regulate the expression of laminin γ-1 (LAMC1) and thrombospondin (THBS1) to facilitate the recruitment of trypomastigotes to enhance cellular infection. Silencing the expression of LAMC1 and THBS1 by stable RNAi dramatically reduces trypanosome infection. T. cruzi gp83, a ligand that mediates the attachment of trypanosomes to cells to initiate infection, up-regulates LAMC1 expression to enhance cellular infection. Infective trypomastigotes use Tc85 to interact with laminin, p45 mucin to interact with LAMC1 through galectin-3 (LGALS3), a human lectin, and calreticulin (TcCRT) to interact with TSB1 to enhance cellular infection. Silencing the expression of LGALS3 also reduces cellular infection. Despite the role of the ECM in T. cruzi infection, almost nothing is known about the ECM interactome networks operating in the process of T. cruzi infection and its ligands. Here, we present the first elucidation of the human ECM interactome network regulated by T. cruzi and its gp83 ligand that facilitates cellular infection. The elucidation of the human ECM interactome regulated by T. cruzi and the dissection of the molecular ECM/T. cruzi interphase using systems biology approaches are

  4. Petrous apex cholesterol granuloma: pictorial review of radiological considerations in diagnosis and surgical histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, M; House, J W; Linthicum, F H; Go, J L

    2013-01-01

    Background Petrous apex cholesterol granulomas are expansile, cystic lesions containing cholesterol crystals surrounded by foreign body giant cells, fibrous tissue reaction and chronic inflammation. Appropriate treatment relies on an accurate radiological diagnosis and an understanding of the distinguishing radiological features of relevant entities in the differential diagnosis of this condition. Methods Firstly, this paper presents a pictorial review of the relevant radiological features of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, and highlights unique features relevant to the differential diagnosis. Secondly, it reviews the histopathological and radiological findings associated with surgical drainage of these lesions. Results Radiological features relevant to the differential diagnosis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma are reviewed, together with radiological and histopathological features relevant to surgical management. Following surgical management, histopathological and radiological evidence demonstrates that the patency of the surgical drainage pathway is maintained. Conclusion Accurate diagnosis of petrous apex cholesterol granuloma is essential in order to instigate appropriate treatment. Placement of a stent in the drainage pathway may help to maintain patency and decrease the likelihood of symptomatic recurrence. PMID:23442366

  5. The Shear Wave Velocity on Elastography Correlates with the Clinical Symptoms and Histopathological Features of Keloids

    PubMed Central

    Yamawaki, Satoko; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Katayama, Yasuhiro; Enoshiri, Tatsuki; Naitoh, Motoko; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Keloids present as red, painful lesions causing serious functional and cosmetic problems; however, there is no consensus regarding tools for objectively evaluating keloids. To demonstrate the utility of shear wave elastography in keloids, we investigated the correlations between clinical symptoms, ultrasound shear wave velocity, and histopathological findings. Methods: Three patients with keloids containing both red hypertrophic and mature areas were evaluated using the shear wave velocity and histopathological findings. Results: The results indicate that the shear wave velocity is high in active hypertrophic areas and low in mature areas. The areas with high elastography values exhibited numerous fibrillar collagenous matrices forming a whorled pattern with hyalinized tissue on hematoxylin-eosin staining corresponding with metachromasia on toluidine blue staining. In the mature area, the collagen fibers were oriented parallel to each other without metachromasia. Conclusions: Shear wave elastography provides quantitative estimates of tissue stiffness that correlate with the clinical symptoms and histopathological findings of the keloid lesions and can be used to assess the activity of keloids. PMID:26301153

  6. Histopathological characteristics of renal changes in human renin-angiotensinogen double transgenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Tochitani, Tomoaki; Mori, Masaya; Matsuda, Koichi; Kouchi, Mami; Fujii, Yuta; Matsumoto, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    The human renin-angiotensinogen double transgenic rat (dTGR) is a model of hypertension. The aim of this short report was to describe the histopathological characteristics of the renal changes in this rat strain in detail. Seven to nine-week-old male dTGRs were euthanized, and their kidneys were histopathologically examined. At the time of sacrifice, the average systolic blood pressure of the dTGRs was 258 mmHg, while that of age-matched, normal Sprague-Dawley rats was 135 mmHg. In the kidney, histopathological changes were observed mainly in blood vessels, tubules and glomeruli. In blood vessels, changes including medial hypertrophy, intimal thickening, hyaline change and/or fibrinoid necrosis were observed in arteries and arterioles. In tubules, changes including tubular basophilia were observed radially, mainly around interlobular arteries with lesions. In glomeruli, changes including hyaline droplet accumulation in podocytes, which was accompanied by increased expression of desmin, were observed. These changes were similar to those reported in other hypertension models, such as the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We hope that this short report will be helpful in histopathological examination of renal changes in this or other hypertension models. PMID:27182118

  7. Erythema nodosum of non-lower extremity sites - a histopathologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Perez-Chua, T; Miller, D D; Mahalingam, M

    2014-11-19

    We recently saw a 51 year--old female with a tender, erythematous nodule on the left elbow and histopathology consistent with Erythema nodosum (EN). A subsequent literature review of EN in non--lower extremity (LE) sites identified only three reports, with minimal histopathology, prompting the current study. We identified nine EN cases on non--LE sites over a 14--year period. Histopathology typical of EN observed included septal panniculitis, fibrosis and edema, a mixed septal inflammatory infiltrate with and spillover into adjacent lobules and Miescher's radial granulomas. Atypical features observed included a mixed (septal and lobular) panniculitis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, changes in septal small vessels (lymphocytic cuffing of septal venules, endothelial swelling), lipomembranous cystic change and asteroid bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to detail the histopathologic findings of EN on non--LE sites. Similar to that noted in classical EN in the LE, findings from the current study indicate that EN in non--LE sites display typical as well as atypical features. Limitations include retrospective design and the unspecified duration of biopsied lesions relative to clinical presentation. PMID:25407105

  8. Histopathologic features of multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Munday, William R; Leffell, David J; McNiff, Jennifer M; Ko, Christine J

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the leg, particularly those occurring multiply in sun exposed skin of nonimmunosuppressed women, are a distinct clinical subtype. There are few reports of the histopathologic features of this subtype. A retrospective chart review of 4 patients with multiple SCCs on the leg was performed and a total of 35 biopsies from the legs examined. Histopathologically, the tumors lacked adjacent actinic keratosis (AK) and often had adjacent basaloid retiform proliferations. Most lesions (all but one) were well differentiated and about 40% could be classified histopathologically as keratoacanthoma. Perineural invasion was absent in all but one case. Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for SCC, 21 tumors were Stage I, and 9 Stage II. During 7-10 years of follow-up, no recurrence or metastasis occurred. Patients with multiple SCCs on the lower extremities can have a range of histopathologic features, from keratoacanthoma-like to well-differentiated SCC. PMID:27220356

  9. Phospholipid and glycolipid composition of acidocalcisomes of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Salto, María Laura; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark; de Lederkremer, Rosa M.; Docampo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Highly purified acidocalcisomes from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were obtained by differential centrifugation and iodixanol gradient ultracentrifugation. Lipid analysis of acidocalcisomes revealed the presence of low amounts of 3β-hydroxysterols and predominance of phospholipids. Alkylacyl phosphatidylinositol (16:0/18:2), diacyl phosphatidylinositol (18:0/18:2), diacyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:2; 16:1/18:2; 16:2/18:2, 18:1/18:2, and 18:2/18:2), and diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (16:0/18:2 and 16:1/18:2) were the only phospholipids characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Incubation of epimastigotes with [3H]-mannose and isolation of acidocalcisomes allowed the detection of a glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL) in these organelles. The sugar content of the acidocalcisomal GIPL was similar to that of the GIPL present in a microsomal fraction but the amount of galactofuranose and inositol with respect to the other monosaccharides was lower, suggesting a different chemical structure. Taken together, these results indicate that acidocalcisomes of T. cruzi have a distinct lipid and carbohydrate composition. PMID:18207579

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  11. Restricted genetic diversity in the ubiquitous cattle parasite, Sarcocystis cruzi.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dunams, Detiger B; Pritt, Bobbi

    2008-09-01

    Although parasites of the genus Sarcocystis have likely cycled between bovine herbivores and canine carnivores for tens of millions of years, humans may have profoundly influenced the ecology and evolution of those prevalent in domesticated dogs and cattle. To preliminarily assess the possibility of such anthropogenic effects, we surveyed genetic variation in conserved (18S small subunit) and variable (ITS-1) portions of ribosomal DNA from a large sample of Sarcocystis cruzi occurring in taurine beef cattle raised in the United States and Uruguay, and compared these data to available homologues, including those reported from zebu cattle, water buffalo, and bison. For additional context, we compared the apparent diversity of cattle parasites to that reported from congeneric parasites in other hosts. We find that the S. cruzi of taurine cattle, whether derived from the Americas or Asia, are devoid of variability in the sequenced portion (80%) of the small subunit rDNA. By contrast, geographically limited samples of related parasites in other hosts, including those of wildlife, are more variable. At the adjacent ITS-1 locus, allelic distribution patterns did not indicate any regional barriers to gene flow, suggesting that the parasite may have been introduced to the Americas via a common source such as domesticated dogs or cattle. Thus, human impact on this parasite's distribution and diversification would seem to have been great. PMID:18501682

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi: adaptation to its vectors and its hosts

    PubMed Central

    Noireau, François; Diosque, Patricio; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis that occurs throughout Latin America. The etiological agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is able to infect almost all tissues of its mammalian hosts and spreads in the environment in multifarious transmission cycles that may or not be connected. This biological plasticity, which is probably the result of the considerable heterogeneity of the taxon, exemplifies a successful adaptation of a parasite resulting in distinct outcomes of infection and a complex epidemiological pattern. In the 1990s, most endemic countries strengthened national control programs to interrupt the transmission of this parasite to humans. However, many obstacles remain to the effective control of the disease. Current knowledge of the different components involved in elaborate system that is American trypanosomiasis (the protozoan parasite T. cruzi, vectors Triatominae and the many reservoirs of infection), as well as the interactions existing within the system, is still incomplete. The Triatominae probably evolve from predatory reduvids in response to the availability of vertebrate food source. However, the basic mechanisms of adaptation of some of them to artificial ecotopes remain poorly understood. Nevertheless, these adaptations seem to be associated with a behavioral plasticity, a reduction in the genetic repertoire and increasing developmental instability. PMID:19250627

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  14. Characterization of inositolphospholipids in Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, M L; Couto, A S; Colli, W; de Lederkremer, R M

    1996-05-20

    In vivo labeling experiments with [3H]palmitic acid, [3H]inositol, and [3H]glucose allowed the identification of two main classes of inositolphospholipids (IPLs) from the trypomastigote stage of Trypanosoma cruzi. Purification of these compounds was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Specific phosphatidyl-inositol phospholipase C digestion, dephosphorylation and acid methanolysis showed a ceramide structure for the lower migrating IPL1. Palmitoyldihydrosphingosine and palmitoylsphingosine were detected by reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography. On the other hand, IPL2 showed to be a mixture of diacylglycero- and alkylacylglycero-phospholipids in a 1:1 ratio. After PI-PLC digestion, the lipids were separated by preparative TLC and individually analysed. The diacylglycerol contained mainly C18:0 fatty acid together with a low amount of C16:0. Hexadecylglycerol esterified with the C18:0 fatty acid was the only alkylacylglycerol detected. The C18:2 and C18:1 fatty acids, preponderant in the PI molecules of epimastigote forms, were not detected in trypomastigote forms. This is the first report on inositol phospholipids, putative precursors of lipid anchors in the infective stage of T. cruzi. PMID:8679689

  15. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:25946157

  16. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  17. UK guidance for the pathological reporting of serrated lesions of the colorectum.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Adrian C; Shepherd, Neil A

    2015-08-01

    Bowel cancer screening programmes have highlighted to endoscopists and clinicians the spectrum of serrated colorectal lesions. One of the most significant developments has been the recognition that sessile serrated lesions (SSLs), while bearing histological resemblance to hyperplastic polyps (HPs), may be associated with the enhanced development of epithelial dysplasia and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Different minimum criteria exist for the diagnosis of SSLs and their differentiation from HPs. Furthermore, the spectrum of terminology used to describe the entire range of serrated lesions is wide. This variability has impaired interobserver agreement during their histopathological assessment. Here, we provide guidance for the histopathological reporting of serrated lesions, including a simplified nomenclature system. Essentially, we recommend use of the following terms: HP, SSL, SSL with dysplasia, traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) and mixed polyp. It is hoped that this standardisation of nomenclature will facilitate studies of the biological significance of serrated lesions in terms of the relative risk of disease progression. PMID:25934843

  18. [Control of the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina 1999].

    PubMed

    Segura, E L; Sosa Estani, S; Esquivel, M L; Gómez, A; Salomon, O D

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2 million people in Argentina are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, thereby constituting the major tropical disease in the country. As in other six Southern Cone countries, Triatoma infestans is the only or major vector of T. cruzi among human and domestic animals. In Argentina, a vertically structured National Chagas Control Program was established in 1962. Such a program pursued the elimination of domestic and peri-domestic populations of T. infestans through insecticidal spraying, and the serological control of blood donors to prevent transfusion-related infections. This program strongly reduced the nation-wide serological prevalence of T. cruzi in the population. For example, in 18 or 20 year-old men drafted into military service, the seroprevalence decreased from 10.1% in 1964 for those who had been born in 1944 to 1.9% in 1993 for those born in 1975. However, the vertical strategy failed to reach and sustain the surveillance phase in widespread rural areas with disperse populations due to its intrinsic limitations and the reduced priority level assigned to rural health programs. An alternative, horizontally-structured control strategy of T. infestans was developed and assayed in the Province of Santiago del Estero between 1985-1989, and 1991-1992. The projects demonstrated that insecticidal spraying carried out with community participation combined effectiveness and commitment in such a way as to produce a strong impact on house reinfestation and the extension of the area under entomological surveillance. This experience has been transferred in a chain of responsibilities to the personnel of the National Chagas Control Program, using participating workshops, procedural guidelines, and practical training. This personnel transferred the strategy using similar methods to the field health care agents and volunteers chosen by their own communities (community leaders). After the workshops, the leaders received all

  19. Comparison of gross and histopathologic findings with quantitative computed tomographic bone density in the distal third metacarpal bone of racehorses.

    PubMed

    Drum, Martha G; Kawcak, Christopher E; Norrdin, Robert W; Park, Richard D; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Les, Clifford M

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of subchondral bone density determined by quantitative computed tomography (CT) with gross and histopathologic changes have not been made in horses. The goal of this study was to determine if mean quantitative CT density and mean voxel standard deviation are associated with the presence and severity of osteochondral lesions in the palmar aspect of the distal third metacarpal bone in racing horses. Metacarpophalangeal joints from nine racehorses were imaged using CT and scored for gross damage. Four-millimeter-thick sagittal and 30 degrees palmar dorsal plane sections were cut, decalcified and stained with hematoxylin and eosin from the distal third metacarpal bone. Microscopic osteochondral lesions and subchondral remodeling were scored on a scale of 0-3. Percent subchondral bone, expressed as the ratio of bone volume to tissue volume, was also measured. Mean quantitative CT density and mean voxel standard deviation were measured from three-dimensional models of CT images comparable with histologic sections. Mean quantitative CT density was not associated with lesion severity or number of lesions. A weak correlation between mean quantitative CT density and gross score was found, but mean quantitative CT density was not predictive for gross score. Mean voxel standard deviation was not correlated with gross or histopathologic measures, but was predictive of mild osteochondral lesions. Results support the association of subchondral remodeling with the development of palmar metacarpal lesions. However, there was not a strong correlation between mean quantitative CT density or mean voxel standard deviation and histopathologic lesions of the distal third metacarpal bone. PMID:18018722

  20. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  1. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P W; van Diest, Paul J; Viergever, Max A

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology slide digitization, and which aim at replacing the optical microscope as the primary tool used by pathologist. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancers among women, and image analysis methods that target this disease have a huge potential to reduce the workload in a typical pathology lab and to improve the quality of the interpretation. This paper is meant as an introduction for nonexperts. It starts with an overview of the tissue preparation, staining and slide digitization processes followed by a discussion of the different image processing techniques and applications, ranging from analysis of tissue staining to computer-aided diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer patients. PMID:24759275

  2. Prostate cancer progression. Implications of histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ware, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This review examines selected areas of contemporary prostate cancer research in terms of the impact of prostatic cellular and histopathological heterogeneity. Prostate tumor progression is accompanied by dysregulation of multiple growth factor networks as well as disruption of normal patterns of cell-cell interactions. Molecular and cytogenetic studies demonstrate that prostate cancer results from the accumulation of several different genetic defects. No single event predominates, but modifications in tumor suppressor genes or functional elimination of the suppressor gene product are more common than activation of known oncogenes. Intratumor heterogeneity is also detectable at the genetic level. This further complicates efforts to correlate modifications at specific loci with progression or outcome. The development of new in vitro and in vivo systems for the study of human prostate cancer should increase our understanding of this complex disease. In each approach, knowledge of the histopathology of the normal and neoplastic prostate is essential. PMID:7977655

  3. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  4. Regulated cell death in diagnostic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir; Damjanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Regulated cell death (RCD) is a controlled cellular process, essential for normal development, tissue integrity and homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions including developmental and immunological disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In this review, we briefly discuss the historical perspective and conceptual development of RCD, we overview recent classifications and some of the key players in RCD; finally we focus on current applications of RCD in diagnostic histopathology. PMID:26009238

  5. Penile dermatoses: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R J; Walker, M M; Harris, J R; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the spectrum of genital dermatological conditions affecting men and compare the clinical and histopathological diagnoses. DESIGN--Prospective study over a one year period. SETTING--A central London teaching hospital. PATIENTS--Seventy one patients with unresponsive penile dermatoses attending a specific internal referral clinic within the department of genitourinary medicine and 36 patients undergoing penile biopsy following attendance at other departments within the same hospital. METHODS--Full dermatological assessment of patients attending the specific clinic. Standard histopathological methods were used in the diagnosis of biopsy specimens. OUTCOME MEASURED--Clinico-pathological diagnosis of cutaneous penile abnormalities. RESULTS--Description of the range and relative frequency of penile dermatological conditions. The most common histopathological diagnosis was of non specific dermatitis. Twenty seven percent (16 of 61) of patients attending the specific clinic and 33% (12 of 36) of men attending other departments had conditions requiring long term follow up. CONCLUSIONS--The ranges of penile dermatoses presenting to the different departments were broadly similar. Penile biopsy was shown to be a safe and clinically informative procedure. In the genitourinary clinic setting, clinical diagnosis prior to biopsy was found frequently to be inaccurate. Images PMID:1607192

  6. Efficient nucleus detector in histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Vink, J P; Van Leeuwen, M B; Van Deurzen, C H M; De Haan, G

    2013-02-01

    In traditional cancer diagnosis, (histo)pathological images of biopsy samples are visually analysed by pathologists. However, this judgment is subjective and leads to variability among pathologists. Digital scanners may enable automated objective assessment, improved quality and reduced throughput time. Nucleus detection is seen as the corner stone for a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. In this paper, we propose an efficient nucleus detector designed with machine learning. We applied colour deconvolution to reconstruct each applied stain. Next, we constructed a large feature set and modified AdaBoost to create two detectors, focused on different characteristics in appearance of nuclei. The proposed modification of AdaBoost enables inclusion of the computational cost of each feature during selection, thus improving the computational efficiency of the resulting detectors. The outputs of the two detectors are merged by a globally optimal active contour algorithm to refine the border of the detected nuclei. With a detection rate of 95% (on average 58 incorrectly found objects per field-of-view) based on 51 field-of-view images of Her2 immunohistochemistry stained breast tissue and a complete analysis in 1 s per field-of-view, our nucleus detector shows good performance and could enable a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. PMID:23252774

  7. The Role of Heme and Reactive Oxygen Species in Proliferation and Survival of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Marcia Cristina; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; de Souza, Cíntia Fernandes; Nogueira, Natália Pereira de Almeida; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle comprehending two distinct hosts and a series of morphological and functional transformations. Hemoglobin degradation inside the insect vector releases high amounts of heme, and this molecule is known to exert a number of physiological functions. Moreover, the absence of its complete biosynthetic pathway in T. cruzi indicates heme as an essential molecule for this trypanosomatid survival. Within the hosts, T. cruzi has to cope with sudden environmental changes especially in the redox status and heme is able to increase the basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be also produced as byproducts of the parasite aerobic metabolism. In this regard, ROS sensing is likely to be an important mechanism for the adaptation and interaction of these organisms with their hosts. In this paper we discuss the main features of heme and ROS susceptibility in T. cruzi biology. PMID:22007287

  8. Oral Exposure to Phytomonas serpens Attenuates Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia during Acute Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rosiane V.; Malvezi, Aparecida D.; Augusto, Leonardo da Silva; Kian, Danielle; Tatakihara, Vera Lúcia H.; Yamauchi, Lucy M.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; Rizzo, Luiz V.; Schenkman, Sergio; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2013-01-01

    Mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, rapidly develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. These effects are partially promoted by the parasite trans-sialidase (TS), which is shed in the blood and depletes sialic acid from the platelets, inducing accelerated platelet clearance and causing thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of disease. Here, we demonstrate that oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice with Phytomonas serpens, a phytoflagellate parasite that shares common antigens with T. cruzi but has no TS activity, reduces parasite burden and prevents thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Immunization also reduces platelet loss after intraperitoneal injection of TS. In addition, passive transfer of immune sera raised in mice against P. serpens prevented platelet clearance. Thus, oral exposure to P. serpens attenuates the progression of thrombocytopenia induced by TS from T. cruzi. These findings are not only important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection but also for developing novel approaches of intervention in Chagas disease. PMID:23844182

  9. Oral exposure to Phytomonas serpens attenuates thrombocytopenia and leukopenia during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rosiane V; Malvezi, Aparecida D; Augusto, Leonardo da Silva; Kian, Danielle; Tatakihara, Vera Lúcia H; Yamauchi, Lucy M; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F; Rizzo, Luiz V; Schenkman, Sergio; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2013-01-01

    Mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, rapidly develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. These effects are partially promoted by the parasite trans-sialidase (TS), which is shed in the blood and depletes sialic acid from the platelets, inducing accelerated platelet clearance and causing thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of disease. Here, we demonstrate that oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice with Phytomonas serpens, a phytoflagellate parasite that shares common antigens with T. cruzi but has no TS activity, reduces parasite burden and prevents thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Immunization also reduces platelet loss after intraperitoneal injection of TS. In addition, passive transfer of immune sera raised in mice against P. serpens prevented platelet clearance. Thus, oral exposure to P. serpens attenuates the progression of thrombocytopenia induced by TS from T. cruzi. These findings are not only important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection but also for developing novel approaches of intervention in Chagas disease. PMID:23844182

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi: sequence analysis of the variable region of kinetoplast minicircles.

    PubMed

    Telleria, Jenny; Lafay, Bénédicte; Virreira, Myrna; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Svoboda, Michal

    2006-12-01

    The comparisons of 170 sequences of kinetoplast DNA minicircle hypervariable region obtained from 19 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi and 2 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi marenkellei showed that only 56% exhibited a significant homology one with other sequences. These sequences could be grouped into homology classes showing no significant sequence similarity with any other homology group. The 44% remaining sequences thus corresponded to unique sequences in our data set. In the DTU I ("Discrete Typing Units") 51% of the sequences were unique. In contrast, in the DTU IId, 87.5% of sequences were distributed into three classes. The results obtained for T. cruzi marinkellei, showed that all sequences were unique, without any similarity between them and T. cruzi sequences. Analysis of palindromes in all sequence sets show high frequency of the EcoRI site. Analysis of repetitive sequences suggested a common ancestral origin of the kDNA. The editing mechanism that occurs in kinetoplastidae is discussed. PMID:16730709

  11. Phylogenetic character mapping of proteomic diversity shows high correlation with subspecific phylogenetic diversity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Telleria, Jenny; Biron, David G; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Demettre, Edith; Séveno, Martial; Barnabé, Christian; Ayala, Francisco J; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2010-11-23

    We performed a phylogenetic character mapping on 26 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, and 2 stocks of the sister taxon T. cruzi marinkellei to test for possible associations between T. cruzi-subspecific phylogenetic diversity and levels of protein expression, as examined by proteomic analysis and mass spectrometry. We observed a high level of correlation (P < 10(-4)) between genetic distance, as established by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and proteomic dissimilarities estimated by proteomic Euclidian distances. Several proteins were found to be specifically associated to T. cruzi phylogenetic subdivisions (discrete typing units). This study explores the previously uncharacterized links between infraspecific phylogenetic diversity and gene expression in a human pathogen. It opens the way to searching for new vaccine and drug targets and for identification of specific biomarkers at the subspecific level of pathogens. PMID:21059959

  12. Mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi Placenta Invasion and Infection: The Use of Human Chorionic Villi Explants

    PubMed Central

    Fretes, Ricardo E.; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, is associated with premature labor and miscarriage. During vertical transmission the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) crosses the placental barrier. However, the exact mechanism of the placental infection remains unclear. We review the congenital transmission of T. cruzi, particularly the role of possible local placental factors that contribute to the vertical transmission of the parasite. Additionally, we analyze the different methods available for studying the congenital transmission of the parasite. In that context, the ex vivo infection with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of human placental chorionic villi constitutes an excellent tool for studying parasite infection strategies as well as possible local antiparasitic mechanisms. PMID:22701129

  13. Regional Variation in the Correlation of Antibody and T-Cell Responses to Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diana L.; Marks, Morgan; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Gilman, Robert H.; Goodhew, Brook; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Halperin, Anthony; Sanchez, Gerardo; Verastegui, Manuela; Escalante, Patricia; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z.; Bern, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Central and South America. Geographic variations in the sensitivity of serologic diagnostic assays to T. cruzi may reflect differences in T. cruzi exposure. We measured parasite-specific T-cell responses among seropositive individuals in two populations from South America with widely varying antibody titers against T. cruzi. Antibody titers among seropositive individuals were significantly lower in Arequipa, Peru compared with Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Similarly, the proportion of seropositive individuals with positive T-cell responses was lower in Peru than Bolivia, resulting in overall lower frequencies of interferon-γ (IFNγ)-secreting cells from Peruvian samples. However, the magnitude of the IFNγ response was similar among the IFNγ responders in both locations. These data indicate that immunological discrepancies based on geographic region are reflected in T-cell responses as well as antibody responses. PMID:24710614

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi parasites fight for control of the JAK-STAT pathway by disarming their host

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Philipp; Schwarz, Ralph T; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic Chagas’ disease is caused by infections with the hemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) which is endemic in Latin America. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the underlying molecular processes involved in host-parasite interactions are only poorly understood. In particular, the mechanisms for parasite persistence in host cells remain largely unknown. Cytokine-driven transcription factors from the family of STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins appear to play a central role in the fight against T. cruzi infection. However, amastigotes proliferating in the cytoplasm of infected host cells develop effective strategies to circumvent the attack executed by STAT proteins. This review highlights the interactions between T. cruzi parasites and human host cells in terms of cytokine signaling and, in particular, discusses the impact of STATs on the balance between parasite invasion and clearance. PMID:26413423

  15. Congenital granular cell lesion of the tongue: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yancoskie, Aaron E; Reebye, Uday N; Segal, Joshua D; Aldape Barrios, Beatriz C; Velasco, Araceli Andrade; Fantasia, John E

    2016-07-01

    The congenital granular cell lesion most commonly occurs on the maxillary or mandibular alveolus of neonates. Extra-alveolar congenital granular cell lesion is exceptionally rare, with only 10 cases reported. Two additional cases occurring on the tongue are presented with a description of the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features. The differential diagnosis is discussed, and the literature reviewed. PMID:26712684

  16. CLUES TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF TREATED LEPROSY

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current recommendations for multidrug therapy (MDT) of leprosy follow a fixed duration of treatment regardless of clearance of skin lesions or presence or absence of acid-fast bacilli in the skin. A fairly high percentage of patients with leprosy who complete recommended duration of multi-drug therapy are left with residual skin lesions which are a great source of anxiety to the patient and the family. A small percentage of patients go on to develop new lesions after completion of treatment which may be either late reactions or relapse. Many such patients undergo skin biopsy to assess ‘activity’ of the disease. Hardly any literature exists on the histological findings in biopsies taken from patients who have completed MDT. Materials and Methods: This article describes histomorphological findings in patients with treated leprosy who underwent skin biopsies after completion of MDT because they either had persistent lesions or developed new lesions on follow-up. Results: Histology of treated leprosy may show findings that are diagnostic for leprosy (histology active) or findings that by themselves are not diagnostic for leprosy (histology inactive) but may be used as clues in confirming that the persistent skin lesions are histologically inactive and need no further treatment. These findings may be divided into 1. Epidermal findings, 2. Alterations in dermal stroma, and 3. Morphological characteristics of the dermal inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion: Awareness of histomorphological changes that occur in skin lesions of leprosy after completion of treatment can aid the pathologist to determine whether the lesions are active or inactive histologically and assist the clinician to convince the patient that his disease is inactive and does not need further treatment. PMID:22121264

  17. Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

  18. The histopathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Medina-Peralta, Salvador; Vargas-Gonzalez, Alberto; Canto-Lara, Silvia B; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) known as "chiclero's ulcer" in southeast Mexico, was described by SEIDELIN in 1912. Since then the sylvatic region of the Yucatan peninsula has been documented as an endemic focus of LCL. This study of 73 biopsies from parasitological confirmed lesions of LCL cases of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana infection was undertaken: 1) to examine host response at tissue level; and 2) to relate manifestations of this response to some characteristics of clinical presentation. Based on Magalhães' classification we found that the most common pattern in our LCL cases caused by L. (L.) mexicana was predominantly characterized by the presence of unorganized granuloma without necrosis, (43.8%). Another important finding to be highlighted is the fact that in 50/73 (68.5%) parasite identification was positive. There was direct relation between the size of the lesion and time of evolution (rs = 0.3079, p = 0.03), and inverse correlation between size of the lesion and abundance of amastigotes (rs = -0.2467, p = 0.03). In view of the complexity of clinical and histopathological findings, cell-mediated immune response of the disease related to clinical and histopathological features, as so genetic background should be studied. PMID:16138198

  19. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Bart, Aldert; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Methodology Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC), having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA. Results Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%). Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0–0.4%) was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname. Conclusions/Significance Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required. PMID:26950434

  20. Genetic immunization converts the trypanosoma cruzi B-Cell mitogen proline racemase to an effective immunogen.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Marianne A; Norris, Karen A

    2010-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. Acute T. cruzi infection results in polyclonal B-cell activation and delayed specific humoral immunity. T. cruzi proline racemase (TcPRAC), a T. cruzi B-cell mitogen, may contribute to this dysfunctional humoral response. Stimulation of murine splenocytes with recombinant protein (rTcPRAC) induced B-cell proliferation, antibody secretion, interleukin-10 (IL-10) production, and upregulation of CD69 and CD86 on B cells. Marginal zone (MZ) B cells are more responsive to T-cell-independent (TI) rTcPRAC stimulation than are follicular mature (FM) B cells in terms of proliferation, antibody secretion, and IL-10 production. During experimental T. cruzi infection, TcPRAC-specific IgG remained undetectable when responses to other T. cruzi antigens developed. Conversely, intradermal genetic immunization via gene gun (GG) delivered TcPRAC as an immunogen, generating high-titer TcPRAC-specific IgG without B-cell dysfunction. TcPRAC GG immunization led to antigen-specific splenic memory B-cell and bone marrow plasma cell formation. TcPRAC-specific IgG bound mitogenic rTcPRAC, decreasing subsequent B-cell activation. GG immunization with rTcPRAC DNA was nonmitogenic and did not affect the generation of specific IgG to another T. cruzi antigen, complement regulatory protein (CRP). These data demonstrate the utility of genetic immunization for the conversion of a protein mitogen to an effective antigen. Furthermore, coimmunization of TcPRAC with another T. cruzi antigen indicates the usefulness of this approach for multivalent vaccine development. PMID:19917711

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of the Biological Activity of Novel Arylimidamides against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    De Araújo, J. S.; Da Silva, C. F.; Batista, D. G. J.; Da Silva, P. B.; Meuser, M. B.; Aiub, C. A. F.; da Silva, M. F. V.; Araújo-Lima, C. F.; Banerjee, M.; Farahat, A. A.; Stephens, C. E.; Kumar, A.; Boykin, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen novel arylimidamides (AIAs) (6 bis-amidino and 9 mono-amidino analogues) were assayed against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in vivo. All the bis-AIAs were more effective than the mono-AIAs, and two analogues, DB1967 and DB1989, were further evaluated in vivo. Although both of them reduced parasitemia, protection against mortality was not achieved. Our results show that the number of amidino-terminal units affects the efficacy of arylimidamides against T. cruzi. PMID:24590476

  2. In vitro and in vivo studies of the biological activity of novel arylimidamides against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    De Araújo, J S; Da Silva, C F; Batista, D G J; Da Silva, P B; Meuser, M B; Aiub, C A F; da Silva, M F V; Araújo-Lima, C F; Banerjee, M; Farahat, A A; Stephens, C E; Kumar, A; Boykin, D W; Soeiro, M N C

    2014-07-01

    Fifteen novel arylimidamides (AIAs) (6 bis-amidino and 9 mono-amidino analogues) were assayed against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in vivo. All the bis-AIAs were more effective than the mono-AIAs, and two analogues, DB1967 and DB1989, were further evaluated in vivo. Although both of them reduced parasitemia, protection against mortality was not achieved. Our results show that the number of amidino-terminal units affects the efficacy of arylimidamides against T. cruzi. PMID:24590476

  3. CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Single-Gene and Gene Family Disruption in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Duo; Kurup, Samarchith P.; Yao, Phil Y.; Minning, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite of humans and animals, affecting 10 to 20 million people and innumerable animals, primarily in the Americas. Despite being the largest cause of infection-induced heart disease worldwide, even among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) T. cruzi is considered one of the least well understood and understudied. The genetic complexity of T. cruzi as well as the limited set of efficient techniques for genome engineering contribute significantly to the relative lack of progress in and understanding of this pathogen. Here, we adapted the CRISPR-Cas9 system for the genetic engineering of T. cruzi, demonstrating rapid and efficient knockout of multiple endogenous genes, including essential genes. We observed that in the absence of a template, repair of the Cas9-induced double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in T. cruzi occurs exclusively by microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) with various-sized deletions. When a template for DNA repair is provided, DSB repair by homologous recombination is achieved at an efficiency several orders of magnitude higher than that in the absence of CRISPR-Cas9-induced DSBs. We also demonstrate the high multiplexing capacity of CRISPR-Cas9 in T. cruzi by knocking down expression of an enzyme gene family consisting of 65 members, resulting in a significant reduction of enzymatic product with no apparent off-target mutations. Lastly, we show that Cas9 can mediate disruption of its own coding sequence, rescuing a growth defect in stable Cas9-expressing parasites. These results establish a powerful new tool for the analysis of gene functions in T. cruzi, enabling the study of essential genes and their functions and analysis of the many large families of related genes that occupy a substantial portion of the T. cruzi genome. PMID:25550322

  4. The TcI and TcII Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infections induce distinct immune responses and cardiac fibrosis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Duz, Ana Luiza Cassin; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Cardoso, Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Flávia Carvalho Bitencourt; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection may be caused by different strains with distinct discrete typing units (DTUs) that can result in variable clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease. The present study evaluates the immune response and cardiac lesions in dogs experimentally infected with different T. cruzi strains with distinct DTUs, namely, the Colombian (Col) and Y strains of TcI and TcII DTU, respectively. During infection with the Col strain, increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, erythrocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin were observed. In addition, CD8+ T-lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood produced higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4. The latter suggests that during the acute phase, infection with the Col strain may remain unnoticed by circulating mononuclear cells. In the chronic phase, a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells was detected in the right atrium. Conversely, infection with the Y strain led to leucopoenia, thrombopoenia, inversion of the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes and alterations in monocyte number. The Y strain stimulated the production of interferon-γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes and IL-4 by CD8+ T-cells. In the chronic phase, significant heart inflammation and fibrosis were observed, demonstrating that strains of different DTUs interact differently with the host. PMID:25591108

  5. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi Secreted Proteins and Host Cell Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe Costa, Renata; da Silveira, Jose F.; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6–7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion. PMID:27065960

  6. Protective immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi provided by oral immunization with Phytomonas serpens: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Pinge-Filho, P; Peron, J P S; de Moura, T R; Menolli, R A; Graça, V K; Estevão, D; Tadokoro, C E; Jankevicius, J V; Rizzo, L V

    2005-01-31

    We have previously demonstrated that Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, shares antigens with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoa that causes Chagas' disease. These antigens are recognized by human sera and induce protective immunity in Balb/c mice. In the present study, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6 mice treated with the nitric oxide inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG, 50 mg kg(-1)) infected with T. cruzi, were used to demonstrate the role of nitric oxide (NO) to host protection against T. cruzi infection achieved by oral immunization with live P. serpens. A reduction in parasitaemia and an increase in survival were observed in C57BL/6 infected mice and previously immunized with P. serpens, when compared to non-immunized mice. iNOS (KO) mice immunized and C57BL/6 immunized and treated with AG presented parasitaemia and mortality rates comparable to those of infected and non-immunized mice. By itself, immunization with P. serpens did not induce inflammation in the myocardium, but C57BL/6 mice so immunized showed fewer amastigotes nests in the heart following an acute T. cruzi infection than those in non-immunized mice. These results suggest that protective immunity against T. cruzi infection induced by immunization with P. serpens is dependent upon enhanced NO production during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection. PMID:15585334

  7. The trans-sialidase, the major Trypanosoma cruzi virulence factor: Three decades of studies.

    PubMed

    Freire-de-Lima, L; Fonseca, L M; Oeltmann, T; Mendonça-Previato, L; Previato, J O

    2015-11-01

    Chagas' disease is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Since the description of Chagas'disease in 1909 extensive research has identified important events in the disease in order to understand the biochemical mechanism that modulates T. cruzi-host cell interactions and the ability of the parasite to ensure its survival in the infected host. Exactly 30 years ago, we presented evidence for the first time of a trans-sialidase activity in T. cruzi (T. cruzi-TS). This enzyme transfers sialic acid from the host glycoconjugates to the terminal β-galactopyranosyl residues of mucin-like molecules on the parasite's cell surface. Thenceforth, many articles have provided convincing data showing that T. cruzi-TS is able to govern relevant mechanisms involved in the parasite's survival in the mammalian host, such as invasion, escape from the phagolysosomal vacuole, differentiation, down-modulation of host immune responses, among others. The aim of this review is to cover the history of the discovery of T. cruzi-TS, as well as some well-documented biological effects encompassed by this parasite's virulence factor, an enzyme with potential attributes to become a drug target against Chagas disease. PMID:26224786

  8. Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 and Trypanosoma vespertilionis Battaglia, 1904 by various lectins.

    PubMed

    Schottelius, J; Koch, O; Uhlenbruck, G

    1983-06-01

    Four-days-old culture forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (strain Téhuantépéc, Guatemala) and Trypanosoma vespertilionis (strain P-14, P-9) were tested by 19 carbohydrate-specific agglutinins. The T. cruzi strains are interspecifically distinguishable with the lectins from Euonymus europaeus, Tridacna crocea, Tridacna maxima and the human blood-group testserum anti-B from the T. vespertilionis strains. While the T. vespertilionis strains did react with anti-B and E. europaeus, the T. cruzi strains did not agglutinate. The T. cruzi strains were agglutinated by the lectins from T. crocea and T: maxima while the bat-trypanosomes showed no reactions. Using these lectins it was not possible to distinguish the bat-flagellates intraspecifically. With the lectins from Triticum vulgaris and Arachis hypogaea the T. cruzi strains could be distinguished. While the Ténuantépéc strain did agglutinate with A. hypogaea, T. cruzi strain Guatemala did react only with the lectin from T. vulgaris. The bat-trypanosomes were agglutinated only by A. hypogaea but not by T. vulgaris. The reactions of these trypanosome-species with A. papillata and T. vulgaris demonstrate that both trypanosome species have N-acetylneuraminic acid on their cell surfaces. PMID:6349060

  9. Developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi-like flagellates in Cavernicola pilosa.

    PubMed

    Marinkelle, C J

    1982-11-01

    The developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi ssp., found in the intestinal tract of Cavernicola pilosa, are described and measurements given for nine life stages. The frequencies of the various stages in foregut, midgut and hindgut of the triatomines are provided; parasites were rare in the foregut and metatrypomastigotes were seen only in the mid- and hindguts. All adult bugs examined harboured intestinal infections of T. cruzi-like flagellates, large clumps of amastigotes were frequently observed in the midgut. The faeces of C. pilosa, containing metacyclic trypomastigotes, did not produce patent parasitaemia when inoculated into mice. Inoculated mice were not protected against subsequent challenge infections with the highly virulent Tulahuen stock of T. c. cruzi. The blood of bats also failed to produce parasitaemia when inoculated into mice, nor were the mice protected against subsequent challenges with T. c. cruzi. Although the developmental stages described were very similar to those of T. c. cruzi it is presumed that they were stages of T. c. marinkellei because of their failure to infect mice and Rhodnius prolixus, and their failure to protect inoculated mice against challenge with T. c. cruzi. PMID:6820697

  10. Identification of six Trypanosoma cruzi lineages by sequence-characterised amplified region markers.

    PubMed

    Brisse, S; Dujardin, J C; Tibayrenc, M

    2000-11-01

    Six discrete phylogenetic lineages were recently identified in Trypanosoma cruzi, on the basis of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) characterisation. The objective of the present study was to develop specific PCR-based markers for the identification of each of the six lineages. Eighty-seven T. cruzi stocks representative of all the lineages were characterised by RAPD with three primers, resulting in the identification of three fragments that were specifically amplified in the given sets of lineages. After cloning and sequencing these fragments, three pairs of sequence-characterised amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed. After PCR amplification using the SCAR primers, the initial polymorphism was retained either as the presence or absence of amplification, or as size variation between the PCR products. Although most PCR products, taken individually, were distributed across several lineages, the combination of the three SCAR markers resulted in characteristic patterns that were distinct in the six lineages. Furthermore, T. cruzi lineages were distinguished from Trypanosoma rangeli, T. cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi-like organisms. The excellent correspondence of these new PCR markers with the phylogenetic lineages, allied with their sensitivity, makes them reliable tools for lineage identification and strain characterisation in T. cruzi. The approach described here could be generalised to any species of microorganism harbouring clear-cut phylogenetic subdivisions. PMID:11087920

  11. Studying nanotoxic effects of CdTe quantum dots in Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, C. V.; Almeida, D. B.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Menna-Barreto, R. F. S.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Cesar, C. L.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.

    2010-02-01

    Many studies have been done in order to verify the possible nanotoxicity of quantum dots in some cellular types. Protozoan pathogens as Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas1 disease is transmitted to humans either by blood-sucking triatomine vectors, blood transfusion, organs transplantation or congenital transmission. The study of the life cycle, biochemical, genetics, morphology and others aspects of the T. cruzi is very important to better understand the interactions with its hosts and the disease evolution on humans. Quantum dot, nanocrystals, highly luminescent has been used as tool for experiments in in vitro and in vivo T. cruzi life cycle development in real time. We are now investigating the quantum dots toxicity on T. cruzi parasite cells using analytical methods. In vitro experiments were been done in order to test the interference of this nanoparticle on parasite development, morphology and viability (live-death). Ours previous results demonstrated that 72 hours after parasite incubation with 200 μM of CdTe altered the development of T. cruzi and induced cell death by necrosis in a rate of 34%. QDs labeling did not effect: (i) on parasite integrity, at least until 7 days; (ii) parasite cell dividing and (iii) parasite motility at a concentration of 2 μM CdTe. This fact confirms the low level of cytotoxicity of these QDs on this parasite cell. In summary our results is showing T. cruzi QDs labeling could be used for in vivo cellular studies in Chagas disease.

  12. Antiangiogenic and Antitumor Effects of Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin

    PubMed Central

    López, Nandy C.; Valck, Carolina; Ramírez, Galia; Rodríguez, Margarita; Ribeiro, Carolina; Orellana, Juana; Maldonado, Ismael; Albini, Adriana; Anacona, Daniel; Lemus, David; Aguilar, Lorena; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Ferreira, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Background In Latin America, 18 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, with the greatest economic burden. Vertebrate calreticulins (CRT) are multifunctional, intra- and extracellular proteins. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) they bind calcium and act as chaperones. Since human CRT (HuCRT) is antiangiogenic and suppresses tumor growth, the presence of these functions in the parasite orthologue may have consequences in the host/parasite interaction. Previously, we have cloned and expressed T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT) and shown that TcCRT, translocated from the ER to the area of trypomastigote flagellum emergence, promotes infectivity, inactivates the complement system and inhibits angiogenesis in the chorioallantoid chicken egg membrane. Most likely, derived from these properties, TcCRT displays in vivo inhibitory effects against an experimental mammary tumor. Methodology and Principal Findings TcCRT (or its N-terminal vasostatin-like domain, N-TcCRT) a) Abrogates capillary growth in the ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, b) Inhibits capillary morphogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) assay, c) Inhibits migration and proliferation of HUVECs and the human endothelial cell line Eahy926. In these assays TcCRT was more effective, in molar terms, than HuCRT: d) In confocal microscopy, live HUVECs and EAhy926 cells, are recognized by FITC-TcCRT, followed by its internalization and accumulation around the host cell nuclei, a phenomenon that is abrogated by Fucoidin, a specific scavenger receptor ligand and, e) Inhibits in vivo the growth of the murine mammary TA3 MTXR tumor cell line. Conclusions/Significance We describe herein antiangiogenic and antitumor properties of a parasite chaperone molecule, specifically TcCRT. Perhaps, by virtue of its capacity to inhibit angiogenesis (and the complement system), TcCRT is anti-inflammatory, thus impairing the antiparasite immune response. The TcCRT antiangiogenic

  13. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jong-Ki; Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin; Shin, Su-Jung

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  14. Progression of periapical cystic lesion after incomplete endodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong-Kyu; Jeon, Kug-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of large radicular cyst progression related to endodontic origin to emphasize proper intervention and follow-up for endodontic pathosis. A 25 yr old man presented with an endodontically treated molar with radiolucency. He denied any intervention because of a lack of discomfort. Five years later, the patient returned. The previous periapical lesion had drastically enlarged and involved two adjacent teeth. Cystic lesion removal and apicoectomy were performed on the tooth. Histopathological analysis revealed that the lesion was an inflammatory radicular cyst. The patient did not report any discomfort except for moderate swelling 3 days after the surgical procedure. Although the patient had been asymptomatic, close follow-ups are critical to determine if any periapical lesions persist after root canal treatment. PMID:27200282

  15. Oral pigmented lesions: Clinicopathologic features and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Jorge, Rogério; Jorge, Jacks; Lopes, Márcio A.; Vargas, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity and perioral tissues is challenging. Even though epidemiology may be of some help in orientating the clinician and even though some lesions may confidently be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, the definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathologic evaluation. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Color, location, distribution, and duration as well as drugs use, family history, and change in pattern are important for the differential diagnosis. Dark or black pigmented lesions can be focal, multifocal or diffuse macules, including entities such as racial pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, blue nevus, smoker’s melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation by foreign bodies or induced by drugs, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison´s disease and oral melanoma. The aim of this review is to present the main oral black lesions contributing to better approach of the patients. Key words:Pigmentation, melanin, oral, diagnosis, management. PMID:22549672

  16. Benznidazole/Itraconazole Combination Treatment Enhances Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity in Experimental Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Assíria Fontes Martins, Tassiane; de Figueiredo Diniz, Lívia; Mazzeti, Ana Lia; da Silva do Nascimento, Álvaro Fernando; Caldas, Sérgio; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Andrade, Isabel Mayer; Ribeiro, Isabela; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    The nitroheterocyclic drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole are first-line drugs available to treat Chagas disease; however, they have limitations, including long treatment courses and toxicity. Strategies to overcome these limitations include the identification of new drugs with specific target profiles, re-dosing regimens for the current drugs, drug repositioning and combination therapy. In this work, we evaluated combination therapy as an approach for optimization of the current therapeutic regimen for Chagas disease. The curative action of benznidazole/itraconazole combinations was explored in an established infection of the mice model with the T. cruzi Y strain. The activities of the benznidazole/itraconazole combinations were compared with the results from those receiving the same dosage of each individual drug. The administration of benznidazole/itraconazole in combination eliminated parasites from the blood more efficiently than each drug alone. Here, there was a significant reduction of the number of treatment days (number of doses) necessary to induce parasitemia suppression with the benznidazole/itraconazole combination, as compared to each compound administered alone. These results clearly indicate the enhanced effects of these drugs in combination, particularly at the dose of 75 mg/kg, as the effects observed with the drug combinations were four times more effective than those of each drug used alone. Moreover, benznidazole/itraconazole treatment was shown to prevent or decrease the typical lesions associated with chronic experimental Chagas disease, as illustrated by similar levels of inflammatory cells and fibrosis in the cardiac muscle tissue of healthy and treated mice. These results emphasize the importance of exploring the potential of combination treatments with currently available compounds to specifically treat Chagas disease. PMID:26076455

  17. Immunoglobulin A antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in digestive forms of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Primavera, K S; Hoshino-Shimizu, S; Umezawa, E S; Peres, B A; Manigot, D A; Camargo, M E

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to find a serological marker for the diagnosis of chronic digestive forms of Chagas' disease, we compared amastigote and trypomastigote antigens obtained from immunosuppressed mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) with conventional epimastigote antigens to search for immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. A total of 255 serum samples from patients with acute and chronic (indeterminate, digestive, and cardiac) forms of Chagas' disease and with nonchagasic diseases and from healthy individuals were studied. Amastigote antigens proved to be the most adequate for our purpose, since IgA antibodies could be detected in 23 of 25 serum samples from patients with digestive forms, with relative indices of sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of 0.920, 0.911, and 0.912, respectively. These antigens also showed high reactivity with IgA antibodies, with a geometric mean titer of 16,635 (12.7 log2). IgA antibodies were detected in 16 of 28 serum samples from patients with the acute form as well, but this clinical form is easily distinguished from the chronic form by the demonstration of IgM antibodies. Poor results were seen with trypomastigote and epimastigote antigens. The finding of IgA antibodies in about 20% of indeterminate forms and 20% of cardiac forms, although in low titers, requires further investigation to ascertain their role as an early signal of gastrointestinal lesions. In addition, the amastigote antigens described here seem more convenient for use in endemic areas than those obtained from cell cultures because of their lower cost. PMID:3141458

  18. Histopathological features of Capillaria hepatica infection in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Vasanthi; Turton, John; Stewart, Jacqui; Lui, Kai Chiu; Pilling, Andrew M

    2009-08-01

    Capillaria hepatica is a nematode parasite of wild rodents and other mammals. Adult worms inhabit the liver. Recently, during the necropsy examination of a group of 160 rabbits from a commercial supplier, firm pale or cystic areas (1-5 mm) were noted on the liver in thirteen animals. On further investigation, these animals were found to be infected with C. hepatica. The histopathological features of the infection in the rabbit are described for the first time and diagnostic features recorded. Lesions were identified predominantly in portal tracts consisting of dilated bile ducts with luminal debris, peribiliary inflammatory cell infiltrates, and fibrosis. Large granulomas (macrogranulomas) were evident in portal areas and involved the bile ducts. Macrogranulomas contained collections of characteristic C. hepatica eggs, macrophages, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Small granulomas (microgranulomas), characterized by epithelioid macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes and eosinophils, were also identified. C. hepatica eggs were also observed in the lumina of the bile ducts and gall bladder. No adult C. hepatica worms were identified. Oocysts of Eimeria stiedae were also evident in the biliary epithelium in some animals. The unique characteristics of the C. hepatica life cycle are described, and the differential diagnosis of hepatic capillariasis is discussed. PMID:19581239

  19. Histopathological changes induced by Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, Mojgan; Ennaifer, Emna; Ahari, Hamed; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Borchani, Lamia; Khalili, Ghader; Amini, Hossein; Anvar, Amir Ali; Boubaker, Samir; El-Ayeb, Mohamed; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2012-03-01

    Envenomation by Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus) is associated with local necrosis, followed by systemic manifestations. In this work the LD₅₀ of H. lepturus venom were determined by subcutaneous (SC) injection in white Balb/c mice (5 mg/kg). Histopathological alterations in organs such as kidney, heart, liver, lungs, stomach and intestine were determined in 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following experimental (SC) envenoming injection of one LD ₅₀ of the venom in Balb/c mice. Histological studies showed degenerative changes in the kidney with disorganized glomeruli and necrotic tubular in 3 h and reached to its climax in 6 h. Myocardium showed massive myocytolysis with interstitial necrosis in 3 h and reached to its peak after 6 h past envenoming. Bowels showed edema of lamina propria and slight villous necrosis. The enzymatic activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in the serum in 9 h. No necrotic lesion observed in lungs and liver. The results indicate that the venom of H. lepturus is a highly cytotoxic, and induces massive tissue damages in specific organs, starting from the heart and kidney as the first target in 3 h and ends to the bowels in 6 h post envenomation. PMID:22230352

  20. Peripheral giant cell granuloma: a potentially aggressive lesion in children.

    PubMed

    Flaitz, C M

    2000-01-01

    A slowly enlarging gingival mass with a reddish-purple surface is observed in a school-age boy. The lesion was first noted 3 months ago during a routine oral examination but recently it has increased in size and interferes with eating. A periapical radiograph demonstrated focal loss of the alveolar crestal bone in the mandibular incisor region. The diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma, a benign reactive gingival lesion, is confirmed by histopathologic examination. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule is important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:10846736

  1. CT-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy of Intrathoracic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Hira; Nath, Alok; Borah, Samudra

    2012-01-01

    Percutaneous CT-guided needle biopsy of mediastinal and pulmonary lesions is a minimally invasive approach for obtaining tissue for histopathological examination. Although it is a widely accepted procedure with relatively few complications, precise planning and detailed knowledge of various aspects of the biopsy procedure is mandatory to avert complications. In this pictorial review, we reviewed important anatomical approaches, technical aspects of the procedure, and its associated complications. PMID:22438689

  2. The Feasibility of Ultrasonography in Defining the Size of Jaw Osseous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi, Shoaleh; Shakibafard, Alireza; Zamiri, Barbod; Mokhtare, Mohammad Reza; Houshyar, Maneli; Mahdian, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Jaw bone lesions are common pathologic conditions. The role of ultrasonography in evaluation of the extra-osseous lesions is confirmed, however, this imaging modality is not the diagnostic routine for the intra-osseous jaw lesions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of ultrasonography in diagnosis of intra-osseous jaw lesions concerning their size and content and also to study its correlation with the histopathological findings. Materials and Method For this study, 15 patients with intra-osseous jaw lesions in the maxilla and mandible were selected from those referred to the Department of Oral Surgery. Panoramic imaging, computed tomography (CT) or cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and ultrasonography (USG) were performed for all the lesions. The size of the lesions was measured by USG and then compared with CT or CBCT. Moreover, the correlation amongst the echographic patterns and histopathologic results was evaluated. Results In 12 cases, size values were in complete agreement with CT or CBCT. The size of 3 lesions could not be measured by the radiologist due to the thickness of buccal cortical plate. Conclusion Findings of this study suggested that USG might be feasible in estimating the size of intra-osseous jaw lesions with little underestimation. This study also confirmed that ultrasound imaging was a very useful imaging technique which could provide significant diagnostic information regarding the content of jaw bone lesions where the buccal bone thickness was thin enough. PMID:26636122

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi-Trypanosoma rangeli co-infection ameliorates negative effects of single trypanosome infections in experimentally infected Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Graham, Andrea L; Elliott, Ryan J; Dobson, Andrew P; Triana Chávez, Omar

    2016-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi-T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses. PMID:27174360

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF PERIRADICULAR LESIONS IN NORMAL AND DIABETIC RATS

    PubMed Central

    Armada-Dias, Luci; Breda, Jorge; Provenzano, José Claudio; Breitenbach, Marisa; Rôças, Isabela das Neves; Gahyva, Sérgio Márcio Motta; Siqueira, José Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetic patients are more significantly affected by problems of endodontic origin. This study sought to radiographically and histologically examine the development of periradicular inflammation in control and in diabetic rats after induction of pulpal infection. The pulps of the mandibular first molars of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were exposed and left in contact with their oral cavities for 21 and 40 days. Afterwards, the animals were sacrificed, the mandibles were surgically removed, fixed in formalin and then radiographed in a standardized position. The radiographic images of the periradicular lesions were scanned and computerized images were evaluated for the total area of the lesions using a specific software. Representative specimens were also prepared for histopathological analysis. Radiographic analysis revealed that diabetic rats presented significantly larger periradicular lesions when compared with control rats, regardless of the experimental period (p<0.05). Histopathological examination of representative specimens revealed larger periradicular lesions and more severe inflammatory exudate in the group of diabetic rats when compared with the control group. Data from the present study indicated that diabetic rats can be more prone to develop large periradicular lesions, possibly due to reduction in the defense ability against microbial pathogens. PMID:19089060

  5. [Ocular fundus lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus model mice].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Yokoyama, T; Kodera, S; Zhang, D; Hirose, S

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate spontaneous development of the ocular fundus abnormalities associated with collagen disease, we investigated the ocular fundus lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) models. (NZW x BXSB) F1 mice were employed as SLE models with antiphospholipid syndrome. The abnormal findings in the ocular fundus were recorded with a fundus camera for small animals (KOWA Co., Ltd.), and the chorioretinal lesions were studied histopathologically. As in the systemic symptoms of SLE, the incidence of ocular fundus abnormalities in these (NZW x BXSB) F1 mice was significantly higher in males than in females, suggesting the influence of the Yaa (Y chromosome-linked autoimmune acceleration) gene. Lesions in the fundus appeared in the form of white spots, which increased in number along with the course of the disease. The lesion developed into retinal detachment in some animals. Dilatation of veins and narrowing of arteries were marked. These lesions were very similar to multifocal posterior pigment epitheliopathy (MPPE) in humans in that white spots appear first and then develop into exudative retinal detachment caused by retinal pigment epithelial disorder. Histopathological findings included 1. structural destruction of the photoreceptor cell layer, 2. degeneration and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium, and 3. narrowing and occlusion of the choriocapillaris associated with thrombus formation, cellular infiltration into the surrounding tissues, and wall thickening of the choroidal arterioles. The study of these SLE mouse may contribute to the elucidation of abnormalities in the fundus associated with collagen diseases, including the relationship between thrombus formation and antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:9489364

  6. Gross and Microscopic Lesions in Corals from Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Aeby, G S; Hughen, K A

    2016-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates. PMID:25765523

  7. Gross and microscopic lesions in corals from Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Hughen, Konrad A.

    2015-01-01

    The authors documented gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in corals on 7 islands spanning western, southern, and eastern Micronesia, sampling 76 colonies comprising 30 species of corals among 18 genera, with Acropora, Porites, and Montipora dominating. Tissue loss comprised the majority of gross lesions sampled (41%), followed by discoloration (30%) and growth anomaly (29%). Of 31 cases of tissue loss, most lesions were subacute (48%), followed by acute and chronic (26% each). Of 23 samples with discoloration, most were dark discoloration (40%), with bleaching and other discoloration each constituting 30%. Of 22 growth anomalies, umbonate growth anomalies composed half, with exophytic, nodular, and rugose growth anomalies composing the remainder. On histopathology, for 9 cases of dark discoloration, fungal infections predominated (77%); for 7 bleached corals, depletion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis made up a majority of microscopic diagnoses (57%); and for growth anomalies other than umbonate, hyperplasia of the basal body wall was the most common microscopic finding (63%). For the remainder of the gross lesions, no single microscopic finding constituted >50% of the total. Host response varied with the agent present on histology. Fragmentation of tissues was most often associated with algae (60%), whereas necrosis dominated (53%) for fungi. Two newly documented potentially symbiotic tissue-associated metazoans were seen in Porites and Montipora. Findings of multiple potential etiologies for a given gross lesion highlight the importance of incorporating histopathology in coral disease surveys. This study also expands the range of corals infected with cell-associated microbial aggregates.

  8. Differential Gene Expression in Benznidazole-Resistant Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Diana; Nirdé, Philippe; Hide, Mallorie; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the differential gene expression among representative Trypanosoma cruzi stocks in relation to benznidazole exposures using a random differentially expressed sequences (RADES) technique. Studies were carried out with drug pressure both at the natural susceptibility level of the wild-type parasite (50% inhibitory concentration for the wild type) and at different resistance levels. The pattern of differential gene expression performed with resistant stocks was compared to the population structure of this parasite, established by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. A RADES band polymorphism was observed, and over- or underexpression was linked to the resistance level of the stock. The analysis of RADES bands suggested that different products may be involved in benznidazole resistance mechanisms. No significant association was found between phylogenetic clustering and benznidazole susceptibility. Benznidazole resistance may involve several mechanisms, depending on the level of drug exposure. PMID:15980339

  9. Beta-interferon inhibits cell infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Beta interferon has been shown to inhibit the capacity of bloodstream forms of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, to associate with and infect mouse peritoneal macrophages and rat heart myoblasts. The inhibitory effect was abrogated in the presence of specific antibodies to the interferon. Pretreatment of the parasites with interferon reduced their infectivity for untreated host cells, whereas pretreament of either type of host cell did not affect the interaction. The effect of interferon on the trypanosomes was reversible; the extent of the inhibitory effect was significantly reduced afer 20 min, and was undetectable after 60 min when macrophages were used as host cells. For the myoblasts, 60 min elapsed before the inhibitory effect began to subside and 120 min elapsed before it became insignificant or undetectable.

  10. Histopathologic findings in breast reduction specimens.

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Tasli, Funda Alkan; Yagcı, Ayse; Sır, Emin; Canpolat, Selin; Vardar, Enver

    2014-04-01

    Reduction mammaplasty is a commonly performed operation for treatment of breast hypertrophy. It allows examination of specimens from a seemingly healthy population. Although there are many publications reporting the incidence of occult breast carcinomas, only a few studies have specifically examined the incidence of other breast lesions in reduction mammaplasty specimens. The authors conducted a single-centre retrospective chart review examining the incidence of benign and precancerous lesions in breast reduction specimens. Both age and the number of tissue sections were evaluated for the association with important pathologic findings. Of the 95 patients who underwent reduction mammaplasty, eight patients (8.4%) had atypical lesions. Fourteen patients (15%) had proliferative and 54 patients (57%) had non-proliferative breast lesions. No occult invasive breast cancer was identified in the breast reduction specimens. The existence of significant pathologic findings was not associated with age (p = 0.231, student t-test). On the other hand, it was found to be associated with the number of tissue sections (p = 0.046, Mann-Whitney U-test). This study reveals that breast reduction specimens should be analyzed histologically since a considerable amount of patients have breast lesions with increased cancer risk. Therefore, this analysis would guide the management of these patients in the follow-up period. PMID:23879776

  11. Coronary atherosclerosis -- a postmortem histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Kumar, Verma A; Kumar, N; Baranwal, R K; Kumar, Verma R; Singh, M

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in general and coronary heart disease in particular remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The aim of this study was to look at the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis, its severity and site of involvement in postmortem hearts. The hearts of 30-60 yrs old, fifty dead victims were considered who died from various natural and unnatural deaths. After autopsy, coronary arteries were inspected grossly and microscopically. Out of all these cases, 10 cases (20 %) showed no pathological lesions. Total distribution of lesions in the coronaries are as follows; 34 (68 %) atheromatous lesions in Left Anterior Descending Artery, 25 (50 %) lesions in the Right Coronary Artery, 18 (36 %) lesions in Left Circumflex. Proximal involvement was more common except in the right coronary artery, which was involved distally. The overall prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis in the present study was comparable with that noted by other investigators in autopsy studied. There is a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis in Indians, which may be due to changes in life-styles and other risks factors (Tab. 1, Ref. 14). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk. PMID:22502752

  12. Identification of contractile vacuole proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Paul N; Jimenez, Veronica; Park, Miyoung; Martins, Vicente P; Atwood, James; Moles, Kristen; Collins, Dalis; Rohloff, Peter; Tarleton, Rick; Moreno, Silvia N J; Orlando, Ron; Docampo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Contractile vacuole complexes are critical components of cell volume regulation and have been shown to have other functional roles in several free-living protists. However, very little is known about the functions of the contractile vacuole complex of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, other than a role in osmoregulation. Identification of the protein composition of these organelles is important for understanding their physiological roles. We applied a combined proteomic and bioinfomatic approach to identify proteins localized to the contractile vacuole. Proteomic analysis of a T. cruzi fraction enriched for contractile vacuoles and analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS resulted in the addition of 109 newly detected proteins to the group of expressed proteins of epimastigotes. We also identified different peptides that map to at least 39 members of the dispersed gene family 1 (DGF-1) providing evidence that many members of this family are simultaneously expressed in epimastigotes. Of the proteins present in the fraction we selected several homologues with known localizations in contractile vacuoles of other organisms and others that we expected to be present in these vacuoles on the basis of their potential roles. We determined the localization of each by expression as GFP-fusion proteins or with specific antibodies. Six of these putative proteins (Rab11, Rab32, AP180, ATPase subunit B, VAMP1, and phosphate transporter) predominantly localized to the vacuole bladder. TcSNARE2.1, TcSNARE2.2, and calmodulin localized to the spongiome. Calmodulin was also cytosolic. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining subcellular fractionation, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatic approaches for localization of organellar proteins that are difficult to detect with whole cell methodologies. The CV localization of the proteins investigated revealed potential novel roles of these organelles in phosphate metabolism

  13. Sialic Acid Glycobiology Unveils Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigote Membrane Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, Andrés B.; Carlevaro, Giannina; Araoz, Beatriz; Ruiz Diaz, Pablo; Camara, María de los Milagros; Buscaglia, Carlos A.; Bossi, Mariano; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Mucci, Juan; Campetella, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan agent of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is unable to synthesize sialic acids de novo. Mucins and trans-sialidase (TS) are substrate and enzyme, respectively, of the glycobiological system that scavenges sialic acid from the host in a crucial interplay for T. cruzi life cycle. The acquisition of the sialyl residue allows the parasite to avoid lysis by serum factors and to interact with the host cell. A major drawback to studying the sialylation kinetics and turnover of the trypomastigote glycoconjugates is the difficulty to identify and follow the recently acquired sialyl residues. To tackle this issue, we followed an unnatural sugar approach as bioorthogonal chemical reporters, where the use of azidosialyl residues allowed identifying the acquired sugar. Advanced microscopy techniques, together with biochemical methods, were used to study the trypomastigote membrane from its glycobiological perspective. Main sialyl acceptors were identified as mucins by biochemical procedures and protein markers. Together with determining their shedding and turnover rates, we also report that several membrane proteins, including TS and its substrates, both glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, are separately distributed on parasite surface and contained in different and highly stable membrane microdomains. Notably, labeling for α(1,3)Galactosyl residues only partially colocalize with sialylated mucins, indicating that two species of glycosylated mucins do exist, which are segregated at the parasite surface. Moreover, sialylated mucins were included in lipid-raft-domains, whereas TS molecules are not. The location of the surface-anchored TS resulted too far off as to be capable to sialylate mucins, a role played by the shed TS instead. Phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase-C activity is actually not present in trypomastigotes. Therefore, shedding of TS occurs via microvesicles instead of as a fully soluble form. PMID

  14. Sialic Acid Glycobiology Unveils Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigote Membrane Physiology.

    PubMed

    Lantos, Andrés B; Carlevaro, Giannina; Araoz, Beatriz; Ruiz Diaz, Pablo; Camara, María de Los Milagros; Buscaglia, Carlos A; Bossi, Mariano; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Mucci, Juan; Campetella, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan agent of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is unable to synthesize sialic acids de novo. Mucins and trans-sialidase (TS) are substrate and enzyme, respectively, of the glycobiological system that scavenges sialic acid from the host in a crucial interplay for T. cruzi life cycle. The acquisition of the sialyl residue allows the parasite to avoid lysis by serum factors and to interact with the host cell. A major drawback to studying the sialylation kinetics and turnover of the trypomastigote glycoconjugates is the difficulty to identify and follow the recently acquired sialyl residues. To tackle this issue, we followed an unnatural sugar approach as bioorthogonal chemical reporters, where the use of azidosialyl residues allowed identifying the acquired sugar. Advanced microscopy techniques, together with biochemical methods, were used to study the trypomastigote membrane from its glycobiological perspective. Main sialyl acceptors were identified as mucins by biochemical procedures and protein markers. Together with determining their shedding and turnover rates, we also report that several membrane proteins, including TS and its substrates, both glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, are separately distributed on parasite surface and contained in different and highly stable membrane microdomains. Notably, labeling for α(1,3)Galactosyl residues only partially colocalize with sialylated mucins, indicating that two species of glycosylated mucins do exist, which are segregated at the parasite surface. Moreover, sialylated mucins were included in lipid-raft-domains, whereas TS molecules are not. The location of the surface-anchored TS resulted too far off as to be capable to sialylate mucins, a role played by the shed TS instead. Phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase-C activity is actually not present in trypomastigotes. Therefore, shedding of TS occurs via microvesicles instead of as a fully soluble form. PMID

  15. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  16. [Surprising white lesions].

    PubMed

    Nolte, J W; van der Waal, I

    2011-09-01

    A 46-year-old man appeared with white lesions of the oral cavity. A previously taken biopsy revealed no classifying diagnosis and treatment with mouth rinse produced no improvement. A new biopsy was taken, on which the pathologist performed additional tests. This resulted in the diagnosis 'syphilis'. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and the oral white lesions disappeared. Although nowadays syphilis is rare, special attention is required when noticing these kinds of lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:21957637

  17. Subcutaneous sacral ependymoma--a histopathological challenge.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous myxopapillary or sacral ependymoma are rare tumors mostly developing in children or adolescents. The majority occurs in the sacrococcygeal region. There are numerous clinical and histopathological differential diagnoses. Owing to the fact that there have been rare reported cases that followed an aggressive course and in which the patient succumbed to metastatic disease, long term follow-up is necessary despite complete excision. We describe here a 25-year-old male patient with a histological unusual subcutaneous sacral ependymoma and discuss the differential diagnosis as well as treatment options. PMID:26289839

  18. Medico-legal aspects of histopathology practice.

    PubMed

    Ong, B B; Looi, L M

    2001-06-01

    Medico-legal problems experienced by histopathologists differ from those of other clinicians as they are rarely in direct contact with patients. Nevertheless, the pathologist owes a duty of care to the patient and is liable for medical negligence. In the absence of local guidelines, it is prudent to follow guidelines published by learned Colleges elsewhere. This is also true when delegating duties to non-pathologists, technical and other support staff. Errors in diagnosis and documentation pose the most common problems in histopathology. In this, liability also depends on many factors including the provision of adequate clinical information by clinicians and competence of laboratory staff. Clinicopathological discussions, participation in quality assurance programmes and adherence to standard operating procedures are important audit activities to minimize and detect errors as well as prevent grievous outcome to patients. Issues also arise over the retention of specimens and reports. In general, wet, formalin-fixed tissues should be kept until histopathological assessment is finalized and preferably after clinicopathological sessions, and even longer if there is potential litigation. Reports should be archival. Paraffin blocks should be kept for at least the lifetime of the patient, and histology slides for at least 10 years, to facilitate review and reassessment. Despite adverse publicity in the foreign press over the use of human organs and tissues for research and education, it is accepted that processed tissues can be used for research and educational purposes provided the patient's identity is kept confidential. Nevertheless, it would be prudent to revise consent forms for surgery and autopsies to include the possibility that tissues removed can be stored or used for research and education. Good medical practice in pathology encourages a willingness to consult colleagues when in doubt, but advises that the treating clinician be informed if histopathological

  19. Pachydermodactyly: A Case Report Including Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Rancy, Schneider K; Granstein, Richard D; Bansal, Manjula; Barley, Christopher L; Fields, Theodore R; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-08-01

    Pachydermodactyly (PDD) is a rare form of digital fibromatosis characterized by painless soft tissue swelling, primarily about the proximal interphalangeal joints. The skin at the metacarpophalangeal joints, the palm, and the dorsum of the hand may also be involved. Because swelling can occur over the proximal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joints, PDD may be confused with juvenile inflammatory arthropathy and may even occur concurrently. We present the clinical and histopathologic findings of a case of PDD characterized by bilateral proximal phalangeal involvement of the index through little fingers. PMID:27180953

  20. Histopathologic patterns associated with external agents.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Kutzner, Heinz

    2012-10-01

    A large number of foreign substances may penetrate the skin for both voluntary and involuntary reasons. The voluntary group includes the particulate materials used in tattoos and cosmetic fillers, whereas the involuntary group is almost always caused by accidental inclusion of external substances secondary to cutaneous trauma. This article focuses on the histopathologic findings seen in cutaneous reactions to exogenous agents, with special emphasis on the microscopic morphology of the external particles in recognizing specifically the involved substance (something that is becoming increasingly important in the event of litigation). PMID:23021056

  1. Methanol optic neuropathy: a histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, J A; Hostovsky, M; Bilbao, J M; Rewcastle, N B

    1982-10-01

    The histopathologic effects of methanol on the optic nerve were studied in four patients. Circumscribed myelin damage occurred behind the lamina cribrosa in each nerve. Axons were preserved. Demyelination also occurred in cerebral hemispheric white matter in one patient. This selective myelinoclastic effect of methanol metabolism is probably caused by histotoxic anoxia in watershed areas of the cerebral and distal optic nerve circulations. Juxtabulbar demyelination may cause optic disk edema in methanol poisoning by compressive obstruction of orthograde axoplasmic flow. Visual loss may be due to disruption of saltatory conduction. Retrolaminar demyelinating optic neuropathy is an early morphologic correlate of visual loss in methanol intoxication. PMID:6889696

  2. Histopathological lesions of molluscs in the harbour of Norderney, Lower Saxony, North Sea (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watermann, Burkard; Thomsen, Anja; Kolodzey, Heike; Daehne, Bernd; Meemken, Maike; Pijanowska, Ute; Liebezeit, Gert

    2008-06-01

    During a combined research project at several stations along the Lower Saxony coast (German North Sea) antifouling biocides were analysed in water, sediment and biota. Pathological alterations in blue mussel, Pacific oyster and periwinkle found in the harbour of Norderney and a reference station are presented here and discussed on the background of chemical analyses. The molluscan species from the reference station Borkum East flat did not show any pathological effects in central organs, except those provoked by an infestation in the gastro-intestinal tract by the copepod Mytilicola intestinalis and trematode larvae. In most animals, the metacercaria were found in the interstitial tissue without any inflammatory reaction. In a minor number of specimens, an inflammatory reaction in the mucosa and sub-mucosa of the intestine occurred in association with Mytilicola infestation. These reactions may be evoked through mechanical irritation of the gut epithelium, metabolic products of the parasites or invading bacteria. In contrast to the observed pathological changes of mussels, oysters and periwinkles in Norderney harbour were not found to be associated with parasitic infestation. The most prominent pathological alterations were observed in the digestive system and in the gonad. In the gastro-intestinal tract inflammatory reactions, atrophy and necrosis of tubules in the mid gut gland were most pronounced in spring at the beginning of the pleasure boat season in the Pacific oyster and to a minor degree in the blue mussel and the periwinkle. The latter displayed additional inflammatory and necrotic processes in the gills. Especially in the gonad, an elevated resorption rate of gametes was present in the Pacific oyster and in the periwinkle. In addition, impact of organotin compounds was reflected in an intersex index of up to 1.4 in Littorina littorea in coincidence with masculinization of the reproductive organs.

  3. Histopathological Studies on Virulence of Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase IV (DPPIV) of Porphyromonas gingivalis in a Mouse Abscess Model: Use of a DPPIV-Deficient Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yagishita, Hisao; Kumagai, Yumi; Konishi, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Aoba, Takaaki; Yoshikawa, Masanosuke

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate the role of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPPIV) in the virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, mice were infected with either a wild-type strain or a DPPIV-deficient mutant using an abscess model. Histopathological analysis of the resulting lesions indicated that DPPIV participates in virulence through the destruction of connective tissue and the less effective mobilization of inflammatory cells. PMID:11598093

  4. Analyses of 32 Loci Clarify Phylogenetic Relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages and Support a Single Hybridization prior to Human Contact

    PubMed Central

    Flores-López, Carlos A.; Machado, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been traditionally divided in two major groups, T. cruzi I and II, corresponding to discrete typing units TcI and TcII-VI under a recently proposed nomenclature. The two major groups of T. cruzi seem to differ in important biological characteristics, and are thus thought to represent a natural division relevant for epidemiological studies and development of prophylaxis. To understand the potential connection between the different manifestations of Chagas disease and variability of T. cruzi strains, it is essential to have a correct reconstruction of the evolutionary history of T. cruzi. Methodology/Principal Findings Nucleotide sequences from 32 unlinked loci (>26 Kilobases of aligned sequence) were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of strains representing the known genetic variability of T. cruzi. Thorough phylogenetic analyses show that the original classification of T. cruzi in two major lineages does not reflect its evolutionary history and that there is only strong evidence for one major and recent hybridization event in the history of this species. Furthermore, estimates of divergence times using Bayesian methods show that current extant lineages of T. cruzi diverged very recently, within the last 3 million years, and that the major hybridization event leading to hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI occurred less than 1 million years ago, well before the contact of T. cruzi with humans in South America. Conclusions/Significance The described phylogenetic relationships among the six major genetic subdivisions of T. cruzi should serve as guidelines for targeted epidemiological and prophylaxis studies. We suggest that it is important to reconsider conclusions from previous studies that have attempted to uncover important biological differences between the two originally defined major lineages of T. cruzi especially if those conclusions were obtained from single

  5. Development of a Novel Multiplex Immunoassay Multi-cruzi for the Serological Confirmation of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Granjon, Elodie; Dichtel-Danjoy, Marie-Laure; Saba, Esber; Sabino, Ester; Campos de Oliveira, Lea; Zrein, Maan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is due to the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, a protist disseminated by a Triatome vector. This disease is endemic to Latin America and considered by WHO as one of the 17 world’s neglected diseases. In Europe and in North America, imported cases are also detected, due to migration of population outside of the endemic region. Diagnosis of T. cruzi infection is usually made indirectly by the detection of specific antibodies to T. cruzi antigens. Following initial diagnostic evaluation or screening test (qualifying or discarding blood donation), a confirmation test is performed for samples initially reactive. The test presented in this study aims at the confirmation/refutation of the infectious status of human blood samples and will permit taking appropriate clinical measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a novel array of twelve antigens and printed these antigens onto 96-well plates. We tested 248 positive samples T. cruzi, 94 unscreened blood donors’ samples from non-endemic area, 49 seronegative blood donors, 7 false-positive and 3 doubtful samples. The observed reactivities were analyzed to propose a decision-tree algorithm that correctly classifies all the samples, with the potential to discriminate false-positive results and sticky samples. We observed that antibodies levels (Sum of all antigens) was significantly higher for PCR positive than for PCR negative samples in all studied groups with Multi-cruzi. Conclusion/Significance The results described in this study indicate that the Multi-cruzi improves the serological confirmation of Chagas disease. Moreover the “sum of all antigens” detected by Multi-cruzi could reflect parasitemia level in patients–like PCR signals does—and could serve as an indicator of parasite clearance in longitudinal follow-ups. Validation of this assay is still required on an independent large collection of well characterized samples including typical false-reactive samples such as

  6. Type I Interferons Increase Host Susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection▿†

    PubMed Central

    Chessler, Anne-Danielle C.; Caradonna, Kacey L.; Da'dara, Akram; Burleigh, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes human Chagas' disease, induces a type I interferon (IFN) (IFN-α/β) response during acute experimental infection in mice and in isolated primary cell types. To examine the potential impact of the type I IFN response in shaping outcomes in experimental T. cruzi infection, groups of wild-type (WT) and type I IFN receptor-deficient (IFNAR−/−) 129sv/ev mice were infected with two different T. cruzi strains under lethal and sublethal conditions and several parameters were measured during the acute stage of infection. The results demonstrate that type I IFNs are not required for early host protection against T. cruzi. In contrast, under conditions of lethal T. cruzi challenge, WT mice succumbed to infection whereas IFNAR−/− mice were ultimately able to control parasite growth and survive. T. cruzi clearance in and survival of IFNAR−/− mice were accompanied by higher levels of IFN-γ production by isolated splenocytes in response to parasite antigen. The suppression of IFN-γ in splenocytes from WT mice was independent of IL-10 levels. While the impact of type I IFNs on the production of IFN-γ and other cytokines/chemokines remains to be fully determined in the context of T. cruzi infection, our data suggest that, under conditions of high parasite burden, type I IFNs negatively impact IFN-γ production, initiating a detrimental cycle that contributes to the ultimate failure to control infection. These findings are consistent with a growing theme in the microbial pathogenesis field in which type I IFNs can be detrimental to the host in a variety of nonviral pathogen infection models. PMID:21402764

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi extracts elicit protective immune response against chemically induced colon and mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Ubillos, Luis; Freire, Teresa; Berriel, Edgardo; Chiribao, María Laura; Chiale, Carolina; Festari, María Florencia; Medeiros, Andrea; Mazal, Daniel; Rondán, Mariella; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Robello, Carlos; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' disease, has anticancer effects mediated, at least in part, by parasite-derived products which inhibit growth of tumor cells. We investigated whether immunity to T. cruzi antigens could induce antitumor activity, using two rat models which reproduce human carcinogenesis: colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and mammary cancer induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). We found that vaccination with T. cruzi epimastigote lysates strongly inhibits tumor development in both animal models. Rats immunized with T. cruzi antigens induce activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and splenocytes from these animals showed higher cytotoxic responses against tumors as compared to rats receiving adjuvant alone. Tumor-associated immune responses included increasing number of CD11b/c(+) His48(-) MHC II(+) cells corresponding to macrophages and/or dendritic cells, which exhibited augmented NADPH-oxidase activity. We also found that T. cruzi lysate vaccination developed antibodies specific for colon and mammary rat cancer cells, which were capable of mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies cross-reacted with human colon and breast cancer cell lines and recognized 41/60 (68%) colon cancer and 38/63 (60%) breast cancer samples in a series of 123 human tumors. Our results suggest that T. cruzi antigens can evoke an integrated antitumor response involving both the cellular and humoral components of the immune response and provide novel insights into the understanding of the intricate relationship between parasite infection and tumor growth. PMID:26519949

  8. Machine Learning Models and Pathway Genome Data Base for Trypanosoma cruzi Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Sarker, Malabika; Yadav, Maneesh; Ponder, Elizabeth L.; Kallel, E. Adam; Kellar, Danielle; Chen, Steven; Arkin, Michelle; Bunin, Barry A.; McKerrow, James H.; Talcott, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The current clinical and preclinical pipeline for T. cruzi is extremely sparse and lacks drug target diversity. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we developed a computational approach that utilized data from several public whole-cell, phenotypic high throughput screens that have been completed for T. cruzi by the Broad Institute, including a single screen of over 300,000 molecules in the search for chemical probes as part of the NIH Molecular Libraries program. We have also compiled and curated relevant biological and chemical compound screening data including (i) compounds and biological activity data from the literature, (ii) high throughput screening datasets, and (iii) predicted metabolites of T. cruzi metabolic pathways. This information was used to help us identify compounds and their potential targets. We have constructed a Pathway Genome Data Base for T. cruzi. In addition, we have developed Bayesian machine learning models that were used to virtually screen libraries of compounds. Ninety-seven compounds were selected for in vitro testing, and 11 of these were found to have EC50 < 10μM. We progressed five compounds to an in vivo mouse efficacy model of Chagas disease and validated that the machine learning model could identify in vitro active compounds not in the training set, as well as known positive controls. The antimalarial pyronaridine possessed 85.2% efficacy in the acute Chagas mouse model. We have also proposed potential targets (for future verification) for this compound based on structural similarity to known compounds with targets in T. cruzi. Conclusions/ Significance We have demonstrated how combining chemoinformatics and bioinformatics for T. cruzi drug discovery can bring interesting in vivo active molecules to light that may have been overlooked. The approach we have taken is broadly applicable to other

  9. A Rare Case of Multilocular Thymic Cyst with Follicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia: Radiologic and Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Suk; Cha, Eun Jung

    2016-06-01

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose. PMID:27275366

  10. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  11. Noninfectious penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Joel M H; Sea, Jason; Thompson, Ian M; Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-15

    Family physicians commonly diagnose and manage penile cutaneous lesions. Noninfectious lesions may be classified as inflammatory and papulosquamous (e.g., psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, angiokeratomas, lichen nitidus, lichen planus), or as neoplastic (e.g., carcinoma in situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). The clinical presentation and appearance of the lesions guide the diagnosis. Psoriasis presents as red or salmon-colored plaques with overlying scales, often with systemic lesions. Lichen sclerosus presents as a phimotic, hypopigmented prepuce or glans penis with a cellophane-like texture. Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, red or blue papules, whereas lichen nitidus usually produces asymptomatic pinhead-sized, hypopigmented papules. The lesions of lichen planus are pruritic, violaceous, polygonal papules that are typically systemic. Carcinoma in situ should be suspected if the patient has velvety red or keratotic plaques of the glans penis or prepuce, whereas invasive squamous cell carcinoma presents as a painless lump, ulcer, or fungating irregular mass. Some benign lesions, such as psoriasis and lichen planus, can mimic carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. Biopsy is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt or neoplasm cannot be excluded. The management of benign penile lesions usually involves observation or topical corticosteroids; however, neoplastic lesions generally require surgery. PMID:20082512

  12. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  13. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  14. Extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, James; Galea, Samuel; Galea, Joseph; Schembri, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man on warfarin for aortic valve replacement presented with recurrent episodes of melaena. An initial oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was normal, as were red cell scanning and colonoscopy. It was a third OGD that revealed the cause of the melaena—a vascular lesion in the duodenum, at the junction between D1 and D2. An extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion was diagnosed, and the lesion was injected with epinephrine and tattooed. Over the following months, episodes of bleeding recurred despite further attempts at injection. Percutaneous radiologically assisted embolisation of the gastroduodenal artery, and eventually duodenotomy and oversuturing of the lesion were performed to no avail. The patient has undergone over 10 endoscopies, and has received over 70 units of packed red cells to date, since his initial presentation 6 years ago. Attempts to stop the bleeding permanently have been difficult, highlighting the complexity of managing such a lesion. PMID:25216921

  15. Clinico-Pathological Study of Cutaneous Granulomatous Lesions- a 5 yr Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pal, Subrata; Biswas, Biplab Kr; Bose, Kingshuk; Pal, Saswati; Pathak, Swapan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Granulomatous dermatoses are common skin pathology, often need histopathological confirmation for diagnosis. Histologically six sub-types of granulomas found in granulomatous skin diseases- tuberculoid, sarcoidal, necrobiotic, suppurative, foreign body & histoid type. The aims of the present study were clinico-pathological evaluation of granulomatous skin lesions and their etiological classification based on histopathological examination. Methods: It was a five years (Jan 2009- Dec 2013) retrospective study involving all the skin biopsies. Detailed clinical and histopathological features were analyzed and granulomatous skin lesions were categorized according to type of granuloma & etiology. Special stains were used in few cases for diagnostic purpose. Results: Among 1280 skin biopsies, 186 cases (14.53%) were granulomatous skin lesions with a ratio 1:24. In histopathological sub-typing, tuberculoid granuloma was most common type (126 cases, 67.74%). Most common etiology of granuloma in the study was leprosy (107 cases, 57.52%). Other etiologies were cutaneous tuberculosis, foreign body granulomas, fungal lesions, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sarcoidosis and granuloma annulare. Conclusion: Histopathology is established as gold standard investigation for diagnosis, categorization and clinico-pathological correlation of granulomatous skin lesions. PMID:26870144

  16. The importance of histopathologic aspects in the diagnosis of dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, Daciana Elena; Molodoi, Andreea; Ciobanu, Delia; Bădescu, Aida; Stoica, Loredana Elena; Brănişteanu, D; Tolea, I

    2009-01-01

    Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp or dissecting folliculitis also known as "perifoliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens" (PCAS), is a rare, severe and distinct dermatological disease. It most probably occurs because of follicular occlusion via hyperkeratosis, having the same mechanism of acnea conglobata and hidradenitis suppurativa. These dermatoses may be associated or may have an isolated evolution. PCAS is one of the primitive cicatricial alopecia of neutrophilic type (with pustules). What is characteristic for the histopathologic picture of the disease is the deep inflammatory infiltrate, placed at the reticular derm or hypoderm level. The initial perifolliculitis evolves towards forming profound abscesses and the destruction of polysebaceous follicles because of granuloma, usually lymphoplasmocitary and with gigantic cells. Here is the case of a 24-year-old male with records of acne conglobata and cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, with relapsed inflammatory nodular lesions on the surface of the alopecic plaques and follicular pustules on their margin. The patient had followed before hospitalizing a systemic treatment with antibiotics (azithromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, in therapeutic schemes that the patient cannot mention, but anyway of short time) and after that a treatment with retinoids (isotretinoin, 20-30 mg/day, in two successive therapies of one month each). The evolution of the disease under these treatments was with outbreaks and short times of remission of the acne lesions and nodular lesions of the scalp. The clinical diagnosis of PCAS is difficult, especially in the initial stage of the disease, as it was the case of the patient presented here. We underline the importance of a correct history of the disease, of the complete clinical exams and the need of paraclinical investigations (histopathologic exam from the lesional biopsy - microscopy and immunohistochemistry) in order to come with a positive diagnosis of PCAS and a

  17. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Terminology.

    PubMed

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A; Schwendicke, F

    2016-05-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current words used in the literature for caries removal techniques, and 2) agreed terms and definitions, explaining how these were decided.Dental cariesis the name of the disease, and thecarious lesionis the consequence and manifestation of the disease-the signs or symptoms of the disease. The termdental caries managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm dentine; 2)stepwise removal-including stage 1,selective removal to soft dentine, and stage 2,selective removal to firm dentine6 to 12 mo later; and 3)nonselective removal to hard dentine-formerly known ascomplete caries removal(technique no longer recommended). Adoption of these terms, around managing dental caries and its sequelae, will facilitate improved understanding and communication among researchers and within dental educators and the wider clinical dentistry community. PMID:27099357

  18. Histopathological Differential Diagnosis of Psoriasis and Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Hye; Park, Young Joon; Kim, Sue Kyoung; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Eun-So; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The differential diagnosis of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis can be difficult when both conditions are localized to the scalp without the involvement of other skin sites. Objective We aimed to evaluate the histopathological differences between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp and identify favorable criteria for their differential diagnosis. Methods We evaluated 15 cases of psoriasis and 20 cases of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp that had been clinicopathologically diagnosed. Skin biopsy sections stained with H&E were examined. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed, including Ki-67, keratin 10, caspase-5, and GLUT-1. Results On histopathological examination, mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, and clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges were significantly more frequently observed in psoriasis. Follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis were significantly more common in seborrheic dermatitis. Moreover, significantly higher mitotic figures were observed in psoriatic lesions than in seborrheic dermatitis. Immunohistochemistry did not show any difference between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Conclusion Histopathological features favoring psoriasis include mounds of parakeratosis with neutrophils, spongiform micropustules of Kogoj, clubbed and evenly elongated rete ridges, and increased mitotic figures (≥6/high-powered field). Features indicating seborrheic dermatitis are follicular plugging, shoulder parakeratosis and prominent lymphocytic exocytosis. Immunohistochemistry was not helpful in differentiating psoriasis from seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:27489423

  19. The Effect of Pioglitazone on Antioxidant Levels and Renal Histopathology in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuru Karabas, Munire; Ayhan, Mediha; Guney, Engin; Serter, Mukadder; Meteoglu, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Diabetic nephropathy is the most commonly seen cause of chronic renal failure, and oxidative stress is important in etiology. In the present study, favorable effects (if any) of the treatment with a thiazolidinedione group drug, pioglitazone, on antioxidant enzyme levels in the renal tissue, renal histopathology, and inflammatory cytokine levels have been investigated. Method. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as the control, diabetic control, and 10 and 30 mg pioglitazone-administered diabetic groups. After 4 weeks, antioxidant enzyme levels in renal tissues and inflammatory markers were investigated. Results. Blood glucose levels did not differ between the diabetic control and drug-administered groups. In pioglitazone-administered rats, histopathological findings such as tubular dilation, necrotic tubular epithelium, glomerular focal necrosis, and vascular consolidation were observed at a lesser extent than the diabetic control group. Any difference was not detected between the diabetic groups with respect to the levels of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Conclusion. Pioglitazone regressed development of histopathological lesions such as glomerular focal necrosis, tubular epithelial necrosis, tubular dilation, and vascular wall consolidation. However, any favorable effect on antioxidant enzyme levels in renal tissues and inflammation markers was not detected. PMID:23762597

  20. Genetic Variability and Phylogenetic Relationships within Trypanosoma cruzi I Isolated in Colombia Based on Miniexon Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Claudia; Guhl, Felipe; Falla, Alejandra; Fajardo, Anabella; Montilla, Marleny; Adolfo Vallejo, Gustavo; Bargues, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies of Trypanosoma cruzi have identified the existence of two groups: T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II. There are aspects that still remain unknown about the genetic variability within the T. cruzi I group. Given its epidemiological importance, it is necessary to have a better understanding of T. cruzi transmission cycles. Our purpose was to corroborate the existence of haplotypes within the T. cruzi I group and to describe the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the miniexon gene intergenic region, for the isolates from different hosts and epidemiological transmission cycles in Colombian regions. 31 T. cruzi isolates were molecularly characterized. Phylogenetic relationships within T. cruzi I isolates showed four haplotype groups (Ia–Id), associated with their transmission cycle. In previous studies, we reported that haplotype Ia is mainly associated with the domestic cycle and domiciliated Rhodnius prolixus. Haplotype Ib is associated with the domestic cycle and peridomestic cycle, haplotype Ic is closely related with the peridomestic cycle, and haplotype Id is strongly associated with the sylvatic cycle. The phylogenetic methodologies applied in this study are tools that bolster the associations among isolates and thus shed light on Chagas disease epidemiology. PMID:20798881

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grisard, E C; Carvalho-Pinto, C J; Scholz, A F; Toma, H K; Schlemper, B R; Steindel, M

    2000-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed. PMID:11080763

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi in the sylvatic environment: distinct transmission cycles involving two sympatric marsupials.

    PubMed

    Pinho, A P; Cupolillo, E; Mangia, R H; Fernandes, O; Jansen, A M

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-five specimens of Philander frenata and 36 Didelphis marsupialis were captured in the same Atlantic forest area of Brazil between 1992 and 1994. Haemocultures showed that 50% of P. frenata and 60% of D. marsupialis were infected with Trypansoma cruzi. Biological, biochemical and molecular characterization of the isolates suggested 2 distinct transmission cycles of T. cruzi occurred between these 2 sympatric didelphids. The T. cruzi isolates could be distinguished according to their association with each marsupial species. Biochemical characterization (multilocus enzyme electrophoresis) revealed 15 zymodemes; more variability was observed among the P. frenata isolates than among the isolates from D. marsupialis. The course of natural and experimental infection in D. marsupialis and P. frenata was different and suggested that D. marsupialis was more resistant to infection than P. frenata. In the studied area, P. frenata seems to be a more important reservoir of T. cruzi than D. marsupialis, since 40% of the characterized isolates from P. frenata belonged to the T. cruzi II group, which is associated with human infections. PMID:11132378

  3. Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Telomere Association Correlates with Redox Status in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Pariona-Llanos, Ricardo; Pavani, Raphael Souza; Reis, Marcelo; Noël, Vincent; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH) binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH). We observed that GAPDH-telomere association and NAD+/NADH balance changed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle. For example, in replicative epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, which show similar intracellular concentrations of NAD+ and NADH, GAPDH binds to telomeric DNA in vivo and this binding activity is inhibited by exogenous NAD+. In contrast, in the T. cruzi non-proliferative trypomastigote forms, which show higher NAD+ concentration, GAPDH was absent from telomeres. In addition, NAD+ abolishes physical interaction between recombinant GAPDH and synthetic telomere oligonucleotide in a cell free system, mimicking exogenous NAD+ that reduces GAPDH-telomere interaction in vivo. We propose that the balance in the NAD+/NADH ratio during T. cruzi life cycle homeostatically regulates GAPDH telomere association, suggesting that in trypanosomes redox status locally modulates GAPDH association with telomeric DNA. PMID:25775131

  4. The Trypanosoma cruzi Protein TcHTE Is Critical for Heme Uptake.

    PubMed

    Merli, Marcelo L; Pagura, Lucas; Hernández, Josefina; Barisón, María Julia; Pral, Elizabeth M F; Silber, Ariel M; Cricco, Julia A

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, presents nutritional requirements for several metabolites. It requires heme for the biosynthesis of several heme-proteins involved in essential metabolic pathways like mitochondrial cytochromes and respiratory complexes, as well as enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids. However, this parasite lacks a complete route for its synthesis. In view of these facts, T. cruzi has to incorporate heme from the environment during its life cycle. In other words, their hosts must supply the heme for heme-protein synthesis. Although the acquisition of heme is a fundamental issue for the parasite's replication and survival, how this cofactor is imported and distributed is poorly understood. In this work, we used different fluorescent heme analogs to explore heme uptake along the different life-cycle stages of T. cruzi, showing that this parasite imports it during its replicative stages: the epimastigote in the insect vector and the intracellular amastigote in the mammalian host. Also, we identified and characterized a T. cruzi protein (TcHTE) with 55% of sequence similarity to LHR1 (protein involved in L. amazonensis heme transport), which is located in the flagellar pocket, where the transport of nutrients proceeds in trypanosomatids. We postulate TcHTE as a protein involved in improving the efficiency of the heme uptake or trafficking in T. cruzi. PMID:26752206

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: In vitro effect of aspirin with nifurtimox and benznidazole.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Faúndez, Mario; Klein, Sebastián; Escanilla, Sebastián; Torres, Gloria; Lee-Liu, Dasfne; Ferreira, Jorge; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Orellana, Myriam; Morello, Antonio; Ferreira, Arturo; Maya, Juan D

    2010-02-01

    Nifurtimox and benznidazole are the only active drugs against Trypanosoma cruzi; however, they have limited efficacy and severe side effects. During primoinfection, T. cruzi infected macrophages mount an antiparasitic response, which the parasite evades through an increase of tumor growth factor beta and PGE(2) activation as well as decreased iNOS activity. Thus, prostaglandin synthesis inhibition with aspirin might increase macrophage antiparasitic activity and increase nifurtimox and benznidazole effect. Aspirin alone demonstrated a low effect upon macrophage antiparasitic activity. However, isobolographic analysis of the combined effects of aspirin, nifurtimox and benznidazole indicated a synergistic effect on T. cruzi infection of RAW cells, with combinatory indexes of 0.71 and 0.61, respectively. The observed effect of aspirin upon T. cruzi infection was not related with the PGE(2) synthesis inhibition. Nevertheless, NO() levels were restored by aspirin in T. cruzi-infected RAW cells, contributing to macrophage antiparasitic activity improvement. Thus, the synergy of aspirin with nifurtimox and benznidazole is due to the capability of aspirin to increase antiparasitic activity of macrophages. PMID:19735656

  6. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  7. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-telomere association correlates with redox status in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pariona-Llanos, Ricardo; Pavani, Raphael Souza; Reis, Marcelo; Noël, Vincent; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Cano, Maria Isabel Nogueira; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a classical metabolic enzyme involved in energy production and plays a role in additional nuclear functions, including transcriptional control, recognition of misincorporated nucleotides in DNA and maintenance of telomere structure. Here, we show that the recombinant protein T. cruzi GAPDH (rTcGAPDH) binds single-stranded telomeric DNA. We demonstrate that the binding of GAPDH to telomeric DNA correlates with the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH). We observed that GAPDH-telomere association and NAD+/NADH balance changed throughout the T. cruzi life cycle. For example, in replicative epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, which show similar intracellular concentrations of NAD+ and NADH, GAPDH binds to telomeric DNA in vivo and this binding activity is inhibited by exogenous NAD+. In contrast, in the T. cruzi non-proliferative trypomastigote forms, which show higher NAD+ concentration, GAPDH was absent from telomeres. In addition, NAD+ abolishes physical interaction between recombinant GAPDH and synthetic telomere oligonucleotide in a cell free system, mimicking exogenous NAD+ that reduces GAPDH-telomere interaction in vivo. We propose that the balance in the NAD+/NADH ratio during T. cruzi life cycle homeostatically regulates GAPDH telomere association, suggesting that in trypanosomes redox status locally modulates GAPDH association with telomeric DNA. PMID:25775131

  8. Trans-sialidase inhibition assay detects Trypanosoma cruzi infection in different wild mammal species.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Paula A; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Orozco, Marcela M; Cardinal, Marta V; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Leguizamón, María S

    2013-08-01

    The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mammals is crucial for understanding the eco-epidemiological role of the different species involved in parasite transmission cycles. Xenodiagnosis (XD) and hemoculture (HC) are routinely used to detect T. cruzi in wild mammals. Serological methods are much more limited because they require the use of specific antibodies to immunoglobulins of each mammalian species susceptible to T. cruzi. In this study we detected T. cruzi infection by trans-sialidase (TS) inhibition assay (TIA). TIA is based on the antibody neutralization of a recombinant TS that avoids the use of anti-immunoglobulins. TS activity is not detected in the co-endemic protozoan parasites Leishmania spp and T. rangeli. In the current study, serum samples from 158 individuals of nine wild mammalian species, previously tested by XD, were evaluated by TIA. They were collected from two endemic areas in northern Argentina. The overall TIA versus XD co-reactivity was 98.7% (156/158). All 18 samples from XD-positive mammals were TIA-positive (co-positivity, 100%) and co-negativity was 98.5% (138/140). Two XD-negative samples from a marsupial (Didelphis albiventris) and an edentate (Dasypus novemcinctus) were detected by TIA. TIA could be used as a novel tool for serological detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in a wide variety of sylvatic reservoir hosts. PMID:23930975

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi and Its Soluble Antigens Induce NET Release by Stimulating Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Larissa Figueiredo Alves; Souza, Priscila Silva Sampaio; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Toledo, Karina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils release fibrous traps of DNA, histones, and granule proteins known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which contribute to microbicidal killing and have been implicated in autoimmunity. The role of NET formation in the host response to nonbacterial pathogens is not well-understood. In this study, we investigated the release of NETs by human neutrophils upon their interaction with Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) parasites. Our results showed that human neutrophils stimulated by T. cruzi generate NETs composed of DNA, histones, and elastase. The release occurred in a dose-, time-, and reactive oxygen species-dependent manner to decrease trypomastigote and increase amastigote numbers of the parasites without affecting their viability. NET release was decreased upon blocking with antibodies against Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. In addition, living parasites were not mandatory in the release of NETs induced by T. cruzi, as the same results were obtained when molecules from its soluble extract were tested. Our results increase the understanding of the stimulation of NETs by parasites, particularly T. cruzi. We suggest that contact of T. cruzi with NETs during Chagas’s disease can limit infection by affecting the infectivity/pathogenicity of the parasite. PMID:26431537

  10. Activity of P536, a UDP-glucose analog, against Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Alcina, A.; Fresno, M.; Alarcon, B.

    1988-09-01

    P536, a UDP-glucose analog which was previously described as an antiviral agent, has a potent and selective activity against the intracellular and extracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. It had a 50% inhibitory concentration of less than 5 micrograms/ml for T. cruzi extracellular cultured forms (epimastigote) and of 25 micrograms/ml for T. cruzi intracellular forms (amastigote) growing inside J774G8 macrophage-like cells. In contrast, the 50% inhibitory concentration was 100 micrograms/ml or greater for cultured mammalian cells and 180 micrograms/ml for the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Furthermore, the addition of P536 (50 micrograms/ml) to T. cruzi-infected J774G8 cells cured the infected macrophages, making them able to grow and function normally. Studies on the mechanism of action of this drug indicated that it inhibited incorporation of (TVS)methionine, (TH)thymidine, (TH)mannose, ( UC)-N-acetylglucosamine, and (TH)uridine into macromolecules by T. cruzi epimastigotes, the last being the most sensitive.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of potent inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Murugesan, Srinivasan; Senkovich, Olga; Walker, Kiera; Chenna, Bala C.; Shinkre, Bidhan; Desai, Amar; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-09-17

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is a potential target for developing drugs to treat Chagas disease. We have undertaken a detailed structure-activity study of this enzyme. We report here synthesis and characterization of six potent inhibitors of the parasitic enzyme. Inhibitory activity of each compound was determined against T. cruzi and human DHFR. One of these compounds, ethyl 4-(5-[(2,4-diamino-6-quinazolinyl)methyl]amino-2-methoxyphenoxy)butanoate (6b) was co-crystallized with the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase enzyme of T. cruzi and the crystal structure of the ternary enzyme:cofactor:inhibitor complex was determined. Molecular docking was used to analyze the potential interactions of all inhibitors with T. cruzi DHFR and human DHFR. Inhibitory activities of these compounds are discussed in the light of enzyme-ligand interactions. Binding affinities of each inhibitor for the respective enzymes were calculated based on the experimental or docked binding mode. An estimated 60-70% of the total binding energy is contributed by the 2,4-diaminoquinazoline scaffold.

  12. Mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Josiane F; Capettini, Luciano S A; da Silva, José F P; Sales-Junior, Policarpo; Cruz, Jader Santos; Cortes, Steyner F; Lemos, Virginia S

    2016-07-01

    Vascular disorders have a direct link to mortality in the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. However, the underlying mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in this phase are largely unknown. We hypothesize that T. cruzi invades endothelial cells causing dysfunction in contractility and relaxation of the mouse aorta. Immunodetection of T. cruzi antigen TcRBP28 was observed in endothelial cells. There was a decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO-dependent vascular relaxation, and increased vascular contractility accompanied by augmented superoxide anions production. Endothelial removal, inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), blockade of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) TP receptors, and scavenger of superoxide normalized the contractile response. COX-2, thromboxane synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), p65 NFκB subunit and p22(phox) of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) subunit expressions were increased in vessels of chagasic animals. Serum TNF-α was augmented. Basal NO production, and nitrotyrosine residue expression were increased. It is concluded that T. cruzi invades mice aorta endothelial cells and increases TXA2/TP receptor/NOX-derived superoxide formation. Alongside, T. cruzi promotes systemic TNF-α increase, which stimulates iNOS expression in vessels and nitrosative stress. In light of the heart failure that develops in the chronic phase of the disease, to understand the mechanism involved in the increased contractility of the aorta is crucial. PMID:26988253

  13. Antiparasitic evaluation of betulinic acid derivatives reveals effective and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cássio Santana; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with several biological properties already described, including antiparasitic activity. Here, the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of betulinic acid and its semi-synthetic amide derivatives (BA1-BA8) was investigated. The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and selectivity were enhanced in semi-synthetic derivatives, specially on derivatives BA5, BA6 and BA8. To understand the mechanism of action underlying betulinic acid anti-T. cruzi activity, we investigated ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural studies showed that trypomastigotes incubated with BA5 had membrane blebling, flagella retraction, atypical cytoplasmic vacuoles and Golgi cisternae dilatation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that parasite death is mainly caused by necrosis. Treatment with derivatives BA5, BA6 or BA8 reduced the invasion process, as well as intracellular parasite development in host cells, with a potency and selectivity similar to that observed in benznidazole-treated cells. More importantly, the combination of BA5 and benznidazole revealed synergistic effects on trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BA5 compound is an effective and selective anti-T. cruzi agent. PMID:27080160

  14. The Trypanosoma cruzi Protein TcHTE Is Critical for Heme Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Josefina; Barisón, María Julia; Pral, Elizabeth M. F.; Silber, Ariel M.; Cricco, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, presents nutritional requirements for several metabolites. It requires heme for the biosynthesis of several heme-proteins involved in essential metabolic pathways like mitochondrial cytochromes and respiratory complexes, as well as enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids. However, this parasite lacks a complete route for its synthesis. In view of these facts, T. cruzi has to incorporate heme from the environment during its life cycle. In other words, their hosts must supply the heme for heme-protein synthesis. Although the acquisition of heme is a fundamental issue for the parasite’s replication and survival, how this cofactor is imported and distributed is poorly understood. In this work, we used different fluorescent heme analogs to explore heme uptake along the different life-cycle stages of T. cruzi, showing that this parasite imports it during its replicative stages: the epimastigote in the insect vector and the intracellular amastigote in the mammalian host. Also, we identified and characterized a T. cruzi protein (TcHTE) with 55% of sequence similarity to LHR1 (protein involved in L. amazonensis heme transport), which is located in the flagellar pocket, where the transport of nutrients proceeds in trypanosomatids. We postulate TcHTE as a protein involved in improving the efficiency of the heme uptake or trafficking in T. cruzi. PMID:26752206

  15. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is hodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  16. Purification and characterization of an 80-kilodalton Trypanosoma cruzi urinary antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Corral, R S; Orn, A; Freilij, H L; Bergman, T; Grinstein, S

    1989-01-01

    A Trypanosoma cruzi antigen eliminated in the urine of experimentally infected dogs was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between 9 and 28 days after infection. The parasite urinary antigen (UAg) was purified by affinity chromatography with polyclonal antibodies to T. cruzi. The eluate of the antibody column was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography and showed a single peak of A280. This antigen was the only parasite component found in the urine of infected dogs during the course of acute T. cruzi infection. Antigen characterization was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, lectin affinity chromatography, proteolytic digestion, and Western blotting (immunoblotting). The isolated UAg exhibited a relative molecular size of 80 kilodaltons (kDa), an isoelectric point of 6.2 to 6.8, binding to concanavalin A, and sensitivity to trypsin. The parasite antigen was electroeluted from polyacrylamide gels and subjected to acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 80-kDa glycoprotein was recognized by serum antibodies from a wide variety of T. cruzi-infected hosts. The UAg proved to be a highly antigenic component present in different strains of T. cruzi. This 80-kDa polypeptide resembles one of the parasite antigens previously found in the urine of patients with acute Chagas' disease. Images PMID:2643616

  17. Comparative karyotyping as a tool for genome structure analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Branche, Carole; Ochaya, Stephen; Aslund, Lena; Andersson, Björn

    2006-05-01

    As a part of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome project, 239 genetic markers were hybridised to PFGE separated DNA from T. cruzi, in order to determine the number and size of chromosomes and to aid the assembly of the genome sequence. We used three strains, T. cruzi IIe CL Brener (the genome project reference strain) and two T. cruzi I strains, Sylvio X10/7 and CAI/72, to perform a comparative study of their karyotypes and to determine marker linkage. A densitometry analysis of the separations estimated the total chromosome numbers to be 55 in CL Brener and 57 in the two other strains. In all, 45 markers hybridised to single chromosomal bands and 103 markers to two bands in CL Brener, while the number of markers in Sylvio X10/7 and CAI/72 were 102/68 and 61/105, respectively. Size differences between homologous chromosomes were often large, up to 1900 kb (173%). The average difference was 36% for CL Brener and 23.5% for the T. cruzi I strains. Larger differences in CL Brener are consistent with a recent hybrid origin. Forty markers distributed into 15 linkage groups were found to identify specific chromosomes or chromosomes pairs. While the same markers are generally linked in all three strains, the sizes of the chromosomes vary extensively, indicating large chromosomal rearrangements. These data provide valuable information for the finishing of the CL Brener genome sequence. PMID:16481054

  18. Dermoscopic and Clinical Features of Pigmented Skin Lesions of the Genital Area*

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan; Wellenhof, Rainer Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The dermoscopic features of vulvar melanosis lesions are well known. To our knowledge, there are only a few case reports about dermoscopic features of pigmented genital lesions in male patients. OBJECTIVE To evaluate dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of benign lesions of the genital area in both males and females, and to assess the distinguishing dermoscopic criteria of vulvar melanosis and atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type. METHODS 68 patients with pigmented genital lesions were included in this observational study (28 male and 40 female). A punch biopsy was taken from all pigmented lesions and histopathological examination was performed on all specimens. RESULTS We histopathologically diagnosed: genital melanosis in 40 lesions, atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type in 15 lesions, melanocytic nevi in 9 lesions, seborrheic keratosis in 4 lesions. The most frequent locations were the glans penis (19 patients, 67.9%) in males and the labia minora (19 patients, 47.5%) in females. The mean age of patients with atypical nevi (28,6 ± 11,36) was significantly lower than the mean age of patients with genital melanosis (47,07 ± 15,33). CONCLUSIONS Parallel pattern is prominent in genital melanosis, ring-like pattern is only observed in genital melanosis. Most pigmented lesions on the genital area are solitary. Blue-white veil and irregular dots are only observed in AMNGT. According to these results, we propose that histopathological examination is performed, especially if blue-white veil and irregular dots are found by dermoscopy. PMID:25830986

  19. Information and observer disagreement in histopathology.

    PubMed

    Morris, J A

    1994-08-01

    Concepts from information theory are used to assess the process of ordinal classification of histopathological continua such as degree of dysplasia or degree of differentiation. A working model is used to show that reducing the number of categories leads to an increase in inter-observer agreement, as measured by kappa statistics, but a decrease in information transmitted. It is argued that the prime role of histopathologists is to pass information, obtained from visual patterns, to the clinician and therefore more categories, rather than fewer, should be used. It is suggested that judgements of continua should be made on 100 point scales and quoted together with 95% confidence limits; and that the judgements of different observers should be averaged to form a reference range. PMID:7982674

  20. Histopathological evolution of a cutaneous myxofibrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Rhonda A; Kossard, Steven

    2008-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of a tender and swollen plaque appearing as a panniculitis affecting the left pretibial area. The initial histopathology revealed dermal and subcutaneous inflammation with interstitial histiocytes and mucinosis suggestive of either granuloma annulare or necrobiosis lipoidica. Over the subsequent 6 months the plaque grew progressively, despite treatment with topical corticosteroids under occlusion. Distal to the plaque reduced sensation developed in the limb. Biopsies of the nodular areas now revealed a dense dermal infiltrate of atypical spindle cells within a prominent myxoid stroma and a pleomorphic multinucleated epithelioid cell component. These features were those of an intermediate grade myxofibrosarcoma. This soft-tissue sarcoma may initially masquerade clinically as a panniculitis and a granulomatous process on biopsy as in our patient, leading to a delay in surgical therapy. PMID:18638228

  1. The multiple and complex and changeable scenarios of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the sylvatic environment.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Ana Maria; Xavier, Samanta C C; Roque, André Luiz R

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report and discuss the results generated from over 20 years of studies of the Trypanosoma cruzi sylvatic transmission cycle. Our results have uncovered new aspects and reviewed old concepts on issues including reservoirs, true generalist species, association of mammalian species with distinct discrete typing units - DTUs, distribution of T. cruzi genotypes in the wild, mixed infections, and T. cruzi transmission ecology. Using parasitological and serological tests, we examined T. cruzi infection in 7,285 mammalian specimens from nine mammalian orders dispersed all over the Brazilian biomes. The obtained T. cruzi isolates were characterized by mini-exon gene sequence polymorphism and PCR RFLP to identify DTUs. Infection by T. cruzi was detected by serological methods in 20% of the examined animals and isolated from 41% of those infected, corresponding to 8% of all the examined mammals. Each mammal taxon responded uniquely to T. cruzi infection. Didelphis spp. are able to maintain high and long-lasting parasitemias (positive hemocultures) caused by TcI but maintain and rapidly control parasitemias caused by TcII to almost undetectable levels. In contrast, the tamarin species Leontopithecus rosalia and L. chrysomelas maintain long-lasting and high parasitemias caused by TcII similarly to Philander sp. The coati Nasua nasua maintains high parasitemias by both parental T. cruzi DTUs TcI or TcII and by TcII/TcIV (formerly Z3) at detectable levels. Wild and domestic canidae seem to display only a short period of reservoir competence. T. cruzi infection was demonstrated in the wild canid species Cerdocyon thous and Chrysocyon brachyurus, and positive hemoculture was obtained in one hyper carnivore species (Leopardus pardalis), demonstrating that T. cruzi transmission is deeply immersed in the trophic net. T. cruzi DTU distribution in nature did not exhibit any association with a particular biome or habitat. TcI predominates throughout (58% of the T. cruzi

  2. Clinical, Histopathological and Therapeutical Analysis of Inferior Eyelid Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Alexandrescu, C; Pirvulescu, R; Gradinaru, S; Costache, M

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Eyelids are very susceptible area for non-melanoma skin cancers; among that, basal cell carcinoma has the highest incidence (almost 90% of malignant eyelid tumors) and 50-60% of eyelid basal cell carcinomas appear on inferior eyelid. Objective: To analyze clinical features of inferior eyelid basal cell carcinoma and to determine the efficacy of surgical treatment with frozen sectioncontrolled margins and methods of primary reconstruction of defects. Methods: A review of medical records of cases with primary inferior eyelid basal cell carcinoma treated by surgical excision with urgent histopathology controlled margins by FS technique, doubled by paraffin examination from October 2011 to October 2014. After histopathology confirmation of tumor free margins, proper inferior eyelid reconstruction was performed. Results: The review resulted in 36 patients with 36 lesions analyzed by clinical, histopatological and therapeuticalaspectswith a mean follow-up of 20 months. All lesions were primary BCC affecting inferior eyelid. There were no recurrence in the follow-up period. Inferior eyelid reconstruction techniques were direct closure for small defects and complex techniques for defects more than one third of eyelid length. Discussion: Appropriate eyelid examination is mandatory in any routine ophthalmic check-up. Clinical signs suggestive of BCC should be familiar to ophthalmologist in order to have an early diagnosis and treatment for these tumors. Surgical treatment with FS controlled excision followed by eyelid reconstruction is an efficient treatment for inferior eyelid BCC. Abbreviations: basal cell carcinoma (BCC); frozen section (FS);Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). PMID:27057245

  3. Impact of experimental duel infections with Schistosoma mansoni and Echinoccocus granulosus on hepatic histopathology.

    PubMed

    Elwakil, Hala S; Ali, Nehad M; Talaat, Roba M; Osman, Wesam M

    2007-12-01

    Experimental duel infection with S. mansoni and E. granulosus was induced in mice to determine their effect on serum nitric oxide (NO) level and accordingly on the sequences of histopathological lesions affecting the liver. The results showed that serum NO level was significantly increased (p<0.05) in mice infected with both parasites (GI) in comparison to either S. mansoni (GIV) or E. granulosus (GV). The NO elevation on hepatic pathological lesions of both diseases showed a marked reduction of granuloma size with absence of concentric fibrosis in GI as early as 4 weeks of concomitant infection as compared to GIV. In spite of the significant increase of NO level when E. granulosus infection induced in late stages of schistosomisais (GsII & III), yet granuloma size was not suppressed. Also, there was absence or death of hydatid cyst in mice (GI) compared to E. granulosus (GV). So, the duel infection with the two parasites affected serum NO level and hepatic histopathology, by ameliorative or deteriorative effects, according to duration of infection with either. PMID:18431992

  4. Histopathologic alterations associated with global gene expression due to chronic dietary TCDD exposure in juvenile zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Cariou, Ronan; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Jiang, Nan; Goetz, Giles; Hutz, Reinhold J; Tonellato, Peter J; Carvan, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the effects and possible developmental disease implication of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on global gene expression anchored to histopathologic analysis in juvenile zebrafish by functional genomic, histopathologic and analytic chemistry methods. Specifically, juvenile zebrafish were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb, and fish were sampled following 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42 d after initiation of the exposure. TCDD accumulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 100 ppb TCDD caused TCDD accumulation in female (15.49 ppb) and male (18.04 ppb) fish at 28 d post exposure. Dietary TCDD caused multiple lesions in liver, kidney, intestine and ovary of zebrafish and functional dysregulation such as depletion of glycogen in liver, retrobulbar edema, degeneration of nasal neurosensory epithelium, underdevelopment of intestine, and diminution in the fraction of ovarian follicles containing vitellogenic oocytes. Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study. Microarray gene expression analysis comparing vehicle control to dietary TCDD revealed dysregulated genes involved in pathways associated with cardiac necrosis/cell death, cardiac fibrosis, renal necrosis/cell death and liver necrosis/cell death. These baseline toxicological effects provide evidence for the potential mechanisms of developmental dysfunctions induced by TCDD and vasa as a biomarker for ovarian developmental disruption. PMID:24988445

  5. Histopathologic Alterations Associated with Global Gene Expression Due to Chronic Dietary TCDD Exposure in Juvenile Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Cariou, Ronan; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Jiang, Nan; Goetz, Giles; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the effects and possible developmental disease implication of chronic dietary TCDD exposure on global gene expression anchored to histopathologic analysis in juvenile zebrafish by functional genomic, histopathologic and analytic chemistry methods. Specifically, juvenile zebrafish were fed Biodiet starter with TCDD added at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ppb, and fish were sampled following 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42 d after initiation of the exposure. TCDD accumulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 100 ppb TCDD caused TCDD accumulation in female (15.49 ppb) and male (18.04 ppb) fish at 28 d post exposure. Dietary TCDD caused multiple lesions in liver, kidney, intestine and ovary of zebrafish and functional dysregulation such as depletion of glycogen in liver, retrobulbar edema, degeneration of nasal neurosensory epithelium, underdevelopment of intestine, and diminution in the fraction of ovarian follicles containing vitellogenic oocytes. Importantly, lesions in nasal epithelium and evidence of endocrine disruption based on alternatively spliced vasa transcripts are two novel and significant results of this study. Microarray gene expression analysis comparing vehicle control to dietary TCDD revealed dysregulated genes involved in pathways associated with cardiac necrosis/cell death, cardiac fibrosis, renal necrosis/cell death and liver necrosis/cell death. These baseline toxicological effects provide evidence for the potential mechanisms of developmental dysfunctions induced by TCDD and vasa as a biomarker for ovarian developmental disruption. PMID:24988445

  6. Photoacoustic imaging of breast tumor vascularization: a comparison with MRI and histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; van den Engh, Frank M.; Klaase, Joost M.; Brinkhuis, Mariël.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females. Early diagnosis improves the survival chances for the disease and that is why there is an ongoing search for improved methods for visualizing breast cancer. One of the hallmarks of breast cancer is the increase in tumor vascularization that is associated with angiogenesis: a crucial factor for survival of malignancies. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize the malignancyassociated increased hemoglobin concentration with optical contrast and ultrasound resolution, without the use of ionizing radiation or contrast agents and is therefore theoretically an ideal method for breast imaging. Previous clinical studies using the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM), which works in forward mode using a single wavelength (1064 nm), showed that malignancies can indeed be identified in the photoacoustic imaging volume as high contrast areas. However, the specific appearance of the malignancies led to questions about the contrast mechanism in relation to tumor vascularization. In this study, the photoacoustic lesion appearance obtained with an updated version of PAM is compared with the lesion appearance on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), both in general (19 patients) and on an individual basis (7 patients). Further, in 3 patients an extended histopathology protocol is being performed in which malignancies are stained for vascularity using an endothelial antibody: CD31. The correspondence between PAM and MRI and between PAM and histopathology makes it likely that the high photoacoustic contrast at 1064 nm is indeed largely the consequence of the increased tumor vascularization.

  7. Histopathological Characteristics of Endometrosis in Thoroughbred Mares in Japan: Results from 50 Necropsy Cases

    PubMed Central

    HANADA, Michiko; MAEDA, Yousuke; OIKAWA, Masa-aki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uteri from 50 necropsied nonpregnant Japanese Thoroughbred brood mares (1–30 years of age) were investigated to clarify the histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in Japanese Thoroughbred mares and the distribution pattern of endometrosis lesions in the uterus as a whole. Endometrosis was observed in all animals over 6 years of age and in all of the 21 mares aged over 12 years of age. The affected mares showed elastofibrosis of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall, atrophy of the uterine smooth muscle layers and hyperplasia of collagen fibers among the smooth muscle fascicles of the myometrium, in addition to pathomorphologic features of endometrosis such as stromal endometrial fibrosis accompanied by endometrial atrophy, periglandular fibrosis and reduction of uterine glands. The severity of the histopathological changes increased with advancing age. Lymphatic vessels with elastofibrosis showed marked lymph congestion, leading to lymphatic edema. With increasing age, the extent of the distribution of these lesions tended to expand from focal to diffuse involvement of the entire uterus. Based on these findings, we speculate that aging plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometrosis; circulatory disturbances due to intrauterine angiosis or angiopathy, particularly reduction of the arterial blood supply and disturbance of venous drainage, resulting in a reduction of lymphatic drainage (lymphatic edema), are closely related to the onset and progression of endometrial fibrosis and myometrial atrophy with fibroplasia may result in myometrial hypofunction during the peri-implantation or puerperal period. PMID:25013358

  8. Histopathological evaluation of tissue undergoing thermal insult

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Minal; Bonde, Dushyant; Patil, Swati; Gawande, Madhuri; Hande, Alka; Jain, Deepali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thermal insult is the major cause of thermal injury or death and in case of death due to thermal injury the body often has to be recovered from the site. Histologically, one can predict whether the victim was alive or dead when the fire was on going. However, determination of probable cause of thermal insult to which victim subjected to be difficult when the victim's body is found somewhere else from the crime scene or accident site or found alone. Hence, histopathological evaluation of the tissue which has undergone thermal insult in such conditions could help to place evidence in front of law officials, regarding probable condition, or scenario at time of burn of victim. Aims: Keeping this as a criteria in this study we aim to evaluate burnt tissue histopathologically, that undergone various degree of thermal insult, which simulates various real life scenario for mortality in burn cases. Settings and Design: We evaluate the changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining pattern of tissue which has undergone thermal insult compared to normal tissue and also the progressive changes in staining pattern, architectural, and cellular details. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from the patients, in various surgical procedures. Each sample was cut into five parts with close margins so that each burnt tissue is evaluated for same field or region. The tissue that obtained was immediately subjected to varying degree of temperature over a specific period so as to simulate the various real-life condition. Then the tissues were fixed, processed, and stained with routine H and E staining. The processed slides of tissue were examined under the microscope, and the staining, and architectural changes were evaluated and described. Results: Results show that there was a progressive changes in the architectural pattern of the epithelium and connective tissue showing cleft formation and vacuolization, staining pattern also shows mixing of stains progressively as the

  9. Emerging Chagas disease: trophic network and cycle of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi from palm trees in the Amazon.

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, A. R.; Monteiro, P. S.; Rebelo, J. M.; Argañaraz, E. R.; Vieira, D.; Lauria-Pires, L.; Nascimento, R.; Vexenat, C. A.; Silva, A. R.; Ault, S. K.; Costa, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A trophic network involving molds, invertebrates, and vertebrates, ancestrally adapted to the palm tree (Attalaea phalerata) microhabitat, maintains enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi infections in the Amazonian county Paço do Lumiar, state of Maranhão, Brazil. We assessed seropositivity for T. cruzi infections in the human population of the county, searched in palm trees for the triatomines that harbor these infections, and gathered demographic, environmental, and socioeconomic data. Rhodnius pictipes and R. neglectus in palm-tree frond clefts or in houses were infected with T. cruzi (57% and 41%, respectively). Human blood was found in 6.8% of R. pictipes in houses, and 9 of 10 wild Didelphis marsupialis had virulent T. cruzi infections. Increasing human population density, rain forest deforestation, and human predation of local fauna are risk factors for human T. cruzi infections. PMID:11266300

  10. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  11. Oral Lesions in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  12. Retinal lesions in septicemia.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, M; Barnea, Y; Geyer, O; Siegman-Igra, Y

    1993-12-15

    We explored the association between septicemia and specific retinal lesions in a prospective controlled study. Hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, or Roth's spots were found in 24 of 101 septicemic patients (24%), compared to four of 99 age- and gender-matched control patients (4%) (P = .0002). There was no significant association between types of organisms or focus of infection and the presence of specific lesions. Histologic examination of affected eyes disclosed cytoid bodies in the nerve fiber layer without inflammation. A definite association between septicemia and retinal lesions was found and indicates the need for routine ophthalmoscopy in septicemic patients. PMID:8250076

  13. Bioluminescent imaging of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Rhodnius prolixus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Usually the analysis of the various developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi in the experimentally infected vertebrate and invertebrate hosts is based on the morphological observations of tissue fragments from animals and insects. The development of techniques that allow the imaging of animals infected with parasites expressing luciferase open up possibilities to follow the fate of bioluminescent parasites in infected vectors. Methods D-luciferin (60 μg) was injected into the hemocoel of the whole insect before bioluminescence acquisition. In dissected insects, the whole gut was incubated with D-luciferin in PBS (300 μg/ml) for ex vivo bioluminescence acquisition in the IVIS® Imaging System, Xenogen. Results Herein, we describe the results obtained with the luciferase gene integrated into the genome of the Dm28c clone of T. cruzi, and the use of these parasites to follow, in real time, the infection of the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus, by a non- invasive method. The insects were evaluated by in vivo bioluminescent imaging on the feeding day, and on the 7 th, 14 th, 21 st and 28 th days after feeding. To corroborate the bioluminescent imaging made in vivo, and investigate the digestive tract region, the insects were dissected. The bioluminescence emitted was proportional to the number of protozoans in regions of the gut. The same digestive tracts were also macerated to count the parasites in distinct morphological stages with an optical microscope, and for bioluminescence acquisition in a microplate using the IVIS® Imaging System. A positive correlation of parasite numbers and bioluminescence in the microplate was obtained. Conclusions This is the first report of bioluminescent imaging in Rhodnius prolixus infected with trypomastigotes of the Dm28c-luc stable strain, expressing firefly luciferase. In spite of the distribution limitations of the substrate (D-luciferin) in the insect body, longitudinal evaluation of infected insects by

  14. A comparison of biochemical and histopathologic staging in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McLeland, S M; Cianciolo, R E; Duncan, C G; Quimby, J M

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in elderly cats. Frequently, a diagnosis is made in later stages of disease, by which time many renal lesions are irreversible. As such, little headway has been made in identifying an etiology and preventing this common disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and severity of both reversible and irreversible histopathologic changes in the kidneys of cats at each stage of CKD and, in addition, to determine if lesion prevalence and character were different between stages. A total of 46 cats with CKD were classified according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) as stage I (3 cats), stage II (16 cats), stage III (14 cats), and stage IV (13 cats). Eleven young, nonazotemic and 10 geriatric, nonazotemic cats were included as controls. The severity of tubular degeneration, interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and glomerulosclerosis was significantly greater in later stages of CKD compared with early stages of disease. Proteinuria was associated with increased severity of tubular degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, tubular epithelial single-cell necrosis, and decreased normal parenchyma. Presence of hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis, fibrointimal hyperplasia, or other vascular lesions were not found to be significantly different between hypertensive and normotensive cats. The greater prevalence and severity of irreversible lesions in stage III and IV CKD implies that therapeutic interventions should be targeted at earlier stages of disease. PMID:25516066

  15. Magnifying Endoscopy with Narrow Band Imaging of Early Gastric Cancer: Correlation with Histopathology and Mucin Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Jeon, Hye Kyung; Baek, Dong Hoon; Lee, Bong Eun; Song, Geun Am

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (ME-NBI) is a useful modality for the detailed visualization of microsurface (MS) and microvascular (MV) structures in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine whether the MS and MV patterns in ME-NBI differ according to the histologic type, invasion depth, and mucin phenotype of early gastric cancers (EGCs). Methods The MS and MV patterns of 160 lesions in 160 patients with EGC who underwent ME-NBI before endoscopic or surgical resection were prospectively collected and analyzed. EGCs were categorized as either differentiated or undifferentiated and as either mucosal or submucosal, and their mucin phenotypes were determined via immunohistochemistry of the tumor specimens. Results Differentiated tumors mainly displayed an oval and/or tubular MS pattern and a fine network or loop MV pattern, whereas undifferentiated tumors mainly displayed an absent MS pattern and a corkscrew MV pattern. The destructive MS pattern was associated with submucosal invasion, and this association was more prominent in the differentiated tumors than in the undifferentiated tumors. MUC5AC expression was increased in lesions with either a papillary or absent MS pattern and a corkscrew MV pattern, whereas MUC6 expression was increased in lesions with a papillary MS pattern and a loop MV pattern. CD10 expression was more frequent in lesions with a fine network MV pattern. Conclusions ME-NBI can be useful for predicting the histopathology and mucin phenotype of EGCs. PMID:27021504

  16. Metals bioaccumulation and histopathological biomarkers in Carcinus maenas crab from Bizerta lagoon, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben-Khedher, Sana; Jebali, Jamel; Houas, Zohra; Nawéli, Hmida; Jrad, Amel; Banni, Mohamed; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2014-03-01

    Metals concentrations and histolopathological lesions of gills and digestive gland were investigated in Carcinus maenas crabs sampled from Bizerta Lagoon and Kuriat Island (Tunisia) as control site. The concentrations of trace metals varied between tissues, sites and sampling time. The highest levels of the analysed metals in gills and digestive gland were noted in Menzel Bourguiba and Cimentery sites at both sampling times (February and July). The higher metals loads were associated with severe and various tissues alterations in contaminated crabs. We particularly noted in the gills a haemocytic infiltration, distension and enlargement of the lamellae, lifting of lamellar epithelium, necrotic lesions and fusion of lamellae in the most polluted sites (Menzel Bourguiba and Cimentery). Moreover, others pathological alterations were observed in digestive gland of crabs collected from polluted sites and with a severity site dependent. We observed necrotic tubules containing tissue debris in the lumen with more intensity in crabs collected from Cimentery site in both sampling times. The thickened basal laminae and the walling off of the tubules by haemocytes around the thickened basal laminae were more abundant at Menzel Bourguiba than at others sites. The coagulation in the thickened basal laminae was observed only at Cimentery in February. Tissues histopathological lesions were sensitive to discriminate crabs of different sites and demonstrated its usefulness in this biomonitoring study. We recommend the association of histopatholocial lesions to biochemical biomarkers in future biomonitoring studies. PMID:24323326

  17. [Clinical and histopathologic study of salivary mucoceles].

    PubMed

    Kang, S K; Kim, K S

    1989-11-01

    Mucoceles are commonly occurring lesions of the oral mucous membrane and the most common lesion involving minor salivary tissue. The incidence of mucoceles is understandable since accessary salivary gland tissue is widely distributed throughout the oral mucous membrane and trauma to the mucosa, which causes their formation, occurs frequently. But only a few studies have been reported that describe its detailed features. This is a retrospective study on the salivary mucoceles in the oral mucous membrane and based on clinical chart, biopsy request and photomicroscopic finding of 112 patients treated by Dept. of Oral Surgery in Seoul National University Hospital, during the period of last 10 years. The results were as following. 1. The age range of the 112 patients was 2 to 60 years, with a peak incidence in the second decade and a gradual decline thereafter. Of the 112 patients, 49 (44%) were males and 63 (56%) were females, the male-to-female ratio being 1:1.29. 2. The majority of these lesions were located on the lower lip but occurred with lesser frequently on the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, retromolar region, upper lip. 3. Of the 112 patients, 107 (95%) were treated by excision and only 5 were treated by marsupialization. 18 of 112 cases had recurrence and the recurrence rate in this study was 16%. 4. Only 3 of the 112 cases revealed an epithelial lining. This incidence indicates that the mucus-extravasation by the damage of excretory duct rather than the ductal dilatation by mucus-retention may play a critical role in the production of these lesions. 5. In 81 cases (72.3%) minor salivary gland were included in the excision biopsy, specimen. Changes observed in the glandular tissue were atrophy and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cell, but the secretory function of gland was thought to be normal in most cases because the changes were mild. PMID:2489621

  18. Scrotal angiokeratoma (Fordyce): histopathological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Gioglio, L; Porta, C; Moroni, M; Nastasi, G; Gangarossa, I

    1992-01-01

    Bioptic findings related to four cases of scrotal angiokeratoma-Fordyce, were studied under light and electron microscopy. A particular heterogeneity of the structural and ultrastructural patterns typical of this lesion was thus observed. Light microscopy study pointed out, in particular, different degrees of dilation of papillary vessels, whereas ultrastructural study highlighted marked alterations of endothelial cells with structural and quantitative modifications of cytoplasmic organelles. PMID:1576434

  19. Clinical, Epidemiologic, Histopathologic and Molecular Features of an Unexplained Dermopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Michele L.; Selby, Joseph V.; Katz, Kenneth A.; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R.; Parise, Monica E.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Lewin-Smith, Michael R.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Hightower, Allen W.; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. Methods A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) during 2006–2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. Results We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40) cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113). Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17–93) and were primarily female (77%) and Caucasian (77%). Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9) and 35.45 (SD = 12.89), respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies); skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. Conclusions This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health-related quality of

  20. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and lower alveolus: a radiation-induced lesion

    SciTech Connect

    Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.H.

    1987-02-01

    A case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and alveolus that occurred following radiation therapy is described. The possible role of radiation in the etiology of this lesion is discussed, and the complex histopathologic features of this neoplasm are emphasized.