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Sample records for cryo magnetic separation

  1. The effects of magnetic separation on cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa motility, viability and cryo-capacitation status.

    PubMed

    Faezah, S S M; Zuraina, F M Y; Farah, J H F; Khairul, O; Hilwani, N I; Iswadi, M I; Fang, C N; Zawawi, I; Abas, O M; Fatimah, S I

    2014-08-01

    Cryopreservation is a technique used to preserve cells for long-time storage. It is widely used in agriculture to store male gametes in liquid nitrogen. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum thawing temperature and time for samples subjected to annexin V magnetic-activated cell sorting (AnMACS) as the sperm preparation technique. Pooled semen samples from three ejaculates were divided into two groups. The treatment group was subjected both to AnMACS and to being cryopreserved, whilst the control group was cryopreserved directly without MACS. Post-thaw analysis was carried out for samples thawed at either 20°C for 13 s, 37°C for 30 s, 40°C for 7 s, 60°C for 6 s or 80°C for 5 s. Sperm kinematics, viability and capacitation status were determined for samples subjected to all thawing temperatures described. Results showed that thawing at 37°C for 13 s for MACS-processed samples was a superior option compared with other thawing procedures; there was a significant difference in P < 0.05 values for curvilinear velocity (VCL μm/s) and sperm straightness (STR %) when samples were thawed at 40°C for 7 s, with fewer capacitated spermatozoa (P < 0.05) when samples were thawed at 37°C for 30 s, 40°C for 7 s or 60°C for 6 s. Hence, we can speculate that the use of AnMACS as the sperm preparation technique can somehow enhance sperm cryosurvival rate after cryopreservation, however the fertilization potential of these cells has yet to be determined. PMID:23237064

  2. A Magnetic Resonance (MR) Microscopy System using a Microfluidically Cryo-Cooled Planar Coil

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Chiwan; Godley, Richard F.; Park, Jaewon; McDougall, Mary P.; Wright, Steven M.; Han, Arum

    2011-01-01

    We present the development of a microfluidically cryo-cooled planar coil for magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy. Cryogenically cooling radiofrequency (RF) coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the experiment. Conventional cryostats typically use a vacuum gap to keep samples to be imaged, especially biological samples, at or near room temperature during cryo-cooling. This limits how close a cryo-cooled coil can be placed to the sample. At the same time, a small coil-to-sample distance significantly improves the MR imaging capability due to the limited imaging depth of planar MR microcoils. These two conflicting requirements pose challenges to the use of cryo-cooling in MR microcoils. The use of a microfluidic based cryostat for localized cryo-cooling of MR microcoils is a step towards eliminating these constraints. The system presented here consists of planar receive-only coils with integrated cryo-cooling microfluidic channels underneath, and an imaging surface on top of the planar coils separated by a thin nitrogen gas gap. Polymer microfluidic channel structures fabricated through soft lithography processes were used to flow liquid nitrogen under the coils in order to cryo-cool the planar coils to liquid nitrogen temperature (−196°C). Two unique features of the cryo-cooling system minimize the distance between the coil and the sample: 1) The small dimension of the polymer microfluidic channel enables localized cooling of the planar coils, while minimizing thermal effects on the nearby imaging surface. 2) The imaging surface is separated from the cryo-cooled planar coil by a thin gap through which nitrogen gas flows to thermally insulate the imaging surface, keeping it above 0°C and preventing potential damage to biological samples. The localized cooling effect was validated by simulations, bench testing, and MR imaging experiments. Using this cryo-cooled planar coil system inside a 4.7 Tesla MR system resulted in an average image SNR enhancement of 1.47 ± 0.11 times relative to similar room-temperature coils. PMID:21603723

  3. A Method to Estimate the Optimum Temperature for the Cryo-Shattering Separation Using a Charpy Impact Tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagura, Yoshio; Watanabe, Hisahiko

    A cryo-shattering separation is a recently developed separation method which is applied to collect low-fat meat from fatty fish. This separation method needs to be operated at the optimum temperature for the cryo-shattering. Determining on optimum temperature needs much works and costs. In this study,an easy method to estimate the optimum temperature for cryo-shattering was proposed using a Charpy impact tester. Four kinds of characteristic temperatures observed through impact tests were used to construct a fracture-temperature-map. By use of the map,the optimum temperature for cryo-shattering was obtained without shattering/sieving experiments.

  4. A two-stage pulse tube cryo-cooled MRI magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P. S.; Ackermann, R. A.; Hedeen, R. A.

    2002-05-01

    A compact, cryogen-free 0.5 Tesla superconducting Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI) magnet has been conductively-cooled using a two-stage Pulse Tube cryo-refrigerator. With the absence of cold moving parts and seals, Pulse Tube cryo-refrigerators offer lower transmitted vibrations to a MRI magnet and potentially longer MTBF rates. A 7 kW input power compressor package was connected to the Pulse Tube. The Pulse Tube system provided an estimated 1.3 Watts of cooling power at 4.2 K. Vibration measurements made on the vacuum enclosure could not detect vibration or noise due to cryo-refrigerator operation even in the presence of very low levels of background noise. The cryo-refrigerator has been in continuous operation for >4000 hours without degradation of thermal performance.

  5. Magnetic separation of algae

    DOEpatents

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  6. Medical protein separation system using high gradient magnetic separation by superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, Y.; Agatsuma, K.; Kajikawa, K.; Ueda, H.; Furuse, M.; Fuchino, S.; Iitsuka, T.; Nakamura, S.

    2014-01-01

    A high gradient magnetic separation system for medical protein using affinity magnetic nano-beads has been developed. Medical protein such as monoclonal antibody or immunoglobulin is an important substance as a medicine for cancer etc. However; the separation system of these medical protein has very low separation rate and the cost of product is extremely high. The developed system shows very high separation efficiency and can achieve low cost by large production rate compared to the system now using in this field. The system consists of a 3T superconducting magnet cooled by a cryo-cooler, a filter made of fine magnetic metal wires of about 30μm diameter and a demagnetization circuit and a liquid circulation pump for solvent containing medical protein. Affinity magnetic nano-beads is covered with the medical protein after agitation of solvent containing the protein and nano-beads, then the solvent flows through the system and the beads are trapped in the filters by high gradient magnetic field. The beads are released and flow out of the system by the AC demagnetization of the filters using LC resonance circuits after discharge of the magnet. The test results shows 97.8% of the magnetic nano-beads in pure water were captured and 94.1% of total beads were collected.

  7. Magnet system for a superconducting magnetic separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüngst, K. P.; Ries, G.; Förster, S.; Graf, F.; Obermaier, G.; Lehmann, W.

    A magnetic separator with superconducting magnets has been designed, constructed and successfully tested. Its application is sorting finely ground ores or minerals with low susceptibility. The system can be described as a superconducting drum separator combining the advantages of the well known reliable conventional drum separators with the advantage of high magnetic field economically produced by superconducting magnets. This laboratory magnetic separator with a relevant drum diameter of 1 m served as a first step on the way to an industrial pilot plant. This paper reports on design, construction, and test of the sc magnet system and its supply.

  8. Fabrication of fully dense nanostructured MnBi magnet by hot compaction of cryo-milled powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjipanayis, George; Neelam, Venkata; Gabay, Alex; Li, Wang

    2013-03-01

    Recently, rare-earth-free permanent magnets (REFPMs) have attracted much attention globally owing to rare-earth metal crisis and high cost. Among the REFPMs, MnBi is a potential candidate due to its unusual large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K ~ 107 erg/cc) and positive temperature of coefficient of coercivity. In this work, we report for the first time a novel processing method that combines the cryo-milling with hot compaction to produce fully dense bulk nanostructured MnBi magnet. The effect of cryo-milling on particle size, phase formation, and magnetic properties of MnBi has been studied in detail. Also, the microstructural and magnetic properties of bulk nanostructured MnBi magnet were investigated. Adoption of cryo-milling results in nanocrystalline powders with particle size of 400-500 nm. Large coercivity (Hc) values of 18.5 kOe, and 12.9 kOe were obtained in cryo-milled powders and hot compacted magnet respectively. The MnBi magnet shows a large positive temperature coefficient of Hc and the Hc reaches a value of more than 30 kOe above 450 K. The work was supported by Siemens.

  9. Magnetic Separation Dynamics of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Zhang, Huijin; Qiang, You

    2013-08-14

    Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are appealing candidates for analytical separation of heavy metal ions from waste water and separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. This work studies the separation dynamics and investigates the appropriate magnetic-field gradients. A dynamic study of colloidal MNPs was performed for steady-state flow. Measurements were conducted to record the separation time of particles as a function of magnetic field gradient. The drag and magnetic forces play a significant role on the separation time. A drop in saturation magnetization and variation of particle size occurs after surface functionalization of the MNPs; these are the primary factors that affect the separation time and velocity of the MNPs. The experimental results are correlated to a theoretical one-dimensional model.

  10. Study on magnetic separation system using high Tc superconducting bulk magnets for water purification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Kanayama, H.; Tanaka, K.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Noto, K.

    2009-03-01

    The application of superconducting bulk magnets to the magnetic separation techniques has been investigated for the Mn-bearing waste water drained from the university laboratories. The research has been conducted in comparison with the electromagnets, and the cryo-cooled superconducting solenoid magnet. The separation ratios of ferrite precipitates including Mn element in the waste slurry were estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with ferromagnetic iron filters in the water channel and open gradient magnetic separation without them. As the magnetic force acting on the particles is given by the product of a magnetization of particles and a gradient of magnetic field, and a superconducting bulk magnet shows a sharp gradient of the magnetic field on the surface, the performances of the bulk magnet system were almost equivalent to those of the superconducting solenoid magnet with wide bore with respect to the magnetic separation ratios. The separation ratios for Mn have reached over 80 % for HGMS and 10 % for OGMS under the flow rates less than 3 liter/min.

  11. Continuous magnetic separator and process

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2008-04-22

    A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

  12. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.

    1994-11-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO{sub 2}, U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS.

  13. Magnetic separation using high-? superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, L.; Watson, J. H. P.

    1998-01-01

    A magnetic separator with an iron return circuit that employs a high-0953-2048/11/1/030/img2 superconducting coil has been built on a small scale. This type of separator, using an iron yoke, has been used by the mineral industry for many years and there appears to be an opportunity for the retrofitting of superconducting coils into existing machines to run them much more cheaply and closer to saturation. This paper describes the design requirements of such an apparatus when a high-0953-2048/11/1/030/img2 superconducting coil is used to generate ampère-turns instead of a resistive one, and in particular the necessity to limit the magnetic stray field at the coil below the critical values. The strong anisotropy of the critical current characteristics with respect to the direction of the magnetic field of the present high-0953-2048/11/1/030/img2 tapes imposes the consideration of two load lines, one for the axial field and one for the radial field at the solenoid. From this analysis the radial component, perpendicular to the tape surface and hence in the low 0953-2048/11/1/030/img5 direction, determines the upper limit for the operating current at 77 K. The analysis has been carried out using a 3D finite element package to model the apparatus and to calculate magnetic fields in the air gap of the separator and on the coil windings. The performance of the separator has been tested at 77 K.

  14. Magnetic separation of organic dyes using superconducting bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Hosaka, S.

    Organic dyes were separated from wastewater using superconducting bulk magnets. Two types of particles, magnetic activated carbon (MAC) and reactive nanoscale iron particles (RNIP), were used as magnetic seeds. We set up a magnetic separator consisting of an acrylic pipe located between the magnetic poles of a face-to-face superconducting bulk magnet. We tested the separator under both high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) and open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS). Adsorption ratios greater than 95% were achieved for sufficient concentrations of both MAC and RNIP, and separation ratios greater than 90% were achieved in HGMS and OGMS for certain dye-particle combinations.

  15. Separation of magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-11-15

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  16. Magnetic Separator Enhances Treatment Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Since the earliest missions in space, NASA specialists have performed experiments in low gravity. Protein crystal growth, cell and tissue cultures, and separation technologies such as electrophoresis and magnetophoresis have been studied on Apollo 14, Apollo 16, STS-107, and many other missions. Electrophoresis and magnetophoresis, respectively, are processes that separate substances based on the electrical charge and magnetic field of a molecule or particle. Electrophoresis has been studied on over a dozen space shuttle flights, leading to developments in electrokinetics, which analyzes the effects of electric fields on mass transport (atoms, molecules, and particles) in fluids. Further studies in microgravity will continue to improve these techniques, which researchers use to extract cells for various medical treatments and research.

  17. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  18. Method and apparatus for separating materials magnetically

    DOEpatents

    Hise, Jr., Eugene C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holman, Allen S. (Knoxville, TN)

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic and non-magnetic materials are separated by passing stream thereof past coaxial current-carrying coils which produce a magnetic field wherein intensity varies sharply with distance radially of the axis of the coils.

  19. MISTRAL: a transmission soft X-ray microscopy beamline for cryo nano-tomography of biological samples and magnetic domains imaging.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Nicolás, Josep; Valcárcel, Ricardo; Chichón, Francisco Javier; Rosanes, Marc; Avila, Jose; Tkachuk, Andrei; Irwin, Jeff; Ferrer, Salvador; Pereiro, Eva

    2015-07-01

    The performance of MISTRAL is reported, the soft X-ray transmission microscopy beamline at the ALBA light source (Barcelona, Spain) which is primarily dedicated to cryo soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) for three-dimensional visualization of whole unstained cells at spatial resolutions down to 30 nm (half pitch). Short acquisition times allowing for high-throughput and correlative microscopy studies have promoted cryo-SXT as an emerging cellular imaging tool for structural cell biologists bridging the gap between optical and electron microscopy. In addition, the beamline offers the possibility of imaging magnetic domains in thin magnetic films that are illustrated here with an example. PMID:26134819

  20. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, I.; Toyoda, K.; Beneragama, N.; Umetsu, K.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  1. High gradient magnetic separation using superconducting bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Oka, T.; Okada, H.; Noto, K.

    2003-10-01

    We aim to apply the superconducting bulk magnets to high gradient magnetic separation technique. Two bulk magnets are face-to-face arranged and a pipe stuffed magnetic filters composed of ferromagnetic wires is placed between the magnetic poles. We setup the magnetic separation system and test it using slurry mixed with hematite particles (Fe 2O 3). Y123 bulk superconductors are magnetized by the IMRA method (pulsed-field magnetization), and consequently a magnetic field of 1.59 T is generated at the center of 20 mm gap between the magnetic poles. As a result of experiment on the magnetic separation, hematite particles of over 90% were removed from slurry at the flow rate of 2 l/min.

  2. A novel magnetic suspension cum linear actuator system for satellite cryo coolers

    SciTech Connect

    Sivadasan, K.K. . ISRO Inertial Systems Unit)

    1994-05-01

    Stirling cycle cryogenic coolers have been widely used for device cooling in satellites. Various types of magnetic bearings and linear actuators find application in such systems. The most widely used configurations have two-axis-radially-active suspension stations placed at either ends of a reciprocating shaft in the compression and expansion sections. Separate or integral liner motors are provided in each section for axial shaft movement. It may be noted that such configurations are rather complicated and less reliable because of the presence of numerous electro-mechanical components, sensors and electronic servo channels. In this paper, a simple and reliable scheme is suggested which axially stabilizes and linearly perturbs the piston so that the need for a separate motor for axial actuation can be totally dispensed with. The piston is radially supported by passive repulsive bearings. In the axial direction, a servo actuator balances'' the piston and also actuates it bi-directionally. Implemented of this bearing cum motor theme,'' reduces the number of electromechanical and electronic components required to operate the system and hence minimizes the chances of system failure. Apart from this, the system's power consumption is reduced and efficiency is improved as electrical heating losses caused by quiescent-operating currents are removed and electromagnetic losses on the moving parts are minimized. The necessary system parameters have been derived using finite element analysis techniques. Finally, the proposed design is validated by computer-aided system simulation.

  3. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  4. A PURPOSE ORIENTED MAGNETIC SEPARATOR: SKIMMER

    SciTech Connect

    Salih Ersayin

    2005-08-09

    A magnetic separator was designed to selectively separate fine-liberated magnetite. The conceptual design was simulated using CFD techniques. A separator tank was fabricated and a magnetic drum was used to capture magnetic particles. The initial tank design was modified to eliminate application oriented problems. The new separator was able to produce a fine product as a concentrate at relatively high feed rates. A plant simulation showed that such a device could lower circulating loads around ball mills by 16%, thereby creating room for a 5-8% increase in throughput at the same energy level. However, it was concluded that further improvements in terms of both size and mineral selectivity are needed to have a marketable product.

  5. A Continuous Throughput Micro Magnetic Cell Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, David; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2004-03-01

    Micro-fluidic total analysis systems for diagnosis, research and treatment require foolproof sorting and separation techniques. A bulk fluid sample invariably contains unwanted and useless matter that must be disposed of. The chip must first be able to separate the wheat from the chaff before doing any analysis. A micro-fluidic device that continuously separates blood cells from a whole blood sample via immunomagnetic labeling has been built. The device differentiates the flow of labeled cells from all other blood components such as RBC's, plasma, viruses, proteins and other unwanted blood components. A fluid sample passes over an array of micro-fabricated permanent magnets which alter the flow of cells tagged with magnetic beads. Separated target cells, for example CD4 positive WBCs, can then be passed on to subsequent phases on the TAS chip, ultimately allowing fast pheno and geno typing of cells from bulk fluid samples.

  6. Multistage Magnetic Separator of Cells and Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Ken; Ainsworth, Mark; Daily, Bruce; Dunn, Scott; Metz, Bill; Vellinger, John; Taylor, Brock; Meador, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The multistage electromagnetic separator for purifying cells and magnetic particles (MAGSEP) is a laboratory apparatus for separating and/or purifying particles (especially biological cells) on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility and magnetophoretic mobility. Whereas a typical prior apparatus based on similar principles offers only a single stage of separation, the MAGSEP, as its full name indicates, offers multiple stages of separation; this makes it possible to refine a sample population of particles to a higher level of purity or to categorize multiple portions of the sample on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and/or magnetophoretic mobility. The MAGSEP includes a processing unit and an electronic unit coupled to a personal computer. The processing unit includes upper and lower plates, a plate-rotation system, an electromagnet, an electromagnet-translation system, and a capture-magnet assembly. The plates are bolted together through a roller bearing that allows the plates to rotate with respect to each other. An interface between the plates acts as a seal for separating fluids. A lower cuvette can be aligned with as many as 15 upper cuvette stations for fraction collection during processing. A two-phase stepping motor drives the rotation system, causing the upper plate to rotate for the collection of each fraction of the sample material. The electromagnet generates a magnetic field across the lower cuvette, while the translation system translates the electromagnet upward along the lower cuvette. The current supplied to the electromagnet, and thus the magnetic flux density at the pole face of the electromagnet, can be set at a programmed value between 0 and 1,400 gauss (0.14 T). The rate of translation can be programmed between 5 and 2,000 m/s so as to align all sample particles in the same position in the cuvette. The capture magnet can be a permanent magnet. It is mounted on an arm connected to a stepping motor. The stepping motor rotates the arm to position the capture magnet above the upper cuvette into which a fraction of the sample is collected. The electronic unit includes a power switch, power-supply circuitry that accepts 110-Vac input power, an RS-232 interface, and status lights. The personal computer runs the MAGSEP software and controls the operation of the MAGSEP through the RS-232 interface. The status of the power, the translating electromagnet, the capture magnet, and the rotation of the upper plate are indicated in a graphical user interface on the computer screen.

  7. Purification of condenser water in thermal power station by superconducting magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, D. W.; Kwon, J. M.; Baik, S. K.; Lee, Y. J.; Han, K. S.; Ko, R. K.; Sohn, M. H.; Seong, K. C.

    2011-11-01

    Thermal power station is made up of a steam turbine and a steam condenser which need a lot of water. The water of steam condenser should be replaced, since scales consisting of iron oxide mainly are accumulated on the surface of condenser pipes as it goes. Superconducting high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system has merits to remove paramagnetic substance like iron oxides because it can generate higher magnetic field strength than electromagnet or permanent magnet. In this paper, cryo-cooled Nb-Ti superconducting magnet that can generate up to 6 T was used for HGMS systems. Magnetic filters were designed by the analysis of magnetic field distribution at superconducting magnets. The result of X-ray analysis showed contaminants were mostly α-Fe 2O 3 (hematite) and γ-Fe 2O 3 (maghemite). The higher magnetic field was applied up to 6 T, the more iron oxides were removed. As the wire diameter of magnetic filter decreased, the turbidity removal of the sample was enhanced.

  8. When does aggregation affect magnetic separation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisentraeger, Almut; Vella, Dominic; Griffiths, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic separation is an efficient way to remove magnetic and paramagnetic particles suspended in a carrier fluid, and can be used to remove heavy metals from drinking water. Particles are filtered by moving along the gradient of a strong outer magnetic field towards a collection site. Experimental evidence suggests that aggregation of particles to form chains or clusters plays a vital role in determining the efficiency of separation. In diffusion-dominated systems, aggregation may even be required to induce any collection at all. Modelling approaches so far largely consider aggregation in a uniform outer magnetic field, neglecting collective motion, and hydrodynamic interactions between particles and chains. However, long-range hydrodynamic interactions between particles, which gives rise to the concept of hydrodynamic diffusion, have been considered. Here we combine these ideas to investigate how the average velocity and the relative motion of chains and particles during collection influences chain aggregation rates. A one-dimensional model system provides insight into the relative importance of magnetic and hydrodynamic interactions during aggregation and collection, which may be validated by microfluidic experiments.

  9. Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, O; Popovic, T; Skjerve, E; Cudjoe, K S; Hornes, E; Ugelstad, J; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    The principles of magnetic separation aided by antibodies or other specific binding molecules have been used for isolation of specific viable whole organisms, antigens, or nucleic acids. Whereas growth on selective media may be helpful in isolation of a certain bacterial species, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technology can isolate strains possessing specific and characteristic surface antigens. Further separation, cultivation, and identification of the isolate can be performed by traditional biochemical, immunologic, or molecular methods. PCR can be used for amplification and identification of genes of diagnostic importance for a target organism. The combination of IMS and PCR reduces the assay time to several hours while increasing both specificity and sensitivity. Use of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for separation of amplified DNA fragments, containing both biotin and a signal molecule, has allowed for the conversion of the traditional PCR into an easy-to-read microtiter plate format. The bead-bound PCR amplicons can also easily be sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. The latter technique makes it possible to obtain sequence data of 300 to 600 bases from 20 to 30 strains, starting with clinical samples, within 12 to 24 h. Sequence data can be used for both diagnostic and epidemiologic purposes. IMS has been demonstrated to be a useful method in diagnostic microbiology. Most recent publications describe IMS as a method for enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of other detection systems, such as PCR, and providing considerable savings in time compared with traditional diagnostic systems. The relevance to clinical diagnosis has, however, not yet been fully established for all of these new test principles. In the case of PCR, for example, the presence of specific DNA in a food sample does not demonstrate the presence of a live organism capable of inducing a disease. However, all tests offering increased sensitivity and specificity of detection, combined with reduced time of analysis, have to be seriously evaluated. Images PMID:8118790

  10. Prediction of Separation Performance of Dry High Intensity Magnetic Separator for Processing of Para-Magnetic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Veerendra; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-10-01

    High intensity dry magnetic separators are gaining popularity for the separation of para-magnetic minerals due to the cost economic factor. Induced roll magnetic separator is found to be an effective dry separator for the separation of fine particles. Separation efficiency of this separator depends on mineral characteristics and the design features of equipment along with the optimization of process variables. Present investigation focuses on the prediction and validation of separation performance of minerals while treating in induced roll magnetic separator. Prediction of the separation is expressed in terms of separation angle at which a particle leaves the rotor surface by using a modified particle flow model derived by Cakir. The validation of the model is carried by capturing the particle trajectory using an image analyzer. It is found that Cakir's mathematical model produces reliable results and a new model is proposed to increase the reliability of separation angle prediction by including the particle shape factor.

  11. Separation of magnetic susceptibility components from magnetization curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosareva, L.; Nourgaliev, D.; Kuzina, D.; Spassov, S.; Fattakhov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Modern lake sediments are a unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally, because all environmental variations are recorded by these sediments with high resolution. The magnetic properties of Chernyshov Bay (Aral Sea) sediments we investigated from core number 4 (N45o57'04.2''; E59o17'14.3'') are taken at far water depth of 9.5 m. The length of the core is 4.16 m. Samples for measurements were taken to plastic sample boxes with internal dimensions 2x2x2 cm. Remanent magnetization curves were measured by coercivity spectrometer for the separate determination of the different contributions to the total bulk magnetic susceptibility. There was measured also magnetic susceptibility using MS2 susceptibility meter. Those operations were done for data comparison between 2 susceptibilities obtained from different equipment. Our goal is to decipher the magnetic susceptibility signal in lake sediments by decomposing the bulk susceptibility signal of a lake sediment sequence into ferromagnetic (χf), dia-/paramagnetic (χp) and superparamagnetic (χsp) components using data from remanent and indused magnetization curves Each of these component has a different origin: paramagnetic minerals are usually attributed to terrigenous sediment input, ferromagnetics are of biogenic origin, and superparamagnetic minerals may be of either biogenic or terrigenous origin. Comparison between susceptibility measurements of MS2-Bartington susceptometer and of the coercivity spectrometer has shown good correlation. The susceptibility values measured in two different equipment are fairly close and indicate thus the reliability the proposed method. In research also has shown water level changes in Aral Sea based on magnetic susceptibility. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University also by RFBR research projects No. 14-05-31376 - а, 14-05-00785- а.

  12. High-gradient magnetic separation using ferromagnetic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podoynitsyn, Sergey N.; Sorokina, Olga N.; Kovarski, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic separator with the membrane separating unit made of laser-perforated thick ferromagnetic foil was tested using composite water suspension of magnetic nanoparticles adsorbed on hydroxylapatite microparticles. The average sizes of the particles in the suspension and the magnetic moment of the suspension were measured by dynamic light scattering and electron magnetic resonance correspondingly to evaluate the efficiency of the separation. It was shown experimentally that the separation is effected by the membrane type and the flow rate. Magnetic coarse grains (larger than 1 ?m) were captured by the membrane preferably and the magnetic moment of the suspension decreased by 20-25% after the separation. The magnetic field simulation and experimental results demonstrate the higher separation efficiency for thicker membranes.

  13. MSWI boiler fly ashes: magnetic separation for material recovery.

    PubMed

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc; Hubaux, Paul; Lucion, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, ferrous materials are usually recovered from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash by magnetic separation. To our knowledge, such a physical technique has not been applied so far to other MSWI residues. This study focuses thus on the applicability of magnetic separation on boiler fly ashes (BFA). Different types of magnet are used to extract the magnetic particles. We investigate the magnetic particle composition, as well as their leaching behaviour (EN 12457-1 leaching test). The magnetic particles present higher Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni concentration than the non-magnetic (NM) fraction. Magnetic separation does not improve the leachability of the NM fraction. To approximate industrial conditions, magnetic separation is also applied to BFA mixed with water by using a pilot. BFA magnetic separation is economically evaluated. This study globally shows that it is possible to extract some magnetic particles from MSWI boiler fly ashes. However, the magnetic particles only represent from 23 to 120 g/kg of the BFA and, though they are enriched in Fe, are composed of similar elements to the raw ashes. The industrial application of magnetic separation would only be profitable if large amounts of ashes were treated (more than 15 kt/y), and the process should be ideally completed by other recovery methods or advanced treatments. PMID:21306886

  14. Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Kohei; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

  15. Integrated acoustic and magnetic separation in microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan D.; Thévoz, Patrick; Bruus, Henrik; Soh, H. Tom

    2009-12-01

    With a growing number of cell-based biotechnological applications, there is a need for particle separation systems capable of multiparameter separations at high purity and throughput, beyond what is presently offered by traditional methods including fluorescence activated cell sorting and column-based magnetic separation. Toward this aim, we report on the integration of microfluidic acoustic and magnetic separation in a monolithic device for multiparameter particle separation. Using our device, we demonstrate high-purity separation of a multicomponent particle mixture at a throughput of up to 108 particles/hr.

  16. Magnetic separation of micro-spheres from viscous biological fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Kaminski, M. D.; Xianqiao, L.; Caviness, P.; Torno, M.; Rosengart, A. J.; Dhar, P.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2007-02-21

    A magnetically based detoxification system is being developed as a therapeutic tool for selective and rapid removal of biohazards, i.e. chemicals and radioactive substances, from human blood. One of the key components of this system is a portable magnetic separator capable of separating polymer-based magnetic nano/micro-spheres from arterial blood flow in an ex vivo unit. The magnetic separator consists of an array of alternating and parallel capillary tubing and magnetizable wires, which is exposed to an applied magnetic field created by two parallel permanent magnets such that the magnetic field is perpendicular to both the wires and the fluid flow. In this paper, the performance of this separator was evaluated via preliminary in vitro flow experiments using a separator unit consisting of single capillary glass tubing and two metal wires. Pure water, ethylene glycol-water solution (v:v = 39:61 and v:v = 49:51) and human whole blood were used as the fluids. The results showed that when the viscosity increased from 1.0 cp to 3.0 cp, the capture efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 56%. However, it is still feasible to obtain >90% CE in blood flow if the separator design is optimized to create higher magnetic gradients and magnetic fields in the separation area.

  17. Magnetic-based microfluidic platform for biomolecular separation.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Qasem; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel; Yu, Chen

    2006-06-01

    A novel microfluidic platform for manipulation of micro/nano magnetic particles was designed, fabricated and tested for applications dealing with biomolecular separation. Recently, magnetic immunomagnetic cell separation has attracted a noticeable attention due to the high selectivity of such separation methods. Strong magnetic field gradients can be developed along the entire wire, and the miniaturized size of these current-carrying conductors strongly enhances the magnetic field gradient and therefore produces large, tunable and localized magnetic forces that can be applied on magnetic particles and confine them in very small spots. Further increases in the values of the generated magnetic field gradients can be achieved by employing miniaturized ferromagnetic structures (pillars) which can be magnetized by an external magnetic field or by micro-coils on the same chip. In this study, we demonstrate magnetic beads trapping, concentration, transportation and sensing in a liquid sample under continuous flow by employing high magnetic field gradients generated by novel multi-functional magnetic micro-devices. Each individual magnetic micro-device consists of the following components: 1. Cu micro-coils array embedded in the silicon substrate with high aspect ratio conductors for efficient magnetic field generation 2. Magnetic pillar(s) made of the magnetic alloy NiCoP for magnetic field focusing and magnetic field gradient enhancement. Each pillar is magnetized by its corresponding coil 3. Integrated sensing coil for magnetic beads detection 4. Microfluidic chamber containing all the previous components. Magnetic fields of about 0.1 T and field gradients of around 300 T/cm have been achieved, which allowed to develop a magnetic force of 3 x 10(-9) N on a magnetic particle with radius of 1 mum. This force is large enough to trap/move this particle as the required force to affect such particles in a liquid sample is on the order of approximately pN. Trapping rates of up to 80% were achieved. Furthermore, different micro-coil designs were realized which allowed various movement modes and with different step-sizes. These results demonstrate that such devices incorporated within a microfluidic system can provide significantly improved spatial resolution and force magnitude for quick, efficient and highly selective magnetic trapping, separation and transportation, and as such they are an excellent solution for miniaturized mu-total analysis systems. PMID:16688574

  18. Electron spin separation without magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, J; Szumniak, P; Skubis, A; Bednarek, S

    2014-08-27

    A nanodevice capable of separating spins of two electrons confined in a quantum dot formed in a gated semiconductor nanowire is proposed. Two electrons confined initially in a single quantum dot in the singlet state are transformed into the system of two electrons confined in two spatially separated quantum dots with opposite spins. In order to separate the electrons' spins we exploit transitions between the singlet and the triplet state, which are induced by resonantly oscillating Rashba spin-orbit coupling strength. The proposed device is all electrically controlled and the electron spin separation can be realized within tens of picoseconds. The results are supported by solving numerically the quasi-one-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation for two electrons, where the electron-electron correlations are taken into account in the exact manner. PMID:25106038

  19. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles

    PubMed Central

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate the controlled transportation of a large population of particles over several millimeters of distance as well as the spatial separation of two populations of magnetic particles with different magnetophoretic mobilities. The technique can be used for the controlled selective manipulation and separation of magnetically labelled species. PMID:22655020

  20. Ferritin conjugates as specific magnetic labels. Implications for cell separation.

    PubMed Central

    Odette, L L; McCloskey, M A; Young, S H

    1984-01-01

    Concanavalin A coupled to the naturally occurring iron storage protein ferritin is used to label rat erythrocytes and increase the cells' magnetic susceptibility. Labeled cells are introduced into a chamber containing spherical iron particles and the chamber is placed in a uniform 5.2 kG (gauss) magnetic field. The trajectory of cells in the inhomogeneous magnetic field around the iron particles and the polar distributions of cells bound to the iron particles compare well with the theoretical predictions for high gradient magnetic systems. On the basis of these findings we suggest that ferritin conjugated ligands can be used for selective magnetic separation of labeled cells. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:6743752

  1. Ferritin conjugates as specific magnetic labels. Implications for cell separation.

    PubMed

    Odette, L L; McCloskey, M A; Young, S H

    1984-06-01

    Concanavalin A coupled to the naturally occurring iron storage protein ferritin is used to label rat erythrocytes and increase the cells' magnetic susceptibility. Labeled cells are introduced into a chamber containing spherical iron particles and the chamber is placed in a uniform 5.2 kG (gauss) magnetic field. The trajectory of cells in the inhomogeneous magnetic field around the iron particles and the polar distributions of cells bound to the iron particles compare well with the theoretical predictions for high gradient magnetic systems. On the basis of these findings we suggest that ferritin conjugated ligands can be used for selective magnetic separation of labeled cells. PMID:6743752

  2. MAGNETITE RECOVERY IN COAL WASHING BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a demonstration of the successful recovery of magnetite from mixtures of magnetite and coal, like those found in a coal-washing circuit, by High Gradient Magnetic Separation. The demonstration was part of a research program at Francis Bitter National Magnet L...

  3. Apparatus and method for continuous separation of magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluids

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2010-02-09

    A magnetic separator vessel (1) for separating magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluid includes a separation chamber having an interior and exterior wall, a top and bottom portion; a magnet (3) having first and second poles (2) positioned adjacent to the exterior wall, wherein the first pole is substantially diametrically opposed to the second pole; a inlet port (5) is directed into the top portion of the separation chamber, wherein the inlet port (5) is positioned adjacent to one of the first and second poles (2), wherein the inlet port (5) is adapted to transfer a mixture into the separation chamber; an underflow port (6) in communication with the bottom portion, wherein the underflow port (6) is adapted to receive the magnetic particles; and an overflow port (9) in communication with the separation chamber, wherein the overflow port (9) is adapted to receive the non-magnetic fluid.

  4. Magnetic Surfactants and Polymers with Gadolinium Counterions for Protein Separations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Bromberg, Lev; Rial-Hermida, M Isabel; Wasbrough, Matthew; Hatton, T Alan; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-01-26

    New magnetic surfactants, (cationic hexadecyltrimethlyammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (CTAG), decyltrimethylammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (DTAG), and a magnetic polymer (poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium tetrachlorogadolinate (APTAG)) have been synthesized by the simple mixing of the corresponding surfactants and polymer with gadolinium metal ions. A magnetic anionic surfactant, gadolinium tri(1,4-bis(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate) (Gd(AOT)3), was synthesized via metathesis. Both routes enable facile preparation of magnetically responsive magnetic polymers and surfactants without the need to rely on nanocomposites or organic frameworks with polyradicals. Electrical conductivity, surface tensiometry, SQUID magnetometry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) demonstrate surface activity and self-aggregation behavior of the magnetic surfactants similar to their magnetically inert parent analogues but with added magnetic properties. The binding of the magnetic surfactants to proteins enables efficient separations under low-strength (0.33 T) magnetic fields in a new, nanoparticle-free approach to magnetophoretic protein separations and extractions. Importantly, the toxicity of the magnetic surfactants and polymers is, in some cases, lower than that of their halide analogues. PMID:26725503

  5. Use of high gradient magnetic separation for actinide application

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.

    1996-08-01

    Decontamination of materials such as soils or waste water that contain radioactive isotopes, heavy metals, or hazardous components is a subject of great interest. Magnetic separation is a physical separation process that segregates materials on the basis of magnetic susceptibility. Because the process relies on physical properties, separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Most traditional physical separation processes effectively treat particles larger than 70 microns. In many situations, the radioactive contaminants are found concentrated in the fine particle size fraction of less than 20 microns. For effective decontamination of the fine particle size fraction most current operations resort to chemical dissolution methods for treatment. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is able to effectively treat particles from 90 to {approximately}0.1 micron in diameter. The technology is currently used on the 60 ton per hour scale in the kaolin clay industry. When the field gradient is of sufficiently high intensity, paramagnetic particles can be physically captured and separated from extraneous nonmagnetic material. Because all actinide compounds are paramagnetic, magnetic separation of actinide containing mixtures is feasible. The advent of reliable superconducting magnets also makes magnetic separation of weakly paramagnetic species attractive. HGMS work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is being developed for soil remediation, waste water treatment and treatment of actinide chemical processing residues. LANL and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) have worked on a co-operative research and development agreement (CRADA) to develop HGMS for radioactive soil decontamination. The program is designed to transfer HGMS from the laboratory and other industries for the commercial treatment of radioactive contaminated materials. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Study on industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhengquan; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    2011-06-01

    The mechanism of industrial wastewater treatment using superconducting magnetic separation is investigated. Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by liquid precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Polyacrylic acid (PAA) film was coated on the magnetic particles using plasma coating technique. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation and infrared spectrum measurement indicate that the particle surface is well coated with PAA, and the film thickness is around 1 nm. Practical paper factory wastewater treatment using the modified magnetic seeds in a superconducting magnet (SCM) was carried out. The results show that the maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by SCM method can reach 76%.

  7. Modeling high gradient magnetic separation from biological fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Bockenfeld, D.; Chen, H.; Rempfer, D.; Kaminski, M. D.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Univ. of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine

    2006-01-01

    A proposed portable magnetic separator consists of an array of biocompatible capillary tubing and magnetizable wires immersed in an externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. While subject to the homogeneous magnetic field, the wires create high magnetic field gradients, which aid in the collection of blood-borne magnetic nanospheres from blood flow. In this study, a 3-D numerical model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.2 software to determine the configuration of the wire-tubing array from two possible configurations, one being an array with rows alternating between wires and tubing, and the other being an array where wire and tubing alternate in two directions. The results demonstrated that the second configuration would actually capture more of the magnetic spheres. Experimental data obtained by our group support this numerical result.

  8. Inverted Linear Halbach Array for Separation of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Y.; Poudel, C.; Williams, P.S.; Moore, L.R.; Orita, T.; Zborowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    A linear array of Nd-Fe-B magnets has been designed and constructed in an inverted Halbach configuration for use in separating magnetic nanoparticles. The array provides a large region of relatively low magnetic field, yet high magnetic field gradient in agreement with finite element modeling calculations. The magnet assembly has been combined with a flow channel for magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, such that for an appropriate distance away from the assembly, nanoparticles of higher moment aggregate and accumulate against the channel wall, with lower moment nanoparticles flowing unaffected. The device is demonstrated for iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of ~ 5 and 20 nm. In comparison to other approaches, the inverted Halbach array is more amenable to modeling and to scaling up to preparative quantities of particles. PMID:25382864

  9. Novel platform for minimizing cell loss on separation process: Droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngho; Hong, Su; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Kangsun; Yun, Seok; Kang, Yuri; Paek, Kyeong-Kap; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Byungkyu

    2007-07-01

    To reduce the problem of cell loss due to adhesion, one of the basic phenomena in microchannel, we proposed the droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator (DMACS). Based on the platform of the DMACS—which consists of permanent magnets, a coverslip with a circle-shaped boundary, and an injection tube—we could collect magnetically (CD45)-labeled (positive) cells with high purity and minimize cell loss due to adhesion. To compare separation efficiency between the MACS and the DMACS, the total number of cells before and after separation with both the separators was counted by flow cytometry. We could find that the number (3241/59940) of cells lost in the DMACS is much less than that (22360/59940) in the MACS while the efficiency of cell separation in the DMACS (96.07%) is almost the same as that in the MACS (96.72%). Practically, with fluorescent images, it was visually confirmed that the statistical data are reliable. From the viability test by using Hoechst 33 342, it was also demonstrated that there was no cell damage on a gas-liquid interface. Conclusively, DMACS will be a powerful tool to separate rare cells and applicable as a separator, key component of lab-on-a-chip.

  10. Process to remove actinides from soil using magnetic separation

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Hill, Dallas D.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Stewart, Walter F.; Tolt, Thomas L.; Worl, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    A process of separating actinide-containing components from an admixture including forming a slurry including actinide-containing components within an admixture, said slurry including a dispersion-promoting surfactant, adjusting the pH of the slurry to within a desired range, and, passing said slurry through a pretreated matrix material, said matrix material adapted to generate high magnetic field gradients upon the application of a strong magnetic field exceeding about 0.1 Tesla whereupon a portion of said actinide-containing components are separated from said slurry and remain adhered upon said matrix material is provided.

  11. Matched filtering method for separating magnetic anomaly using fractal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Cheng, Qiuming; Zhang, Henglei

    2016-05-01

    Fractal/scaling distribution of magnetization in the crust has found with growing body of evidences from spectral analysis of borehole susceptibility logs and magnetic field data, and fractal properties of magnetic sources have already been considered in processing magnetic data such as the Spector and Grant method for depth determination. In this study, the fractal-based matched filtering method is presented for separating magnetic anomalies caused by fractal sources. We argue the benefits of considering fractal natures of source distribution for data processing in magnetic exploration: the first is that the depth determination can be improved by using multiscaling model to interpret the magnetic data power spectrum; the second is that the matched filtering can be reconstructed by employing the difference in scaling exponent together with the corrected depth and amplitude estimates. In the application of synthetic data obtained from fractal modeling and real aeromagnetic data from the Qikou district of China, the proposed fractal-based matched filtering method obtains more reliable depth estimations as well as improved separation between local anomalies (caused by volcanic rocks) and regional field (crystalline basement) in comparison with the conventional matched filtering method.

  12. Rapid and continuous magnetic separation in droplet microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Brouzes, Eric; Kruse, Travis; Kimmerling, Robert; Strey, Helmut H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a droplet microfluidic method to extract molecules of interest from a droplet in a rapid and continuous fashion. We accomplish this by first marginalizing functionalized super-paramagnetic beads within the droplet using a magnetic field, and then splitting the droplet into one droplet containing the majority of magnetic beads and one droplet containing the minority fraction. We quantitatively analysed the factors which affect the efficiency of marginalization and droplet splitting to optimize the enrichment of magnetic beads. We first characterized the interplay between the droplet velocity and the strength of the magnetic field and its effect on marginalization. We found that marginalization is optimal at the midline of the magnet and that marginalization is a good predictor of bead enrichment through splitting at low to moderate droplet velocities. Finally, we focused our efforts on manipulating the splitting profile to improve the enrichment provided by asymmetric splitting. We designed asymmetric splitting forks that employ capillary effects to preferentially extract the bead-rich regions of the droplets. Our strategy represents a framework to optimize magnetic bead enrichment methods tailored to the requirements of specific droplet-based applications. We anticipate that our separation technology is well suited for applications in single-cell genomics and proteomics. In particular, our method could be used to separate mRNA bound to poly-dT functionalized magnetic microparticles from single cell lysates to prepare single-cell cDNA libraries. PMID:25501881

  13. Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

    1989-01-01

    We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeded water treatment by high gradient magnetic separation techniques was carried out on combined storm overflows and raw sewage influents. Both bench-type and continuous pilot plant tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the process in purifying waste waters. Cri...

  15. Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    G. B. Cotten

    2000-08-01

    This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable.

  16. Quantitative Magnetic Separation of Particles and Cells Using Gradient Magnetic Ratcheting.

    PubMed

    Murray, Coleman; Pao, Edward; Tseng, Peter; Aftab, Shayan; Kulkarni, Rajan; Rettig, Matthew; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of rare target cells from biosamples is enabling for life science research. Traditional rare cell separation techniques, such as magnetic activated cell sorting, are robust but perform coarse, qualitative separations based on surface antigen expression. A quantitative magnetic separation technology is reported using high-force magnetic ratcheting over arrays of magnetically soft micropillars with gradient spacing, and the system is used to separate and concentrate magnetic beads based on iron oxide content (IOC) and cells based on surface expression. The system consists of a microchip of permalloy micropillar arrays with increasing lateral pitch and a mechatronic device to generate a cycling magnetic field. Particles with higher IOC separate and equilibrate along the miropillar array at larger pitches. A semi-analytical model is developed that predicts behavior for particles and cells. Using the system, LNCaP cells are separated based on the bound quantity of 1 μm anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) particles as a metric for expression. The ratcheting cytometry system is able to resolve a ±13 bound particle differential, successfully distinguishing LNCaP from PC3 populations based on EpCAM expression, correlating with flow cytometry analysis. As a proof-of-concept, EpCAM-labeled cells from patient blood are isolated with 74% purity, demonstrating potential toward a quantitative magnetic separation instrument. PMID:26890496

  17. Dispersion and Aggregation of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Nuclear Waste Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, H.; Singh, M. Kaur T.; Qiang, Y.; Johnson, A.; Paszczynski, A.

    2009-05-01

    A novel method of nuclear waste separation using conjugates of actinide chelators and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is developed. The fast separation can be facilitated by the high magnetic moments of core-shell MNPs. Highly uniform dispersion of MNPs in solutions is required for the efficient conjugation. However, stabilization of well dispersed MNPs hinders fast magnetic collection of the conjugates. To address this dilemma, the dispersion and aggregation of the MNPs has been investigated in both mechanical and chemical approaches. In the mechanical approach, continuous ultrasonic dispersed the MNPs, whereas they re-aggregated after up to 20 minutes treatment. Bead beating method improved the MNPs' suspension time by up to two factors. Nevertheless, the magnetization of MNPs dropped sharply due to the generation of non-magnetic beads' residual. Chemical method using electrolyte and agents with different polarizations had significant effects on the suspension and aggregation of the various sized MNPs. The fine balance of Van de Waals, Brownian forces, magnetic dipole and Coulomb interactions are discussed.

  18. Magnetically stabilized fluidized bed for gas separations: Olefin-paraffin separations by {pi}-complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Sikavitsas, V.I.; Yang, R.T.; Burns, M.A.; Langenmayr, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    The feasibility of using magnetically stabilized fluidized beds (MSB) for olefin-paraffin separations by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is studied by model simulation, and the results are compared directly with that using packed beds. The sorbent used for the separations is an Ag{sup +} exchanged resin that selectively forms {pi}-complexation bonds with olefins, with the heat of adsorption of {approximately} 10 kcal/mol. Superior separations are obtained with MSB for two reasons: high flow rates and small particle sizes that are allowed in MSBs resulting in high diffusion time constants (D{sub e}/R{sup 2}) (which are favorable for equilibrium separation). Lower temperature excursions compared to packed bed also favor the separation. The larger axial dispersion in the MSB has only minimal adverse effects on the PSA separation. For example: for a 14/86 ethane/ethylene feed mixture at the same feed throughput (120.8 L(STP))/[h (kg or sorbent)], an ethylene product at 99.9% purity is obtained at over 50% ethylene recovery from the MSBs whereas only 14% recovery at the same purity is obtained with the packed beds. Acceptable separation results are also achieved with MSBs for propane-propylene separation, but not with fixed beds.

  19. Magnetic nano-sorbents for fast separation of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Huijin; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You

    2013-07-01

    In order to find a cost effective and environmentally benign technology to treat the liquid radioactive waste into a safe and stable form for resource recycling or ultimate disposal, this study investigates the separation of radioactive elements from aqueous systems using magnetic nano-sorbents. Our current study focuses on novel magnetic nano-sorbents by attaching DTPA molecules onto the surface of double coated magnetic nanoparticles (dMNPs), and performed preliminary sorption tests using heavy metal ions as surrogates for radionuclides. The results showed that the sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) onto the dMNP-DTPA conjugates was fast, the equilibrium was reached in 30 min. The calculated sorption capacities were 8.06 mg/g for Cd and 12.09 mg/g for Pb. After sorption, the complex of heavy elements captured by nano-sorbents can be easily manipulated and separated from solution in less than 1 min by applying a small external magnetic field. In addition, the sorption results demonstrate that dMNP-DTPA conjugates have a very strong chelating power in highly diluted Cd and Pb solutions (1-10 μg/L). Therefore, as a simple, fast, and compact process, this separation method has a great potential in the treatment of high level waste with low concentration of transuranic elements compared to tradition nuclear waste treatment. (authors)

  20. The rate of separation of magnetic lines of force in a random magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The mixing of magnetic lines of force, as represented by their rate of separation, as a function of distance along the magnetic field, is considered with emphasis on neighboring lines of force. This effect is particularly important in understanding the transport of charged particles perpendicular to the average magnetic field. The calculation is carried out in the approximation that the separation changes by an amount small compared with the correlation scale normal to the field, in a distance along the field of a few correlation scales. It is found that the rate of separation is very sensitive to the precise form of the power spectrum. Application to the interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields is discussed, and it is shown that in some cases field lines, much closer together than the correlation scale, separate at a rate which is effectively as rapid as if they were many correlation lengths apart.

  1. Application of magnetic separation to steelmaking slags for reclamation.

    PubMed

    Alanyali, H; Cöl, M; Yilmaz, M; Karagöz, S

    2006-01-01

    Integrated iron and steel plants generate large amounts of metallurgical slag, which usually contains some quantity of metals or mixtures of oxides that could be treated to be recycled in various applications. The conventional method for disposal of slags is dumping. However, it is possible to process the slags to be used in the production of metallic iron, or as an additive in cement making. In this study, a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelwork slag obtained from the Kardemir integrated iron and steel works, Karabuk, Turkey is used. A drum magnetic separator system with pre-engineered crucial processing parameters of drum revolution speed, drum radius, drum flesh thickness, and magnitude of the magnetic field applied is utilized, as these parameters have a competing influence on the results. Subsequently, the effects of slag grain size and the drum-blade gap are investigated in the separation efficiency of magnetic grains. It is found that collection of magnetic grains is improved by decreasing the grain size of slags and moreover, the collection of magnetic grains fraction is increased with an increase in the gap between the blades and drum. PMID:16545952

  2. [Development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingyuan; Chen, Yi

    2014-05-01

    The article describes the development of new magnetic bead separation and purification instrument. The main application of the instrument is to capture tubercle bacillus from sputum. It is a pretreatment instrument and provides a new platform to help doctors to diagnose bacillary phthisis. Not only could it be used for tubercle bacillus capturing, but also for gene, protein and cell separating and purification. Because the controller of the instrument is 16-bit single chip microcomputer, the cost could be greatly reduced and it will be widely used in China. PMID:25241516

  3. Dynamics of magnetic particles in cylindrical Halbach array: implications for magnetic cell separation and drug targeting.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Babinec P; Krafcík A; Babincová M; Rosenecker J

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for therapy and diagnosis are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. In this study, we have theoretically studied motion of magnetic nano- as well as micro-particles in the field of cylindrical Halbach array of permanent magnets. Magnetic flux density was modeled as magnetostatic problem by finite element method and particle motion was described using system of ordinary differential equations--Newton law. Computations were done for nanoparticles Nanomag-D with radius 65 nm, which are often used in magnetic drug targeting, as well as microparticles DynaBeads-M280 with radius 1.4 microm, which can be used for magnetic separation. Analyzing snapshots of trajectories of hundred magnetite particles of each size in the water as well as in the air, we have found that optimally designed magnetic circuits of permanent magnets in quadrupolar Halbach array have substantially shorter capture time than simple blocks of permanent magnets commonly used in experiments, therefore, such a Halbach array may be useful as a potential source of magnetic field for magnetic separation and targeting of magnetic nanoparticles as well as microparticles for delivery of drugs, genes, and cells in various biomedical applications.

  4. Beneficiation of Turkish lignites by thermal treatment and magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, G.; Renda, D.; Mustafaev, I.; Dogan, Z.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the improvement of Turkish lignites by semi-coking and REMS magnetic separation, in two stages, is discussed. The oxidation and decomposition of pyrite through the thermal treatment result in the formation of iron oxide and pyrrhotite on the surface. In addition to pyrite, part of the organic sulfur is also removed. After thermal treatment of lignites at temperatures ranging from 370 to 650 C, the application of REMS magnetic separator produces a product higher in calorific value and lower in sulfur content. The product can be utilized after briquetting. The volatile gases can also be used after sulfur removal. This process appears to be feasible as a clean coal manufacture from the point of energy efficiency. A short economic analysis is also presented.

  5. Enhanced shear separation for chiral magnetic colloidal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carlos; Marques, Carlos; Thalmann, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    We study the designing principles of the simplest colloidal propeller, an architecture built from four identical spheres that can couple translation with rotation to produce controlled drift motion. By considering superparamagnetic beads, we show that the simultaneous action of a magnetic field and a shear flow leads to the migration of the cluster in the vorticity direction. We investigate the dependence of the migration velocity on the geometrical parameters of the cluster, and find that significant cluster separation can be achieved under the typical operation conditions of microfluidic devices. Reference: C.I. Mendoza, C.M. Marques, and F. Thalmann, ``Enhanced shear separation for chiral magnetic colloidal aggregates'' arXiv:1011.1488 Partial financial support: Chemistry Department of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and DGAPA-PAPIIT Grant No. IN-115010.

  6. Oil-field wastewater purification by magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuonan; Yang, Huihui; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, oil-field wastewater purification through superconducting magnetic separation technique using a novel magnetic nanoparticle was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle, which has a multi-shell structure with ferroferric oxide as core, dense nonporous silica as inter layer and mesoporous silica as outer layer, was synthesized by co-precipitation method. To functionalize the magnetic nanoparticle, plasma polymerization technique was adopted and poly methyl acrylate (PMA) was formed on the surface of the nanoparticle. The multi-shell structure of the nanoparticle was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the characteristic is measurable by FTIR. It is found that most of the pollutants (85% by turbidity or 84% by COD value) in the oil-field wastewater are removed through the superconducting magnetic separation technique using this novel magnetic nanoparticle.

  7. Assessment of Alphamagnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Upper Experiment Structural Configuration Shielding Effectiveness Associated with Change from Cryo-Cooled Magnet to Permanent Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS-02) underwent a series of system level electromagnetic interference control measurements, followed by thermal vacuum testing. Shortly after completion of the thermal vacuum testing, the project decided to remove the cryogenically cooled superconducting magnet, and replace it with the original permanent magnet design employed in the earlier AMS- 01 assembly. Doing so necessitated several structural changes, as well as removal or modification of numerous electronic and thermal control devices and systems. At this stage, the project was rapidly approaching key milestone dates for hardware completion and delivery for launch, and had little time for additional testing or assessment of any impact to the electromagnetic signature of the AMS-02. Therefore, an analytical assessment of the radiated emissions behavioural changes associated with the system changes was requested.

  8. Radiolysis and hydrolysis of magnetically assisted chemical separation particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B.A.; Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-05-01

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process is designed to separate transuranic (TRU) elements out of high-level waste (HLW) or TRU waste. Magnetic microparticles (1--25 {mu}m) were coated with octyl (phenyl)N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP) and tested for removing TRU elements from acidic nitrate solutions. The particles were contacted with nitric acid solutions and Hanford plutonium finishing plant (PFP) simulant, irradiated with a high intensity {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source, and evaluated for effectiveness in removing TRU elements from 2m HNO{sub 3} solutions. The resistance of the coatings and magnetic cores to radiolytic damage and hydrolytic degradation was investigated by irradiating samples of particles suspended in a variety of solutions with doses of up to 5 Mrad. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic susceptibility measurements, and physical observations of the particles and suspension solutions were used to assess physical changes to the particles. Processes that affect the surface of the particles dramatically alter the binding sites for TRU in solution. Hydrolysis played a larger role than radiolysis in the degradation of the extraction capacity of the particles.

  9. Radiolysis and hydrolysis of magnetically assisted chemical separation particles

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B.A.; Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1996-08-01

    The magnetically assisted chemical separation process is designed to separate transuranic (TRU) elements from high-level waste or TRU waste. Magnetic micro-particles (1-25 {mu}m) were coated from octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide dissolved in tributyl phosphate and tested for removing TRU elements from acidic nitrate solutions. The particles were contacted with nitric acid solutions or simulated Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant waste solution, irradiated with a high intensity {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source, and evaluated for their effectiveness in removing TRU elements from 2 M HNO{sub 3} solutions. The resistance of the coatings and magnetic cores to radiolytic damage and hydrolytic degradation was investigated by irradiating samples of particles suspended in a variety of solutions with doses of up to 5 Mrad. Transmission electron microscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and physical observations of the particles. Processes that affect the surface of the particles were found to dramatically alter the binding sites for TRU in solution. Hydrolysis played a larger role than radiolysis in the degradation of the extraction capacity of the particles.

  10. Charge separation in a magnetized plasma-sheath-lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamate, Eugen

    2009-10-01

    Most of plasma processing technologies are based on radical-assisted ion-induced surface-modification where ions accumulate energy in the sheath, and then strike the surface modifying its properties in a desirable way. Plasma-sheath-lens is a three-dimensional potential distribution of customized shape, formed by the space charge surrounding a biased electrode-insulator interface. The discrete and modal focusing effects have been reveled for this type of electrostatic structures formed in plasma [1] and several applications including sheath thickness evaluation, negative ion detection and extraction of positive or negative ion beams have been developed. A non-magnetized plasma-sheath-lens act as a kinetic energy separator, but it is not mass sensitive. However, a magnetized plasma-sheath-lens exhibits mass separation, so that ions of different mass will impact the electrode at different locations on the biased electrode surface. The mass spectrum can be measured as the radial distribution of the ion current density over the plasma-sheath-lens's electrode. Relevant fluid and particles simulations of the magnetized plasma-sheath-lens structures and ion trajectories within them are presented for different plasma parameters and magnetic filed configurations. Practical aspects linked to the development of a new type of mass spectrometers are also investigated.[0pt] [1] E. Stamate and H. Sugai, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2005) 94, 125004

  11. Differential magnetic catch and release: Separation, purification, and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles and particle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveridge, Jacob S.

    Magnetic nanoparticles uniquely combine superparamagnetic behavior with dimensions that are smaller than or the same size as molecular analytes. The integration of magnetic nanoparticles with analytical methods has opened new avenues for sensing, purification, and quantitative analysis. Applied magnetic fields can be used to control the motion and properties of magnetic nanoparticles; in analytical chemistry, use of magnetic fields provides methods for manipulating and analyzing species at the molecular level. The ability to use applied magnetic fields to control the motion and properties of magnetic nanoparticles is a tool for manipulating and analyzing species at the molecular level, and has led to applications including analyte handing, chemical sensors, and imaging techniques. This is clearly an area where significant growth and impact in separation science and analysis is expected in the future. In Chapter 1, we describe applications of magnetic nanoparticles to analyte handling, chemical sensors, and imaging techniques. Chapter 2 reports the purification and separation of magnetic nanoparticle mixtures using the technique developed in our lab called differential magnetic catch and release (DMCR). This method applies a variable magnetic flux orthogonal to the flow direction in an open tubular capillary to trap and controllably release magnetic nanoparticles. Magnetic moments of 8, 12, and 17 nm diameter CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are calculated using the applied magnetic flux density and experimentally determined force required to trap 50% of the particle sample. Balancing the relative strengths of the drag and magnetic forces enable separation and purification of magnetic CoFe2 O4 nanoparticle samples with < 20 nm diameters. Samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy to determine the average size and size dispersity of the sample population. DMCR is further demonstrated to be useful for separation of a magnetic nanoparticle mixture, resulting in samples with narrowed size distributions. Differential magnetic catch and release has been used as a method for the purification and separation of magnetic nanoparticles. In Chapter 3 the separation metrics are reported. DMCR separates nanoparticles in the mobile phase by magnetic trapping of magnetic nanoparticles against the wall of an open tubular capillary wrapped between two narrowly spaced electromagnetic poles. Using Au and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as model systems, the loading capacity of the 250 microm diameter capillary is determined to be ˜130 microg, and is scalable to higher quantities with larger bore capillary. Peak resolution in DMCR is externally controlled by selection of the release time (Rt) at which the magnetic flux density is removed, however longer capture times are shown to reduce the capture yield. In addition, the magnetic nanoparticle capture yields are observed to depend on the nanoparticle diameter, mobile phase viscosity and velocity, and applied magnetic flux. Using these optimized parameters, three samples of CoFe 2O4 nanoparticles whose diameters are different by less than 10 nm are separated with excellent resolution and capture yield, demonstrating the capability of DMCR for separation and purification of magnetic nanoparticles. Individual hybrid nanocrystals possess multiple structural units with solid state interfaces, giving them a wide range of possible applications. Synthesis of truly monodisperse nanoparticles and hybrid nanocrystals is a formidable task, which has led us to apply our analytical technique, differential magnetic catch and release, to separate and purify magnetic nanoparticles. Using an open tubular capillary column and electromagnet, DMCR separates magnetic nanoparticles based on a balance of their magnetic moment and hydrodynamic size. Chapter 4 focuses on the purification of real world samples of hybrid nanocrystals including Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures and FePt-Fe3O4 dimers. Samples are characterized with transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. After DMCR purification, the hybrid nanocrystals have distinct properties, suggesting that purification is vital for the proper characterization and utilization of these in new applications. As magnetic nanostructures become more complex, development of new separation/purification tools in parallel with optimizing hybrid nanocrystal syntheses is paramount for nanostructure construction and use. Probing the kinetics of nanoparticle nucleation, crystallization, and oxidation has historically been difficult to achieve. In Chapter 5 preliminary results using DMCR to monitor chemical reactions involving nanoparticles are discussed. Many characteristics of nanoparticles affect their magnetic properties, i.e. size, composition, crystallinity, phase purity etc. DMCR thus provides a method to assess these characteristics during a chemical reaction, and plot the kinetics of these transitions. Insights into nanoscale reaction kinetics will allow mechanistic insights for designing high quality nanocrystal syntheses that produce well defined pure products and hybrid materials. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, R.D.

    1988-10-18

    The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadrupole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin. 5 figs.

  13. Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, R.D.

    1986-07-24

    The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadrupole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic-particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin. 5 figs.

  14. Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadropole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin.

  15. Enhanced shear separation for chiral magnetic colloidal aggregates.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, C I; Marques, C M; Thalmann, F

    2010-12-01

    We study the designing principles of the simplest colloidal propeller, an architecture built from four identical spheres that can couple translation with rotation to produce controlled drift motion. By considering superparamagnetic beads, we show that the simultaneous action of a magnetic field and a shear flow leads to the migration of the cluster in the vorticity direction. We investigate the dependence of the migration velocity on the geometrical parameters of the cluster and find that significant cluster separation can be achieved under the typical operation conditions of microfluidic devices. PMID:21230635

  16. Enhanced shear separation for chiral magnetic colloidal aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, C. I.; Marques, C. M.; Thalmann, F.

    2010-12-01

    We study the designing principles of the simplest colloidal propeller, an architecture built from four identical spheres that can couple translation with rotation to produce controlled drift motion. By considering superparamagnetic beads, we show that the simultaneous action of a magnetic field and a shear flow leads to the migration of the cluster in the vorticity direction. We investigate the dependence of the migration velocity on the geometrical parameters of the cluster and find that significant cluster separation can be achieved under the typical operation conditions of microfluidic devices.

  17. Exploiting Size-Dependent Drag and Magnetic Forces for Size-Specific Separation of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Hunter B.; Anani, Tareq; Choi, Young Suk; Beyers, Ronald J.; David, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the full potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in nanomedicine requires the optimization of their physical and chemical properties. Elucidation of the effects of these properties on clinical diagnostic or therapeutic properties, however, requires the synthesis or purification of homogenous samples, which has proved to be difficult. While initial simulations indicated that size-selective separation could be achieved by flowing magnetic nanoparticles through a magnetic field, subsequent in vitro experiments were unable to reproduce the predicted results. Magnetic field-flow fractionation, however, was found to be an effective method for the separation of polydisperse suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters greater than 20 nm. While similar methods have been used to separate magnetic nanoparticles before, no previous work has been done with magnetic nanoparticles between 20 and 200 nm. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis were used to confirm the size of the MNPs. Further development of this work could lead to MNPs with the narrow size distributions necessary for their in vitro and in vivo optimization. PMID:26307980

  18. On-chip Magnetic Separation and Cell Encapsulation in Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Byvank, T.; Bharde, A.; Miller, B. L.; Chalmers, J. J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Chang, W.-J.; Bashir, R.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for high-throughput single cell assays is gaining importance because of the heterogeneity of many cell suspensions, even after significant initial sorting. These suspensions may display cell-to-cell variability at the gene expression level that could impact single cell functional genomics, cancer, stem-cell research and drug screening. The on-chip monitoring of individual cells in an isolated environment could prevent cross-contamination, provide high recovery yield and ability to study biological traits at a single cell level These advantages of on-chip biological experiments contrast to conventional methods, which require bulk samples that provide only averaged information on cell metabolism. We report on a device that integrates microfluidic technology with a magnetic tweezers array to combine the functionality of separation and encapsulation of objects such as immunomagnetically labeled cells or magnetic beads into pico-liter droplets on the same chip. The ability to control the separation throughput that is independent of the hydrodynamic droplet generation rate allows the encapsulation efficiency to be optimized. The device can potentially be integrated with on-chip labeling and/or bio-detection to become a powerful single-cell analysis device.

  19. Primary beneficiation of tantalite using magnetic separation and acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nete, M.; Koko, F.; Theron, T.; Purcell, W.; Nel, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Primary beneficiation was successfully performed prior to dissolution of manganotantalite (sample A) and ferrotantalite (sample C) samples obtained from two different mines in the Naquissupa area, Mozambique. Magnetic separation removed the majority of iron and titanium, whereas H2SO4 leaching removed a large portion of thorium and uranium in these samples. Analytical results indicated that 64.14wt% and 72.04wt% of the total Fe and Ti, respectively, and ˜2wt% each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample C (ferrotantalite) using the magnetic separation method, whereas only 9.64wt% and 8.66wt% of total Fe2O3 and TiO2, respectively, and ˜2wt% each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample A (manganotantalite). A temperature of 50°C and a leaching time of 3 h in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 were observed to be the most appropriate leaching conditions for removal of radioactive elements from the tantalite ores. The results obtained for sample A under these conditions indicated that 64.14wt% U3O8 and 60.77wt% ThO2 were leached into the acidic solution, along with 4.45wt% and 0.99wt% of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5, respectively.

  20. On-chip Magnetic Separation and Cell Encapsulation in Droplets†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aaron; Byvank, Tom; Chang, Woo-Jin; Bharde, Atul; Vieira, Greg; Miller, Brandon; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Bashir, Rashid; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

    2014-01-01

    The demand for high-throughput single cell assays is gaining importance because of the heterogeneity of many cell suspensions, even after significant initial sorting. These suspensions may display cell-to-cell variability at the gene expression level that could impact single cell functional genomics, cancer, stem-cell research and drug screening. The on-chip monitoring of individual cells in an isolated environment would prevent cross-contamination, provide high recovery yield, and enable study of biological traits at a single cell level. These advantages of on-chip biological experiments is a significant improvement for myriad of cell analyses over conventional methods, which require bulk samples providing only averaged information on cell metabolism. We report on a device that integrates mobile magnetic trap array with microfluidic technology to provide, combined functionality of separation of immunomagnetically labeled cells or magnetic beads and their encapsulation with reagents into pico-liter droplets. This scheme of simultaneous reagent delivery and compartmentalization of the cells immediately after sorting, all performed seamlessly within the same chip, offers unique advantages such as the ability to capture cell traits as originated from its native environment, reduced chance of contamination, minimal use and freshness of the reagent solution that reacts only with separated objects, and tunable encapsulation characteristics independent of the input flow. In addition to the demonstrated preliminary cell viability assay, the device can potentially be integrated with other up- or downstream on-chip modules to become a powerful single-cell analysis tool. PMID:23370785

  1. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-03-16

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times. PMID:26871542

  2. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrowe, J.-E.; Olive, E.

    2016-03-01

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times.

  3. Magnetic and fluorescence-encoded polystyrene microparticles for cell separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Diana; Anglin, Emily J.; Bailey, Sheree; Macardle, Peter J.; Fenech, Michael; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2008-12-01

    Materials assisting with the efforts of cell isolation are attractive for numerous biomedical applications including tissue engineering and cell therapy. Here, we have developed surface modification methods on microparticles for the purposes of advanced cell separation. Iron oxide nanoparticles were incorporated into 200 ım polystyrene microparticles for separation of particle-bound cells from non-bound cells in suspension by means of a permanent magnet. The polystyrene microparticles were further encoded with fluorescent quantum dots (QD) as identification tags to distinguish between specific microparticles in a mixture. Cluster of differentiation (CD) antibodies were displayed on the surface of the microparticles through direct adsorption and various methods of covalent attachment. In addition, a protein A coating was used to orientate the antibodies on the microparticle surface and to maximise accessibility of the antigen-binding sites. Microparticles which carried CD antibodies via covalent attachment showed greater cell attachment over those modifications that were only adsorbed to the surface through weak electrostatic interactions. Greatest extent of cell attachment was observed on microparticles modified with protein A - CD antibody conjugates. B and T lymphocytes were successfully isolated from a mixed population using two types of microparticles displaying B and T cell specific CD antibodies, respectively. Our approach will find application in preparative cell separation from tissue isolates and for microcarrier-based cell expansion.

  4. New design for a space cryo-mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gilles; Amiaux, Jérôme; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Carty, Michael; Barrière, Jean Christophe; Bouzat, Marylène; Duboué, Bruno; Lagage, Pierre Olivier; Lebeuf, Didier; Lepage, Erwan; Lemer, Isabelle; Marlaguey, Nathalie Peydrol; Poupar, Sébastien

    2008-07-01

    Based on its experience of space application instrument and its development of cryomechanism for astronomical ground based instrument VLT / VISIR, CEA Saclay is proposing a new concept of Space Cryomechanism. This design is based on VLT/VISIR cryo-mechanism design adapted to space requirements taking into account all the specification of space environment (vibrations at launch, cryogenic vacuum, materials, radiations, ...). The original concept of the design is based on the association of the key elements: a dog-clutch with Hirth teeth jaws coupled to a step-by-step space qualified cryo-motor, a bellows that allows for separation of indexing and rotating functions, and enlarged bearings design in "O" arrangement that increase robustness to vibration. The actuator has 360 steady positions that can be reached within les than a second with repeatability of 5 arcsec peak to peak. After a presentation of the details of the concept and of its benefits to robustness to space environment, the paper describes the thoroughly qualification program of the cryo-mechanism with respect to space requirements (cryo-cycling, indexing accuracy, power consumption, heat dissipation, motorisation margins, vibrations). This cryo-mechanism may be built in 3 different sizes for wheels up to 10 kg.

  5. CryoTran user's manual, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowgill, Glenn R.; Chato, David J.; Saad, Ehab

    1989-01-01

    The development of cryogenic fluid management systems for space operation is a major portion of the efforts of the Cryogenic Fluids Technology Office (CFTO) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Analytical models are a necessary part of experimental programs which are used to verify the results of experiments and are also used as a predictor for parametric studies. The CryoTran computer program is a bridge to obtain analytical results. The object of CryoTran is to coordinate these separate analyses into an integrated framework with a user-friendly interface and a common cryogenic property database. CryoTran is an integrated software system designed to help solve a diverse set of problems involving cryogenic fluid storage and transfer in both ground and low-g environments.

  6. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko

    2014-09-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

  7. Application of high gradient magnetic separation principles to magnetic drug targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Daniel, Karen D.; Stewart, Krystle L.

    2004-09-01

    A hypothetical magnetic drug targeting system, utilizing high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) principles, was studied theoretically using FEMLAB simulations. This new approach uses a ferromagnetic wire placed at a bifurcation point inside a blood vessel and an externally applied magnetic field, to magnetically guide magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCP) through the circulatory system and then to magnetically retain them at a target site. Wire collection (CE) and diversion (DE) efficiencies were defined and used to evaluate the system performance. CE and DE both increase as the strength of the applied magnetic field (0.3-2.0 T), the amount of ferromagnetic material (iron) in the MDCP (20-100%) and the size of the MDCP (1-10 μm radius) increase, and as the average inlet velocity (0.1-0.8 m s-1), the size of the wire (50-250 μm radius) and the ratio (4-10) of the parent vessel radius (0.25-1.25 mm radius) to wire radius decrease. The effect of the applied magnetic field direction (0° and 90°) on CE and DE was minimal. Under these plausible conditions, CEs as high as 70% were obtained, with DEs reaching only 30%; however, when the MDCPs were allowed to agglomerate (4-10 μm radius), CEs and DEs of 100% were indeed achieved. These results reveal that this new magnetic drug targeting approach for magnetically collecting MDCPs at a target site, even in arteries with very high velocities, is feasible and very promising; this new approach for magnetically guiding MDCPs through the circulatory system is also feasible but more limited. Overall, this study shows that magnetic drug targeting, based on HGMS principles, has considerable promise as an effective drug targeting tool with many potential applications.

  8. Demonstration of magnetically activated and guided isotope separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Thomas R.; Klappauf, Bruce; Raizen, Mark G.

    2014-08-01

    Enriched isotopes are widely used in medicine, basic science and energy production, and the need will only grow in the future. The main method for enriching stable isotopes today, the calutron, dates back over eighty years and has an uncertain future, creating an urgent need, especially in nuclear medicine. We report here the experimental realization of a general and efficient method for isotope separation that presents a viable alternative to the calutron. Combining optical pumping and a unique magnet geometry, we observe substantial depletion of Li-6 throughput in a lithium atomic beam produced by an evaporation source over a range of flux. These results demonstrate the viability of our method to yield large degrees of enrichment in a manner that is amenable to industrial scale-up and the production of commercially relevant quantities.

  9. Magnetic separation - Advanced nanotechnology for future nuclear fuel recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, M.; Zhang, H.; Qiang, Y.; Martin, L.; Todd, T.

    2013-07-01

    The unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as their extremely small size and high surface area to volume ratio, provide better kinetics for the adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this work, we demonstrated the separation of minor actinides using complex conjugates of MNPs with diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelator. The sorption results show the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am (III) and Pu (IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. It is shown that the extraction process is highly dependent on the pH of the solution. If these long-term heat generating actinides can be efficiently removed from the used fuel raffinates, the volume of material that can be placed in a given amount of repository space can be significantly increased. (authors)

  10. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  11. National Cryo-Electron Microscopy Facility

    Cancer.gov

    Information about the National Cryo-EM Facility at NCI, created to provide researchers access to the latest cryo-EM technology for high resolution imaging. Includes timeline for installation and how to access the facility.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF IMMUNOMAGNETIC SEPARATION FOR ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 DETECTION BY THE PICKPEN MAGNETIC PARTICLE SEPARATION DEVICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures, which use an external magnetic source to capture magnetic particles against the side of a test tube, are labor intensive and can have poor sensitivity for the target organism due to high background microflora that is not effectively washed awa...

  13. Magnetic separation studies on ferruginous chromite fine to enhance Cr:Fe ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Banerjee, P. K.; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-03-01

    The Cr:Fe ratio (chromium-to-iron mass ratio) of chromite affects the production of chrome-based ferroalloys. Although the literature contains numerous reports related to the magnetic separation of different minerals, limited work concerning the application of magnetic separation to fine chromite from the Sukinda region of India to enhance its Cr:Fe ratio has been reported. In the present investigation, magnetic separation and mineralogical characterization studies of chromite fines were conducted to enhance the Cr:Fe ratio. Characterization studies included particle size and chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction analysis, automated mineral analysis, sink-and-float studies, and magnetic susceptibility measurements, whereas magnetic separation was investigated using a rare earth drum magnetic separator, a rare earth roll magnetic separator, an induced roll magnetic separator, and a wet high-intensity magnetic separator. The fine chromite was observed to be upgraded to a Cr:Fe ratio of 2.2 with a yield of 55.7% through the use of an induced roll magnetic separator and a feed material with a Cr:Fe ratio of 1.6.

  14. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  15. Method and apparatus for separating materials magnetically. [Patent application; iron pyrite from coal

    DOEpatents

    Hise, E.C. Jr.; Holman, A.S.; Friedlaender, F.J.

    1980-11-06

    Magnetic and nonmagnetic materials are separated by passing stream thereof past coaxial current-carrying coils which produce a magnetic field wherein intensity varies sharply with distance radially of the axis of the coils.

  16. SUPERCONDUCTING OPEN-GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE OR MIXED WASTE VITRIFICATION FEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists need to gain a better understanding of the magnetic separation processes that can be used to separate deleterious constituents (crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal) in vitrification feed streams for borosilicate glass production without adding chemicals or generating...

  17. Conjugates of Actinide Chelator-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Used Fuel Separation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Rao, Linfeng

    2011-10-30

    The actinide separation method using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with actinide specific chelators utilizes the separation capability of ligand and the ease of magnetic separation. This separation method eliminated the need of large quantity organic solutions used in the liquid-liquid extraction process. The MNPs could also be recycled for repeated separation, thus this separation method greatly reduces the generation of secondary waste compared to traditional liquid extraction technology. The high diffusivity of MNPs and the large surface area also facilitate high efficiency of actinide sorption by the ligands. This method could help in solving the nuclear waste remediation problem.

  18. Microstructure development in particulate composite coatings by cryo-SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hui

    Understanding microstructure development starting from dispersion to a final coating during drying is critical to achieve desirable microstructures and coating properties. Cryo-SEM technique is used to study the microstructure evolutions of three particulate composite coating systems: aqueous latex/ceramic nanoparticle coatings, ordered latex/ceramic nanoparticle coatings, and non-aqueous magnetic coatings. In the first study, cryo-SEM images reveal different colloidal states of two latex/ceramic nanoparticle dispersions, which confirm the DLVO theory-based calculations of total interaction energies from past research. Moreover, images at different drying stages show how nanoparticles segregate in interstitial spaces among large latex particles. As water evaporates, the latex particles consolidate, and the nanoparticles concentrate in interstitial spaces between the latex particles. With continued drying, the latex particles compact, and the nanoparticles are forced to pack more closely in the interstitial spaces. Finally, the latex particles partially coalesce to form a coherent coating. Ordered latex/nanoparticle coatings with a nanoparticle-rich surface and a latexrich body were developed by drying dispersions of monodispersed latex and nanosized ceramic particles. The nanoparticles uniformly occupy the interstitial spaces among the orderly packed latex particles near the surface, but are absent from the compacted latex structure beneath. Cryo-SEM images captured at successive drying times document two important sequences to form this unique structure. Latex particles consolidate at the airwater interface at an early drying stage, and the curved menisci among them create a pressure difference to drive a convective flow. This vertical flow then transports nanoparticles to the evaporating surface. The mechanism is supported by other evidence. The cryo-SEM technique was also applied to a non-aqueous system consisting of a solvent mixture of toluene, cyclohexanone and methyl ethyl ketone, two polymer binders of poly(vinyl chloride) and polyurethane, and magnetic nanoparticles. CryoTEM results show the solvent mixture can be vitrified in liquid nitrogen. Cryo-SEM images show a uniform and random distribution of magnetic particles in the dispersion, and the particles rotate into planes parallel to the coating surface during drying. Moreover, the particles align to one direction in those planes when early drying is in a magnetic field.

  19. Proton-nuclear magnetic resonance study of water solvent magnetic fluid's phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taketomi, Susamu; Saito, Shin-hachiro

    2000-05-01

    We report proton-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on a diluted water solvent magnetic fluid of colloidal volume fraction φ=0.30%. By sweeping the external magnetic field strength, H0, applied to the magnetic fluid around 4000 Oe, we found one major resonant field, HM, and two satellite resonant fields, HS1 and HS2, which correspond to resonant protons in three different coexisting phases. HS1 corresponds to needle-like macroclusters, or a dense phase, in which φ is evaluated to be 0.66% from HS1, while HS2 corresponds to needle-like stripes, or a diluted phase, in which φ is evaluated to be 0.24%. HM corresponds to the rest of the area, the major region. The local field which the proton felt consisted of H0, the Lorentz field and the demagnetizing field. Accordingly, in the major region, the extra field of about 2 Oe in the inverse direction was applied to the protons in addition to H0. The discovery of the three coexisting phases is not explained by the conventional two phase separation model.

  20. A comparative study of the magnetic separation characteristics of magnetotactic and sulphate reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaj, A. S.; James, P. A. B.; Moeschler, F. D.

    1998-06-01

    Many microorganisms have an affinity to accumulate metal ions onto their surfaces which results in metal loading of the biomass. Microbial biomineralization of iron results in a biomass which is often highly magnetic and can be separated from water systems by the application of a magnetic field. This article reports on the magnetic separation of biomass containing microbial iron oxide (Fe3O4, present within magnetotactic bacteria) and iron sulphide (Fe1-XS, precipitated extracellularly by sulphate reducing bacteria) in a single wire cell. Since such bacteria can be separated magnetically, their affinity to heavy metal or organic material accumulation render them useful for the removal of pollutants from waste water. The relative merits of each bacterium to magnetic separation techniques in terms of applied magnetic field and processing conditions are discussed.

  1. HIGH-GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION FOR REMOVAL OF SULFUR FROM COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a thorough physical, chemical, and magnetic characterization of a Pennsylvania coal from the Upper Freeport seam. The powdered coal was then subjected to high-gradient magnetic separations, as a function of magnetic field and fluid velocity, in both a ...

  2. Magnetite/CdTe magnetic-fluorescent composite nanosystem for magnetic separation and bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Anup; Kale, Sonia; Yadav, Prasad; Gholap, Haribhau; Pasricha, Renu; Jog, J. P.; Lefez, Benoit; Hannoyer, Béatrice; Shastry, Padma; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2011-06-01

    A new synthesis protocol is described to obtain a CdTe decorated magnetite bifunctional nanosystem via dodecylamine (DDA) as cross linker. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and fluorescence microscopy are used to characterize the constitution, size, composition and physical properties of these superparamagnetic-fluorescent nanoparticles. These CdTe decorated magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody to specifically target cells expressing this receptor. The EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein and is expressed on tumor cells from different tissue origins including human leukemic cell line Molt-4 cells. The magnetite-CdTe composite nanosystem is shown to perform excellently for specific selection, magnetic separation and fluorescent detection of EGFR positive Molt-4 cells from a mixed population. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy results show that this composite nanosystem has great potential in antibody functionalized magnetic separation and imaging of cells using cell surface receptor antibody.

  3. Magnetic separation of materials. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and testing of equipment which uses magnetism as a means of separating and purifying ores and minerals. This technology is used extensively in cleaning fossil fuels, separating fly ash constituents, mineral separations, beneficiation of ores, and other ore processing systems. The articles presented describe various operating systems, separating techniques and variables, and high-gradient magnetic separation which can be used with certain metal oxides and other paramagnetic materials. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Magnetic separation of materials. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and testing of equipment which uses magnetism as a means of separating and purifying ores and minerals. This technology is used extensively in cleaning fossil fuels, separating fly ash constituents, mineral separations, beneficiation of ores, and other ore processing systems. The articles presented describe various operating systems, separating techniques and variables, and high-gradient magnetic separation which can be used with certain metal oxides and other paramagnetic materials. (Contains a minimum of 214 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

  6. G-mode magnetic force microscopy: Separating magnetic and electrostatic interactions using big data analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Proksch, Roger; Zuo, Tingting; Zhang, Yong; Liaw, Peter K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we develop a full information capture approach for Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM), referred to as generalized mode (G-Mode) MFM. G-Mode MFM acquires and stores the full data stream from the photodetector, captured at sampling rates approaching the intrinsic photodiode limit. The data can be subsequently compressed, denoised, and analyzed, without information loss. Here, G-Mode MFM is implemented and compared to the traditional heterodyne-based MFM on model systems, including domain structures in ferromagnetic Yttrium Iron Garnet and the electronically and magnetically inhomogeneous high entropy alloy, CoFeMnNiSn. We investigate the use of information theory to mine the G-Mode MFM data and demonstrate its usefulness for extracting information which may be hidden in traditional MFM modes, including signatures of nonlinearities and mode-coupling phenomena. Finally, we demonstrate detection and separation of magnetic and electrostatic tip-sample interactions from a single G-Mode image, by analyzing the entire frequency response of the cantilever. G-Mode MFM is immediately implementable on any atomic force microscopy platform and as such is expected to be a useful technique for probing spatiotemporal cantilever dynamics and mapping material properties, as well as their mutual interactions.

  7. Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

  8. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Tsujimura, M.; Yokoyama, K.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

  9. Application of magnetic separation technology for the recovery of colemanite from plant tailings.

    PubMed

    Alp, Ibrahim

    2008-10-01

    In this study, colemanite was recovered from tailings produced by the Kestelek (Turkey) Processing Plant by magnetic separation. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that colemanite is diamagnetic in character whereas gangue minerals are weakly paramagnetic, apparently due to the presence of the iron-bearing silicates such as smectite and, to a less extent, illite. Three-stage magnetic separation tests were performed on the size fractions coarser than 75 microm produced from the tailings (31.52% B(2)O(3)) using a high-intensity permanent magnetic separator. Under the test conditions a colemanite concentrate with a B(2)O(3) content of 43.74% at 95.06% recovery was shown to be produced from the tailings. The mineralogical composition of the tailings appears to allow the removal of gangue minerals by magnetic separation and hence the production of a concentrate of commercial grade. PMID:18927062

  10. Feasibility of turbidity removal by high-gradient superconducting magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua; Li, Yiran; Xu, Fengyu; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Weimin

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have focused on pollutant removal by magnetic seeding and high-gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS). However, few works reported the application of HGSMS for treating non-magnetic pollutants by an industrial large-scale system. The feasibility of turbidity removal by a 600?mm bore superconducting magnetic separation system was evaluated in this study. The processing parameters were evaluated by using a 102?mm bore superconducting magnetic separation system that was equipped with the same magnetic separation chamber that was used in the 600?mm bore system. The double-canister system was used to process water pollutants. Analytical grade magnetite was used as a magnetic seed and the turbidity of the simulated raw water was approximately 110 NTU, and the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and magnetic seeds on turbidity removal were evaluated. The use of more PAC and magnetic seeds had few advantages for the HGSMS at doses greater than 8 and 50?mg/l, respectively. A magnetic intensity of 5.0?T was beneficial for HGSMS, and increasing the flow rate through the steel wool matrix decreased the turbidity removal efficiency. In the breakthrough experiments, 90% of the turbidity was removed when 100 column volumes were not reached. The processing capacity of the 600?mm bore industry-scale superconducting magnetic separator for turbidity treatment was approximately 78.0?m(3)/h or 65.5??10(4)?m(3)/a. The processing cost per ton of water for the 600?mm bore system was 0.1 $/t. Thus, the HGSMS separator could be used in the following special circumstances: (1) when adequate space is not available for traditional water treatment equipment, especially the sedimentation tank, and (2) when decentralized sewage treatment HGSMS systems are easier to transport and install. PMID:25828094

  11. Magnetic separation and immunoassay of multi-antigen based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Yuan, Yaxian; Yao, Jianlin; Han, Sanyang; Gu, Renao

    2011-04-14

    A novel and highly sensitive immunoassay method based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and magnetic particles has been developed. This method exhibits great potential application in bio-separation and immunoassay. PMID:21359307

  12. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aqueous Heck Reaction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via non-covalent interaction and the catalyst is utilized for expeditious Heck coupling in aqueous media.

  13. Magnetically separable nanoferrite-anchored glutathione: Aqueous homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A highly active, stable and magnetically separable glutathione based organocatalyst provided good to excellent yields to symmetric biaryls in the homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation. Symmetrical biaryl motifs are present in a wide range of natural p...

  14. Special solutions for magnetic separation problems using force and energy conditions for ferro-particles capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandulyak, Anna; Sandulyak, Alexander; Belgacem, Fethi B. M.; Kiselev, Dmitriy

    2016-03-01

    While trying to solve the equation for the ferro-particle movement in the zone of magnetic separation, it is necessary to provisionally perform a comparative evaluation of forces influencing the ferro-particle in order to define the dominating ones, and specify the task at hand. Here, we consider various solutions of the problem and definitions of magnetic separation parameters based on the traditionally used forces and/or energy conditions of ferro-particle capture.

  15. Cryo-electron microscopy--a primer for the non-microscopist.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jacqueline L S; Borgnia, Mario J; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Tran, Erin E H; Earl, Lesley A; Schauder, David M; Lengyel, Jeffrey; Pierson, Jason; Patwardhan, Ardan; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly becoming a mainstream technology for studying the architecture of cells, viruses and protein assemblies at molecular resolution. Recent developments in microscope design and imaging hardware, paired with enhanced image processing and automation capabilities, are poised to further advance the effectiveness of cryo-EM methods. These developments promise to increase the speed and extent of automation, and to improve the resolutions that may be achieved, making this technology useful to determine a wide variety of biological structures. Additionally, established modalities for structure determination, such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are being routinely integrated with cryo-EM density maps to achieve atomic-resolution models of complex, dynamic molecular assemblies. In this review, which is directed towards readers who are not experts in cryo-EM methodology, we provide an overview of emerging themes in the application of this technology to investigate diverse questions in biology and medicine. We discuss the ways in which these methods are being used to study structures of macromolecular assemblies that range in size from whole cells to small proteins. Finally, we include a description of how the structural information obtained by cryo-EM is deposited and archived in a publicly accessible database. PMID:23181775

  16. Cryo-electron microscopy: A primer for the non-microscopist

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Jacqueline L. S.; Borgnia, Mario J.; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Tran, Erin E. H.; Earl, Lesley A.; Schauder, David M.; Lengyel, Jeffrey; Pierson, Jason; Patwardhan, Ardan; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is increasingly becoming a mainstream technology for studying the architecture of cells, viruses and protein assemblies at molecular resolution. Recent developments in microscope design and imaging hardware, paired with enhanced image processing and automation capabilities, appear poised to further advance the effectiveness of cryo-EM methods. These developments promise to increase the speed and extent of automation and to improve the resolutions that can be achieved, rendering this technology capable of determining a wide variety of biological structures. Additionally, established modalities for structure determination, such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are being routinely integrated with cryo-EM density maps to achieve atomic-resolution models of complex, dynamic molecular assemblies. In this review, which is directed towards readers who are not experts in cryo-EM methodology, we provide an overview of emerging themes in the application of this technology to the investigation of diverse questions in biology and medicine. We discuss the ways in which these methods are being used to study structures of macromolecular assemblies that range in size from whole cells to small proteins. Finally, we include a description of how the structural information obtained by cryo-EM is deposited and archived in a publicly accessible database. PMID:23181775

  17. Cryo-planing of frozen-hydrated samples using cryo triple ion gun milling (CryoTIGM™).

    PubMed

    Chang, Irene Y T; Joester, Derk

    2015-12-01

    Cryo-SEM is a high throughput technique for imaging biological ultrastructure in its most pristine state, i.e. without chemical fixation, embedding, or drying. Freeze fracture is routinely used to prepare internal surfaces for cryo-SEM imaging. However, the propagation of the fracture plane is highly dependent on sample properties, and the resulting surface frequently shows substantial topography, which can complicate image analysis and interpretation. We have developed a broad ion beam milling technique, called cryogenic triple ion gun milling (CryoTIGM™ ['krī-ə-,tīm]), for cryo-planing frozen-hydrated biological specimens. Comparing sample preparation by CryoTIGM™ and freeze fracture in three model systems, Baker's yeast, mouse liver tissue, and whole sea urchin embryos, we find that CryoTIGM™ yields very large (∼700,000 μm(2)) and smooth sections that present ultrastructural details at similar or better quality than freeze-fractured samples. A particular strength of CryoTIGM™ is the ability to section samples with hard-soft contrast such as brittle calcite (CaCO3) spicules in the sea urchin embryo. PMID:26549007

  18. Conformable Tile Method of Applying CryoCoat™ UL79 Insulation to Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Will; Tupper, Mike; Harrison, Stephen

    2004-06-01

    A procedure for fabricating, forming, and bonding thin tiles of CryoCoat™ UL79 cryogenic insulation, a syntactic foam material, to a large curved surface was developed and its performance was verified. This effort was undertaken because of safety concerns for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 02 (AMS-02) experiment, a space-based particle physics detector designed to search for antimatter, dark matter and the origin of cosmic rays in space. The key component of the detector is a large superconducting magnet, cooled to 1.8 K by superfluid helium. From ground safety and flight safety considerations, the system must be safe in the event of a sudden catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum. Previous testing showed that a thin layer of CryoCoat™ UL79 reduces the heat flux in the event of vacuum loss by nearly a factor of eight, which satisfies the safety concern. A practical method of applying a uniform 3 mm layer of CryoCoat™ UL79 insulation material to the helium vessel containing the superconducting magnet was developed for this requirement. The fabrication procedure was validated through application of CryoCoat™ UL79 on a prototype helium tank, which was subsequently tested at cryogenic temperatures. Because of these successful tests, NASA has accepted the conformable tile method for applying CryoCoat™ UL79 and has agreed that AMS-02 is safe to fly.

  19. Particle capture efficiency in a multi-wire model for high gradient magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenträger, Almut; Vella, Dominic; Griffiths, Ian M.

    2014-07-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is an efficient way to remove magnetic and paramagnetic particles, such as heavy metals, from waste water. As the suspension flows through a magnetized filter mesh, high magnetic gradients around the wires attract and capture the particles removing them from the fluid. We model such a system by considering the motion of a paramagnetic tracer particle through a periodic array of magnetized cylinders. We show that there is a critical Mason number (ratio of viscous to magnetic forces) below which the particle is captured irrespective of its initial position in the array. Above this threshold, particle capture is only partially successful and depends on the particle's entry position. We determine the relationship between the critical Mason number and the system geometry using numerical and asymptotic calculations. If a capture efficiency below 100% is sufficient, our results demonstrate how operating the HGMS system above the critical Mason number but with multiple separation cycles may increase efficiency.

  20. A smart fully integrated micromachined separator with soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays for cell isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Zhang, Yulong; Egeland, Eirik B.; Gu, Dan D.; Calabrese, Paolo; Kapiris, Matteo J.; Karlsen, Frank; Minh, Nhut T.; Wang, K.; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2010-11-01

    A smart fully integrated micromachined separator with soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays has been developed and demonstrated, which can merely employ one independent lab-on-chip to realize cell isolation. The simulation, design, microfabrication and test for the new electromagnetic micro separator were executed. The simulation results of the electromagnetic field in the separator show that special soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays can amplify and redistribute the electromagnetic field generated by the micro-coils. The separator can be equipped with a strong magnetic field to isolate the target cells with a considerably low input current. The micro separator was fabricated by micro-processing technology. An electroplating bath was hired to deposit NiCo/NiFe to fabricate the micro-pillar arrays. An experimental system was set up to verify the function of the micro separator by isolating the lymphocytes, in which the human whole blood mixed with Dynabeads® FlowComp Flexi and monoclonal antibody MHCD2704 was used as the sample. The results show that the electromagnetic micro separator with an extremely low input current can recognize and capture the target lymphocytes with a high efficiency, the separation ratio reaching more than 90% at a lower flow rate. For the electromagnetic micro separator, there is no external magnetizing field required, and there is no extra cooling system because there is less Joule heat generated due to the lower current. The magnetic separator is totally reusable, and it can be used to separate cells or proteins with common antigens.

  1. Elastic oscillations of bubbles separated from an air cavity in a magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polunin, V. M.; Shabanova, I. A.; Karpova, G. V.; Kobelev, N. S.; Ryabtsev, K. S.; Platonov, V. B.; Aref'ev, I. M.

    2015-07-01

    The elastic oscillations of air bubbles separated from an air cavity compressed by the ponderomotive forces of a magnetic field in a magnetic fluid are accompanied by the appearance of an alternating magnetic field component. The frequency of the alternating component corresponds to the frequency of radial bubble oscillations, and this fact is used to determine the bubble size. A great body of experimental data has been obtained from six magnetic fluid samples with different viscosities. Based on these data, histograms illustrating the bubble radius distribution are plotted. The appearance of the alternating magnetic field component caused by bubble oscillations in a magnetized magnetic fluid can be used to develop a fundamentally new method for supplying small metered gas shots to a reactor, as well as to study the boiling process in a magnetic fluid.

  2. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP-AA). They were grown in Sueoka's modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed "magnetic deposition microscopy", or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest.

  3. Biomedical applications of high gradient magnetic separation: progress towards therapeutic haeomofiltration.

    PubMed

    Frodsham, George; Pankhurst, Quentin A

    2015-10-01

    High gradient magnetic separation is a well-established technology in the mineral processing industry, and has been used for decades in the bioprocessing industry. Less well known is the increasing role that high gradient magnetic separation is playing in biomedical applications, for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We review here the state of the art in this emerging field, with a focus on therapeutic haemofiltration, the key enabling technologies relating to the functionalisation of magnetic nanoparticles with target-specific binding agents, and the development of extra-corporeal circuits to enable the in situ filtering of human blood. PMID:26439594

  4. High Temperature Superconducting Reciprocating Magnetic Separator Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Maguire

    2008-06-05

    In 2001, under DOE's Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI), E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Dupont) was awarded a cost-share contract to build a fully functional full-scale model high temperature superconducting reciprocating magnet unit specifically designed for the koalin clay industry. After competitive bidding, American Superconductor (AMSC) was selected to provide the coil for the magnet. Dupont performed the statement of work until September 2004, when it stopped work, with the concurrence of DOE, due to lack of federal funds. DOE had paid all invoices to that point, and Dupont had provided all cost share. At this same time, Dupont determined that this program did not fit with its corporate strategies and notified DOE that it was not interesting in resuming the program when funding became available. AMSC expressed interest in assuming performance of the Agreement to Dupont and DOE, and in March 2005, this project was transferred to AMSC by DOE amendment to the original contract and Novation Agreement between AMSC and Dupont. Design drawings and some hardware components and subassemblies were transferred to AMSC. However, no funding was obligated by DOE and AMSC never performed work on the project. This report contains a summary of the work performed by Dupont up to the September 04 timeframe.

  5. Removal of freshwater microalgae by a magnetic separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergini, Sofia S.; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Some species of microalgae, with high growth rate and high lipid content, appear to be attractive alternatives as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The high-energy input for harvesting biomass and removing the water from the algae makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production cost expensive. The major techniques currently employed in microalgae harvesting and recovery include centrifugation, coagulation-flocculation, bio-flocculation, filtration and screening, gravity sedimentation, and flotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the harvesting of microalgae cells by coagulation using magnetic activated carbon, magnetite (FeO4) nanoparticles, and common chemical coagulants. Scenedesmus rubescens was selected and cultivated in 10 L flasks under continuous artificial light. Samples were taken at different operation intervals. Jar tests were conducted to investigate the effect of adsorption of microalgae on the magnetic material. The removal efficiency of microalgae was affected by the coagulants dose, stirring time and speed, and the initial microalgae concentration. The recovery of microalgae was greater in cultures with high initial microalgae concentration compared to cultures with low microalgae concentrations.

  6. Versatile fabrication of magnetic carbon fiber aerogel applied for bidirectional oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhu, Xiaotao; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Li, Peilong; Zhang, Zhaozhu

    2015-09-01

    Fabricating functional materials that can solve environmental problems resulting from oil or organic solvent pollution is highly desired. However, expensive materials or complicated procedures and unidirectional oil-water separation hamper their applications. Herein, a magnetic superhydrophobic carbon fiber aerogel with high absorption capacity was developed by one-step pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3-coated cotton in an argon atmosphere. The obtained aerogel can selectively collect oils from oil-polluted region by a magnet bar owing to its magnetic properties and achieves fast oil-water separation for its superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. Furthermore, the aerogel performs recyclable oil absorption capacity even after ten cycles of oil-water separation and bears organic solvent immersion. Importantly, the obtained aerogel turns to superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic after thermal treatment, allowing it as a promising and efficient material for bidirectional oil-water separation and organic contaminants removal.

  7. Cr-polluted soil studied by high gradient magnetic separation and electron probe

    SciTech Connect

    Rikers, R.A.; Voncken, J.H.L.; Dalmijn, W.L.

    1998-12-01

    An Fe-rich soil from the site of a former leather tannery, heavily polluted with Cr, was studied using a combination of wet chemical analysis, high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). It is demonstrated that such a combination is a powerful tool for the characterization of polluted soils, especially in cases where the pollution is present as discrete particles. Both EPMA and magnetic separation data indicated that the Cr pollution was present as a hydrous Cr-oxide phase. The Cr does not correlate with the Fe minerals, most likely as a result of the initial high Cr concentrations in the soil, which lead to precipitation of separate hydrous Cr-oxide minerals and Fe minerals. The Cr-containing material is present as (layered) aggregates, which are formed around larger quartz grains or around very small other particles that served as precipitation nuclei. Magnetic separation tests show that the Cr pollution can largely be removed by HGMS.

  8. Magnetic two-dimensional molecularly imprinted materials for the recognition and separation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhang, Jingjing; Kong, Jie

    2015-12-23

    Surface molecular imprinting for proteins is an emerging cross-field of molecular imprinting engineering and functional materials. In this contribution, we report a novel design of magnetic two-dimensional molecularly imprinted polymers (2D-MIPs) for the high recognition and separation of proteins. Bovine serum albumin-surface-imprinted polydopamines were prepared on the surfaces of the magnetic Fe3O4-graphene oxide hybrid to form magnetic 2D-MIPs for proteins. The 2D Fe3O4-graphene oxide substrate possesses a dominant surface-to-volume ratio in comparison to 3D spherical substrates with the same volume. These materials are sensitive to a magnetic field and can be easily separated using an external magnet. The binding experimental results of bovine serum albumin on magnetic 2D-MIPs and real sample analysis demonstrated the high recognition specificity, selectivity, accessibility and convenient separation of 2D-MIPs for template protein. The design and synthesis of magnetic 2D-MIPs provide a new perspective for the surface molecularly imprinted materials with potential in the recognition and separation of proteins. PMID:26388494

  9. Cryo-electron tomography of bacterial viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Wright, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-05

    Bacteriophage particles contain both simple and complex macromolecular assemblages and machines that enable them to regulate the infection process under diverse environmental conditions with a broad range of bacterial hosts. Recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) make it possible to observe the interactions of bacteriophages with their host cells under native-state conditions at unprecedented resolution and in three-dimensions. This review describes the application of cryo-ET to studies of bacteriophage attachment, genome ejection, assembly and egress. Current topics of investigation and future directions in the field are also discussed.

  10. Circular Halbach array for fast magnetic separation of hyaluronan-expressing tissue progenitors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Powrnima; Williams, P Stephen; Moore, Lee R; Caralla, Tonya; Boehm, Cynthia; Muschler, George; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-10-01

    Connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) are a promising therapeutic agent for bone repair. Hyaluronan, a high molecular mass glycosaminoglycan, has been shown by us to be a suitable biomarker for magnetic separation of CTPs from bone marrow aspirates in a canine model. For the therapy to be applicable in humans, the magnetic separation process requires scale-up without compromising the viability of the cells. The scaled-up device presented here utilizes a circular Halbach array of diametrically magnetized, cylindrical permanent magnets. This allows precise control of the magnetic field gradient driving the separation, with theoretical analysis favoring a hexapole field. The separation vessel has the external diameter of a 50 mL conical centrifuge tube and has an internal rod that excludes cells from around the central axis. The magnet and separation vessel (collectively dubbed the hexapole magnet separator or HMS) was tested on four human and four canine bone marrow aspirates. Each CTP-enriched cell product was tested using cell culture bioassays as surrogates for in vivo engraftment quality. The magnetically enriched cell fractions showed statistically significant, superior performance compared to the unenriched and depleted cell fractions for all parameters tested, including CTP prevalence (CTPs per 10(6) nucleated cells), proliferation by colony forming unit (CFU) counts, and differentiation by staining for the presence of osteogenic and chondrogenic cells. The simplicity and speed of the HMS operation could allow both CTP isolation and engraftment during a single surgical procedure, minimizing trauma to patients and lowering cost to health care providers. PMID:26368657

  11. Metalizing reduction and magnetic separation of vanadium titano-magnetite based on hot briquetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuang-yin; Chu, Man-sheng

    2014-03-01

    To achieve high efficiency utilization of Panzhihua vanadium titano-magnetite, a new process of metalizing reduction and magnetic separation based on hot briquetting is proposed, and factors that affect the cold strength of the hot-briquetting products and the efficiency of reduction and magnetic separation are successively investigated through laboratory experiments. The relevant mechanisms are elucidated on the basis of microstructural observations. Experimental results show that the optimal process parameters for hot briquetting include a hot briquetting temperature of 475°C, a carbon ratio of 1.2, ore and coal particle sizes of less than 74 μm. Additionally, with respect to metalizing reduction and magnetic separation, the rational parameters include a magnetic field intensity of 50 mT, a reduction temperature of 1350°C, a reduction time of 60 min, and a carbon ratio of 1.2. Under these above conditions, the crushing strength of the hot-briquetting agglomerates is 1480 N, and the recovery ratios of iron, vanadium, and titanium are as high as 91.19%, 61.82%, and 85.31%, respectively. The new process of metalizing reduction and magnetic separation based on hot briquetting demonstrates the evident technological advantages of high efficiency separation of iron from other valuable elements in the vanadium titano-magnetite.

  12. Ferronickel enrichment by fine particle reduction and magnetic separation from nickel laterite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Run-zao; Yao, Li; Ji, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Yan-ting; Li, Shi-qi

    2014-10-01

    Ferronickel enrichment and extraction from nickel laterite ore were studied through reduction and magnetic separation. Reduction experiments were performed using hydrogen and carbon monoxide as reductants at different temperatures (700-1000°C). Magnetic separation of the reduced products was conducted using a SLon-100 cycle pulsating magnetic separator (1.2 T). Composition analysis indicates that the nickel laterite ore contains a total iron content of 22.50wt% and a total nickel content of 1.91wt%. Its mineral composition mainly consists of serpentine, hortonolite, and goethite. During the reduction process, the grade of nickel and iron in the products increases with increasing reduction temperature. Although a higher temperature is more favorable for reduction, the temperature exceeding 1000°C results in sintering of the products, preventing magnetic separation. After magnetic separation, the maximum total nickel and iron concentrations are 5.43wt% and 56.86wt%, and the corresponding recovery rates are 84.38% and 53.76%, respectively.

  13. Optimisation of magnetic separation: a case study for soil washing at a heavy metals polluted site.

    PubMed

    Sierra, C; Martínez-Blanco, D; Blanco, Jesús A; Gallego, J R

    2014-07-01

    Sandy loam soil polluted with heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb and Zn) from an ancient Mediterranean Pb mining and metallurgy site was treated by means of wet high-intensity magnetic separation to remove some of the pollutants therein. The treated fractions were chemically analysed and then subjected to magnetic characterisation, which determined the high-field specific (mass), magnetic susceptibility (κ) and the specific (mass) saturation magnetisation (σS), through isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) curves. From the specific values of κ and σS, a new expression to assess the performance of the magnetic separation operation was formulated and verified by comparison with the results obtained by traditional chemical analysis. The magnetic study provided valuable information for the exhaustive explanation of the operation, and the deduced mathematical expression was found to be appropriate to estimate the performance of the separation operation. From these results we determined that magnetic soil washing was effective for the treatment of the contaminated soil, concentrating the majority of the heavy metals and peaking its separation capacity at 60% of the maximum output voltage. PMID:24418067

  14. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  15. Effect of desliming on the magnetic separation of low-grade ferruginous manganese ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Banerjee, P. K.; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-07-01

    In the present investigation, magnetic separation studies using an induced roll magnetic separator were conducted to beneficiate low-grade ferruginous manganese ore. The feed ore was assayed to contain 22.4% Mn and 35.9% SiO2, with a manganese-to-iron mass ratio (Mn:Fe ratio) of 1.6. This ore was characterized in detail using different techniques, including quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that the ore is extremely siliceous in nature and that the associated gangue minerals are more or less evenly distributed in almost all of the size fractions in major proportion. Magnetic separation studies were conducted on both the as-received ore fines and the classified fines to enrich their manganese content and Mn:Fe ratio. The results indicated that the efficiency of separation for deslimed fines was better than that for the treated unclassified bulk sample. On the basis of these results, we proposed a process flow sheet for the beneficiation of low-grade manganese ore fines using a Floatex density separator as a pre-concentrator followed by two-stage magnetic separation. The overall recovery of manganese in the final product from the proposed flow sheet is 44.7% with an assay value of 45.8% and the Mn:Fe ratio of 3.1.

  16. Setting up High Gradient Magnetic Separation for combating eutrophication of inland waters.

    PubMed

    Merino-Martos, A; de Vicente, J; Cruz-Pizarro, L; de Vicente, I

    2011-02-28

    To find new approaches to devise technologies for handling with eutrophication of inland waters is a global challenge. Separation of the P from water under conditions of continuous flow is proposed as an alternative and effective method. This work is based on using highly magnetic particles as the seeding adsorbent material and their later removal from solution by High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS). Contrast to other methods based on batch conditions, large volumes of water can be easily handled by HGMS because of decreasing retention times. This study identifies the best working conditions for removing P from solution by investigating the effects of a set of four different experimental variables: sonication time, flow rate (as it determines the retention time of particles in the magnetic field), magnetic field strength and the iron (Fe) particles/P concentration ratio. Additionally, the change of P removal efficiency with time (build up effect) and the possibility of reusing magnetic particles were also studied. Our results evidenced that while flow rate does not significantly affect P removal efficiency in the range 0.08-0.36 mL s(-1), sonication time, magnetic field strength and the Fe particles/P concentration ratio are the main factors controlling magnetic separation process. PMID:21255924

  17. Separating the ferromagnetic and glassy behavior within the metal-organic magnet Ni (TCNQ) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlie, Adam; Terry, Ian; Szablewski, Marek; Giblin, Sean R.

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth study of the metal-organic magnet Ni (TCNQ) 2 was conducted where the deuterated form was synthesised both to attempt to alter the magnetic properties of the material and to be advantageous in techniques such as neutron scattering and muon spectroscopy. Deuteration saw a 3 K increase in TC with magnetization and heat capacity measurements demonstrating a spin wave contribution at low temperatures confirming the 3D nature of the ferromagnetic state shown by Ni (TCNQ-D4)2 . AC susceptibility results suggest there is a glassy component associated with the magnetically ordered state, though muon spectroscopy measurements did not support the presence of a spin glass state. Instead muon spectroscopy at zero magnetic field indicated the presence of two magnetic transitions, one at 20 K and another below 6 K; the latter is likely due to the system entering a quasistatic regime, similar to what one might expect of a superspin or cluster glass. Neutron diffraction measurements further supported this by revealing very weak magnetic Bragg peaks suggesting that the magnetism may have a short coherence length and be confined to small grains or clusters. The separation of the ferromagnetic and glassy magnetic components of the material's properties suggest that this system may show promise as a metal-organic magnet which is easily modified to change its magnetic properties, providing larger grain sizes can be synthesized.

  18. An efficient resolution of racemic secondary alcohols on magnetically separable biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Li, Jun; Han, Difei; Zhang, Huidong; Liu, Peng; Li, Can

    2008-01-25

    The combination of magnetic nanoparticles and mesoporous silica can present a strategy for enzyme immobilization. In this work, magnetic siliceous mesocellular foam functionalized with octyl groups was prepared and used as support for lipase adsorption. Almost all the active lipases in crude enzyme solution were adsorbed by this magnetically separable, hydrophobic siliceous mesocellular foam. The resolution of 1-phenylethanol acylated with vinyl acetate can be achieved in 1.5h using the resultant magnetic biocatalyst, whereas only 30% conversion was obtained by using the free lipase under the identical reaction conditions. These results are probably due to the "interfacial adsorption" and "hyper-activation" of lipase on the hydrophobic surface of the magnetic siliceous mesocellular foam. Moreover, the biocatalyst entrapped in the nanopores of this foam can be recycled magnetically for at least seven times without significant loss of its activity and enantioselectivity. PMID:18021741

  19. Launch and Early Orbit Operations for CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardel, Nic; Marchese, Franco

    2010-12-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched from Baikonur on 8th of April 2010 aboard a modified Dnepr ICBM, the so-called SS18 Satan. Following the ascent and separation from the launch vehicle the Flight Operations Segment (FOS) in ESOC, Darmstadt started the operations to configure the satellite into the correct mode to acquire science; switching on units, configuring software and ensuring that the satellite health and performance was as expected. This paper will describe the operations performed by the FOS during the first weeks in orbit, including the unexpected problems encountered, their implications and solutions.

  20. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-02-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects—quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma—have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects.

  1. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects-quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma-have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects. PMID:26868084

  2. Ion separation due to magnetic field penetration into a multispecies plasma.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, A; Arad, R; Maron, Y; Fruchtman, A

    2001-09-10

    The magnetic field, the electron density, and the ion velocities in a multispecies plasma conducting a high fast-rising current are determined using simultaneous spectroscopic measurements. It is found that ion separation occurs in which a light-ion plasma is pushed ahead while a heavy-ion plasma lags behind the magnetic piston. We show that most of the momentum imparted by the magnetic field pressure is taken by the reflected light ions, and most of the dissipated magnetic field energy is converted into kinetic energy of these ions, even though their mass is only a small part of the total plasma mass. Such species separation with implications to the momenta and energy partitioning is shown to be of a general nature. PMID:11531532

  3. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects—quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma—have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects. PMID:26868084

  4. Magnetophoresis 'meets' viscoelasticity: deterministic separation of magnetic particles in a modular microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Francesco; Madadi, Hojjat; Villone, Massimiliano M; D'Avino, Gaetano; Cusano, Angela M; Vecchione, Raffaele; Ventre, Maurizio; Maffettone, Pier Luca; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-04-21

    The deflection of magnetic beads in a microfluidic channel through magnetophoresis can be improved if the particles are somehow focused along the same streamline in the device. We design and fabricate a microfluidic device made of two modules, each one performing a unit operation. A suspension of magnetic beads in a viscoelastic medium is fed to the first module, which is a straight rectangular-shaped channel. Here, the magnetic particles are focused by exploiting fluid viscoelasticity. Such a channel is one inlet of the second module, which is a H-shaped channel, where a buffer stream is injected in the second inlet. A permanent magnet is used to displace the magnetic beads from the original to the buffer stream. Experiments with a Newtonian suspending fluid, where no focusing occurs, are carried out for comparison. When viscoelastic focusing and magnetophoresis are combined, magnetic particles can be deterministically separated from the original streamflow to the buffer, thus leading to a high deflection efficiency (up to ~96%) in a wide range of flow rates. The effect of the focusing length on the deflection of particles is also investigated. Finally, the proposed modular device is tested to separate magnetic and non-magnetic beads. PMID:25732596

  5. Closed-loop magnetic separation of nanoparticles on a packed bed of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnet, Cécilia; Akouala, Mesferdon; Kuzhir, Pavel; Bossis, Georges; Zubarev, Andrey; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we consider magnetic separation of iron oxide nanoparticles when a nanoparticle suspension (diluted ferrofluid) passes through a closed-loop filter composed of a packed bed of micro-beads magnetized by an externally applied magnetic field. We show that the capture of nanoparticles of a size as small as 60 nm is easily achieved at low-to-moderate magnetic fields (16-32 kA/m) thanks to relatively strong magnetic interactions between them. The key parameter governing the capture process is the Mason number—the ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forces exerted to nanoparticles. The filter efficiency, Λ, defined through the ratio of the inlet-to-outlet concentration shows a power-law dependency on Mason number, Λ∝M a-0.83 , in the range of 102magnetic nanoparticles, followed by magnetic separation of the nanoparticles.

  6. Thinking out of the box for magnetic mineral separation using low temperature magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.; Taylor, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    One timeless challenge in rock magnetic studies, inclusive of paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism, is decomposing a sample's bulk magnetic behaviour into its individual magnetic mineral components. We present a method permitting to decompose the magnetic behavior of a bulk sample experimentally and at low temperature avoiding any ambiguities in data interpretation due to heating induced alteration. A single instrument is used to measure the temperature dependence of the remanent magnetization and to apply different steps of AF demagnetizations and thermal demagnetization. The experimental method is validated on synthetic mixtures of magnetite, hematite, goethite as well as on natural loess samples where the contributions of magnetite, goethite, hematite and maghemite are successfully isolated. The experimental protocol can be adapted to target other iron bearing minerals relevant to the rock or sediment under study. One limitation rests on the fact that the method is based on remanent magnetization. Consequently, a quantitative decomposition of absolute concentration of individual components remains unachievable without assumptions. Nonetheless, semi-quantitative magnetic mineral concentrations were determined on synthetic and natural loess/paleosol samples in order to validate and test the method as a semi-quantitative tool in environmental magnetism studies.

  7. Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Aziz; Kim, Dogyun; Kim, Jangyoul; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Myeongjin; Yun, Chongcheoul; Kim, Jongwon

    2014-01-29

    Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed.

  8. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting-water leaching followed by magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-04-30

    Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting-water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism. PMID:22333161

  9. Investigation for Magnetic Separation of Oxygen from Supercritical Air Near the Maxcondentherm Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, A.; Shiraishi, M.

    2004-06-01

    In an effort to develop a highly effective separation technology for oxygen operating in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) temperature range, the magnetic separation of oxygen from supercritical air was investigated using a laser holography interferometer. The experiment was carried out near the maxcondentherm (MC) point. For purposes of comparison, the same operation was carried out using supercritical nitrogen. Here, a neodymium magnet was used and the magnetic force was conducted into the experimental cell through a magnetic alloy rod. Density variation caused by the magnetic force was observed in this study. In the case of supercritical air, the density gradient was formed around the tip of the rod, whereas in the case of supercritical nitrogen, no density gradient was observed. This fact strongly suggested that oxygen was attracted by the magnetic force and highly condensed on the surface at the tip of the rod, leading us to suppose that it might be exploited in a new purification system of gaseous oxygen using magnetic force.

  10. Magnetic Separation-Assistant Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Inhibition for Highly Sensitive Probing of Nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ran; Liu, Qian; Hong, Zhangyong; Wang, He-Fang

    2015-12-15

    For the widely used "off-on" fluorescence (or phosphorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET or PRET) system, the separation of donors and acceptors species was vital for enhancing the sensitivity. To date, separation of free donors from FRET/PRET inhibition systems was somewhat not convenient, whereas separation of the target-induced far-between acceptors has hardly been reported yet. We presented here a novel magnetic separation-assistant fluorescence resonance energy transfer (MS-FRET) inhibition strategy for highly sensitive detection of nucleolin using Cy5.5-AS1411 as the donor and Fe3O4-polypyrrole core-shell (Fe3O4@PPY) nanoparticles as the NIR quenching acceptor. Due to hydrophobic interaction and π-π stacking of AS1411 and PPY, Cy5.5-AS1411 was bound onto the surface of Fe3O4@PPY, resulting in 90% of fluorescence quenching of Cy5.5-AS1411. Owing to the much stronger specific interaction of AS1411 and nucleolin, the presence of nucleolin could take Cy5.5-AS1411 apart from Fe3O4@PPY and restore the fluorescence of Cy5.5-AS1411. The superparamagnetism of Fe3O4@PPY enabled all separations and fluorescence measurements complete in the same quartz cell, and thus allowed the convenient but accurate comparison of the sensitivity and fluorescence recovery in the cases of separation or nonseparation. Compared to nonseparation FRET inhibition, the separation of free Cy5.5-AS1411 from Cy5.5-AS1411-Fe3O4@PPY solution (the first magnetic separation, MS-1) had as high as 25-fold enhancement of the sensitivity, whereas further separation of the nucleolin-inducing far-between Fe3O4@PPY from the FRET inhibition solution (the second magnetic separation, MS-2) could further enhance the sensitivity to 35-fold. Finally, the MS-FRET inhibition assay displayed the linear range of 0.625-27.5 μg L(-1) (8.1-359 pM) and detection limit of 0.04 μg L(-1) (0.05 pM) of nucleolin. The fluorescence intensity recovery (the percentage ratio of the final restoring fluorescence intensity to the quenched fluorescence intensity of Cy5.5-AS1411 solution by 0.09 g L(-1) Fe3O4@PPY) was enhanced from 36% (for nonseparation) to 56% (for two magnetic separations). This is the first accurate evaluation for the effect of separating donor/acceptor species on the FRET inhibition assay. PMID:26558409

  11. New High Performance Magnet Structures for Bead Based MolecularSeparation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, David

    2005-06-01

    New High Performance Magnet Structures for Bead Based Molecular Separation David Humphries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute Abstract High performance Hybrid magnetic separation technology is under continuing development at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for general laboratory and high throughput automated applications. This technology has broad applicability for molecular separation in genomics, proteomics and other areas. It s applicability ranges from large and small scale microtiter plate and flow separation processes to single molecule DNA manipulation. It is currently an enabling purification technology for very high throughput production sequencing at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute. This technology incorporates hybrid magnetic structures that combine linear permanent magnet material and ferromagnetic material to produce significantly higher fields and gradients than those of currently available commercial devices. These structures incorporate ferromagnetic poles that can be easily shaped to produce complex field distributions for specialized applications. The higher maximum fields and strong gradients of the hybrid structures result in greater holding forces on magnetized targets that are being processed as well as faster extraction. Current development versions of these magnet plates have exhibited fields in excess of 1.0 tesla and gradients approaching 1000.0 tesla/meter. Second generation Hybrid magnet plates have now been developed for both 384 and 96-well applications. This technology is currently being made available to industry through the Tech Transfer Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program and the by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC03-6SF00098 and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.

  12. High intensity magnetic separation for the clean-up of a site polluted by lead metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Sierra, C; Martínez, J; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Gallego, J R

    2013-03-15

    The industrial history in the district of Linares (Spain) has had a severe impact on soil quality. Here we examined soil contaminated by lead and other heavy metals in "La Cruz" site, a brownfield affected by metallurgical residues. Initially, the presence of contaminants mainly associated with the presence of lead slag fragments mixed with the soil was evaluated. The subsequent analysis showed a quasi-uniform distribution of the pollution irrespective of the grain-size fractions. This study was accompanied by a characterization of the lead slag behavior under the presence of a magnetic field. Two main magnetic components were detected: first a ferromagnetic and/or ferrimagnetic contribution, second a paramagnetic and/or antiferromagnetic one. It was also established that the slag was composed mainly of lead spherules and iron oxides embedded in a silicate matrix. Under these conditions, the capacity of magnetic separation to remove pollutants was examined. Therefore, two high intensity magnetic separators (dry and wet devices, respectively) were used. Dry separation proved to be successful at decontaminating soil in the first stages of a soil washing plant. In contrast, wet separation was found effective as a post-process for the finer fractions. PMID:23357508

  13. Separation and enrichment of enantiopure from racemic compounds using magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaochuan; Wong, Shin Yee; Bwambok, David K; Atkinson, Manza B J; Zhang, Xi; Whitesides, George M; Myerson, Allan S

    2014-07-18

    Crystallization of a solution with high enantiomeric excess can generate a mixture of crystals of the desired enantiomer and the racemic compound. Using a mixture of S-/RS-ibuprofen crystals as a model, we demonstrated that magnetic levitation (MagLev) is a useful technique for analysis, separation and enantioenrichment of chiral/racemic products. PMID:24875274

  14. APPLICATION OF HIGH-GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION TO FINE PARTICLE CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the potential use of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) as a means of collecting gas stream particulates. The assessment included both experiments and analyses of theoretical models. Phase I included evaluations of theoretical ex...

  15. Two-dimensional plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle: Separation due to electron inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Ahedo, Eduardo; Merino, Mario

    2012-08-15

    A previous axisymmetric model of the supersonic expansion of a collisionless, hot plasma in a divergent magnetic nozzle is extended here in order to include electron-inertia effects. Up to dominant order on all components of the electron velocity, electron momentum equations still reduce to three conservation laws. Electron inertia leads to outward electron separation from the magnetic streamtubes. The progressive plasma filling of the adjacent vacuum region is consistent with electron-inertia being part of finite electron Larmor radius effects, which increase downstream and eventually demagnetize the plasma. Current ambipolarity is not fulfilled and ion separation can be either outwards or inwards of magnetic streamtubes, depending on their magnetization. Electron separation penalizes slightly the plume efficiency and is larger for plasma beams injected with large pressure gradients. An alternative nonzero electron-inertia model [E. Hooper, J. Propul. Power 9, 757 (1993)] based on cold plasmas and current ambipolarity, which predicts inwards electron separation, is discussed critically. A possible competition of the gyroviscous force with electron-inertia effects is commented briefly.

  16. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Homan; Cho, Hong-Jun; Park, Sung-Jun; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Sehoon; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules. PMID:26599084

  17. Selection of a matrix for the recovery of uranium by wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, J.

    1985-05-30

    The concentration, by wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), of gold and uranium in materials resulting from the cyanidation of Witwatersrand ores was tested on an industrial scale on two South African gold mines, and the results are discussed in detail. The mechanical and metallurgical performance of the carousel magnetic separators was found to be satisfactory, but, for the large-scale application of WHIMS in the South African mining industry, a more cost-effective machine is required. It was decided that, in the present work, the information contained in several unpublished internal Mintek communications should be summarized and used as guidelines in the selection of matrices that would be suitable for the recovery of finely dispersed, weakly magnetic minerals.

  18. Magnetic separation of Dy(III) ions from homogeneous aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pulko, B. Yang, X.; Lei, Z.; Odenbach, S.; Eckert, K.

    2014-12-08

    The possibility to enrich paramagnetic dysprosium(III) ions in a magnetic field gradient is proved by means of interferometry, which may open the route for a magnetic separation of rare earth ions from aqueous solutions. The separation dynamics are studied for three different concentrations of DyCl{sub 3} and compared with those found recently in a sulphate solution of the 3d ion Mn(II). In view of the similar-sized hydration spheres for Dy(III) and Mn(II), the slower separation dynamics in DyCl{sub 3} is attributed to both a higher densification coefficient and the strong impact of Brownian motion due to the absence of ion-pair clusters.

  19. Effect of electric field and strain on the magnetic properties of phase separated manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Daniel M.

    Perovskite manganese oxide (manganites) have attracted research attention due to a wide variety of complex behaviors observed, including colossal responses to external perturbations. More recent work has focused on the competing ground states and the coexistence of magnetic and non-magnetic phases in manganites. Anisotropic resistance changes have been observed in high quality thin film manganites, possibly due to dielectrophoresis, upon application of an electric field. Dielectrophoresis is usually observed in fluid-like systems in an electric field but is surprisingly useful in explaining the transport properties of manganites due to the fluid-like behavior of competing phases. A main goal of this dissertation is to explore the role of magnetic interactions on the dielectrophoresis effects on ferromagnetic metallic regions in phase separated manganite thin films. The combined effect of electric and magnetic fields in these manganites could reveal a novel form of magnetoelectric effect. In one set of experiments, a magnetic field decreased the amount of time needed for the dielectrophoresis to lead to a large drop in the resistance along one direction, showing the importance of magnetic interactions in dielectrophoresis. In another set of experiments, breaking down the large resistance of a manganite sample produced a small change in coercive field, further confirming the relationship between electric and magnetic effects in manganites. However, the largest effect on the magnetic properties of the thin films was from confinement of the competing phases in micrometer scale structures fabricated on the thin films. Coercive field increases of about 100- 400% were observed in a certain range of film thicknesses. To analyze such behavior in manganites, high quality thin films of the phase-separated manganite (La1-xPrx)1-yCa yMnO3 (LPCMO) were grown on NdGaO3 (NGO) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Mangetotransport, magnetization, and scanning probe microscopy were used to characterize the thin films and measure the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the phase separated state. Photolithography was used to fabricate microstructures of manganites close to the length scale of phase separation.

  20. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~  p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  1. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  2. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    PubMed Central

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  3. Immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella with tailored magnetic micro and nanocarriers. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Delfina; Liébana, Susana; Campoy, Susana; Alegret, Salvador; Isabel Pividori, María

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses a comparative study of immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella using micro and nano-sized magnetic carriers. In this approach, nano (300 nm) and micro (2.8 μm) sized magnetic particles were modified with anti-Salmonella antibody to pre-concentrate the bacteria from the samples throughout an immunological reaction. The performance of the immunomagnetic separation on the different magnetic carriers was evaluated using classical culturing, confocal and scanning electron microscopy to study the binding pattern, as well as a magneto-actuated immunosensor with electrochemical read-out for the rapid detection of the bacteria in spiked milk samples. In this approach, a second polyclonal antibody labeled with peroxidase as electrochemical reporter was used. The magneto-actuated electrochemical immunosensor was able to clearly distinguish between food pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, showing a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 538 CFU mL(-1) and 291 CFU mL(-1) for magnetic micro and nanocarriers, respectively, in whole milk, although magnetic nanoparticles showed a noticeable higher matrix effect and higher agglomeration effect. These LODs were achieved in a total assay time of 1h without any previous culturing pre-enrichment step. If the samples were pre-enriched for 8 h, the magneto immunosensor based on the magnetic nanoparticles was able to detect as low as 1 CFU in 25 mL of milk (0.04 CFU mL(-1)). PMID:26078149

  4. Magnetic materials as sorbents for metal/metalloid preconcentration and/or separation. A review.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

    2013-07-30

    The use of magnetic materials in solid phase extraction has received considerable attention in recent years taking into account many advantages arising from the inherent characteristics of magnetic particles. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) methodology overcomes problems such as column packing and phase separation, which can be easily performed by applying an external magnetic field. The use of magnetic particles in automatic systems is growing over the last few years making the on-line operation of MSPE a promising technique in the frame of green chemistry. This article aims to provide all recent progress in the research of novel magnetic materials as sorbents for metal preconcentration and determination coupled with different detection systems as well as their implementation in sequential injection and microfluidic systems. In addition, a description of preparation, characterization as well as applications of various types of magnetic materials, either with organic or inorganic coating of the magnetic core, is presented. Concluding remarks and future trends are also commented. PMID:23856225

  5. Operational CryoSat Product Quality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannan, Rubinder; Webb, Erica; Hall, Amanda; Bouzinac, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    The performance and quality of the CryoSat data products are routinely assessed by the Instrument Data quality Evaluation and Analysis Service (IDEAS). This information is then conveyed to the scientific and user community in order to allow them to utilise CryoSat data with confidence. This paper presents details of the Quality Control (QC) activities performed for CryoSat products under the IDEAS contract. Details of the different QC procedures and tools deployed by IDEAS to assess the quality of operational data are presented. The latest updates to the Instrument Processing Facility (IPF) for the Fast Delivery Marine (FDM) products and the future update to Baseline-C are discussed.

  6. Isolation of Osteoprogenitors from Human Jaw Periosteal Cells: A Comparison of Two Magnetic Separation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Olbrich, Marcus; Rieger, Melanie; Reinert, Siegmar; Alexander, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Human jaw periosteum tissue contains osteoprogenitors that have potential for tissue engineering applications in oral and maxillofacial surgeries. To isolate osteoprogenitor cells from heterogeneous cell populations, we used the specific mesenchymal stem cell antigen-1 (MSCA-1) antibody and compared two magnetic separation methods. We analyzed the obtained MSCA-1+ and MSCA-1− fractions in terms of purity, yield of positive/negative cells and proliferative and mineralization potentials. The analysis of cell viability after separation revealed that the EasySep method yielded higher viability rates, whereas the flow cytometry results showed a higher purity for the MACS-separated cell fractions. The mineralization capacity of the osteogenic induced MSCA-1+ cells compared with the MSCA-1− controls using MACS was 5-fold higher, whereas the same comparison after EasySep showed no significant differences between both fractions. By analyzing cell proliferation, we detected a significant difference between the proliferative potential of the osteogenic cells versus untreated cells after the MACS and EasySep separations. The differentiated cells after MACS separation adjusted their proliferative capacity, whereas the EasySep-separated cells failed to do so. The protein expression analysis showed small differences between the two separation methods. Our findings suggest that MACS is a more suitable separation method to isolate osteoprogenitors from the entire jaw periosteal cell population. PMID:23094035

  7. Measuring Thermal Conductivity and Moisture Absorption of Cryo-Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    NASA is seeking to develop thermal insulation material systems suitable for withstanding both extremely high temperatures encountered during atmospheric re-entry heating and aero- braking maneuvers, as well as extremely low temperatures existing in liquid fuel storage tanks. Currently, materials used for the high temperature insulation or Thermal Protection System (TPS) are different from the low temperature, or cryogenic insulation. Dual purpose materials are necessary to the development of reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The present Space Shuttle (or Space Transportation System, STS) employs TPS materials on the orbiter and cryo-insulation materials on the large fuel tank slung under the orbiter. The expensive fuel tank is jettisoned just before orbit is achieved and it burns up while re-entering over the Indian Ocean. A truly completely reusable launch vehicle must store aR cryogenic fuel internally. The fuel tanks will be located close to the outer surface. In fact the outer skin of the craft will probably also serve as the fuel tank enclosure, as in jet airliners. During a normal launch the combined TPS/cryo-insulation system will serve only as a low temperature insulator, since aerodynamic heating is relatively minimal during ascent to orbit. During re-entry, the combined TPS/cryo-insulation system will serve only as a high temperature insulator, since all the cryogenic fuel will have been expended in orbit. However, in the event of an.aborted launch or a forced/emergency early re-entry, the tanks will still contain fuel, and the TPS/cryo-insulation will have to serve as both low and high temperature insulation. Also, on long duration missions, such as to Mars, very effective cryo-insulation materials are needed to reduce bod off of liquid propellants, thereby reducing necessary tankage volume, weight, and cost. The conventional approach to obtaining both low and high temperature insulation, such as is employed for the X-33 and X-34 spacecraft, is to use separate TPS and cryo-insulation materials, which are connected by means of adhesives or stand-offs (spacers). Three concepts are being considered: (1) the TPS is bonded directly to the cryo-insulation which, in turn, is bonded to the exterior of the tank, (2) stand-offs are used to make a gap between the TPS and the cryo-insulation, which is bonded externally to the tank, (3) TPS is applied directly or with stand-offs to the exterior so the tank, and cryo-insulation is applied directly to the interior of the tank. Many potential problems are inherent in these approaches. For example, mismatch between coefficients of thermal expansion of the TPS and cryo-insulation, as well as aerodynamic loads, could lead to failure of the bond. Internal cryo-insulation must be prevent from entering the sump of the fuel turbo-pump. The mechanical integrity of the stand-off structure (if used) must withstand multiple missions. During ground hold (i.e., prior to launch) moisture condensation must be minimized in the gap between the cryo-insulation and the TPS. The longer term solution requires the development of a single material to act as cryo- insulation during ground hold and as TPS during re-entry. Such a material minimizes complexity and weight while improving reliability and reducing cost.

  8. A Versatile High-Vacuum Cryo-transfer System for Cryo-microscopy and Analytics.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Sebastian; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nüsse, Harald; Wepf, Roger Albert; Klingauf, Jürgen; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2016-02-23

    Cryogenic microscopy methods have gained increasing popularity, as they offer an unaltered view on the architecture of biological specimens. As a prerequisite, samples must be handled under cryogenic conditions below their recrystallization temperature, and contamination during sample transfer and handling must be prevented. We present a high-vacuum cryo-transfer system that streamlines the entire handling of frozen-hydrated samples from the vitrification process to low temperature imaging for scanning transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A template for cryo-electron microscopy and multimodal cryo-imaging approaches with numerous sample transfer steps is presented. PMID:26910419

  9. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Johnson, Andrew; Tian, Guoxin; Jiang, Weilin; Rao, Linfeng; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

  10. Microchip electrophoresis coupled with on-line magnetic separation and chemiluminescence detection for multiplexed immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Zhao, Shulin; Shi, Ming; Liu, Jinwen; Liang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    A facile and universal strategy for multiplexed immunoassay is proposed. The strategy is based on microchip electrophoresis (MCE) coupled with on-line magnetic separation and chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The system consisted of a microchip, an electromagnet, and a photomultiplier. The realization of multiplexed immunoassay protocol involves sampling magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) labeled antibodies, N-(4-aminobutyl)-N-ethyl-isoluminol (ABEI) labeled antigens and free antigens in the precolumn reactor, on-line immunoreaction, capturing the MNPs-immunocomplexes, and the separation of unconjugated ABEI-labeled antigens. After on-line magnetic separation, the free ABEI-labeled antigens were transported into the separation channel, and mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase in the postcolumn reactor, and producing CL emission. Using this arrangement, multiple analytes could be measured simultaneously by performing the technical operations for a single assay. As a proof-of-concept, the multiplexed immunoassay was evaluated for the simultaneous determination of five model analytes (i.e. hydrocortisone, corticosterone, digoxin, testosterone, and estriol). The results exhibited excellent precision and sensitivity, the relative standard deviations for nine times detection were lower than 4.7% for all the five components, and the detection limits of five analytes were in the range of 3.6-4.9 nM. The MCE system was validated using two human serum-based control samples containing five analytes. PMID:22539323

  11. Separating Effect of a Novel Combined Magnetic Field on Inclusions in Molten Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yanjie; Li, Qiulin; Liu, Wei

    2012-10-01

    The feasibility and effectiveness of a novel combined magnetic field (CMF) on the removal of inclusions with a density smaller than the surrounding melt were investigated. The experiment of the separating effect of CMF was conducted on a laboratory-scale apparatus by the simultaneous application of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) and a downward traveling magnetic field (TMF). Primary silicon particles precipitating from the solidification process of Al-Si-Cu alloy were regarded as the inclusions in a molten aluminum alloy. It was found that a CMF consisting of both a RMF and a downward TMF was able to separate silicon particles from the molten Al-Si-Cu alloy by making these particles migrate vertically toward the upper part of the samples. Compared with downward TMF or RMF, CMF improved the separating effectiveness substantially. It was proposed that this type of CMF was approved to be highly effective at eliminating the inclusions with a density smaller than the surrounding molten alloy. A tentative mechanism for the high separating effect of CMF was discussed.

  12. On-chip micro-electromagnets for magnetic-based bio-molecules separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Qasem; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel; Yu, Chen

    2004-10-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive theoretical, finite element and measurement analysis of different designs of planar micro-electromagnets for bio-molecular manipulation. The magnetic field due to current flowing in complex shapes of current-carrying conductors have been calculated analytically, simulated using finite-element analysis (FEA), and measured using the superconducting quantum interference device technique (SQUID). A comparison of the theoretical and measured magnetic field strength and patterns is presented. The planar electromagnets have been fabricated using patterned Al 2 μm thick. The aim of the study is to explore and optimize the geometrical and structural parameters of planar electromagnets that give rise to the highest magnetic fields and forces for magnetic micro-beads manipulation. Magnetic beads are often used in biochemical assays for separation of bio-molecules. Typical beads are 0.2-10 μm in diameter and have superparamagnetic properties. Increasing the intensity of the magnetic field generated by a coil by injection a larger current is not the most suitable solution as the maximum current is limited by Joule heating. Consequently, in order to maximize the field for a given current, one should optimize the geometry of the coil, as this is an extremely significant factor in determining the magnetic field intensity in 2D planar designs. The theoretical and measured results of this work show that the meander micro-electromagnet with mesh-shaped winding profile produces the strongest magnetic field (about 2.7 μT for a current intensity of 6 mA) compared with other meander designs, such as the serpentine and rosette-shaped ones. The magnetic fields of these three types of meander-shaped micro-electromagnets were compared theoretically with that produced by a spiral micro-electromagnet whose technological realization is more complicated and costly due to the fact that it requires an additional insulation layer with a contact window and a second patterned metal layer as a via. Nevertheless, the spiral design produces a much stronger magnetic field up to five times larger than that of the mesh-shaped micro-electromagnet for the same current and electromagnet area. The measured results strongly agree with these conclusions resulted from the theoretical analysis. The results presented in this paper provide a solid and useful basis for the design of a micro-fluidic bio-molecule separation and detection system using magnetic fields and magnetic beads.

  13. Improved high gradient magnetic separation for the positive selection of human blood mononuclear cells using ordered wire filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A. J.; Thomas, T. E.; Roath, O. S.; Watson, J. H. C.; Smith, R. J. S.; Lansdorp, P. M.

    1993-04-01

    CD8 + lymphocytes, fresh and previously cryopreserved, from ficolled human peripheral blood have been enriched to 99% purity with 68% recovery. The CD8 + lymphocytes were labelled with colloidal, magnetisable, Dextran-Iron particles using Tetrameric Antibody complexes. The labelled cells were magnetically separated using High Gradient Magnetic Separation with novel, ordered filters.

  14. Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-06-19

    Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two (88)Sr(+) ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d(-3.0(4)) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law. PMID:24943952

  15. Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-06-01

    Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two 88Sr+ ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d-3.0(4) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law.

  16. Removal of malaria-infected red blood cells using magnetic cell separators: A computational study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongho; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.; Gandini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    High gradient magnetic field separators have been widely used in a variety of biological applications. Recently, the use of magnetic separators to remove malaria-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) from blood circulation in patients with severe malaria has been proposed in a dialysis-like treatment. The capture efficiency of this process depends on many interrelated design variables and constraints such as magnetic pole array pitch, chamber height, and flow rate. In this paper, we model the malaria-infected RBCs (pRBCs) as paramagnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. Trajectories of the infected cells are numerically calculated inside a micro-channel exposed to a periodic magnetic field gradient. First-order stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the trajectory of particles under periodic magnetic fields due to an array of wires are solved numerically using the 1st –5th order adaptive step Runge-Kutta solver. The numerical experiments show that in order to achieve a capture efficiency of 99% for the pRBCs it is required to have a longer length than 80 mm; this implies that in principle, using optimization techniques the length could be adjusted, i.e., shortened to achieve 99% capture efficiency of the pRBCs. PMID:22345827

  17. Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D.; Nunez, L.; Ziemer, M.D.; Pleune, T.T.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K{sub d}) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles.

  18. Combined performance of biochar sorption and magnetic separation processes for treatment of chromium-contained electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-ye; Tang, Yan-kui; Li, Kun; Mo, Ya-yuan; Li, Hao-feng; Gu, Zhan-qi

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic biochar was prepared with eucalyptus leaf residue remained after essential oil being extracted. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the capacity of the magnetic biochar to remove Cr (VI) from electroplating wastewater and to be separated by an external magnetic field. The results show that the initial solution pH plays an important role on both sorption and separation. The removal rates of Cr (VI), total Cr, Cu (II), and Ni (II) were 97.11%, 97.63%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The turbidity of the sorption-treated solution was reduced to 21.8NTU from 4075NTU after 10min magnetic separation. The study also confirms that the magnetic biochar still retains the original magnetic separation performance after the sorption process. PMID:25463783

  19. Multifunctional Microspheres Encoded with Upconverting Nanocrystals and Magnetic Nanoparticles for Rapid Separation and Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Dong, Chunhong; Su, Lin; Wang, Hanjie; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Huiquan; Liu, Junqing; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-13

    Immunoassays based on the downconversion target materials (organic dyes or quantum dots) lead to fairly strong spectral interference between the coded signal and reporter signal, which seriously affects the detection accuracy and hampers their applications. In this work, a new kind of upconverting nanocrystals encoded magnetic microspheres (UCNMMs) were designed and prepared successfully to solve the problem mentioned above. The UCNMMs were obtained by incorporating magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and upconverting nanocrystals with polystyrene microspheres. Due to that upconverting nanocrystals (UCNs) and reporter signals are excitated by near-infrared and UV/visible light separately, immunoassays based on UCNMMs do not occur optical spectral interferences. Furthermore, these new functionalized UCNMMs have excellent properties in binding biomolecules and fast separating, which would have large potential applications in multiplexed assays. PMID:26653130

  20. High efficiency X-band magnetically insulated line oscillator with a separate cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Song, Wei; Song, Zhimin; Sun, Jun; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua

    2010-04-01

    An X-band magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) with a separate cathode has been proposed in order to improve microwave output characteristics. The separate cathode consists of three parts with gradually decreased radii, which are divided by two deep grooves, and only partial cathode surfaces are allowed to emit electrons. In particle-in-cell simulation, high-power microwave with a power of 6.9 GW, frequency of 9.26 GHz, and efficiency of 20.6% is generated, compared with that of 12.2% obtained in a conventional cathode X-band MILO, and the power ratio of the output transverse-electromagnetic mode to transverse-magnetic (TM01) mode is increased from 4 to 27.

  1. Reduction of the magnetic signal from unbound magnetic markers for magnetic immunoassay without bound/free separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, A.; Kuma, H.; Saitoh, K.; Kandori, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Sugiura, Y.; Hamasaki, N.; Enpuku, K.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the effect of adding magnetic shielding and applying of a compensation field to reduce the magnetic signal from unbound free markers. When the initial immunoassay system was used without the additional shielding box, the signal intensity of the liquid markers normalized by the weight of the Fe3O4 was 1/2700 of the dried markers. By installing the additional shielding box, the reduction factor was improved to 1/10,000. We successfully reduced the magnetic signal of the liquid marker further by applying a compensation field. The magnetic signal of the free marker obtained by applying a compensation field of -18 nT was 1.4 mΦ0, which was close to the system noise level. Field compensation at the very local area just around the SQUID is sufficient for reducing of the magnetic signal from the free marker.

  2. Fluorescent and superparamagnetic hybrid quantum clusters for magnetic separation and imaging of cancer cells from blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgadas, C. V.; Sharma, Chandra P.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate here the generation of fluorescent superparamagnetic quantum clusters through a greener aqueous route by fusing highly fluorescent gold clusters with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. We conjugated transferrin onto the hybrid clusters to get cell accessibility and assessed their hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity. The ability of the clusters to selectively remove cancer cell lines (C6 glioma cells) from fluids including blood and the fluorescent imaging of the separated cells is demonstrated. The pattering of the clusters in response to an external magnetic field is also shown. Efficient cancer cell separation, imaging and magnetic pattering can be realized by the highly hemocompatible and noncytotoxic hybrid clusters reported here. It seems the probe has potential for further exploration in multimodal imaging of circulating cancer cells.We demonstrate here the generation of fluorescent superparamagnetic quantum clusters through a greener aqueous route by fusing highly fluorescent gold clusters with superparamagnetic nanoparticles. We conjugated transferrin onto the hybrid clusters to get cell accessibility and assessed their hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity. The ability of the clusters to selectively remove cancer cell lines (C6 glioma cells) from fluids including blood and the fluorescent imaging of the separated cells is demonstrated. The pattering of the clusters in response to an external magnetic field is also shown. Efficient cancer cell separation, imaging and magnetic pattering can be realized by the highly hemocompatible and noncytotoxic hybrid clusters reported here. It seems the probe has potential for further exploration in multimodal imaging of circulating cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: HRTEM, FTIR spectra, XRD of the samples and fluorescent microscope images are showed in supporting information in the order they discussed in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10900f

  3. Single-step synthesis and magnetic separation of graphene and carbon nanotubes in arc discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, O.; Levchenko, I.; Shashurin, A.; Raitses, Y.; Ostrikov, K.; Keidar, M.

    2010-10-01

    The unique properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes made them the most promising nanomaterials attracting enormous attention, due to the prospects for applications in various nanodevices, from nanoelectronics to sensors and energy conversion devices. Here we report on a novel deterministic, single-step approach to simultaneous production and magnetic separation of graphene flakes and carbon nanotubes in an arc discharge by splitting the high-temperature growth and low-temperature separation zones using a non-uniform magnetic field and tailor-designed catalyst alloy, and depositing nanotubes and graphene in different areas. Our results are very relevant to the development of commercially-viable, single-step production of bulk amounts of high-quality graphene.The unique properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes made them the most promising nanomaterials attracting enormous attention, due to the prospects for applications in various nanodevices, from nanoelectronics to sensors and energy conversion devices. Here we report on a novel deterministic, single-step approach to simultaneous production and magnetic separation of graphene flakes and carbon nanotubes in an arc discharge by splitting the high-temperature growth and low-temperature separation zones using a non-uniform magnetic field and tailor-designed catalyst alloy, and depositing nanotubes and graphene in different areas. Our results are very relevant to the development of commercially-viable, single-step production of bulk amounts of high-quality graphene. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the setup and process; details on the micro-Raman, TEM, SEM, AFM, and characterization of the carbon deposits in different collection areas; detailed description of the results obtained by micro-Raman, AFM and electron diffraction techniques. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00416b

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance in strongly phase separated manganite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandpal, Lalit M.; Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Gupta, Anurag; Awana, V. P. S.; Singh, H. K.

    2016-06-01

    The present study reports the impact of magnetic anisotropy (MA) on magnetotransport properties such as the magnetic transitions, magnetic liquid behavior, glass transition and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in epitaxial film (thickness 42 nm) of strongly phase separated manganite La5/8-yPryCa3/8MnO3 (y≈0.4). Angle dependent magnetization measurement confirms the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy with the magnetic easy axes aligned in the plane of the film and the magnetic hard axis along the normal to the film plane. The more prominent divergence between the zero filed cooled (ZFC) and field cooled warming (FCW) and the stronger hysteresis between the field cooled cooling (FCC) and FCW magnetization for H ∥ shows the weakening of the magnetic liquid along the magnetic hard axis. The peak at Tp≈42 K in FCW magnetization, which characterizes the onset of spin freezing shifts down to Tp≈18 K as the field direction is switched from the easy axes (H ∥) to the hard axis (H ⊥). The glass transition, which appears at Tg≈28 K for H ∥ disappears for H ⊥. The easy axis magnetization (M∣∣) appears to saturate around H~20 kOe, but the hard axis counterpart (M⊥) does not show such tendency even up to H=50 kOe. MA appears well above the ferromagnetic (FM) transition at T≈170 K, which is nearly the same as the Neel temperature (TN) of M⊥ - T . The temperature dependent resistivity measured at H=10 kOe applied along the easy axis (ρ|| - T) and the hard axis (ρ⊥ - T) shows insulator metal transition (IMT) at ≈106 K and ≈99 K in the cooling cycle, respectively. The large difference between ρ⊥ - T and ρ|| - T during the cooling cycle and in the vicinity of IMT results in huge AMR of ≈-142% and -115%. The observed properties have been explained in terms of the MA induced variation in the relative fraction of the coexisting magnetic phases.

  5. Tailored functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI, drug delivery, magnetic separation and immobilization of biosubstances.

    PubMed

    Hola, Katerina; Markova, Zdenka; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2015-11-01

    In this critical review, we outline various covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Tuning the surface chemistry and design of magnetic nanoparticles are described in relation to their applicability in advanced medical technologies and biotechnologies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, targeted drug delivery, magnetic separations and immobilizations of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, targeting agents and other biosubstances. We review synthetic strategies for the controlled preparation of IONPs modified with frequently used functional groups including amine, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups as well as the preparation of IONPs functionalized with other species, e.g., epoxy, thiol, alkane, azide, and alkyne groups. Three main coupling strategies for linking IONPs with active agents are presented: (i) chemical modification of amine groups on the surface of IONPs, (ii) chemical modification of bioactive substances (e.g. with fluorescent dyes), and (iii) the activation of carboxyl groups mainly for enzyme immobilization. Applications for drug delivery using click chemistry linking or biodegradable bonds are compared to non-covalent methods based on polymer modified condensed magnetic nanoclusters. Among many challenges, we highlight the specific surface engineering allowing both therapeutic and diagnostic applications (theranostics) of IONPs and magnetic/metallic hybrid nanostructures possessing a huge potential in biocatalysis, green chemistry, magnetic bioseparations and bioimaging. PMID:25689073

  6. Maximizing Capture Efficiency and Specificity of Magnetic Separation for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Foddai, Antonio; Elliott, Christopher T.; Grant, Irene R.

    2010-01-01

    In order to introduce specificity for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis prior to a phage amplification assay, various magnetic-separation approaches, involving either antibodies or peptides, were evaluated in terms of the efficiency of capture (expressed as a percentage) of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and the percentage of nonspecific binding by other Mycobacterium spp. A 50:50 mixture of MyOne Tosylactivated Dynabeads coated with the chemically synthesized M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific peptides biotinylated aMp3 and biotinylated aMptD (i.e., peptide-mediated magnetic separation [PMS]) proved to be the best magnetic-separation approach for achieving 85 to 100% capture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and minimal (<1%) nonspecific recovery of other Mycobacterium spp. (particularly if beads were blocked with 1% skim milk before use) from broth samples containing 103 to 104 CFU/ml. When PMS was coupled with a recently optimized phage amplification assay and used to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in 50-ml volumes of spiked milk, the mean 50% limit of detection (LOD50) was 14.4 PFU/50 ml of milk (equivalent to 0.3 PFU/ml). This PMS-phage assay represents a novel, rapid method for the detection and enumeration of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms in milk, and potentially other sample matrices, with results available within 48 h. PMID:20851966

  7. SERS-fluorescence joint spectral encoded magnetic nanoprobes for multiplex cancer cell separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Cui, Yiping

    2014-11-01

    A new kind of cancer cell separation method is demonstrated, using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence dual-encoded magnetic nanoprobes. The designed nanoprobes can realize SERS-fluorescence joint spectral encoding (SFJSE) and greatly improve the multiplexing ability. The nanoprobes have four main components, that is, the magnetic core, SERS generator, fluorescent agent, and targeting antibody. These components are assembled with a multi-layered structure to form the nanoprobes. Specifically, silica-coated magnetic nanobeads (MBs) are used as the inner core. Au core-Ag shell nanorods (Au@Ag NRs) are employed as the SERS generators and attached on the silica-coated MBs. After burying these Au@Ag NRs with another silica layer, CdTe quantum dots (QDs), that is, the fluorescent agent, are anchored onto the silica layer. Finally, antibodies are covalently linked to CdTe QDs. SFJSE is fulfilled by using different Raman molecules and QDs with different emission wavelengths. By utilizing four human cancer cell lines and one normal cell line as the model cells, the nanoprobes can specifically and simultaneously separate target cancer cells from the normal ones. This SFJSE-based method greatly facilitates the multiplex, rapid, and accurate cancer cell separation, and has a prosperous potential in high-throughput analysis and cancer diagnosis. PMID:24862088

  8. Cesium separation from contaminated milk using magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitantes.

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in 1986 contaminated vast regions of prime grazing land. Subsequently, milk produced in the region has been contaminated with small amounts of the long-lived fission product cesium-137, and the Ukraine is seeking to deploy a simple separation process that will remove the Cs and preserve the nutritional value of the milk. Tiny magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitanates (CST) have been manufactured and tested to this end. The results show that partitioning efficiency is optimized with low ratios of particle mass to volume. To achieve 90% Cs decontamination in a single-stage process, <3 g of magnetic CST per l milk is sufficient with a 30-min mixing time. A two-stage process would utilize <0.4 g/l per stage. The modeling of the magnetic CST system described herein can be achieved rather simply which is important for deployment in the affected Ukraine region.

  9. Separation of ferromagnetic components by analyzing the hysteresis loops of remanent magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosareva, L. R.; Utemov, E. V.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Kosarev, V. E.; Yasonov, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    The new method is suggested for separating ferromagnetic components in sediments through analyzing the coercivity spectra of the samples by the continuous wavelet transform with the Gaussian-based wavelet (MHAT). A total of 1056 samples of Lake Khuvsgul's sediments (Mongolia) are studied. At least four groups of magnetic components are identified based on the analysis of their magnetization and remagnetization curves. Almost all samples are found to contain two components of bacterial origin which are represented by the assemblages of the interacting single-domain grains and differ by the grain compositions (magnetite and greigite). The applicability of the magnetic data for diagnosing magnetotactic bacteria in sediments and building paleoecological and paleoclimatic reconstructions is demonstrated.

  10. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption. PMID:26069936

  11. Controlled synthesis of Fe3O4/ZIF-8 nanoparticles for magnetically separable nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Pang, Fei; He, Mingyuan; Ge, Jianping

    2015-04-27

    Fe3O4/ZIF-8 nanoparticles were synthesized through a room-temperature reaction between 2-methylimidazolate and zinc nitrate in the presence of Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The particle size, surface charge, and magnetic loading can be conveniently controlled by the dosage of Zn(NO3)2 and Fe3O4 nanocrystals. The as-prepared particles show both good thermal stability (stable to 550?C) and large surface area (1174?m(2) g(-1)). The nanoparticles also have a superparamagnetic response, so that they can strongly respond to an external field during magnetic separation and disperse back into the solution after withdrawal of the magnetic field. For the Knoevenagel reaction, which is catalyzed by alkaline active sites on external surface of catalyst, small Fe3O4/ZIF-8 nanoparticles show a higher catalytic activity. At the same time, the nanocatalysts can be continuously used in multiple catalytic reactions through magnetic separation, activation, and redispersion with little loss of activity. PMID:25766136

  12. Carboxyl modified magnetic nanoparticles coated open tubular column for capillary electrochromatographic separation of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Xiao, Xing; Chen, Jia; Jia, Li

    2015-09-11

    Carboxyl modified magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-COOH MNPs) coated open tubular (OT) columns were prepared for capillary electrochromatography. The Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coatings were constructed on the surface of positively charged poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified capillaries through electrostatic self-assembly approach. The as-prepared PDDA@Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coated OT columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electroosmotic flow measurement. The electrochromatographic characterization of the OT columns was evaluated by separation of amino acids, dipeptides and proteins. The influences of background solution pH, concentration, and organic modifier content on separation were investigated. The separation of these analytes was primarily based on the electrophoretic mechanism in combination with chromatographic mechanism. The Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coatings improved the separation resolution of these analytes due to their large surface area. Three variants of bovine serum albumin, two variants of β-lactoglobulin and nine glycoisoforms of ovalbumin were successfully separated. The relative standard deviations of migration times of analytes representing run-to-run, day-to-day and column-to-column were less than 4.3%. Furthermore, the feasibility of the PDDA@Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coated OT column was verified by successful separation of acidic proteins in egg white. PMID:26265004

  13. Conjugates of Magnetic Nanoparticle -- Actinide Specific Chelator for Radioactive Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Maninder Kaur; Huijin Zhang; Leigh Martin; Terry Todd; You Qiang

    2013-11-01

    A novel nanotechnology for the separation of radioactive waste that uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with actinide specific chelators (MNP-Che) is reviewed with a focus on design and process development. The MNP-Che separation process is an effective way of separating heat generating minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) from spent nuclear fuel solution to reduce the radiological hazard. It utilizes coated MNPs to selectively adsorb the contaminants onto their surfaces, after which the loaded particles are collected using a magnetic field. The MNP-Che conjugates can be recycled by stripping contaminates into a separate, smaller volume of solution, and then become the final waste form for disposal after reusing number of times. Due to the highly selective chelators, this remediation method could be both simple and versatile while allowing the valuable actinides to be recovered and recycled. Key issues standing in the way of large-scale application are stability of the conjugates and their dispersion in solution to maintain their unique properties, especially large surface area, of MNPs. With substantial research progress made on MNPs and their surface functionalization, as well as development of environmentally benign chelators, this method could become very flexible and cost-effective for recycling used fuel. Finally, the development of this nanotechnology is summarized and its future direction is discussed.

  14. Practical workflow for cryo focused-ion-beam milling of tissues and cells for cryo-TEM tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chyongere; Schmelzer, Thomas; Kishchenko, Gregory; Wagenknecht, Terence; Marko, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Vitreous freezing offers a way to study cells and tissue in a near-native state by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), which is important when structural information at the macromolecular level is required. Many cells -- especially those in tissue -- are too thick to study intact in the cryo-TEM. Cryo focused-ion-beam (cryo-FIB) milling is being used in a few laboratories to thin vitreously frozen specimens, thus avoiding the artifacts and difficulties of cryo-ultramicrotomy. However, the technique is challenging because of the need to avoid devitrification and frost accumulation during the entire process, from the initial step of freezing to the final step of loading the specimen into the cryo-TEM. We present a robust workflow that makes use of custom fixtures and devices that can be used for high-pressure-frozen bulk tissue samples as well as for samples frozen on TEM grids. PMID:24211822

  15. Synergistic Effect of Detection and Separation for Pathogen Using Magnetic Clusters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Kook-Han; Kang, Eun Sung; Jo, Geoncheol; Ahn, Se Young; Park, Seon Hwa; Kim, Sung Il; Mun, Saem; Baek, Kyuwon; Kim, Byeongyoon; Lee, Kwangyeol; Yun, Wan Soo; Kim, Yong Ho

    2016-01-20

    Early diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for treatment; therefore, selective and rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria is essential for human health. We report a strategy for highly selective detection and rapid separation of pathogenic microorganisms using magnetic nanoparticle clusters. Our approach to develop probes for pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, is based on a theoretically optimized model for the size of clustered magnetic nanoparticles. The clusters were modified to provide enhanced aqueous solubility and versatile conjugation sites for antibody immobilization. The clusters with the desired magnetic property were then prepared at critical micelle concentration (CMC) by evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). Two different types of target-specific antibodies for H- and O-antigens were incorporated on the cluster surface for selective binding to biological compartments of the flagella and cell body, respectively. For the two different specific binding properties, Salmonella were effectively captured with the O-antibody-coated polysorbate 80-coated magnetic nanoclusters (PCMNCs). The synergistic effect of combining selective targeting and the clustered magnetic probe leads to both selective and rapid detection of infectious pathogens. PMID:26710682

  16. Magnetic design and field optimization of a superferric dipole for the RISP fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Jo, H. C.; Kim, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The in-flight fragment separator of the Rare Isotope Science Project requires eight dipole magnets to produce a gap field of 1.7 T in a deflection sector of 30 degree with a 6-m central radius. If the beam-optics requirements are to be met, an integral field homogeneity of a few units (1 unit = 10-4) must be achieved. A superferric dipole magnet has been designed by using the Low-Temperature Superconducting wire NbTi and soft iron of grade SAE1010. The 3D magnetic design and field optimization have been performed using the Opera code. The length and the width of the air slots in the poles have been determined in an optimization process that considered not only the uniformity of the field in the straight section but also the field errors in the end regions. The field uniformity has also been studied for a range of operation of the dipole magnet from 0.4 T to 1.7 T. The magnetic design and field uniformity are discussed.

  17. Lipid-Based Immuno-Magnetic Separation of Archaea from a Mixed Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frickle, C. M.; Bailey, J.; Lloyd, K. G.; Shumaker, A.; Flood, B.

    2014-12-01

    Despite advancing techniques in microbiology, an estimated 98% of all microbial species on Earth have yet to be isolated in pure culture. Natural samples, once transferred to the lab, are commonly overgrown by "weed" species whose metabolic advantages enable them to monopolize available resources. Developing new methods for the isolation of thus-far uncultivable microorganisms would allow us to better understand their ecology, physiology and genetic potential. Physically separating target organisms from a mixed community is one approach that may allow enrichment and growth of the desired strain. Here we report on a novel method that uses known physiological variations between taxa, in this case membrane lipids, to segregate the desired organisms while keeping them alive and viable for reproduction. Magnetic antibodies bound to the molecule squalene, which is found in the cell membranes of certain archaea, but not bacteria, enable separation of archaea from bacteria in mixed samples. Viability of cells was tested by growing the separated fractions in batch culture. Efficacy and optimization of the antibody separation technique are being evaluated using qPCR and cell counts. Future work will apply this new separation technique to natural samples.

  18. A comparative analysis of the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods

    SciTech Connect

    Petitpas, G; Benard, P; Klebanoff, L E; Xiao, J; Aceves, S M

    2014-07-01

    While conventional low-pressure LH₂ dewars have existed for decades, advanced methods of cryogenic hydrogen storage have recently been developed. These advanced methods are cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage, which operate best in the temperature range 30–100 K. We present a comparative analysis of both approaches for cryogenic hydrogen storage, examining how pressure and/or sorbent materials are used to effectively increase onboard H₂ density and dormancy. We start by reviewing some basic aspects of LH₂ properties and conventional means of storing it. From there we describe the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods, and then explore the relationship between them, clarifying the materials science and physics of the two approaches in trying to solve the same hydrogen storage task (~5–8 kg H₂, typical of light duty vehicles). Assuming that the balance of plant and the available volume for the storage system in the vehicle are identical for both approaches, the comparison focuses on how the respective storage capacities, vessel weight and dormancy vary as a function of temperature, pressure and type of cryo-adsorption material (especially, powder MOF-5 and MIL-101). By performing a comparative analysis, we clarify the science of each approach individually, identify the regimes where the attributes of each can be maximized, elucidate the properties of these systems during refueling, and probe the possible benefits of a combined “hybrid” system with both cryo-adsorption and cryo-compression phenomena operating at the same time. In addition the relationships found between onboard H₂ capacity, pressure vessel and/or sorbent mass and dormancy as a function of rated pressure, type of sorbent material and fueling conditions are useful as general designing guidelines in future engineering efforts using these two hydrogen storage approaches.

  19. Selective recognition and separation of nucleosides using carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin functionalized hybrid magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Badruddoza, A Z M; Junwen, L; Hidajat, K; Uddin, M S

    2012-04-01

    A novel magnetic nanoadsorbent (CMCD-APTS-MNPs) containing the superparamagnetic and molecular recognition properties was synthesized by grafting carboxymethyl-?-cyclodextrin (CM-?-CD) on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysile (APTS) modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. The feasibility of using CMCD-APTS-MNPs as magnetic nanoadsorbent for selective adsorption of adenosine (A) and guanosine (G) based on inclusion and molecular recognition was demonstrated. The as-synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FTIR and TGA analyses. The effects of pH and initial nucleoside concentrations on the adsorption behavior were studied. The complexation of CMCD-APTS-MNPs with both nucleosides was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The CMCD-APTS-MNPs showed a higher adsorption ability and selectivity for G than A under identical experimental conditions, which results from the ability of selective binding and recognition of the immobilized CM-?-CD towards G. The driving force of the separation between G and A is through the different weak interaction with grafted CM-?-CD, i.e., hydrogen bond interaction, which is evidenced by different inclusion equilibrium constants and FTIR analyses of inclusion complexes between grafted cyclodextrin and the guest molecules. Our results indicated that this nanoadsorbent would be a promising tool for easy, fast and selective separation, analysis of nucleosides and nucleotides in biological samples. PMID:22177539

  20. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Cryo-worked Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinali, Livio; Tosti, Silvano; Pizzuto, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    For manufacturing the magnets of fusion machines pure copper of both high mechanical resistance and electrical conductivity is required. Though high purity copper guarantees high electrical conductivity, its mechanical properties may be not suitable for the applications in tokamaks. In this view, a new procedure developed for obtaining high purity copper with excellent mechanical strength is described in this work. Samples of oxygen free copper (OFC) have been worked by pressing in liquid nitrogen (77 K). It has been verified that the mechanical properties of the worked metal are strongly dependent on the strain rate. Very low strain rates permitted to attain values of tensile yield strength (550 MPa) significantly higher than those obtained by traditional cold-working at room temperature (450 MPa). The electrical conductivity of the cryo-worked Cu decreases with the tensile yield strength even though the hardest samples of tensile yield strength of 550 MPa exhibit still acceptable values of conductivity (about 94 % IACS at room temperature).

  1. Effect of microwave irradiation on selective heating behavior and magnetic separation characteristics of Panzhihua ilmenite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Chang, Xiaodong; Guo, Shenghui; Srinivasakannan, C.; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-05-01

    The influences of microwave irradiation on the surface characteristics of Panzhihua ilmenite were systematically investigated. The crystal structures, surface morphology and surface chemical functional groups of ilmenite were characterized before and after microwave irradiation and magnetic separation for different microwave treatment times by using various methods, such as XRD, SEM, and FT-IR, respectively. XRD analysis showed that the microwave treated ilmenite has the strongest peaks of phase more than that of raw samples, indicates that the crystalline compound of ilmenite increased with the microwave irradiation time. SEM analysis showed the micro-cracking appeared at many grain boundaries of ilmenite after being pretreated by microwave treatment. The separations of ilmenite from gangue minerals were completed and the micro-fissure within ilmenite minerals were also formed, which could be attributed to the microwave selective heating characteristics of the different minerals and compounds, and the thermal stresses were caused by the uniform heat rate disturbed under microwave irradiation. The mineral processing results showed that the magnetic separation characteristics and properties of microwave treated ilmenite samples were better than that of microwave untreated ilmenite samples. It was concluded that microwave irradiation can be applied effectively and efficiently to the irradiation processes of Panzhihua ilmenite.

  2. Three-dimensional modeling of a portable medical device for magnetic separation of particles from biological fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Bockenfeld, D.; Rempfer, D.; Kaminski, M. D.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2007-09-07

    A portable separator has been developed to quantitatively separate blood-borne magnetic spheres in potentially high-flow regimes for the human detoxification purpose. In the separator design, an array of biocompatible capillary tubing and magnetizable wires is immersed in an external magnetic field that is generated by two permanent magnets. The wires are magnetized and the high magnetic field gradient from the magnetized wires helps to collect blood-borne magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the blood flow. In this study, a 3D numerical model was created and the effect of tubing-wire configurations on the capture efficiency of the system was analyzed using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3{reg_sign}. The results showed that the configuration characterized by bi-directionally alternating wires and tubes was the best design with respect to the four starting configurations. Preliminary in vitro experiments verified the numerical predictions. The results helped us to optimize a prototype portable magnetic separator that is suitable for rapid sequestration of magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the human blood stream while accommodating necessary clinical boundary conditions.

  3. Rapid and selective separation for mixed proteins with thiol functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Thiol group functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Si-MNPs@SH) were synthesized for rapid and selective magnetic field-based separation of mixed proteins. The highest adsorption efficiencies of binary proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA; 66 kDa; pI = 4.65) and lysozyme (LYZ; 14.3 kDa; pI = 11) were shown at the pH values corresponding to their own pI in the single-component protein. In the mixed protein, however, the adsorption performance of BSA and LYZ by Si-MNPs@SH was governed not only by pH but also by the molecular weight of each protein in the mixed protein. PMID:22650609

  4. Calculating Separate Magnetic Free Energy Estimates for Active Regions Producing Multiple Flares: NOAA AR11158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, D. W.

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and generating magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager(HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, 2 M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on February 12th, 2011. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 Angstrom channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard SDO, we generate a separate energy estimate for each major flare using their respective unique subsets of stressed magnetic domains. This work is supported under contract SP02H3901R from Lockheed-Martin to MSU.

  5. Novel polydopamine imprinting layers coated magnetic carbon nanotubes for specific separation of lysozyme from egg white.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Lili; Hao, Yi; Cui, Xihui; Liu, Dechun; Zhang, Min; Tang, Yuhai

    2015-11-01

    Novel core-shell nanocomposites, consisting of magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) core surrounded by a thin polydopamine (PDA) imprinting shell for specific recognition of lysozyme (Lyz), were fabricated for the first time. The obtained products were characterized and the results showed that the PDA layer was successfully attached onto the surface of MCNTs and the corresponding thickness of imprinting layer was just about 10nm which could enable the template access the recognition cavities easily. The polymerization conditions and adsorption performance of the resultant nanomaterials were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the obtained imprinted polymers showed fast kinetic and high affinity towards Lyz and could be used to specifically separate Lyz from real egg white. In addition, the prepared materials had excellent stability and no obvious deterioration after five adsorption-regeneration cycles. Easy preparation, rapid separation, high binding capacity, and satisfactory selectivity for the template protein make this polymer attractive in biotechnology and biosensors. PMID:26452937

  6. Desulphurization of lignites by slow, fast, and flash pyrolysis and high intensity dry magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Koca, H.; Kockar, O.M.; Koca, S.

    2007-07-01

    Slow, fast and flash pyrolysis followed by high intensity dry magnetic (HIDM) separation experiments were conducted to obtain improved solid fuels. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in three different apparatus, and important parameters of processes, temperature, particle size, residence time and heating rate were studied to determine the optimum conditions. Desulphurization of lignites by flash pyrolysis is more successful than slow and fast pyrolysis. At optimum conditions of pyrolysis, up to 58.15, 60.24, and 62.31% sulphur reductions were obtained in slow, fast and flash pyrolysis, respectively. Char, obtained from the pyrolysis experiments, was further cleaned by a Permroll HIDM separator. Sulphur reduction enhanced up to 82.68, 84.40, and 86.55% in the char of slow, fast and flash pyrolysis, respectively.

  7. Synthesis of new type of Au-magnetic nanocomposite and application for protein separation thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Tao, Ling; Shen, Xiangchun

    2012-07-01

    We present a different strategy for synthesizing the Au-?-Fe2O3 bifunctional nanoparticle by using a larger (50 nm) Au nanoparticle as the core surrounded by smaller (10 nm) ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The synthesis of the composite nanoparticles is quite facile based on a simple redox process whereby Fe2+ is used to reduce Au3+. The morphology and composition of the product is measured by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. We demonstrate the utility of these as-prepared Au-?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles by showing they can be used to separate proteins in solution. For example, bovine serum is efficiently removed from an aqueous solution with the simple addition of the NPs and application of a small magnet. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is performed to evaluate the fidelity and efficiency of the protein separation procedure.

  8. AMSD Reaction Structure Cryo Deformation Test Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ron; Hraba, John; Thornton, Gary; Baker, Mark; Haight, Harlan; Hadaway, James; Blackwell, Lisa; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The method developed for measuring both in-plane & out-of-plane cryo deformations of AMSD reaction structures at the XRCF will be presented. For in-plane measurements, a theodolite is used to track the positions of several (up to ten) targets on the reaction structure. For out-of-plane measurements, the Leica ADM is used to measure the change in distance to several (up to ten) corner cubes attached to the reaction structure.

  9. Concentration of low-grade lignites by multi-stage processing (washing, semicoking, magnetic separation)

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, G.; Renda, D.; Dogan, Z.

    1999-07-01

    Tavanl-Omerler lignite deposit with a reserve of 264 million tons forms an important section of Turkish lignites. This lignitic coal was subjected to washing, semi-coking and magnetic separation so that the total sulphur and ash contents were reduced from 4.08 % to 1.27 and 15.64 % to 8.5 % respectively. The calorific value of the solid fuel was raised from 5030 Kcal/kg to 6727 Kcal/kg and the volatiles can also be used after sulphur removal. This process appears to be feasible as a clean coal production from the point of energy efficiency. A short economic analysis is also presented.

  10. Optimization of a dual capture element magnetic separator for the purification of high velocity water flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belounis, Abdallah; Mehasni, Rabia; Ouili, Mehdi; Feliachi, Mouloud; El-Hadi Latreche, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a magnetic separator based on the use of a cascade arrangement of two identical capture elements has been optimized and verified. Such a separator is intended for the separation of fine particles of iron from flowing water at high velocity. The optimization has concerned the search for the excitation current and the distance between the capture elements that permit the extraction of the particles from a water flow in a circular channel at an average velocity ufav = 1.05 m/s. For such optimization we have minimized the objective function that is the distance between the capture position of a particle initially situated at a specific position and the central point of the last capture element of the arrangement. To perform the minimization, we have applied the Tabu search method. To validate the obtained results experimental verification based on the control of the evolution of the captured particle buildup and the quantifying of the separated volume of particles was achieved. Contribution to the topical issue "Numelec 2015 - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  11. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  12. Formation and properties of magnetic chains for 100 nm nanoparticles used in separations of molecules and cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert J.; Hu, Wei; Fu, Cheryl Wong Po; Koh, Ai Leen; Gaster, Richard S.; Earhart, Christopher M.; Fu, Aihua; Heilshorn, Sarah C.; Sinclair, Robert; Wang, Shan X.

    2009-01-01

    Optical observations of 100 nm metallic magnetic nanoparticles are used to study their magnetic field induced self assembly. Chains with lengths of tens of microns are observed to form within minutes at nanoparticle concentrations of 1010 per mL. Chain rotation and magnetophoresis are readily observed, and SEM reveals that long chains are not simple single particle filaments. Similar chains are detected for several 100 nm commercial bio-separation nanoparticles. We demonstrate the staged magnetic condensation of different types of nanoparticles into composite structures and show that magnetic chains bind to immunomagnetically labeled cells, serving as temporary handles which allow novel magnetic cell manipulations. PMID:20161001

  13. Physical and Structural Studies on the Cryo-cooling of Insulin Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Reflection profiles were analyzed from microgravity-(mg) and earth-grown insulin crystals to measure mosaicity (h) and to reveal mosaic domain structure and composition. The effects of cryocooling on single and multi-domain crystals were compared. The effects of cryocooling on insulin structure were also re-examined. Microgravity crystals were larger, more homogeneous, and more perfect than earth crystals. Several mg crystals contained primarily a single mosaic domain with havg of 0.005deg. The earth crystals varied in quality and all contained multiple domains with havg of 0.031deg. Cryocooling caused a 43-fold increase in h for mg crystals (havg=0.217deg) and an %fold increase for earth crystals (havg=0.246deg). These results indicate that very well-ordered crystals are not completely protected from the stresses associated with cryocooling, especially when structural perturbations occur. However, there were differences in the reflection profiles. For multi-mosaic domain crystals, each domain individually broadened and separated from the other domains upon cryo-cooling. Cryo-cooling did not cause an increase in the number of domains. A crystal composed of a single domain retained this domain structure and the reflection profiles simply broadened. Therefore, an improved signal-to-noise ratio for each reflection was measured from cryo-cooled single domain crystals relative to cryo-cooled multi-domain crystals. This improved signal, along with the increase in crystal size, facilitated the measurement of the weaker high- resolution reflections. The observed broadening of reflection profiles indicates increased variation in unit cell dimensions which may be linked to cryo-cooling-associated structural changes and disorder.

  14. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

  15. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-07-20

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF MAGNETICALLY SEPARATED FERROUS CONCENTRATE BY SHREDDING: A PERFORMANCE TEST. TEST NO. 4.07, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of test runs in which ferrous product magnetically recovered from municipal waste was further shredded in a small (50 hp) hammermill to free attached or entrapped contaminant. A belt magnet was then used to separate metal from the liberated contamin...

  17. TREATMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION. ON-SITE TESTING WITH MOBILE PILOT PLANT TRAILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeded water treatment using a SALA high gradient magnetic separator pilot plant system was conducted on combined sewer overflows and raw sewage at SALA Magnetics in Cambridge, MA and at on-site locations in the Boston area. Special emphasis was placed on specific design and oper...

  18. Theoretical study of moving magnetic beads on an inclined plane and its application in the ratchet separation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Johnson, S.; Yang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    For first time, motion of a magnetic bead ascending an inclined surface is investigated. The translational and rotational velocities of magnetic beads traveling on an inclined plane in the creeping flow regime are studied. The governing equations considering lift force and magnetic torque are obtained. Rolling and slipping cases are studied in detail. It is shown that the lift force effect is critical for large values of sedimentation Reynolds number (Res) and negligible for small values of Res. This method is applicable for neutrally buoyant and heavy magnetic bead motion. Practical application of this study is implemented in the ratchet configuration for separation of magnetic beads with different sizes. This is applicable for novel applications such as drug delivery, magnetic tweezers, and magnetic actuated stiffness testing systems which require accurate magnetic bead sizes for accurate function.

  19. Mineralogy and heavy metal leachability of magnetic fractions separated from some Chinese coal fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Lu, S G; Chen, Y Y; Shan, H D; Bai, S Q

    2009-09-30

    Magnetic fractions (MFs) in fly ashes from eight coal-burning power plants were extracted by magnetic separation procedure. Their mineralogy and potential leachability of heavy metals were analyzed using rock magnetism, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and leaching procedures (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, TCLP, and gastric juice simulation test, GJST). Results show that the MFs in the fly ashes range between 2.2 and 16.3wt%, and are generally composed of magnetite, hematite, quartz and mullite. Thermomagnetic analysis and SEM/EDX indicate that the main magnetic carrier magnetite is substituted with small amounts of impure ions, and its structures are featured by rough, dendritic and granular iron spherules. The MFs are found to be rich in Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb. Compared with the non-magnetic fractions (NMFs), the MFs have about 5 times higher iron, and 1.6 times higher Mn, Cr, Cu and Cd concentrations. The TCLP test shows that the TCLP-extractable Cr, Cu, and Pb concentrations in the MFs are higher than those in the NMFs, while the TCLP-extractable Cd concentration in the MFs and NMFs is below the detection limit (<0.1mg/L). The GJST-extractable Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb concentrations in the MFs are higher those in the NMFs. No significant difference in the leachability ratio of Cr, Cu and Pb with TCLP and GJST is found in the MFs and NMFs. However, the GJST test showed that Pb has higher leachability in MFs than that in NMFs. The leachability ratio of heavy metals has an order of Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd. The heavy metals of fly ashes have a great potential to be released into the environment under acid environment. PMID:19380201

  20. Correlated cryogenic photoactivated localization microscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Songye; Tocheva, Elitza I; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Lbach, Stephanie; Sgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Jensen, Grant J

    2014-07-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (CET) produces three-dimensional images of cells in a near-native state at macromolecular resolution, but identifying structures of interest can be challenging. Here we describe a correlated cryo-PALM (photoactivated localization microscopy)-CET method for localizing objects within cryo-tomograms to beyond the diffraction limit of the light microscope. Using cryo-PALM-CET, we identified multiple and new conformations of the dynamic type VI secretion system in the crowded interior of Myxococcus xanthus. PMID:24813625

  1. Magnetic network model including loss separation and Preisach principles for the evaluation of core losses in devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Luc; Sergeant, Peter; Vandenbossche, Lode

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a method is developed to calculate the core loss in a switched reluctance machine. The magnetic circuit of the motor is described as a magnetic network. The electromagnetic behavior of each magnetic network element takes into account the iron loss using the Preisach model and the principle of loss separation. Using the numerical routines, the local core loss in the different motor sections is calculated. The global core loss is compared with the experimentally determined core loss.

  2. Development program for magnetically assisted chemical separation: Evaluation of cesium removal from Hanford tank supernatant

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Ziemer, M.; Dyrkacz, G.; Kaminski, M.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Atkins, K.J.; Bos, F.M.; Elder, G.R.; Swift, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    Magnetic particles (MAG*SEP{sup SM}) coated with various absorbents were evaluated for the separation and recovery of low concentrations of cesium from nuclear waste solutions. The MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles were coated with (1) clinoptilolite, (2) transylvanian volcanic tuff, (3) resorcinol formaldehyde, and (4) crystalline silico-titanate, and then were contacted with a Hanford supernatant simulant. Particles coated with the crystalline silico-titanate were identified by Bradtec as having the highest capacity for cesium removal under the conditions tested (variation of pH, ionic strength, cesium concentration, and absorbent/solution ratio). The MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles coated with resorcinol formaldehyde had high distribution ratios values and could also be used to remove cesium from Hanford supernant simulant. Gamma irradiation studies were performed on the MAG*SEP{sup SM} particles with a gamma dose equivalent to 100 cycles of use. This irradiation decreased the loading capacity and distribution ratios for the particles by greater than 75%. The particles demonstrated high sensitivity to radiolytic damage due to the degradation of the polymeric regions. These results were supported by optical microscopy measurements. Overall, use of magnetic particles for cesium separation under nuclear waste conditions was found to be marginally effective.

  3. Adsorption mechanism of magnetically separable Fe3O4/graphene oxide hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Ke; Zhu, Chuanhe; Zhao, Ya; Wang, Leichao; Xie, Shan; Wang, Qun

    2015-11-01

    A reclaimable Fe3O4/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polyol approach and employed as a recyclable adsorbent for Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of the Fe3O4/GO hybrid for BPA was 72.80 mg/g at 273 K. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm data were fitted using the Freundlich equation and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° showed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the reusability of the samples was investigated, and the results indicated that the samples exhibited high stability. The magnetic characterization demonstrated that hybrids were superparamagnetic and could be recovered conveniently by magnetic separation. The strong π-π interaction was determined to be the predominant driving force behind the adsorption of BPA onto the Fe3O4/GO hybrid. Therefore, the Fe3O4/GO hybrid could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment and purification processes.

  4. Chiral separation and chiral magnetic effects in a slab: The role of boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.

    2015-12-01

    We study the chiral separation and chiral magnetic effects in a slab of Dirac semimetal of finite thickness, placed in a constant magnetic field perpendicular to its surfaces. We utilize the Bogolyubov boundary conditions with a large Dirac mass (band gap) outside the slab. We find that, in a finite-thickness slab, the axial current density is induced by helicity-correlated standing waves and, as a consequence, is quantized. The quantization is seen in its stepped-shape dependence on the fermion chemical potential and a sawtooth-shape dependence on the thickness of the slab. In contrast to a naive expectation, there is no chiral charge accumulation anywhere in the bulk or at the boundaries of the semimetal. In the same slab geometry, we also find that a nonzero chiral chemical potential induces no electric current, as might have been expected from the chiral magnetic effect. We argue that this outcome is natural and points to the truly nonstatic nature of the latter. By taking into account a nonzero electric field of a double layer near the boundaries of the slab, we find that the low-energy modes under consideration satisfy the continuity equation for axial current density without the anomalous term.

  5. Separation and detection of multiple pathogens in a food matrix by magnetic SERS nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Ravindranath, Sandeep; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method was developed here for separation and detection of multiple pathogens in food matrix by magnetic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobes. Silica-coated magnetic probes (MNPs@SiO(2)) of ~100 nm in diameter were first prepared via the reverse microemulsion method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a surfactant and tetraethyl orthosilicate as the silica precursor. The as-prepared MNPs@SiO(2) were functionalized with specific pathogen antibodies to first capture threat agents directly from a food matrix followed by detection using an optical approach enabled by SERS. In this scheme, pathogens were first immuno-magnetically captured with MNPs@SiO(2), and pathogen-specific SERS probes (gold nanoparticles integrated with a Raman reporter) were functionalized with corresponding antibodies to allow the formation of a sandwich assay to complete the sensor module for the detection of multiple pathogens in selected food matrices, just changing the kinds of Raman reporters on SERS probes. Here, up to two key pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, were selected as a model to illustrate the probability of this scheme for multiple pathogens detection. The lowest cell concentration detected in spinach solution was 10(3) CFU/mL. A blind test conducted in peanut butter validated the limit of detection as 10(3) CFU/mL with high specificity, demonstrating the potential of this approach in complex matrices. PMID:21136046

  6. Easily separated silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis and high antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huai-Zhi; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Huan, Shuang-Yan

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide (MGO-Ag) was synthesized by doping silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of GO, which was used as an antibacterial agent. MGO-Ag was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and magnetic property tests. It can be found that magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and nano-Ag was well dispersed on graphene oxide; and MGO-Ag exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Several factors were investigated to study the antibacterial effect of MGO-Ag, such as temperature, time, pH and bacterial concentration. We also found that MGO-Ag maintained high inactivation rates after use six times and can be separated easily after antibacterial process. Moreover, the antibacterial mechanism is discussed and the synergistic effect of GO, Fe3O4 nanoparticles and nano-Ag accounted for high inactivation of MGO-Ag. PMID:26994349

  7. Upgrading of PVC rich wastes by magnetic density separation and hyperspectral imaging quality control.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Valentina; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Rem, Peter; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is one of the most produced polymers in Europe, with a share of 11% in terms of mass (8 milliontons) of total polymer consumption, but in 2010 only 5% of the total PVC production came from recycled materials, where other polymer recycling achieves a level of 15% on average. In order to find an innovative process to extract PVC from window frames waste, a combination of two innovative technologies was tested: magnetic density separation (MDS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI). By its nature, MDS is a flexible high precision density separation technology that is applicable to any mixture of polymers and contaminants with non-overlapping densities. As PVC has a very distinctive high density, this technology was tested to obtain high-grade PVC pre-concentrates from window frame waste. HSI was used to perform a quality control of the products obtained by MDS showing that PVC was clearly discriminated from unwanted rubber particles of different colors. The results showed that the combined application of MDS and HSI techniques allowed to separate and to check the purity of PVC from window frame waste. PMID:25458764

  8. Padé-Froissart exact signal-noise separation in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkić, Dževad; Belkić, Karen

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one of the key methods for studying the structure of matter on different levels (sub-nuclear, nuclear, atomic, molecular, cellular, etc). Its overall success critically depends upon reliable mathematical analysis and interpretation of the studied data. This is especially aided by parametric signal processing with the ensuing data quantification, which can yield the abundance or concentrations of the constituents in the examined matter. The sought reliability of signal processing rests upon the possibility of an accurate solution of the quantification problem alongside the unambiguous separation of true from false information in the spectrally analysed data. We presently demonstrate that the fast Padé transform (FPT), as the unique ratio of two polynomials for a given Maclaurin series, can yield exact signal-noise separation for a synthesized free induction decay curve built from 25 molecules. This is achieved by using the concept of Froissart doublets or pole-zero cancellations. Unphysical/spurious (noise or noise-like) resonances have coincident or near-coincident poles and zeros. They possess either zero- or near-zero-valued amplitudes. Such spectral structures never converge due to their instability against even the smallest perturbations. By contrast, upon convergence of the FPT, physical/genuine resonances are identified by their persistent stability against external perturbations, such as signal truncation or addition of random noise, etc. In practice, the computation is carried out by gradually and systematically increasing the common degree of the Padé numerator and denominator polynomials in the diagonal FPT. As this degree changes, the reconstructed parameters and spectra fluctuate until stabilization occurs. The polynomial degree at which this full stabilization is achieved represents the sought exact number of resonances. An illustrative set of results is reported in this work to show the exact separation of genuine from spurious information by reliance upon Froissart doublets and stabilization of reconstructions. The FPT for optimal quantification of the physical constituents of the studied matter and the denoising Froissart filter for unequivocal signal-noise separation is expected to significantly aid nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in achieving the most reliable data analysis and interpretation.

  9. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  10. Cryo-Electron Tomography for Structural Characterization of Macromolecular Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Julia; Heumann, John; Hoenger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging 3-D reconstruction technology that combines the principles of tomographic 3-D reconstruction with the unmatched structural preservation of biological material embedded in vitreous ice. Cryo-ET is particularly suited to investigating cell-biological samples and large macromolecular structures that are too polymorphic to be reconstructed by classical averaging-based 3-D reconstruction procedures. This unit aims to make cryo-ET accessible to newcomers and discusses the specialized equipment required, as well as the relevant advantages and hurdles associated with sample preparation by vitrification and cryo-ET. Protocols describe specimen preparation, data recording and 3-D data reconstruction for cryo-ET, with a special focus on macromolecular complexes. A step-by-step procedure for specimen vitrification by plunge freezing is provided, followed by the general practicalities of tilt-series acquisition for cryo-ET, including advice on how to select an area appropriate for acquiring a tilt series. A brief introduction to the underlying computational reconstruction principles applied in tomography is described, along with instructions for reconstructing a tomogram from cryo-tilt series data. Finally, a method is detailed for extracting small subvolumes containing identical macromolecular structures from tomograms for alignment and averaging as a means to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminate missing wedge effects inherent in tomographic reconstructions. PMID:21842467

  11. Atomic resolution cryo electron microscopy of macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z Hong

    2011-01-01

    Single-particle cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) is a technique for determining three-dimensional (3D) structures from projection images of molecular complexes preserved in their "native," noncrystalline state. Recently, atomic or near-atomic resolution structures of several viruses and protein assemblies have been determined by single-particle cryoEM, allowing ab initio atomic model building by following the amino acid side chains or nucleic acid bases identifiable in their cryoEM density maps. In particular, these cryoEM structures have revealed extended arms contributing to molecular interactions that are otherwise not resolved by the conventional structural method of X-ray crystallography at similar resolutions. High-resolution cryoEM requires careful consideration of a number of factors, including proper sample preparation to ensure structural homogeneity, optimal configuration of electron imaging conditions to record high-resolution cryoEM images, accurate determination of image parameters to correct image distortions, efficient refinement and computation to reconstruct a 3D density map, and finally appropriate choice of modeling tools to construct atomic models for functional interpretation. This progress illustrates the power of cryoEM and ushers it into the arsenal of structural biology, alongside conventional techniques of X-ray crystallography and NMR, as a major tool (and sometimes the preferred one) for the studies of molecular interactions in supramolecular assemblies or machines. PMID:21501817

  12. Bio-inspired durable, superhydrophobic magnetic particles for oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Lili; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, superhydrophobic and superoleophilic microparticles with magnetic property were fabricated by combining the oxidation and self-polymerization of dopamine and formation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of the polydopamine (PDA) particles, followed by modification with low surface energy material. The modified PDA/Fe3O4 particles showed high water repellency with contact angle (CA) measured at 153.7±1.6° and high oil affinity. The superhydrophobic microparticles preserved high water CA after aging test, showing excellent durability. The microparticles were employed to effectively remove oil from water in different routes. Superhydrophobic sponge was prepared by modifying with the achieved microparticles. The sponge exhibited high absorption capability of oil, with weight gains ranging from 1348% to 7268%. The results suggest this work might provide a promising candidate for oily pollutants/water separation and transportation. PMID:26550784

  13. Residual Separation of Magnetic Fields Using a Cellular Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albora, A. M.; Özmen, A.; Uçan, O. N.

    - In this paper, a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) has been applied to a magnetic regional/residual anomaly separation problem. CNN is an analog parallel computing paradigm defined in space and characterized by the locality of connections between processing neurons. The behavior of the CNN is defined by the template matrices A, B and the template vector I. We have optimized weight coefficients of these templates using Recurrent Perceptron Learning Algorithm (RPLA). The advantages of CNN as a real-time stochastic method are that it introduces little distortion to the shape of the original image and that it is not effected significantly by factors such as the overlap of power spectra of residual fields. The proposed method is tested using synthetic examples and the average depth of the buried objects has been estimated by power spectrum analysis. Next the CNN approach is applied to magnetic data over the Golalan chromite mine in Elazig which lies East of Turkey. This area is among the largest and richest chromite masses of the world. We compared the performance of CNN to classical derivative approaches.

  14. Magnetic orderings and phase separations in a simple model of insulating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy; Murawski, Szymon; Kłobus, Waldemar; Robaszkiewicz, Stanisław

    2015-11-01

    A simple effective model for a description of magnetically ordered narrow-band insulators is studied. The Hamiltonian considered consists of the effective on-site interaction (U) and intersite magnetic exchange interactions (Jz, Jxy) between nearest-neighbours. The phase diagrams and properties of this model for arbitrary chemical potential μ and arbitrary electron density n have been determined within several approaches: (i) the variational method (which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the intersite interactions within the mean-field approximation) for any Jz ,Jxy ≠ 0 (exact in the limit of infinite dimensions), (ii) the Monte Carlo simulations on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions for Jxy = 0, and (iii) other approximate methods (inter alia: random phase approximation and spin-wave approximation) as well as (iv) rigorous treatment to obtain results concerning the ground state phase diagrams (the two last also for Jz ,Jxy ≠ 0). The investigations of the general case show that, depending on the values of interaction parameters and electron concentration n, the system can exhibit not only homogeneous phases: (anti-)ferromagnetic (Fα, α = z , xy) and nonordered (NO), but also phase separated states (PSα: Fα/NO). For a fixed n one finds the following phase transitions (both continuous and discontinuous ones) and their sequences, which can occur with increasing temperature: Fα → NO, PSα → NO, PSα →Fα → NO, PSα →Fα →PSα → NO. The system analysed exhibits also tricritical behaviour.

  15. Facile synthesis of magnetically separable reduced graphene oxide/magnetite/silver nanocomposites with enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhenyuan; Shen, Xiaoping; Yue, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Hu; Yang, Juan; Wang, Yuqin; Ma, Lianbo; Chen, Kangmin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the combination of magnetite (Fe3O4) with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) generates a new hybrid substrate for the dispersion of noble metal nanoparticles. Well-dispersed silver (Ag) nanoparticles loaded on the surface of Fe3O4 modified RGO are achieved by an efficient two-step approach. Through reducing Ag(+) ions, highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles are in-situ formed on the RGO/Fe3O4 substrate. It is found that the existence of Fe3O4 nanocrystals can significantly improve the dispersity and decrease the particle size of the in-situ formed Ag nanoparticles. Magnetic study reveals that the as-prepared RGO/Fe3O4/Ag ternary nanocomposites display room-temperature superparamagnetic behavior. The catalytic properties of the RGO/Fe3O4/Ag ternary nanocomposites were evaluated with the reduction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol as a model reaction. The as-synthesized RGO/Fe3O4/Ag ternary catalysts exhibit excellent catalytic stability and much higher catalytic activity than the corresponding RGO/Ag catalyst. Moreover, the RGO/Fe3O4/Ag catalysts can be easily magnetically separated for reuse. This study further demonstrates that nanoparticles modified graphene can act as an effective hybrid substrate for the synthesis of multi-component and multifunctional graphene-based composites. PMID:26263498

  16. Templated synthesis of monodisperse mesoporous maghemite/silica microspheres for magnetic separation of genomic DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Shi, Ruobing; Xue, Yun; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2010-08-01

    A novel method is described for the preparation of superparamagnetic mesoporous maghemite (γ-Fe 2O 3)/silica (SiO 2) composite microspheres to allow rapid magnetic separation of DNA from biological samples. With magnetite (Fe 3O 4) and silica nanoparticles as starting materials, such microspheres were synthesized by the following two consecutive steps: (1) formation of monodispersed organic/inorganic hybrid microspheres through urea-formaldedyde (UF) polymerization and (2) removal of the organic template and phase transformation of Fe 3O 4 to γ-Fe 2O 3 by calcination at elevated temperatures. The as-synthesized particles obtained by heating at temperature 300 °C feature spherical shape and uniform particle size ( dparticle=1.72 μm), high saturation magnetization ( Ms=17.22 emu/g), superparamagnetism ( Mr/ Ms=0.023), high surface area ( SBET=240 m 2/g), and mesoporosity ( dpore=6.62 nm). The composite microsphere consists of interlocked amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles, in which cubic γ-Fe 2O 3 nanocrystals are homogeneously dispersed and thermally stable against γ- to α-phase transformation at temperatures up to 600 °C. With the exposed iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of silica shell, the magnetic microspheres were used as a solid-phase adsorbent for rapid extraction of genomic DNA from plant samples. The results show that the DNA templates isolated from pea and green pepper displayed single bands with molecular weights greater than 8 kb and A260/ A280 values of 1.60-1.72. The PCR amplification of a fragment encoding the endogenous chloroplast ndhB gene confirmed that the DNA templates obtained were inhibitor-free and amenable to sensitive amplification-based DNA technologies.

  17. Colouring cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    McGeehan, John; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Murray, James W.; Owen, Robin Leslie; Cipriani, Florent; McSweeney, Sean; Weik, Martin; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2009-01-01

    X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100 nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue colour that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400 nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100 K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is different for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes. PMID:19240328

  18. Preliminary results of pre-combustion removal of mercury, arsenic, and selenium from coal by dry magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Jamison, R.E.; Brandner, E.D.

    1999-07-01

    The authors report the results of preliminary measurements of pre-combustion separation of major metal oxides and trace elements from coal by dry magnetic separation. The measurements have been made as part of ETCi's development of MagMill{trademark} technology for removing mineral matter from coal at the pulverizer at the front end of a coal fired power plant. The technology is specific to separation of mercury, arsenic, and selenium because of their associations with iron pyrites in coal. Measurements were made on a suite of five Eastern US and five Illinois Basin bituminous rank coals prepared at 8 Mesh topsize and processed as 8 Mesh by zero fractions through a dry Para Trap Magnetic Separator. Measurements of major metals and trace elements were made on the feed coal, the magnetic refuse fraction and the magnetic clean coal product. The range of weight recoveries measured for 13 of the trace elements for the suite of coals indicates a significant potential for pre-combustion removal of trace elements and especially for mercury, selenium, and arsenic by dry magnetic methods. While these three elements are important because they are considered hazardous air pollutant precursors, pre-combustion removal of arsenic is especially important because of its role in poisoning catalysts used in emerging SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} control technologies.

  19. Frequency-Domain Approach To Determine Magnetic Address-Sensor Separation Distance Using the Harmonic Ratio Method.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin C; Blackley, Benjamin W; Porter, Marc D; Granger, Michael C

    2016-02-16

    In this work, we describe an approach to determine the distance separating a magnetic address from a scanning magnetoresistive sensor, a critical adjustable parameter for certain bioassay analyses where magnetic nanoparticles are used as labels. Our approach is leveraged from the harmonic ratio method (HRM), a method used in the hard drive industry to control the distance separating a magnetoresistive read head from its data platter with nanometer resolution. At the heart of the HRM is an amplitude comparison of a signal's fundamental frequency to that of its harmonics. When the signal is derived from the magnetic field pattern of a periodic array of magnetic addresses, the harmonic ratio contains the information necessary to determine the separation between the address array and the read head. The elegance of the HRM is that there is no need of additional components to the detection platform to determine a separation distance; the streaming "bit signal" contains all the information needed. In this work, we demonstrate that the tenets governing HRM used in the hard drive industry can be applied to the bioanalytical arena where submicrometer to 100 μm separations are required. PMID:26879366

  20. Fabrication of chiral amino acid ionic liquid modified magnetic multifunctional nanospheres for centrifugal chiral chromatography separation of racemates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Tian, Ailin; Wang, Xiong; Qi, Jing; Wang, Fengkang; Ma, Ying; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2015-06-26

    As the rapid development of nanotechnology, the magnetic nanospheres modified with special chiral selective ligands show a great potentiality in enantiomeric separation. In this study, magnetic nanospheres modified with task-specific chiral ionic liquid were designed for the separation of chiral amino acids. These modified magnetic nanospheres were effective in a direct chiral separation of five racemic amino acids (D- and L-cysteine, D- and L-arginine, D- and L-leucine, D- and L-glutamine and D- and L-tryptophan). Furthermore, a new online method for complete separation of the enantiomers via the magnetic nanospheres was established with centrifugal chiral chromatography using a spiral tube assembly mounted on a type-J coil planet centrifuge. One kind of chiral compounds, D- and L-tryptophan was resolved well using this method. These results demonstrated that the modified nanospheres display a good chiral recognition ability, and can be used as a potential material for chiral separation of various racemates. PMID:25976126

  1. Separation of charge-order and magnetic QCPs in heavy fermions and high Tc cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil

    2010-03-01

    The Fermi surface topology of high temperature superconductors inferred from magnetic quantum oscillation measurements provides clues for the origin of unconventional pairing thus previously not accessed by other spectroscopy techniques. While the overdoped regime of the high Tc phase diagram has a large Fermi surface consistent with bandstructure calculations, the underdoped regime of YBa2Cu2O6+x is found to be composed of small pockets. There is considerable debate as to whether the small observed ``pocket'' is hole-like or electron-like- whether the Fermi surface is best described by a t-J model or a conventional band folding picture- whether or not a Fermi liquid description applies- or- whether bilayer coupling splits the degeneracy of the observed pockets. We (myself and collaborators) have now collected an extensive body of experimental data that brings this debate to rest, but raises new questions about the nature of itinerant magnetism in underdoped high Tc cuprates. Quantum oscillation measurements are performed on multiple samples in magnetic fields extending to 85 T, temperatures between 30 mK (dilution fridge in dc fields to 45 T) and 18 K, over a range of hole dopings and with samples rotated in-situ about multiple axes with respect to the magnetic field. We perform a topographical map of the Fermi surface, enabling the in-plane shape of one of the pockets to be determined- imposing stringent constraints on the origin of the Fermi surface. While quantum oscillations measurements are consistent with a topological Fermi surface change associated with magnetism near optimal doping, they also point to a secondary instability deep within the underdoped regime beneath a high Tc superconducting sub-dome. An steep upturn in the quasiparticle effective mass is observed on underdoping, suggestive of a quantum critical point near x= 0.46 separating the metallic regime (composed of small pockets) from a more underdoped insulating charge-ordered regime (earlier reported in neutron scattering measurements). Our findings suggest the importance of two critical instabilities affecting the Fermi surface beneath the high Tc superconducting dome(s). While one of these has been proposed to provide the likely origin of unconventional pairing in the cuprates, the other can be an important factor in boosting transition temperatures. [4pt] This work is supported by the DoE BES grant ``Science in 100 T''. The author would like to thank collaborators S. E. Sebastian, C. H. Mielke, P. A. Goddard, M. M. Altarawneh, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy and G. G. Lonzarich, and supporting staff at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL). Quantum oscillation experiments are performed at the NHMFL, which is funded by the NSF with support from the DoE and State of Florida.

  2. In situ magnetic separation of antibody fragments from Escherichia coli in complex media

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) has emerged as a powerful tool to overcome process constraints such as product degradation or inhibition of target production. In the present work, an integrated ISMS process was established for the production of his-tagged single chain fragment variable (scFv) D1.3 antibodies (“D1.3”) produced by E. coli in complex media. This study investigates the impact of ISMS on the overall product yield as well as its biocompatibility with the bioprocess when metal-chelate and triazine-functionalized magnetic beads were used. Results Both particle systems are well suited for separation of D1.3 during cultivation. While the triazine beads did not negatively impact the bioprocess, the application of metal-chelate particles caused leakage of divalent copper ions in the medium. After the ISMS step, elevated copper concentrations above 120 mg/L in the medium negatively influenced D1.3 production. Due to the stable nature of the model protein scFv D1.3 in the biosuspension, the application of ISMS could not increase the overall D1.3 yield as was shown by simulation and experiments. Conclusions We could demonstrate that triazine-functionalized beads are a suitable low-cost alternative to selectively adsorb D1.3 fragments, and measured maximum loads of 0.08 g D1.3 per g of beads. Although copper-loaded metal-chelate beads did adsorb his-tagged D1.3 well during cultivation, this particle system must be optimized by minimizing metal leakage from the beads in order to avoid negative inhibitory effects on growth of the microorganisms and target production. Hereby, other types of metal chelate complexes should be tested to demonstrate biocompatibility. Such optimized particle systems can be regarded as ISMS platform technology, especially for the production of antibodies and their fragments with low stability in the medium. The proposed model can be applied to design future ISMS experiments in order to maximize the overall product yield while the amount of particles being used is minimized as well as the number of required ISMS steps. PMID:23688064

  3. Ultrasensitive detection of deltamethrin by immune magnetic nanoparticles separation coupled with surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Liu X; Li L; Liu YQ; Shi XB; Li WJ; Yang Y; Mao LG

    2014-09-15

    Small molecules or analytes present in trace level are difficult to be detected directly using conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, due to its small changes in the refractive index induced by the binding of these analytes on the sensor surface. In this paper, a new approach that combines SPR sensor technology with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) assays is developed for directly detecting of deltamethrin in soybean. The Fe3O4 MNPs conjugated with antibodies specific to antigen serves as both labels for enhancing refractive index change due to the capture of target analyte, and "vehicles" for the rapid delivery of analyte from a sample solution to the sensor surface. Meanwhile, SPR direct detection format without Fe3O4 MNPs and gas chromatography (GC) analysis were conducted for detection of deltamethrin in soybean to demonstrate the amplification effect of Fe3O4 MNPs. A good linear relationship was obtained between SPR responses and deltamethrin concentrations over a range of 0.01-1 ng/mL with the lowest measurable concentration of 0.01 ng/mL. The results reveal that the detection sensitivity for deltamethrin was improved by 4 orders of magnitude compared with SPR direct detection format. The recovery of 95.5-119.8% was obtained in soybean. The excellent selectivity of the present biosensor is also confirmed by two kinds of pesticides (fenvalerate and atrazine) as controls. This magnetic separation and amplification strategy has great potential for detection of other small analytes in trace level concentration, with high selectivity and sensitivity by altering the target-analyte-capture agent labeled to the carboxyl-coated Fe3O4 MNPs.

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of deltamethrin by immune magnetic nanoparticles separation coupled with surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Li, Lei; Liu, You-Qian; Shi, Xing-Bo; Li, Wen-Jin; Yang, Yang; Mao, Lu-Gang

    2014-09-15

    Small molecules or analytes present in trace level are difficult to be detected directly using conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, due to its small changes in the refractive index induced by the binding of these analytes on the sensor surface. In this paper, a new approach that combines SPR sensor technology with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) assays is developed for directly detecting of deltamethrin in soybean. The Fe3O4 MNPs conjugated with antibodies specific to antigen serves as both labels for enhancing refractive index change due to the capture of target analyte, and "vehicles" for the rapid delivery of analyte from a sample solution to the sensor surface. Meanwhile, SPR direct detection format without Fe3O4 MNPs and gas chromatography (GC) analysis were conducted for detection of deltamethrin in soybean to demonstrate the amplification effect of Fe3O4 MNPs. A good linear relationship was obtained between SPR responses and deltamethrin concentrations over a range of 0.01-1 ng/mL with the lowest measurable concentration of 0.01 ng/mL. The results reveal that the detection sensitivity for deltamethrin was improved by 4 orders of magnitude compared with SPR direct detection format. The recovery of 95.5-119.8% was obtained in soybean. The excellent selectivity of the present biosensor is also confirmed by two kinds of pesticides (fenvalerate and atrazine) as controls. This magnetic separation and amplification strategy has great potential for detection of other small analytes in trace level concentration, with high selectivity and sensitivity by altering the target-analyte-capture agent labeled to the carboxyl-coated Fe3O4 MNPs. PMID:24747571

  5. Fabrication of anisotropic porous silica monoliths by means of magnetically controlled phase separation in sol-gel processes.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Marco; Lattuada, Marco

    2012-08-28

    Sol-gel accompanied by phase separation is an established method for the preparation of porous silica monoliths with well-defined macroporosity, which find numerous applications. In this work, we demonstrate how the addition of (superpara)magnetic nanocolloids as templates to a system undergoing a sol-gel transition with phase separation leads to the creation of monoliths with a strongly anisotropic structure. It is known that magnetic nanocolloids respond to the application of an external magnetic field by self-assembling into columnar structures. The application of a magnetic field during the chemically driven spinodal decomposition induced by the sol-gel transition allows one to break the symmetry of the system and promote the growth of elongated needle-like silica domains incorporating the magnetic nanocolloids, aligned in the direction of the field. It is found that this microstructure imparts a strong mechanical anisotropy to the materials, with a ratio between the Young's modulus values measured in a direction parallel and perpendicular to the one of the field as high as 150, and an overall smaller average macropores size as compared to isotropic monoliths. The microstructure and properties of the porous monoliths can be controlled by changing both the system composition and the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our monoliths represent the first example of materials prepared by magnetically controlling a phase transition occurring via spinodal decomposition. PMID:22849804

  6. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  7. Magnetically separable nanocomposites with photocatalytic activity under visible light for the selective transformation of biomass-derived platform molecules

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel magnetically separable TiO2-guanidine-(Ni,Co)Fe2O4 nanomaterials were prepared and characterised by a series of techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM, N2 physisorption as well as XPS and subsequently tested for their photocatalytic activities in the selective transformation of...

  8. MAGNETIC DRUM SEPARATOR PERFORMANCE SCALPING TROMMEL UNDERFLOW AT NOMINAL DESIGN CONDITIONS. TEST NO. 4.01, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the first test of the magnetic drum separator that was designed to scalp the underflow of the trommel, or rotary screen, at the New Orleans, Louisiana, resource recovery facility. The objective of the test was to document the performance of the trommel-under...

  9. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  10. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  11. Design and performance of magnetic composite particles for the separation of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Phanapavudhikul, P; Waters, J A; Perez de Ortiz, E S

    2003-01-01

    Composite particles have been made by combining nanosized polymer particles with magnetite microparticles using a ball-mill process. The magnetite particle cores were included to facilitate the composite particles separation by use of a magnetic field. Polymer particles carried carboxylic groups as ion-exchange vehicles. The composite particles were used in the extraction/stripping of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cr from aqueous solutions in a stirred batch reactor of laboratory scale. The extraction behavior of these metals was studied as a function of initial metal concentrations of up to 25 mM, ionic strength at pH (5-7), and temperature (1-80 degrees C). Experimental results showed that the process was very fast and yielded complete metal removal when the initial concentrations of metals were very low. The selectivity series was Cu > Cr > Zn > Ni. The effect of ionic strength was immaterial at pH 7. However, extraction decreased with increasing ionic strength at pH 5. Extraction increased with increasing temperature. A series of extraction/ stripping experiments indicated that the particles can be reused without significant loss in their extraction capacity. PMID:14524681

  12. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-01

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally. PMID:22304328

  13. A highly-efficient imprinted magnetic nanoparticle for selective separation and detection of 17β-estradiol in milk.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruixia; Cui, Xihui; Hao, Yi; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Dechun; Tang, Yuhai

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we prepared molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) combining surface molecular imprinting technique and magnetic separation for separation and determination of 17β-estradiol (E2) from milk. During the synthesis process, the acryloyl chloride was specially used to graft double bonds on Fe3O4 nanoparticles and served as co-functional monomer cooperating with acrylamide. The morphology, structure property, and the best polymerization and adsorption conditions of the prepared magnetic nanoparticles were investigated in detail. The obtained nanomaterials displayed high adsorption capacity of 12.62mg/g, fast equilibrium time of 10min, and satisfactory selectivity for target molecule. What's more, the MIPs was successfully applied as sorbents to specifically separate and enrich E2 from milk with a relatively high recovery (88.9-92.1%), demonstrating the potential application of the MIPs as solid phase extractant for rapid, highly-efficient, and cost-effective sample analysis. PMID:26471651

  14. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  15. Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chris; Burnley, Tom; Patwardhan, Ardan; Scheres, Sjors; Topf, Maya; Roseman, Alan; Winn, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has recently been established. The aims of the project are threefold: to build a coherent cryoEM community which will provide support for individual scientists and will act as a focal point for liaising with other communities, to support practising scientists in their use of cryoEM software and finally to support software developers in producing and disseminating robust and user-friendly programs. The project is closely modelled on CCP4 for macromolecular crystallo­graphy, and areas of common interest such as model fitting, underlying software libraries and tools for building program packages are being exploited. Nevertheless, cryoEM includes a number of techniques covering a large range of resolutions and a distinct project is required. In this article, progress so far is reported and future plans are discussed. PMID:25615866

  16. A Primer to Single-Particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Penczek, Pawel A.; Walz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of single-particle specimens is used to determine the structure of proteins and macromolecular complexes without the need for crystals. Recent advances in detector technology and software algorithms now allow images of unprecedented quality to be recorded and structures to be determined at near-atomic resolution. However, compared with X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM is a young technique with distinct challenges. This primer explains the different steps and considerations involved in structure determination by single-particle cryo-EM to provide an overview for scientists wishing to understand more about this technique and the interpretation of data obtained with it, as well as a starting guide for new practitioners. PMID:25910204

  17. The synthesis, characterization and application of iron oxide nanocrystals in magnetic separations for arsenic and uranium removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, John Thomas

    Arsenic and uranium in the environment are hazardous to human health and require better methods for detection and remediation. Nanocrystalline iron oxides offer a number of advantages as sorbents for water purification and environmental remediation. First, highly uniform and crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (nMAG) were prepared using thermal decomposition of iron salts in organic solutions; for the applications of interest in this thesis, a central challenge was the adaptation of these conventional synthetic methods to the needs of low infrastructure and economically disadvantaged settings. We show here that it is possible to form highly uniform and magnetically responsive nanomaterials using starting reagents and equipment that are readily available and economical. The products of this approach, termed the 'Kitchen Synthesis', are of comparable quality and effectiveness to laboratory materials. The narrow size distributions of the iron oxides produced in the laboratory synthesis made it possible to study the size-dependence of the magnetic separation efficiency of nanocrystals; generally as the diameter of particles increased they could be removed under lower applied magnetic fields. In this work we take advantage of this size-dependence to use magnetic separation as a tool to separate broadly distributed populations of magnetic materials. Such work makes it possible to use these materials in multiplexed separation and sensing schemes. With the synthesis and magnetic separation studies of these materials completed, it was possible to optimize their applications in water purification and environmental remediation. These materials removed both uranium and arsenic from contaminated samples, and had remarkably high sorption capacities --- up to 12 wt% for arsenic and 30 wt% for uranium. The contaminated nMAG is removed from the drinking water by either retention in a sand column, filter, or by magnetic separation. The uranium adsorption process was also utilized for the enhanced detection of uranium in environmental matrices. By relying on alpha-particle detection in well-formed and dense nMAG films, it was possible to improve soil detection of uranium by more than ten-thousand-fold. Central for this work was a detailed understanding of the chemistry at the iron oxide interface, and the role of the organic coatings in mediating the sorption process.

  18. Boundary-value problem for a counterrotating electrical discharge in an axial magnetic field. [plasma centrifuge for isotope separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. H.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    An electrical discharge between two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of a cylindrical chamber is considered, in which the plasma in the anode and cathode regions rotates in opposite directions under the influence of an external axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations describing the azimuthal velocity and radial current-density fields is solved in closed form. The velocity, current density, induced magnetic induction, and electric fields are presented for typical Hartmann numbers, magnetic Reynolds numbers, and geometry parameters. The discharge is shown to produce anodic and cathodic plasma sections rotating at speeds of the order 1,000,000 cm/sec for conventional magnetic field intensities. Possible application of the magnetoactive discharge as a plasma centrifuge for isotope separation is discussed.

  19. Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Chris; Burnley, Tom; Patwardhan, Ardan; Scheres, Sjors; Topf, Maya; Roseman, Alan; Winn, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) is a new initiative for the structural biology community, following the success of CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography. Progress in supporting the users and developers of cryoEM software is reported. The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has recently been established. The aims of the project are threefold: to build a coherent cryoEM community which will provide support for individual scientists and will act as a focal point for liaising with other communities, to support practising scientists in their use of cryoEM software and finally to support software developers in producing and disseminating robust and user-friendly programs. The project is closely modelled on CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography, and areas of common interest such as model fitting, underlying software libraries and tools for building program packages are being exploited. Nevertheless, cryoEM includes a number of techniques covering a large range of resolutions and a distinct project is required. In this article, progress so far is reported and future plans are discussed.

  20. A paper-based surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopic (SERRS) immunoassay using magnetic separation and enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Hanwen; Tram, Kha; Zhang, Shengfeng; Zhao, Yanhua; Han, Liyang; Chen, Zengping; Huan, Shuangyan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a novel paper-based SERRS immunoassay based on magnetic separation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis reaction was developed. By using modified antibodies conjugated to magnetic beads, capture of mouse IgG followed by addition of ALP-labeled antibodies would form a sandwich-like immunoconjugate. After magnetic separation, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP), a low SERRS active compound, was added as the substrate for ALP to generate a high SERRS response. Detection was conducted on a silver colloid/PVP/filter paper SERS substrate by spotting a pre-aggregated silver colloid sol onto polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) modified filter paper using a semi-automatic TLC sample applicator. The optimization of the highly SERS active paper-based substrate, dynamic hydrolysis process of BCIP, quantitative detection of IgG, and selectivity of the assay was studied in detail. By taking advantage of magnetic separation in order to decrease the background interference, the selective enzyme reaction involved in producing a highly SERRS active product could detect mouse IgG from 1 to 500 ng mL(-1) with a LOD of 0.33 ng mL(-1). PMID:23486763

  1. Folic acid conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for nondestructive separation and detection of ovarian cancer cells from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenting; Nie, Liju; Li, Fulai; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Yonghua; Fu, Fen; Xu, Hengyi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the lack of early screening strategies, ovarian cancer is the most deadly cause of gynecologic malignancies. This paper describes an effective method for the separation and detection of ovarian cancer cells from female whole blood, using folic acid (FA) conjugated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-FA nanoparticles). The IO nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition and then covalently conjugated with FA. The IO-FA nanoparticles were stably attached to the surface of ovarian cancer cells by coupling to the over-expressed folate receptor (FR), thereby making the cells magnetic. These "magnetic cells" were separated from the complex blood matrix without destruction under a magnetic field. The separation efficiency was as high as 61.3% when the abundance of spiked ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells was as low as 5 × 10(-5)%. We also successfully detected five (5) out of ten (10) metastatic ovarian cancer patients' whole blood. This study suggested the feasibility of early detecting of metastatic ovarian cancer cells, which may potentially improve the ovarian cancers patients' overall survival rate for clinical applications. PMID:26478922

  2. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R.; Nunez, L.; Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Ritter, J.A.; Landsberger, S.

    1997-01-01

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeCrO{sub 4}, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  3. Magnetic phase separation in double layer ruthenates Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jin; Liu, J. Y.; Hu, J.; Mao, Z. Q.; Zhang, F. M.; Wu, X. S.

    2016-01-01

    A phase transition from metallic AFM-b antiferromagnetic state to Mott insulating G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) state was found in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 at about x = 0.03 in our previous work. In the present, we focused on the study of the magnetic transition near the critical composition through detailed magnetization measurements. There is no intermediate magnetic phases between the AFM-b and G-AFM states, which is in contrasted to manganites where a similar magnetic phase transition takes place through the presence of several intermediate magnetic phases. The AFM-b-to-G-AFM transition in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 happens through a phase separation process in the 2–5% Ti range, whereas similar magnetic transitions in manganites are tuned by 50–70% chemical substitutions. We discussed the possible origin of such an unusual magnetic transition and compared with that in manganites. PMID:26771083

  4. A novel biosensor based on competitive SERS immunoassay and magnetic separation for accurate and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kang; Hu, Yongjun; Dong, Ning

    2016-06-15

    The accurate and sensitive detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) is particularly imperative to public health and safety. Here, we present a novel sensor for residual CAP detection based on competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay and magnetic separation. In this nanosensor, functionalized Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were labeled with the Raman reporter molecule (e.g. 4,4'-dipyridyl). With the addition of free CAP, a competitive immune reaction was initiated between free CAP and above AuNPs for conjugating with CAP antibody-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Instead of the solid substrate, the antibody conjugated-magnetic beads were used as supporting materials and separation tools in the present sensor. With the aid of a magnet, the mixture was removed from the supernatant for concentration effects. This caused obvious change of SERS signal intensity obtained from supernatant. The SERS signals were collected from the supernatant directly, which made the SERS measurements more stable, repeatable and reliable. The proposed SERS-based magnetic immunosensor allows us to detect CAP in a fast, selective and sensitive (1.0pg/mL) manner over a wide concentration range ( 1-1×10(4)pg/mL). In addition, these results demonstrate that this immunosensor holds great potential for the detection of antibiotics in real aquatic environment, which is crucial to our life. PMID:26866562

  5. Towards an electro-magnetic field separation of deposited material implemented in an ion beam sputter process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malobabic, Sina; Jupé, Marco; Ristau, Detlev

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, Ion Beam Sputter (IBS) processes are very well optimized on an empirical basis. To achieve further progresses, a modification of the IBS process by guiding the coating material using an axial magnetic field and an additional electrical field has been studied. The electro-magnetic (EM) field leads to a significant change in plasma properties and deposition rate distributions, whereas an increase in deposition rate along the centerline of the axial EM field around 150% was observed. These fundamental studies on the prototype are the basis for the development of an applicable and workable design of a separation device.

  6. Towards an electro-magnetic field separation of deposited material implemented in an ion beam sputter process

    SciTech Connect

    Malobabic, Sina; Jupe, Marco; Ristau, Detlev; Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover

    2013-06-03

    Nowadays, Ion Beam Sputter (IBS) processes are very well optimized on an empirical basis. To achieve further progresses, a modification of the IBS process by guiding the coating material using an axial magnetic field and an additional electrical field has been studied. The electro-magnetic (EM) field leads to a significant change in plasma properties and deposition rate distributions, whereas an increase in deposition rate along the centerline of the axial EM field around 150% was observed. These fundamental studies on the prototype are the basis for the development of an applicable and workable design of a separation device.

  7. Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

    2006-05-01

    Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

  8. Graphene supported silver@silver chloride & ferroferric oxide hybrid, a magnetically separable photocatalyst with high performance under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Suting; Jiang, Wei; Han, Mei; Liu, Gongzong; Zhang, Na; Lu, Yue

    2015-08-01

    A stable magnetic separable plasmonic photocatalyst was successfully fabricated by grafting silver@silver chloride (Ag@AgCl) and ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The composite exhibited high activity degrading methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation: decomposition 97.4% of MB in 100 min and 97.9% of RB in 120 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to synergistic effect between Ag@AgCl and graphene: the effective charge transfer from Ag@AgCl to graphene thus promotes the separation of electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

  9. Possibility of separating spent nuclear fuel components by a plasma method in azimuthal magnetic and radial electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samokhin, A. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Vorona, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the method of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel in a system with an azimuthal magnetic field and the electric potential produced by electrodes located in a magnetized plasma. The results of calculation of trajectories of ions simulating uranium and the first peak of its fission products in the oneparticle approximation are described. The effect of the initial position and the initial velocity of ions on their trajectories is analyzed. The conditions ensuring the spatial separation of ions in the groups of masses admissible for practical realization are specified; it is shown that currents on the order of 100 kA through the central conductor and electrostatic potentials on the order of 1 kV are required for this purpose.

  10. Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies. PMID:25126911

  11. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Separation along the Magnetic Field in Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a quark-gluon plasma which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect. The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this Letter, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au +Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. This implies the dominance of hadronic interactions over partonic ones at lower collision energies.

  12. Development of magnetically separable immobilized lipase by using cellulose derivatives and their application in enantioselective esterification of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gowoun; Joo, Hongil; Kim, Jungbae; Lee, Jung-Heon

    2008-03-01

    Highly active, stable, and magnetically separable immobilized enzymes were developed using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and diethylaminoethyl cellulose DEAE-C; hereafter designated "DEAE" as supporting materials. Iron oxide nanoparticles penetrated the micropores of the supporting materials, rendering them magnetically separable. Lipase (LP) was immobilized on the surface of the supporting materials by using cross-linked enzyme aggregation (CLEA) by glutaraldehyde. The activity of enzyme aggregates coated on DEAE was approximately 2 times higher than that of enzyme aggregates coated on CMC. This is explained by the fact that enzyme aggregates with amine residues are more efficient than those with carboxyl residues. After a 96-h enantioselective ibuprofen esterification reaction, 6% ibuprofen propyl ester was produced from the racemic mixture of ibuprofen by using DEAE-LP, and 2.8% using CMC-LP. PMID:18388463

  13. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure

    PubMed Central

    Marmorat, Clement; Arinstein, Arkadii; Koifman, Naama; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zussman, Eyal; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the response to an imposed deformation is here determined by two competing factors: the establishment of the cross-linked mesh vs. the self-assembly of the fibrils into larger and stronger hierarchical structures. Therefore, properties deduced from the response to measurements such as rheology or swelling, are a combination of these two very different factors, hence a modeling is impossible unless more precise knowledge regarding the internal structure is available. The cryogenic-temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was adopted to image the fully hydrated gelatin network in which distinct chain folding was observed at low densities, while cross-linked networks were observed at higher densities. Based on these images, a theoretical model which results in good agreement between the mesh sizes of both networks and their mechanical properties was developed. PMID:27147410

  14. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Marmorat, Clement; Arinstein, Arkadii; Koifman, Naama; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zussman, Eyal; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the response to an imposed deformation is here determined by two competing factors: the establishment of the cross-linked mesh vs. the self-assembly of the fibrils into larger and stronger hierarchical structures. Therefore, properties deduced from the response to measurements such as rheology or swelling, are a combination of these two very different factors, hence a modeling is impossible unless more precise knowledge regarding the internal structure is available. The cryogenic-temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was adopted to image the fully hydrated gelatin network in which distinct chain folding was observed at low densities, while cross-linked networks were observed at higher densities. Based on these images, a theoretical model which results in good agreement between the mesh sizes of both networks and their mechanical properties was developed. PMID:27147410

  15. Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Cyrklaff, Marek; Risco, Cristina; Fernández, Jose Jesús; Jiménez, Maria Victoria; Estéban, Mariano; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Carrascosa, José L.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of cryo-microscopy and electron tomographic reconstruction has allowed us to determine the structure of one of the more complex viruses, intracellular mature vaccinia virus, at a resolution of 4–6 nm. The tomographic reconstruction allows us to dissect the different structural components of the viral particle, avoiding projection artifacts derived from previous microscopic observations. A surface-rendering representation revealed brick-shaped viral particles with slightly rounded edges and dimensions of ≈360 × 270 × 250 nm. The outer layer was consistent with a lipid membrane (5–6 nm thick), below which usually two lateral bodies were found, built up by a heterogeneous material without apparent ordering or repetitive features. The internal core presented an inner cavity with electron dense coils of presumptive DNA–protein complexes, together with areas of very low density. The core was surrounded by two layers comprising an overall thickness of ≈18–19 nm; the inner layer was consistent with a lipid membrane. The outer layer was discontinuous, formed by a periodic palisade built by the side interaction of T-shaped protein spikes that were anchored in the lower membrane and were arranged into small hexagonal crystallites. It was possible to detect a few pore-like structures that communicated the inner side of the core with the region outside the layer built by the T-shaped spike palisade. PMID:15699328

  16. Magnetic separation of materials. October 1976-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1976-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and testing of equipment which uses magnetism as a means of separating and purifying ores and minerals. This technology is used extensively in cleaning fossil fuels, separating fly ash constituents, mineral separations, beneficiation of ores, and other ore processing systems. The articles presented describe various operating systems, separating techniques and variables, and high-gradient magnetic separation which can be used with certain metal oxides and other paramagnetic materials. (This updated bibliography contains 225 citations, 96 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. The Successive Component-separated Magnetic-Transitions on Pseudoternary Compounds Ho1-xGdxRh2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeoka, Toru; Morita, Tetsuhiro; Fujiwara, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya

    Magnetic measurements on pseudoternary compounds Ho1-xGdxRh2Si2, which substitute Gd having no quadrupole for Ho, were performed. They exhibit a successive component-separated magnetic transition; the c- and ab-components of magnetic moments independently order at different temperatures TN1 and TN2, respectively. The partial ordered state, a frustration appears for TN1 >T >TN2: for the phase II in the magnetic phase diagrams. In the ordered phase, step-like metamagnetic processes appear for TN2 >T; two-step ones appear along the [001] and [100] directions, and a one-step one appears along the [110] direction. The B-T magnetic phase diagrams were constructed. There are six, four and three ordered phases in the B001-T, B100-T and B110-T phase diagram, respectively. Two diagrams of the basal plane directions, B100-T and B110-T, resemble each other. Some interesting or peculiar phase boundaries appear. The Gd composition x dependence of transition temperatures is determined. The transition temperatures TN1 and TN2 increase with increasing x. The x-dependency of TN1 is well scaled by the de Gennes factor: (g-1)2J(J+1) whereas the transition of TN2 is not scaled. Some magnetic features declare that quadrupole interactions play an important role in this compound system.

  18. Magnetic nanohybrids loaded with bimetal core-shell-shell nanorods for bacteria capture, separation, and near-infrared photothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Wang, Ning; Han, Lu; Chen, Ming-Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-20

    A novel antimicrobial nanohybrid based on near-infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion is designed for bacteria capture, separation, and sterilization (killing). Positively charged magnetic reduced graphene oxide with modification by polyethylenimine (rGO-Fe3 O4 -PEI) is prepared and then loaded with core-shell-shell Au-Ag-Au nanorods to construct the nanohybrid rGO-Fe3 O4 -Au-Ag-Au. NIR laser irradiation melts the outer Au shell and exposes the inner Ag shell, which facilitates controlled release of the silver shell. The nanohybrids combine physical photothermal sterilization as a result of the outer Au shell with the antibacterial effect of the inner Ag shell. In addition, the nanohybrid exhibits high heat conductivity because of the rGO and rapid magnetic-separation capability that is attributable to Fe3 O4 . The nanohybrid provides a significant improvement of bactericidal efficiency with respect to bare Au-Ag-Au nanorods and facilitates the isolation of bacteria from sample matrixes. A concentration of 25 μg mL(-1) of nanohybrid causes 100 % capture and separation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (1×10(8) cfu mL(-1) ) from an aqueous medium in 10 min. In addition, it causes a 22 °C temperature rise for the surrounding solution under NIR irradiation (785 nm, 50 mW cm(-2) ) for 10 min. With magnetic separation, 30 μg mL(-1) of nanohybrid results in a 100 % killing rate for E. coli O157:H7 cells. The facile bacteria separation and photothermal sterilization is potentially feasible for environmental and/or clinical treatment. PMID:25754902

  19. Magnetically separable Ag3PO4/NiFe2O4 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Santosh S; Tamboli, Mohaseen S; Deonikar, Virendrakumar G; Umarji, Govind G; Ambekar, Jalindar D; Kulkarni, Milind V; Kolekar, Sanjay S; Kale, Bharat B; Patil, Deepak R

    2015-12-21

    Magnetically separable Ag3PO4/NiFe2O4 (APO/NFO) composites were prepared by an in situ precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts consisting of different APO/NFO mass ratios was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The excellent photocatalytic activity was observed using APO/NFO5 (5% NFO) composites with good cycling stability which is higher than that of pure Ag3PO4 and NiFe2O4. All the APO/NFO composites showed good magnetic behavior, which makes them magnetically separable after reaction and reusable for several experiments. Photoconductivities of pure and composite samples were examined to study the photoresponse characteristics. The current intensity greatly enhanced by loading NFO to APO. Furthermore, the photocatalytic performance of the samples is correlated with the conductivity of the samples. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of APO/NFO composites for MB degradation is attributed to the excellent conductivity of APO/NFO composites through the co-catalytic effect of NFO by providing accelerated charge separation through the n-n interface. PMID:26508302

  20. Visible light activated photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline by a magnetically separable composite photocatalyst: Graphene oxide/magnetite/cerium-doped titania.

    PubMed

    Cao, Muhan; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, magnetic graphene oxide-loaded Ce-doped titania (MGO-Ce-TiO2) hybridized composite was prepared by a facile method. The as-prepared samples exhibited good adsorption capacity, high visible-light photoactive and magnetic separability as a novel photocatalyst in the degradation of tetracyclines (TC). The intermediate products and photocatalytic route of TC were proposed based on the analysis results of LC-MS. Moreover, the repeatability of the photoactivity with the use of MGO-Ce-TiO2 was investigated in the multi-round experiments with the assistance of an applied magnetic field. Therefore, the prepared composite photocatalysts were considered as a kind of promising photocatalyst in a suspension reaction system, in which they can offer effectively recovery ability. The effect of MGO content on the photocatalytic performance was also studied, and an optimum content was obtained. PMID:26799623

  1. Synthesis and performance of novel magnetically separable nanospheres of titanium dioxide photocatalyst with egg-like structure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shihong; Shangguan, Wenfeng; Yuan, Jian; Chen, Mingxia; Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Zhi

    2008-03-01

    A magnetically separable photocatalyst TiO(2)/SiO(2)/NiFe(2)O(4) (TSN) nanosphere with egg-like structure was prepared by a unique process that combined a liquid catalytic phase transformation method, reverse micelle technique and chemical precipitation means. The prepared photocatalyst shows high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water. The magnetic property measurements indicate that the photocatalyst possesses a superparamagnetic nature. It can be separated from water when an external magnetic field is added and redispersed into water solution after the external magnetic field is eliminated. It is one of the promising photocatalysts for wastewater treatment. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the TSN photocatalyst. The results indicate that nickel ferrite core nanoparticles were completely encapsulated into monodisperse silica nanospheres as carrier, and titania nanoparticle aggregates were coated onto the surface of SN nanospheres, forming an imperfect TiO(2) shell for photocatalysis. The SiO(2) layer between the NiFe(2)O(4) core and the TiO(2) shell effectively prevents the injection of charges from TiO(2) particles to NiFe(2)O(4), which gives rise to an increase in photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the recycled TSN exhibits good repeatability of the photocatalytic activity. PMID:21817681

  2. Synthesis and performance of novel magnetically separable nanospheres of titanium dioxide photocatalyst with egg-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shihong; Shangguan, Wenfeng; Yuan, Jian; Chen, Mingxia; Shi, Jianwei; Jiang, Zhi

    2008-03-01

    A magnetically separable photocatalyst TiO2/SiO2/NiFe2O4 (TSN) nanosphere with egg-like structure was prepared by a unique process that combined a liquid catalytic phase transformation method, reverse micelle technique and chemical precipitation means. The prepared photocatalyst shows high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water. The magnetic property measurements indicate that the photocatalyst possesses a superparamagnetic nature. It can be separated from water when an external magnetic field is added and redispersed into water solution after the external magnetic field is eliminated. It is one of the promising photocatalysts for wastewater treatment. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the TSN photocatalyst. The results indicate that nickel ferrite core nanoparticles were completely encapsulated into monodisperse silica nanospheres as carrier, and titania nanoparticle aggregates were coated onto the surface of SN nanospheres, forming an imperfect TiO2 shell for photocatalysis. The SiO2 layer between the NiFe2O4 core and the TiO2 shell effectively prevents the injection of charges from TiO2 particles to NiFe2O4, which gives rise to an increase in photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the recycled TSN exhibits good repeatability of the photocatalytic activity.

  3. Separation of Microcystin-LR by Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Magnetic Composite of Colloidal Graphene and Porous Silica.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Arjyabaran; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-05-13

    Microcystin-LR belongs to the family of microcystins produced by cyanobacteria and known to be the most toxic of this family. Existence of cyanobacteria in water bodies leads to the contamination of drinking water with microcystin-LR and thus their separation is essential for an advanced water purification system. Here we report functional nanocomposite-based selective separation of microcystin-LR from contaminated water. We have synthesized cyclodextrin-functionalized magnetic composite of colloidal graphene and porous silica where the cyclodextrin component offers host-guest interaction with microcystin-LR and the magnetic component offers easier separation of microcystin-LR from water. High surface area and large extent of chemical functional groups offer high loading (up to 18 wt %) of cyclodextrin with these nanocomposites, and the dispersible form of the nanocomposite offers easier accessibility of cyclodextrin to microcystin-LR. We have shown that microcystin-LR separation efficiency is significantly enhanced after functionalization with cyclodextrin, and among all the tested cyclodextrins, γ-cyclodextrin offers the best performance. We have also found that graphene-based nanocomposite offers better performance over porous silica-based nanocomposite due to better accessibility of cyclodextrins for interaction with microcystin-LR. The proposed graphene-based functional nanocomposite is environment friendly, reusable, and applicable for advanced water purification. PMID:25906257

  4. In Situ Characterization of Binary Mixed Polymer Brush-Grafted Silica Nanoparticles in Aqueous and Organic Solvents by Cryo-Electron Tomography.

    PubMed

    Fox, Tara L; Tang, Saide; Horton, Jonathan M; Holdaway, Heather A; Zhao, Bin; Zhu, Lei; Stewart, Phoebe L

    2015-08-11

    We present an in situ cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) study of mixed poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/polystyrene (PS) brush-grafted 67 nm silica nanoparticles in organic and aqueous solvents. These organic-inorganic nanoparticles are predicted to be environmentally responsive and adopt distinct brush layer morphologies in different solvent environments. Although the self-assembled morphology of mixed PAA/PS brush-grafted particles has been studied previously in a dried state, no direct visualization of microphase separation was achieved in the solvent environment. CryoEM allows the sample to be imaged in situ, that is, in a frozen solvated state, at the resolution of a transmission electron microscope. Cryo-electron tomograms (cryoET) were generated for mixed PAA/PS brush-grafted nanoparticles in both N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, a nonselective good solvent) and water (a selective solvent for PAA). Different nanostructures for the mixed brushes were observed in these two solvents. Overall, the brush layer is more compact in water, with a thickness of 18 nm, as compared with an extended layer of 27 nm in DMF. In DMF, mixed PAA/PS brushes are observed to form laterally separated microdomains with a ripple wavelength of 13.8 nm. Because of its lower grafting density than that of PAA, PS domains form more or less cylindrical or truncated cone-shaped domains in the PAA matrix. In water, PAA chains are found to form a more complete shell around the nanoparticle to maximize their interaction with water, whereas PS chains collapse into the core of surface-tethered micelles near the silica core. The cryoET results presented here confirm the predicted environmentally responsive nature of PAA/PS mixed brush-grafted nanoparticles. This experimental approach may be useful for the design of future mixed brush-grafted nanoparticles for nano- and biotechnology applications. PMID:26174179

  5. Cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Brost, Alexander; Jakob, Carolin; Mewes, Philip W.; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive catheter ablation has become the preferred treatment option for atrial fibrillation. Although the standard ablation procedure involves ablation points set by radio-frequency catheters, cryo-balloon catheters have even been reported to be more advantageous in certain cases. As electro-anatomical mapping systems do not support cryo-balloon ablation procedures, X-ray guidance is needed. However, current methods to provide support for cryo-balloon catheters in fluoroscopically guided ablation procedures rely heavily on manual user interaction. To improve this, we propose a first method for automatic cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images based on a blob detection algorithm. Our method is evaluated on 24 clinical images from 17 patients. The method successfully detected the cryoballoon in 22 out of 24 images, yielding a success rate of 91.6 %. The successful localization achieved an accuracy of 1.00 mm +/- 0.44 mm. Even though our methods currently fails in 8.4 % of the images available, it still offers a significant improvement over manual methods. Furthermore, detecting a landmark point along the cryo-balloon catheter can be a very important step for additional post-processing operations.

  6. Cryo-electron tomography in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Koning, Roman I; Koster, Abraham J

    2009-11-01

    During the last six decades electron microscopy (EM) has been essential to ultra-structural studies of the cell to understand the fundamentals of cellular morphology and processes underlying diseases. More recently, electron tomography (ET) has emerged as a novel approach able to provide three-dimensional (3D) information on cells and tissues at molecular level. Electron tomography is comparable to medical tomographic techniques like CAT, PET and MRI in the sense that it provides a 3D view of an object, yet it does so at a cellular scale and with nanometer resolution. Electron tomography has the unique ability to visualize molecular assemblies, cytoskeletal elements and organelles within cells. The three-dimensional perspective it provides has revised our understanding of cellular organization and its relation with morphological changes in normal development and disease. Cryo-electron tomography of vitrified samples at cryogenic temperatures combines excellent structural preservation with direct high-resolution imaging. The use of cryo-preparation and imaging techniques eliminates artifacts induced by plastic embedding and staining of the samples is circumvented. This review describes the technique of cryo-electron tomography, its basic principles, cryo-specimen preparation, tomographic data acquisition and image processing. A number of illustrative examples ranging from whole cells, cytoskeletal filaments, viruses and organelles are presented along with a comprehensive list of research articles employing cryo-electron tomography as the key ultrastuctural technique. PMID:19559584

  7. Progressive Stochastic Reconstruction Technique (PSRT) for cryo electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Turoňová, Beata; Marsalek, Lukas; Davidovič, Tomáš; Slusallek, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Cryo Electron Tomography (cryoET) plays an essential role in Structural Biology, as it is the only technique that allows to study the structure of large macromolecular complexes in their close to native environment in situ. The reconstruction methods currently in use, such as Weighted Back Projection (WBP) or Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT), deliver noisy and low-contrast reconstructions, which complicates the application of high-resolution protocols, such as Subtomogram Averaging (SA). We propose a Progressive Stochastic Reconstruction Technique (PSRT) - a novel iterative approach to tomographic reconstruction in cryoET based on Monte Carlo random walks guided by Metropolis-Hastings sampling strategy. We design a progressive reconstruction scheme to suit the conditions present in cryoET and apply it successfully to reconstructions of macromolecular complexes from both synthetic and experimental datasets. We show how to integrate PSRT into SA, where it provides an elegant solution to the region-of-interest problem and delivers high-contrast reconstructions that significantly improve template-based localization without any loss of high-resolution structural information. Furthermore, the locality of SA is exploited to design an importance sampling scheme which significantly speeds up the otherwise slow Monte Carlo approach. Finally, we design a new memory efficient solution for the specimen-level interior problem of cryoET, removing all associated artifacts. PMID:25659894

  8. Imaging biological structures with the cryo atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Sheng, S; Shao, Z

    1996-01-01

    It has long been recognized that one of the major limitations in biological atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the softness of most biological samples, which are easily deformed or damaged by the AFM tip, because of the high pressure in the contact area, especially from the very sharp tips required for high resolution. Another is the molecular motion present at room temperature due to thermal fluctuation. Using an AFM operated in liquid nitrogen vapor (cryo-AFM), we demonstrate that cryo-AFM can be applied to a large variety of biological samples, from immunoglobulins to DNA to cell surfaces. The resolution achieved with cryo-AFM is much improved when compared with AFM at room temperature with similar specimens, and is comparable to that of cryo-electron microscopy on randomly oriented macromolecules. We will also discuss the technical problems that remain to be solved for achieving even higher resolution with cryo-AFM and other possible applications of this novel technique. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8889193

  9. CryoEDM: A cryogenic experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Grinten, M. G. D.; CryoEDM Collaboration; Balashov, S. N.; Francis, V.; Green, K.; Iaydjiev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Khazov, A.; Tucker, M. A. H.; Wark, D. L.; Davidson, A.; Hardiman, M.; Harris, P. G.; Katsika, K.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Shiers, D. B.; Smith, P.; Townsley, C.; Wardell, I.; Clarke, C.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.; McCann, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Yoshiki, Y.

    2009-12-01

    CryoEDM is an experiment that aims to measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron to a precision of 10 -28 e cm. A description of CryoEDM, the apparatus, technologies and commissioning is presented.

  10. Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoshells: combining two-photon luminescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiulong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Shanshan; Kong, Ni; Xu, Hong; Fu, Qihua; Gu, Hongchen; Ye, Jian

    2014-11-01

    With the increasing need for multi-purpose analysis in the biomedical field, traditional single diagnosis methods cannot meet the requirements. Therefore new multifunctional technologies and materials for the integration of sample collection, sensing and imaging are in great demand. Core-shell nanoparticles offer a unique platform to combine multifunctions in a single particle. In this work, we have constructed a novel type of core-shell superparamagnetic nanoshell (Fe₃O₄@SiO₂@Au), composed of a Fe₃O₄ cluster core, a thin Au shell and a SiO₂ layer in between. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles combine the magnetic properties and plasmonic optical properties effectively, which were well investigated by a number of experimental characterization methods and theoretical simulations. We have demonstrated that Fe₃O₄@SiO₂@Au nanoparticles can be utilized for two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR SERS) and cell collection by magnetic separation. The TPL intensity could be further greatly enhanced through the plasmon coupling effect in the self-assembled nanoparticle chains, which were triggered by an external magnetic field. In addition, Fe₃O₄@SiO₂@Au nanoparticles may have great potential applications such as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photo-thermotherapy. Successful combination of multifunctions including magnetic response, biosensing and bioimaging in single nanoparticles allows further manipulation, real-time tracking, and intracellular molecule analysis of live cells at a single-cell level. PMID:25329447

  11. Separation of the contributions to the magnetization of Tm1 - x Yb x B12 solid solutions in steady and pulsed magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogach, A. V.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Azarevich, A. N.; Filippov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.; Levchenko, A. V.; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Gabani, S.; Flachbart, K.

    2013-05-01

    The magnetization of substitutional Tm1 - x Yb x B12 solid solutions is studied in the composition range 0 < x ≤ 0.81. The measurements are performed at low temperatures (1.9-300 K) in steady (up to 11 T) and pulsed (up to 50 T, pulse duration of 20-100 ms) magnetic fields. An analysis of the experimental data allowed the contributions to the magnetization of the paramagnetic phase of the Tm1 - x Yb x B12 compounds to be separated. These contributions include a Pauli component, which corresponds to the response of the heavy-fermion manybody states that appears in the energy gap in the vicinity of the Fermi level (density of states (3-4) × 1021 cm-3 meV-1), and a contribution with saturation in high magnetic fields attributed to the localized magnetic moments ((0.8-3.7)μB per unit cell) of the nanoclusters formed by rare-earth ions with an antiferromagnetic interaction.

  12. Application of magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres for immunomagnetic separation of bone marrow cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ting-Hao; Chang, Jing-Yi; Lee, Wen-Chien

    2009-05-01

    Surface-functionalized magnetic poly(styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) (PS-GMA) microspheres were prepared and coupled with Sca-1 antibody for cell selection from murine bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs). Biotinylated Sca-1 antibody could be directly coupled to avidin-bound magnetic microspheres. Alternatively, oxidized goat anti-mouse antibody was covalently bound onto the amino group-containing magnetic microspheres in a site-directed manner, and the resultant conjugate was coupled with non-modified Sca-1 antibody. Using the indirect antibody-bound magnetic microspheres, the purity of isolated Sca-1 + cells increased with bead-to-cell ratio. Using a bead-to-cell ratio of 10 beads/cell, a purity of 85% Sca-1 + cells corresponding to a 17-fold enrichment was achieved.

  13. Manipulation of magnetic phase separation and orbital occupancy in manganites by strain engineering and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Bin; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE) Team

    2015-03-01

    The modification of electronic phases in correlated oxides is one of the core issues of condensed matter. We report the reversible control of ferromagnetic phase transition in manganite films by ionic liquid gating, replicating the La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) phase diagram. The formation and annihilation of an insulating and magnetically hard phase in the soft magnetic matrix, which randomly nucleates and grows across the film, is directly observed under different gate voltages (VG) . The realization of reversible metal-insulator transition in colossal magnetoresistance materials can lead to the development of four-state memories. The orbital occupancy and magnetic anisotropy of LSMO films are manipulated by VG in a reversible and quantitative manner. Positive and negative VG increases and reduces the occupancy of the orbital and magnetic anisotropy that were initially favored by strain (irrespective of tensile and compressive), respectively. This finding fills in the blank of electrical manipulation of four degrees of freedom in correlated system.

  14. Continuous changes in structure mapped by manifold embedding of single-particle data in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2016-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy, when combined with single-particle reconstruction, is a powerful method for studying macromolecular structure. Recent developments in detector technology have pushed the resolution into a range comparable to that of X-ray crystallography. However, cryo-EM is able to separate and thus recover the structure of each of several discrete structures present in the sample. For the more general case involving continuous structural changes, a novel technique employing manifold embedding has been recently demonstrated. Potentially, the entire work-cycle of a molecular machine may be observed as it passes through a continuum of states, and its free-energy landscape may be mapped out. This technique will be outlined and discussed in the context of its application to a large single-particle dataset of yeast ribosomes. PMID:26884261

  15. Superconductivity and magnetism in RbxFe2-ySe2: Impact of thermal treatment on mesoscopic phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyeneth, S.; Bendele, M.; von Rohr, F.; Dluzewski, P.; Puzniak, R.; Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Bosma, S.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Shermadini, Z.; Amato, A.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Schilling, A.; Keller, H.

    2012-10-01

    An extended study of the superconducting and normal-state properties of various as-grown and post-annealed RbxFe2-ySe2 single crystals is presented. Magnetization experiments evidence that annealing of RbxFe2-ySe2 at 413 K, well below the onset of phase separation Tp≃489 K, neither changes the magnetic nor the superconducting properties of the crystals. In addition, annealing at 563 K, well above Tp, suppresses the superconducting transition temperature Tc and leads to an increase of the antiferromagnetic susceptibility accompanied by the creation of ferromagnetic impurity phases, which are developing with annealing time. However, annealing at T=488K≃Tp increases Tc up to 33.3 K, sharpens the superconducting transition, increases the lower critical field, and strengthens the screening efficiency of the applied magnetic field. Resistivity measurements of the as-grown and optimally annealed samples reveal an increase of the upper critical field along both crystallographic directions as well as its anisotropy. Muon spin rotation and scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments suggest the coexistence of two phases below Tp: a magnetic majority phase of Rb2Fe4Se5 and a nonmagnetic minority phase of Rb0.5Fe2Se2. Both microscopic techniques indicate that annealing the specimens just at Tp does not affect the volume fraction of the two phases, although the magnetic field distribution in the samples changes substantially. This suggests that the microstructure of the sample, caused by mesoscopic phase separation, is modified by annealing just at Tp, leading to an improvement of the superconducting properties of RbxFe2-ySe2 and an enhancement of Tc.

  16. Novel core-shell cerium(IV)-immobilized magnetic polymeric microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, novel magnetic polymeric core-shell structured microspheres with immobilized Ce(IV), Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV), were designed rationally and synthesized successfully via a facile route for the first time. Magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres were first prepared by directly coating a thin layer of silica onto Fe3O4 magnetic particles using a sol-gel method, a poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) shell was then coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres to form Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through a radical polymerization reaction, and finally Ce(IV) ions were robustly immobilized onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through strong chelation between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties in the PVPA. The applicability of the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides from proteolytic digests of standard and real protein samples was investigated. The results demonstrated that the core-shell structured Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres with abundant Ce(IV) affinity sites and excellent magnetic responsiveness can effectively purify phosphopeptides from complex biosamples for MS detection taking advantage of the rapid magnetic separation and the selective affinity between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties of the phosphopeptides. Furthermore, they can be effectively recycled and show good reusability, and have better performance than commercial TiO2 beads and homemade Fe3O4@PMAA-Ce(IV) microspheres. Thus the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres can benefit greatly the mass spectrometric qualitative analysis of phosphopeptides in phosphoproteome research. PMID:24407680

  17. Optimization of sample cooling temperature for redox cryo-imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anle; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Weihua; Liu, Mengmeng; Luo, Qingming

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-imaging techniques have been widely used to measure the metabolic state of tissues by capturing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) autofluorescence. However, NADH and FAD fluorescence is sensitive to changes in temperature, which may result in unreliable redox ratio calculations. Here, the relationship between the measured redox ratio and sample surface temperature was analyzed using a standard phantom solution and biological tissues. The results indicated that a temperature < - 100°C was a suitable cryo-imaging temperature window in which redox ratio measuring was immune to temperature fluctuations. These results may serve as a reference for designing and optimizing redox cryo-imaging experiments for quantitatively mapping the metabolic state of biological samples. PMID:25147959

  18. An experimental VLT cryo-cooler instrumentation vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Gerd; Lizon, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-01

    Cryo-coolers are widely used to provide the required temperature levels of ESO's VLT instrumentation suite, mainly for infrared instruments and their detectors. Nevertheless, mechanical vibrations induced by these refrigerator systems became a serious issue over the last years. Especially for the extremely sensitive VLT-Interferometer even micro vibration levels can be critical. As a consequence ESO started some time ago a comprehensive vibration reduction program. Major tasks involved are the quantification of typical cryo-cooler instrument vibration levels and their impact on the VLT / VLT-I optical stability. This paper describes the design, construction and calibration of a dedicated VLT dummy instrument comprising six powerful state-of-the-art 2-stage cold heads and the subsequent comprehensive vibration measurement test campaign. As a result trendsetting cryo-cooler instrument design and operation recommendations are presented.

  19. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Grapentin, Christoph; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE) are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI). 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS) is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM), to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion. PMID:26098661

  20. Capture and separation of biomolecules using magnetic beads in a simple microfluidic channel without an external flow device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Morabito, Kenneth; Erkers, Tom; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2013-11-01

    The use of microfluidic devices and magnetic beads for applications in biotechnology has been extensively explored over the past decade. Many elaborate microfluidic chips have been used in efficient systems for biological assays. However most fail to achieve the ideal point of care (POC) status, as they require larger conventional external devices in conjunction with the microchip. This paper presents a simple technique to capture and separate biomolecules using magnetic bead movement on a microchip without the use of an external flow device. This microchip consisted of two well reservoirs (W1 and W2) connected via a tapered microchannel. Beads were dragged through the microchannel between the two wells at an equivalent speed to a permanent magnet that moved alongside the microchip. More than 95% of beads were transferred from W1 to W2 within 2 min at an average velocity of 0.7 mm s(-1). Enzymatic reactions were employed to test our microchip. Specifically, three assays were performed using the streptavidin coated magnetic beads as a solid support to capture and transfer biomolecules: (1) non-specific adsorption of the substrate, 6-8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP), (2) capture of the enzyme, biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP), and (3) separation of AP from DiFMUP. Our non-specific adsorption assay indicated that the microchip was capable of transferring the beads with less than 0.002% carryover of DiFMUP. Our capture assay indicated efficient capture and transfer of AP with beads to W2 containing DiFMUP, where the transferred AP converted 100% of DiFMUP to DiFMU within 15 minutes. Our separation assay showed effective separation of AP from DiFMUP and elucidated the binding capacity of the beads for AP. The leftover unbound AP in W1 converted 100% of DiFMUP within 10 minutes and samples with less than the full bead capacity of AP (i.e. all AP was transferred) did not convert any of the DiFMUP. The immobilization of AP on the bead surface resulted in 32% reduced enzymatic speed compared to that of free AP in solution, as a result of altered protein conformation and/or steric hindrance of the catalytic site. Overall, this microfluidic platform was established as a simple, efficient and effective approach for separating biomolecules without any flow apparatus. PMID:24051541

  1. Cryo-imaging in a toxicological study on mouse fetuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debashish; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Sloter, Eddie; Watanabe, Michiko; Wilson, David

    2010-03-01

    We applied the Case cryo-imaging system to detect signals of developmental toxicity in transgenic mouse fetuses resulting from maternal exposure to a developmental environmental toxicant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD). We utilized a fluorescent transgenic mouse model that expresses Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) exclusively in smooth muscles under the control of the smooth muscle gamma actin (SMGA) promoter (SMGA/EGFP mice kindly provided by J. Lessard, U. Cincinnati). Analysis of cryo-image data volumes, comprising of very high-resolution anatomical brightfield and molecular fluorescence block face images, revealed qualitative and quantitative morphological differences in control versus exposed fetuses. Fetuses randomly chosen from pregnant females euthanized on gestation day (GD) 18 were either manually examined or cryo-imaged. For cryo-imaging, fetuses were embedded, frozen and cryo-sectioned at 20 μm thickness and brightfield color and fluorescent block-face images were acquired with an in-plane resolution of ~15 μm. Automated 3D volume visualization schemes segmented out the black embedding medium and blended fluorescence and brightfield data to produce 3D reconstructions of all fetuses. Comparison of Treatment groups TCDD GD13, TCDD GD14 and control through automated analysis tools highlighted differences not observable by prosectors performing traditional fresh dissection. For example, severe hydronephrosis, suggestive of irreversible kidney damage, was detected by cryoimaging in fetuses exposed to TCDD. Automated quantification of total fluorescence in smooth muscles revealed suppressed fluorescence in TCDD-exposed fetuses. This application demonstrated that cryo-imaging can be utilized as a routine high-throughput screening tool to assess the effects of potential toxins on the developmental biology of small animals.

  2. Methyl parathion imprinted polymer nanoshell coated on the magnetic nanocore for selective recognition and fast adsorption and separation in soils.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiying; Guo, Changjuan; Li, Yongxian; Yu, Zerong; Wei, Chaohai; Tang, Youwen

    2014-01-15

    Core-shell magnetic methyl parathion (MP) imprinted polymers (Fe3O4@MPIPs) were fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly process. In order to take full advantage of the synergistic effect of hydrogen-binding interactions and π-π accumulation between host and guest for molecular recognition, methacrylic acid and 4-vinyl pyridine were chosen as co-functional monomers and their optimal proportion were investigated. The core-shell and crystalline structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Fe3O4@MPIPs were characterized. The MP-imprinted nanoshell was almost uniform and about 100nm thick. Binding experiments demonstrated that Fe3O4@MPIPs possessed excellent binding properties, including high adsorption capacity and specific recognition, as well as fast adsorption kinetics and a fast phase separation rate. The equilibration adsorption capacity reached up to 9.1mg/g, which was 12 times higher than that of magnetic non-imprinted polymers, while adsorption reached equilibrium within 5min at a concentration of 0.2mmol/L. Furthermore, Fe3O4@MPIPs successfully provided selective separation and removal of MP in soils with a recovery and detection limit of 81.1-87.0% and 5.2ng/g, respectively. PMID:24275470

  3. Spinel type CoFe oxide porous nanosheets as magnetic adsorbents with fast removal ability and facile separation.

    PubMed

    Ge, X; Gu, C D; Wang, X L; Tu, J P

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption is often time consuming due to slow diffusion kinetic. Sizing he adsorbent down might help to accelerate adsorption. For CoFe spinel oxide, a magnetically separable adsorbent, the preparation of nanosheets faces many challenges including phase separation, grain growth and difficulty in preparing two-dimensional materials. In this work, we prepared porous CoFe oxide nanosheet with chemical formula of Co2.698Fe0.302O4 through topochemical transformation of a CoFe precursor, which has a layered double hydroxide (LDH) analogue structure and a large interlayer spacing. The LDH precursor was synthesized from a cheap deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The calcined Co2.698Fe0.302O4 has small grain size (10-20nm), nanosheet morphology, and porous structure, which contribute to a large specific surface area of 79.5m(2)g(-1). The Co2.698Fe0.302O4 nanosheets show fast removal ability and good adsorption capacity for both organic waste (305mgg(-1) in 5min for Congo red) and toxic heavy metal ion (5.27mgg(-1) in 30min for Cr (VI)). Furthermore, the Co2.698Fe0.302O4 can be separated magnetically. Considering the precursor can be prepared through a fast, simple, surfactant-free and high-yield synthetic strategy, this work should have practical significance in fabricating adsorbents. PMID:26005799

  4. Development of magnetic separation and quantum dots labeled immunoassay for the detection of mercury in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hubo; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jilong; Tian, Mi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Zhiwei; Huang, Peili

    2015-04-01

    A rapid and sensitive immunoassays of mercury (Hg) in biological samples was developed using quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic beads (MBs) as fluorescent and separated probes, respectively. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes an Hg detection antigen (BSA-DTPA-Hg) complex was produced by the injection of BALB/c mice with an Hg immunizing antigen (KLH-DTPA-Hg). Then the ascites monoclonal antibodies were purified. The Hg monoclonal antibody (Hg-mAb) is conjugated with MBs to separate Hg from biological samples, and the other antibody, which is associated with QDs, is used to detect the fluorescence. The Hg in biological samples can be quantified using the relationship between the QDs fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Hg in biological samples following magnetic separation. In this method, the detection linear range is 1-1000ng/mL, and the minimum detection limit is 1ng/mL. The standard addition recovery rate was 94.70-101.18%. The relative standard deviation values were 2.76-7.56%. Furthermore, the Hg concentration can be detected in less than 30min, the significant interference of other heavy metals can be avoided, and the simultaneous testing of 96 samples can be performed. These results indicate that the method could be used for rapid monitoring Hg in the body. PMID:25744508

  5. A pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for efficient removal of highly dilute antibiotics in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanpeng; Ma, Jianqing; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    In order to control the antibiotic-related crisis and reduce the negative impacts on the environment and human health, it is urgent to develop effective technologies to eliminate residual antibiotics in water. Herein, we successfully fabricated a novel, pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for micropollutant adsorption and oxidation degradation in graphene oxide (GO)/nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite with macroscopic structure. The pH-responsive self-assembly behavior of GO/nZVI composite was explored. The macroscopic structure of GO/nZVI composite serves as an excellent adsorbent for antibiotic removal in water. The adsorption process is fast and highly efficient even in high salty and humic acid containing water under acid to neutral conditions. After removal antibiotics, GO/nZVI composite is conveniently separated by magnetic system and put into alkaline solution (pH > 9) for adsorbent regeneration. Interestingly, it is found that at pH > 9, GO/nZVI composite disassembles partly upon increasing pH values, leading to the elution of antibiotics for efficient antibiotics degradation by ozonization. More importantly, this pH-responsive GO/nZVI system exhibits high removal efficiency, high stability, reusability and easily separation, making it a promising method for treatment of water with micropollutants. PMID:26724436

  6. JWST pathfinder telescope risk reduction cryo test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noël, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  7. Kodak AMSD mirror program: overview and cryo test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary; Barrett, David; Bolton, James; Dahl, Roger; Michaels, Elise; Mallette, Mark; Johnson, Josh

    2004-01-01

    Kodak AMSD mirror processing was successfully completed, and the mirror was cryo tested at NASA. This paper reviews the entire AMSD program at Eastman Kodak Company from mirror blank production to mirror processing and metrology. To achieve the most information possible with respect to the flight configuration planned for JWST, the original Kodak AMSD test plan was modified. This change in plan is discussed and how it impacts the future path for AMSD. The AMSD Phase III program is also discussed and the status of that program is provided. In addition, this paper discusses performance of the mirror at cryo temperatures.

  8. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  9. New high performance hybrid magnet plates for DNA separation andbio-technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Elkin, Chris; Petermann, Karl; Reiter, Charles; Cepeda, Mario

    2004-08-02

    A new class of magnet plates for biological and industrial applications has recently been developed at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (JGI/LBNL). These devices utilize hybrid technology that combines linear permanent magnet material and ferromagnetic material to produce significantly higher fields and gradients than currently available commercial magnet plates. These hybrid structures incorporate ferromagnetic poles that can be easily shaped to produce complex field distributions for specialized applications. The higher maximum fields and strong gradients of the hybrid structures result in greater holding forces on magnetized targets that are being processed as well as faster draw-down. Current development versions of these magnet plates have exhibited maximum fields in excess of 9000.0 Gauss. The design of these structures is easily scalable to allow for field increases to significantly above 1.0 tesla (10000.0gauss). Author's note: 11000.0 Gauss peak fields have been achieved as of January 2005.

  10. Separation and enrichment of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls from real waters using a novel magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiabin; Gan, Ning; Pan, Muyun; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen; Long, Nengbing

    2015-03-01

    A novel and effective magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite for the separation and enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls was developed. Fe3 O4 @SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were first synthesized, then the poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) was laid on its surface to prepare the polyanionic magnetic nanoparticles. The above materials were then grafted with polycationic multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which were modified by polydiallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride through the layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. Its performance was tested by magnetic solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples. Under optimal conditions, the spiked recoveries of several real samples for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180) were in the range of 73.4-99.5% with relative standard deviations varying from 1.5 to 8.4%. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls were between 0.018 and 0.039 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze polychlorinated biphenyls in real water samples. Satisfactory results were obtained using the effective magnetic absorbent. PMID:25556922

  11. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted microspheres for rapid separation and determination of triazine herbicides in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fengxia; Row, Kyung Ho; Wang, Mengge

    2014-04-15

    A novel kind of water-compatible magnetic imprinted cyromazine microsphere (WCMM) was synthesized by water/oil/water suspension polymerization. The obtained WCMM was homogenously spherical with porous morphology and strong magnetic properties. The microspheres were successfully used as adsorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction (WCMM-dSPE) to selectively extract cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water. Good linearity of the two analytes was observed in the range from 2.5 to 200.0ngmL(-1). The average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 84.8% to 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6.9%. Compared with magnetic non-imprinted particles (WCMN), the proposed WCMM adsorbent of dSPE efficiently improved the efficiency of extracting cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water samples and eliminated the effect of cyromazine leakage on the quantitative analysis of cyanazine and atrazine. The proposed WCMM-dSPE method combined the advantages of magnetic separation, molecular imprinted microspheres and dSPE. PMID:24657415

  12. Application of Graphene Oxide-MnFe2O4 Magnetic Nanohybrids as Magnetically Separable Adsorbent for Highly Efficient Removal of Arsenic from Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Pham Thi Lan; Huy, Le Thanh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Huy, Tran Quang; Nam, Man Hoai; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a functional magnetic nanohybrid consisting of manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. The as-prepared GO-MnFe2O4 magnetic nanohybrids were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. Adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption capacities and efficient removal of arsenic of the nanohybrid and compared with bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. Our obtained results reveal that the adsorption process of the nanohybrids was well fitted with a pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and a Freundlich isotherm model; the maximum adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of the nanohybrids obtained ~240.385 mg/g and 99.9% with a fast response of equilibrium adsorption time ~20 min. The larger adsorption capacity and shorter equilibrium time of the GO-MnFe2O4 nanohybrids showed better performance than that of bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. The advantages of reusability, magnetic separation, high removal efficiency, and quick kinetics make these nanohybrids very promising as low-cost adsorbents for fast and effective removal of arsenic from water.

  13. A Magnetically Separable, Highly Stable Enzyme System Based on Nanocomposites of Enzymes and Magnetic Nanoparticles Shipped in Hierarchically Ordered, Mesocellular, Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Lee, Jinwoo; Na, Hyon Bin; Kim, Byoung Chan; Youn, Jongkyu; Kwak, Ja Hun; Moon, Karam; Lee, Eunwoong; Kim, Jaeyun; Park, Jongnam; Dohnalkova, Alice; Park, Hyun-Gyu; Gu, Man Bock; Chang, Ho Nam; Grate, Jay W.; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2005-12-01

    Enzymes are versatile nanoscale biocatalysts, and find increasing applications in many areas, including organic synthesis[1-3] and bioremediation.[4-5] However, the application of enzymes is often hampered by the short catalytic lifetime of enzymes and by the difficulty in recovery and recycling. To solve these problems, there have been a lot of efforts to develop effective enzyme immobilization techniques. Recent advances in nanotechnology provide more diverse materials and approaches for enzyme immobilization. For example, mesoporous materials offer potential advantages as a host of enzymes due to their well-controlled porosity and large surface area for the immobilization of enzymes.[6,7] On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that enzymes attached on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be easily recovered using a magnet and recycled for iterative uses.[8] In this paper, we report the development of magnetically-separable and highly-stable enzyme system by the combined use of two different kinds of nanostructured materials: magnetic nanoparticles and mesoporous silica.

  14. Application of Graphene Oxide-MnFe2O4 Magnetic Nanohybrids as Magnetically Separable Adsorbent for Highly Efficient Removal of Arsenic from Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Pham Thi Lan; Huy, Le Thanh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Huy, Tran Quang; Nam, Man Hoai; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a functional magnetic nanohybrid consisting of manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. The as-prepared GO-MnFe2O4 magnetic nanohybrids were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. Adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption capacities and efficient removal of arsenic of the nanohybrid and compared with bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. Our obtained results reveal that the adsorption process of the nanohybrids was well fitted with a pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and a Freundlich isotherm model; the maximum adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of the nanohybrids obtained ~240.385 mg/g and 99.9% with a fast response of equilibrium adsorption time ~20 min. The larger adsorption capacity and shorter equilibrium time of the GO-MnFe2O4 nanohybrids showed better performance than that of bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. The advantages of reusability, magnetic separation, high removal efficiency, and quick kinetics make these nanohybrids very promising as low-cost adsorbents for fast and effective removal of arsenic from water.

  15. Influence of the separation procedure on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles: Gaining in vitro stability and T1-T2 magnetic resonance imaging performance.

    PubMed

    Guldris, Noelia; Argibay, Bárbara; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Sobrino, Tomás; Campos, Francisco; Salonen, Laura M; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Castillo, José; Rivas, José

    2016-06-15

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in gram-scale quantity and extensively characterized. Only the nanoparticles subjected to an additional centrifugation step showed narrow size distribution, high polymeric coverage, and ideal superparamagnetism. In addition to improved physico-chemical properties, these nanoparticles feature high stability in vitro as well as dual T1-T2 performance as contrast agents (CAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), highlighting the importance of the additional separation step in obtaining material with the desired properties. PMID:27038785

  16. Magnetically separable Cu2O/chitosan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunhua; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Chunhua; Cao, Qihua

    2015-04-01

    A novel magnetically-separable visible-light-induced photocatalyst, Cu2O/chitosan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite (Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NC), was prepared via a facile one-step precipitation-reduction process by using magnetic chitosan chelating copper ions as precursor. The structure and properties of Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, BET, VSM, XPS and UV-vis/DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs was evaluated by decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) under visible light irradiation. The characterization results indicated that Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs exhibited relatively large specific surface areas and special dimodal pore structure because Cu2O was wrapped in chitosan matrix embedded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The tight combination of magnetic Fe3O4 and semiconductor Cu2O through chitosan made the nanocomposites show good superparamagnetism and photocatalytic activity. It was found that X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in neutral or alkaline media. The decolorization of X-3B was ascribed to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and adsorption. Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs could be easily separated from the solution by an external magnet, and the decolorization rates of X-3B were still above 87% after five reaction cycles, indicating that Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs had excellent reusability and stability.

  17. Novel Monoclonal Antibody and Peptide Binders for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Their Application for Magnetic Separation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lorna M; Stewart, Linda D; Strain, Sam A J; Grant, Irene R

    2016-01-01

    The generation of novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific monoclonal antibodies and phage-display derived peptide binders, along with their application for the magnetic separation (MS) of MAP cells, is described. Our aim was to achieve even greater MAP capture capability than is possible with peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) using a 50:50 mix of biotinylated-aMp3 and biotinylated-aMptD peptide-coated beads. Gamma-irradiated whole MAP cells and ethanol extracted antigens (EEA) from these cells were used to elicit an immune response and as phage-display biopanning targets. A range of novel binders was obtained and coated onto paramagnetic beads, both individually and in various combinations, for MS evaluation. IS900 PCR was employed after MS to provide quick results. Capture sensitivity was assessed using a range of MAP concentrations after which the most promising beads were tested for their specificity for MAP, by performing MS followed by culture using 10 other Mycobacterium species. Magnetic beads coated with the biotinylated EEA402 peptide demonstrated a greater level of MAP capture than the current PMS method, even when low numbers of MAP (<10 cfu/ml) were present; however these beads also captured a range of other mycobacteria and so lacked capture specificity. Magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies 6G11 and 15D10 (used as a 50:50 mix or as dually coated beads) also demonstrated improved MAP capture relative to the current PMS method, but with little cross-reactivity to other Mycobacterium spp. Therefore, two new MS protocols are suggested, the application of which would be dependent upon the required endpoint. Biotinylated EEA402-coated beads could potentially be used with a MAP-specific PCR to ensure detection specificity, while beads coated with 6G11 and 15D10 monoclonal antibodies could be used with culture or the phage amplification assay. PMID:26815790

  18. Novel Monoclonal Antibody and Peptide Binders for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Their Application for Magnetic Separation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Lorna M.; Stewart, Linda D.; Strain, Sam A. J.; Grant, Irene R.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific monoclonal antibodies and phage-display derived peptide binders, along with their application for the magnetic separation (MS) of MAP cells, is described. Our aim was to achieve even greater MAP capture capability than is possible with peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) using a 50:50 mix of biotinylated-aMp3 and biotinylated-aMptD peptide-coated beads. Gamma-irradiated whole MAP cells and ethanol extracted antigens (EEA) from these cells were used to elicit an immune response and as phage-display biopanning targets. A range of novel binders was obtained and coated onto paramagnetic beads, both individually and in various combinations, for MS evaluation. IS900 PCR was employed after MS to provide quick results. Capture sensitivity was assessed using a range of MAP concentrations after which the most promising beads were tested for their specificity for MAP, by performing MS followed by culture using 10 other Mycobacterium species. Magnetic beads coated with the biotinylated EEA402 peptide demonstrated a greater level of MAP capture than the current PMS method, even when low numbers of MAP (<10 cfu/ml) were present; however these beads also captured a range of other mycobacteria and so lacked capture specificity. Magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies 6G11 and 15D10 (used as a 50:50 mix or as dually coated beads) also demonstrated improved MAP capture relative to the current PMS method, but with little cross-reactivity to other Mycobacterium spp. Therefore, two new MS protocols are suggested, the application of which would be dependent upon the required endpoint. Biotinylated EEA402-coated beads could potentially be used with a MAP-specific PCR to ensure detection specificity, while beads coated with 6G11 and 15D10 monoclonal antibodies could be used with culture or the phage amplification assay. PMID:26815790

  19. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

  20. A Toolkit For CryoSat Investigations By The ESRIN EOP-SER Altimetry Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Bruno, Lucas; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new tool for the exploitation of the CryoSat data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The tool framework is composed of two separate components: the first one handles the data collection and management, the second one is the processing toolkit. The CryoSat FBR (Full Bit Rate) data is downlinked uncompressed from the satellite, containing un-averaged individual echoes. This data is made available in the Kiruna CalVal server in a 10 day rolling archive. Daily at ESRIN all the CryoSat FBR data, in SAR and SARin Mode, are downloaded (around 30 Gigabytes) catalogued and archived in local ESRIN EOP-SER workstations. As of March 2013, the total amount of FBR data is over 9 Terabytes, with CryoSat acquisition dates spanning January 2011 to February 2013 (with some gaps). This archive was built by merging partial datasets available at ESTEC and NOAA, that have been kindly made available for EOP-SER team. The on-demand access to this low level data is restricted to expert users with validated ESA P.I. credentials. Currently the main users of the archiving functionality are the team members of the Project CP4O (STSE- CryoSat Plus for Ocean), CNES and NOAA. The second component of the service is the processing toolkit. On the EOP-SER workstations there is internally and independently developed software that is able to process the FBR data in SAR/SARin mode to generate multi-looked echoes (Level 1B) and subsequently able to re-track them in SAR and SARin mode (Level 2) over open ocean, exploiting the SAMOSA model and other internally developed models. The processing segment is used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross- comparison against third part products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation to Sentinel-3 mission, publications, etc. Samples of these experimental SAR/SARin L1b/L2 Products can be provided to the scientific community for comparison with self-processed data, on-request. So far, the processing has been designed and optimized for open ocean studies and is fully functional only over this kind of surface but there are plans to augment this processing capacity over coastal zones, inland waters and over land in sight of maximizing the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Topographic mission over all surfaces. There are also plans to make the toolkit fully accessible through software “gridification” to run in the ESRin GPod (Grid Processing on Demand) Service and to extend the tool's functionalities to support Sentinel-3 Mission (both Simulated and Real Data). Graphs and statistics about the spatial coverage and amount of FBR data actually archived on the EOP-SER workstations and some scientific results will be shown in this paper along with the tests that have been designed and performed to validate the products (tests against CryoSat Kiruna PDGS Products and against transponder data).

  1. Navigation for fluoroscopy-guided cryo-balloon ablation procedures of atrial fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourier, Felix; Brost, Alexander; Kleinoeder, Andreas; Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Koch, Martin; Kiraly, Attila; Schneider, Hans-Juergen; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert; Kurzidim, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib), the most common arrhythmia, has been identified as a major cause of stroke. The current standard in interventional treatment of AFib is the pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). PVI is guided by fluoroscopy or non-fluoroscopic electro-anatomic mapping systems (EAMS). Either classic point-to-point radio-frequency (RF)- catheter ablation or so-called single-shot-devices like cryo-balloons are used to achieve electrically isolation of the pulmonary veins and the left atrium (LA). Fluoroscopy-based systems render overlay images from pre-operative 3-D data sets which are then merged with fluoroscopic imaging, thereby adding detailed 3-D information to conventional fluoroscopy. EAMS provide tracking and visualization of RF catheters by means of electro-magnetic tracking. Unfortunately, current navigation systems, fluoroscopy-based or EAMS, do not provide tools to localize and visualize single shot devices like cryo-balloon catheters in 3-D. We present a prototype software for fluoroscopy-guided ablation procedures that is capable of superimposing 3-D datasets as well as reconstructing cyro-balloon catheters in 3-D. The 3-D cyro-balloon reconstruction was evaluated on 9 clinical data sets, yielded a reprojected 2-D error of 1.72 mm +/- 1.02 mm.

  2. Natural circulation loop using liquid nitrogen for cryo-detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yeon Suk

    2014-01-29

    The natural circulation loop is designed for the cryogenic insert in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Sensitivity is the key parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer and the cryo-cooling of the pre-amplifier can reduce the thermal noise level and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The pre-amplifier consisted of non-magnetic materials is thermally connected to the cooling loop which is passing through the flange maintaining ultra-high vacuum in the ion cell. The liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the loop to cool the pre-amplifier indirectly. At the end, a cryocooler is located to re-condense nitrogen vapor generated due to the heat from the pre-amplifier. The circulating fluid removes heat from the pre-amplifier and transports it to the cryocooler or heat sink. In this paper the natural circulation loop for cryogenic pre-amplifier is introduced for improving the sensitivity of cryo-detector. In addition, the initial cool-down of the system by a cryocooler is presented and the temperature of the radiation shield is discussed with respect to the thickness of shield and the thermal radiation load.

  3. Quantitative imaging of flux vortices in the type-II superconductor MgB2 using cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottet, M. J. G.; Cantoni, M.; Mansart, B.; Alexander, D. T. L.; Hébert, C.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.; Carbone, F.

    2013-07-01

    Imaging of flux vortices in high quality MgB2 single crystals has been successfully performed in a commercial field-emission gun-based transmission electron microscope. In cryo-Lorentz microscopy, the sample quality and the vortex lattice can be monitored simultaneously, allowing one to relate microscopically the surface quality and the vortex dynamics. Such a vortex motion ultimately determines the flow resistivity ρf, the knowledge of which is indispensable for practical applications such as superconducting magnets or wires for magnetic resonance imaging. The observed patterns have been analyzed and compared with other studies by cryo-Lorentz microscopy or Bitter decoration. We find that the vortex lattice arrangement depends strongly on the surface quality obtained during the specimen preparation, and tends to form a hexagonal Abrikosov lattice at a relatively low magnetic field. Stripes or gossamerlike patterns, recently suggested as potential signatures of an unconventional behavior of MgB2, were not observed.

  4. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  5. Correlative cryo-electron tomography and optical microscopy of cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peijun

    2013-10-01

    The biological processes occurring in a cell are complex and dynamic, and to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, both temporal and spatial information is required. While cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) provides three-dimensional (3D) still pictures of near-native state cells and organelles at molecular resolution, fluorescence light microscopy (fLM) offers movies of dynamic cellular processes in living cells. Combining and integrating these two commonly used imaging modalities (termed correlative microscopy) provides a powerful means to not only expand the imaging scale and resolution but also to complement the dynamic information available from optical microscopy with the molecular-level, 3D ultrastructure detail provided by cryoET. As such, a correlative approach performed on a given specimen can provide high resolution snapshots of dynamic cellular events. In this article, I review recent advances in correlative light microscopy and cryoET and discuss major findings made available by applying this method. PMID:23962486

  6. A Bayesian View on Cryo-EM Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single-particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images requires many parameters to be determined from extremely noisy data. This makes the method prone to overfitting, that is, when structures describe noise rather than signal, in particular near their resolution limit where noise levels are highest. Cryo-EM structures are typically filtered using ad hoc procedures to prevent overfitting, but the tuning of arbitrary parameters may lead to subjectivity in the results. I describe a Bayesian interpretation of cryo-EM structure determination, where smoothness in the reconstructed density is imposed through a Gaussian prior in the Fourier domain. The statistical framework dictates how data and prior knowledge should be combined, so that the optimal 3D linear filter is obtained without the need for arbitrariness and objective resolution estimates may be obtained. Application to experimental data indicates that the statistical approach yields more reliable structures than existing methods and is capable of detecting smaller classes in data sets that contain multiple different structures. PMID:22100448

  7. Magnetic and highly recyclable macroporous carbon nanotubes for spilled oil sorption and separation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xuchun; Zeng, Zhiping; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gan, Qiming; Xiang, Rong; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2013-06-26

    Development of sorbent materials with high selectivity and sorption capacity, easy collection and recyclability is demanding for spilled oil recovery. Although many sorption materials have been proposed, a systematic study on how they can be reused and possible performance degradation during regeneration remains absent. Here we report magnetic carbon nanotube sponges (Me-CNT sponge), which are porous structures consisting of interconnected CNTs with rich Fe encapsulation. The Me-CNT sponges show high mass sorption capacity for diesel oil reached 56 g/g, corresponding to a volume sorption capacity of 99%. The sponges are mechanically strong and oil can be squeezed out by compression. They can be recycled using through reclamation by magnetic force and desorption by simple heat treatment. The Me-CNT sponges maintain original structure, high capacity, and selectivity after 1000 sorption and reclamation cycles. Our results suggest that practical application of CNT macrostructures in the field of spilled oil recovery is feasible. PMID:23721652

  8. Microcystin-LR removal from aqueous solutions using a magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 was found to be significantly improved when compared with a non-magnetic N-doped TiO2 for the aqueous removal of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity may be related to the presence of ferri...

  9. Native immunogold labeling of cell surface proteins and viral glycoproteins for cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography applications.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong; Strauss, Joshua D; Ke, Zunlong; Alonas, Eric; Dillard, Rebecca S; Hampton, Cheri M; Lamb, Kristen M; Hammonds, Jason E; Santangelo, Philip J; Spearman, Paul W; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2015-10-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for immunogold labeling of thick, cryo-preserved biological specimens. However, most of the methods are permutations of chemical fixation and sample sectioning, which select and isolate the immunolabeled region of interest. We describe a method for combining immunogold labeling with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of the surface proteins of intact mammalian cells or the surface glycoproteins of assembling and budding viruses in the context of virus-infected mammalian cells cultured on EM grids. In this method, the cells were maintained in culture media at physiologically relevant temperatures while sequentially incubated with the primary and secondary antibodies. Subsequently, the immunogold-labeled specimens were vitrified and observed under cryo-conditions in the transmission electron microscope. Cryo-EM and cryo-ET examination of the immunogold-labeled cells revealed the association of immunogold particles with the target antigens. Additionally, the cellular structure was unaltered by pre-immunolabeling chemical fixation and retained well-preserved plasma membranes, cytoskeletal elements, and macromolecular complexes. We think this technique will be of interest to cell biologists for cryo-EM and conventional studies of native cells and pathogen-infected cells. PMID:26069287

  10. Calculating Separate Magnetic Free Energy Estimates for Active Regions Producing Multiple Flares: NOAA AR11158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 × 1020 Mx, 2.0 × 1020 Mx, and 21.0 × 1020 Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 × 1030 erg, 2.62 × 1030 erg, and 1.68 × 1032 erg.

  11. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  12. Non-infectious cryoglobulinemia vasculitis (CryoVas): update on clinical and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Espinoza, Luis R

    2014-05-01

    CryoVas is a small vessel vasculitis associated with the presence of circulating cryoglobulins. In the absence of HCV infection, several disorders have been identified in association of CryoVas. Although evidence is limited, a few studies have recently described the clinical presentation, prognosis, and therapeutic management of non-infectious CryoVas. Patients with type I CryoVas, especially associated with hematologic malignancies, have shown a worse clinical presentation. Recent studies have also identified prognostic factors in mixed CryoVas. Therapeutic management in non-infectious CryoVas remains to be defined. Overall, treatment options should be individualized based on severity of involvement. In this setting, new data have emerged regarding the role of biologic therapy in non-infectious CryoVas. Off-label use of rituximab should be highlighted, based on the assessment of benefits and risks, especially infections. PMID:24647999

  13. Using size-selected gold clusters on graphene oxide films to aid cryo-transmission electron tomography alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkill, Kenton P.; Mantell, Judith M.; Plant, Simon R.; Verkade, Paul; Palmer, Richard E.

    2015-03-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of a nano-scale aqueous object can be achieved by taking a series of transmission electron micrographs tilted at different angles in vitreous ice: cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography. Presented here is a novel method of fine alignment for the tilt series. Size-selected gold clusters of ~2.7 nm (Au561 +/- 14), ~3.2 nm (Au923 +/- 22), and ~4.3 nm (Au2057 +/- 45) in diameter were deposited onto separate graphene oxide films overlaying holes on amorphous carbon grids. After plunge freezing and subsequent transfer to cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography, the resulting tomograms have excellent (de-)focus and alignment properties during automatic acquisition. Fine alignment is accurate when the evenly distributed 3.2 nm gold particles are used as fiducial markers, demonstrated with a reconstruction of a tobacco mosaic virus. Using a graphene oxide film means the fiducial markers are not interfering with the ice bound sample and that automated collection is consistent. The use of pre-deposited size-selected clusters means there is no aggregation and a user defined concentration. The size-selected clusters are mono-dispersed and can be produced in a wide size range including 2-5 nm in diameter. The use of size-selected clusters on a graphene oxide films represents a significant technical advance for 3D cryo-electron microscopy.

  14. Using size-selected gold clusters on graphene oxide films to aid cryo-transmission electron tomography alignment

    PubMed Central

    Arkill, Kenton P.; Mantell, Judith M.; Plant, Simon R.; Verkade, Paul; Palmer, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of a nano-scale aqueous object can be achieved by taking a series of transmission electron micrographs tilted at different angles in vitreous ice: cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography. Presented here is a novel method of fine alignment for the tilt series. Size-selected gold clusters of ~2.7 nm (Au561 ± 14), ~3.2 nm (Au923 ± 22), and ~4.3 nm (Au2057 ± 45) in diameter were deposited onto separate graphene oxide films overlaying holes on amorphous carbon grids. After plunge freezing and subsequent transfer to cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography, the resulting tomograms have excellent (de-)focus and alignment properties during automatic acquisition. Fine alignment is accurate when the evenly distributed 3.2 nm gold particles are used as fiducial markers, demonstrated with a reconstruction of a tobacco mosaic virus. Using a graphene oxide film means the fiducial markers are not interfering with the ice bound sample and that automated collection is consistent. The use of pre-deposited size-selected clusters means there is no aggregation and a user defined concentration. The size-selected clusters are mono-dispersed and can be produced in a wide size range including 2–5 nm in diameter. The use of size-selected clusters on a graphene oxide films represents a significant technical advance for 3D cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:25783049

  15. Cryo-slicing Blue Native-Mass Spectrometry (csBN-MS), a Novel Technology for High Resolution Complexome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Catrin S; Bildl, Wolfgang; Haupt, Alexander; Ellenrieder, Lars; Becker, Thomas; Hunte, Carola; Fakler, Bernd; Schulte, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Blue native (BN) gel electrophoresis is a powerful method for protein separation. Combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), it enables large scale identification of protein complexes and their subunits. Current BN-MS approaches, however, are limited in size resolution, comprehensiveness, and quantification. Here, we present a new methodology combining defined sub-millimeter slicing of BN gels by a cryo-microtome with high performance LC-MS/MS and label-free quantification of protein amounts. Application of this cryo-slicing BN-MS approach to mitochondria from rat brain demonstrated a high degree of comprehensiveness, accuracy, and size resolution. The technique provided abundance-mass profiles for 774 mitochondrial proteins, including all canonical subunits of the oxidative respiratory chain assembled into 13 distinct (super-)complexes. Moreover, the data revealed COX7R as a constitutive subunit of distinct super-complexes and identified novel assemblies of voltage-dependent anion channels/porins and TOM proteins. Together, cryo-slicing BN-MS enables quantitative profiling of complexomes with resolution close to the limits of native gel electrophoresis. PMID:26598645

  16. Development of an aptamer-based impedimetric bioassay using microfluidic system and magnetic separation for protein detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixian; Ye, Zunzhong; Ping, Jianfeng; Jing, Shunru; Ying, Yibin

    2014-09-15

    An aptamer-based impedimetric bioassay using the microfluidic system and magnetic separation was developed for the sensitive and rapid detection of protein. The microfluidic impedance device was fabricated through integrating the gold interdigitated array microelectrode into a flow cell made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Aptamer modified magnetic beads were used to capture and separate the target protein, and concentrated into a suitable volume. Then the complexes were injected into the microfluidic flow cell for impedance measurement. To demonstrate the high performance of this novel detection system, thrombin was employed as the target protein. The results showed that the impedance signals at the frequency of 90 kHz have a good linearity with the concentrations of thrombin in a range from 0.1 nM to 10nM and the detection limit is 0.01 nM. Compared with the reported impedimetric aptasensors for thrombin detection, this method possesses several advantages, such as the increasing sensitivity, improving reproducibility, reducing sample volume and assay time. All these demonstrate the proposed detection system is an alternative way to enable sensitive, rapid and specific detection of protein. PMID:24709326

  17. Effects of pH and Magnetic Material on Immunomagnetic Separation of Cryptosporidium Oocysts from Concentrated Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Ryan C.; Rock, Channah M.; Oshima, Kevin H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect that magnetic materials and pH have on the recoveries of Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunomagnetic separation (IMS). We determined that particles that were concentrated on a magnet during bead separation have no influence on oocyst recovery; however, removal of these particles did influence pH values. The optimal pH of the IMS was determined to be 7.0. The numbers of oocysts recovered from deionized water at pH 7.0 were 26.3% higher than those recovered from samples that were not at optimal pH. The results indicate that the buffers in the IMS kit did not adequately maintain an optimum pH in some water samples. By adjusting the pH of concentrated environmental water samples to 7.0, recoveries of oocysts increased by 26.4% compared to recoveries from samples where the pH was not adjusted. PMID:11916735

  18. Well-defined nanostructured surface-imprinted polymers for highly selective magnetic separation of fluoroquinolones in human urine.

    PubMed

    He, Yonghuan; Huang, Yanyan; Jin, Yulong; Liu, Xiangjun; Liu, Guoquan; Zhao, Rui

    2014-06-25

    The construction of molecularly imprinted polymers on magnetic nanoparticles gives access to smart materials with dual functions of target recognition and magnetic separation. In this study, the superparamagnetic surface-molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were prepared via surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using ofloxacin (OFX) as template for the separation of fluoroquinolones (FQs). Benefiting from the living/controlled nature of RAFT reaction, distinct core-shell structure was successfully constructed. The highly uniform nanoscale MIP layer was homogeneously grafted on the surface of RAFT agent TTCA modified Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, which favors the fast mass transfer and rapid binding kinetics. The target binding assays demonstrate the desirable adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of Fe3O4@MIP. High selectivity of Fe3O4@MIP toward FQs (ofloxacin, pefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and gatifloxacin) was exhibited by competitive binding assay. The Fe3O4@MIP nanoparticles were successfully applied for the direct enrichment of five FQs from human urine. The spiked human urine samples were determined and the recoveries ranging from 83.1 to 103.1% were obtained with RSD of 0.8-8.2% (n = 3). This work provides a versatile approach for the fabrication of well-defined MIP on nanomaterials for the analysis of complicated biosystems. PMID:24853973

  19. Crossover from Polaronic to Magnetically Phase-Separated Behavior in La1-xSrxCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, D.; El Khatib, S.; Wang, S.; Barker, J.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Leighton, C.

    2013-03-01

    Dilute hole-doping in La1-xSrxCoO3 leads to the formation of ``spin-state polarons'' where a non-zero spin-state is stabilized on the nearest Co3+ ions surrounding a hole. Here, we discuss the development of electronic/magnetic properties of this system from non-magnetic x=0, through the regime of spin-state polarons, and into the region where longer-range spin correlations and phase separation develop. We present magnetometry, transport, heat capacity, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on single crystals. Magnetometry indicates a crossover with x from Langevin-like behavior (polaronic) to a state with a freezing temperature and finite coercivity. Fascinating correlations with this behavior are seen in transport measurements, the evolution from polaronic to clustered states being accompanied by a crossover from Mott variable range hopping to intercluster hopping. SANS data shows Lorentzian scattering from short-range ferromagnetic clusters first emerging around x = 0.03 with correlation lengths of order two unit cells. We argue that this system provides a unique opportunity to understand in detail the crossover from polaronic to truly phase-separated states.

  20. Magnetically separable mesoporous Fe3O4/silica catalysts with very low Fe3O4 content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Atienza, A.; Serrano, E.; Linares, N.; Svedlindh, P.; Seisenbaeva, G.; García-Martínez, J.

    2016-05-01

    Two magnetically separable Fe3O4/SiO2 (aerogel and MSU-X) composites with very low Fe3O4 content (<1 wt%) have been successfully prepared at room temperature by co-condensation of MPTES-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) with a silicon alkoxide. This procedure yields a homogeneous incorporation of the Fe3O4 NPs on silica supports, leading to magnetic composites that can be easily recovered using an external magnetic field, despite their very low Fe3O4 NPs content (ca. 1 wt%). These novel hybrid Fe3O4/SiO2 materials have been tested for the oxidation reaction of 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with hydrogen peroxide showing an enhancement of the stability of the NPs in the Fe3O4/silica aerogel as compared to the Fe3O4 NPs alone, even after five catalytic cycles, no leaching or agglomeration of the Fe3O4/SiO2 systems.

  1. Greek "red mud" residue: a study of microwave reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation for a metallic iron recovery process.

    PubMed

    Samouhos, Michail; Taxiarchou, Maria; Tsakiridis, Petros E; Potiriadis, Konstantinos

    2013-06-15

    The present research work is focused on the development of an alternative microwave reductive roasting process of red mud using lignite (30.15 wt.%Cfix), followed by wet magnetic separation, in order to produce a raw material suitable for sponge or cast iron production. The reduction degree of iron was controlled by both the reductive agent content and the microwave heating time. The reduction followed the Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe sequence. The dielectric constants [real (ε') and imaginary (ε″) permittivities] of red mud-lignite mixture were determined at 2.45 GHz, in the temperature range of 25-1100 °C. The effect of parameters such as temperature, intensity of reducing conditions, intensity of magnetic field and dispersing agent addition rate on the result of both processes was investigated. The phase's transformations in reduction process with microwave heating were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in combination with thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The microstructural and morphological characterization of the produced calcines was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the optimum conditions a magnetic concentrate with total iron concentration of 35.15 and 69.3 wt.% metallization degree was obtained. PMID:23611801

  2. Polarization separated Zeeman spectra from magnetic dipole transitions in highly charged argon in the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamae, A.; Atake, M.; Sakaue, A.; Katai, R.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2007-04-01

    Visible spectral emission lines from magnetic dipole transitions in ArX, ArXI, ArXIV, and ArXV are observed from plasmas heated with neutral-beam injection (NBI) in the Large Helical Device [O. Motojima et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1843 (1999)]. Orthogonal linearly polarized components of the emission line profiles are observed with a polarization separation optical system and high-resolution spectrometer. Zeeman split profiles reveal polarization characteristics of magnetic dipole transitions. Ion temperatures and emission locations are estimated from the profiles with the magnetic field information on the lines of sight (LOS). The spatially resolved emissions are observed by the array of absolutely calibrated views. The time histories of line profiles and emission intensities at the poloidal view are presented. The observed line profiles and the intensity distribution at the poloidal view indicate the localization of these charge states in the edge region just inside the last closed flux surface. The emission line of ArX in the tangential observation indicates Doppler shifts of the Zeeman split profiles. The velocity components of ArX ion flow along the LOS at the tangential view are 7.7 and 2.0km /s at the outer and inner edge plasmas, respectively, in the opposite direction to the NBI.

  3. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  4. Enhanced defluoridation and facile separation of magnetic nano-hydroxyapatite/alginate composite.

    PubMed

    Pandi, Kalimuthu; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy

    2015-09-01

    In this research study, a new magnetic biosorbent was developed by the fabrication of magnetic Fe3O4 particles on nano-hydroxyapatite(n-HAp)/alginate (Alg) composite (Fe3O4@n-HApAlg composite) for defluoridation in batch mode. The synthesized Fe3O4@n-HApAlg biocomposite possess an enhanced defluoridation capacity (DC) of 4050 mgF(-)/kg when compare to n-HApAlg composite, Fe3O4@n-HAp composite, n-HAp and Fe3O4 which possesses the DCs of 3870, 2469, 1296 and 1050 mgF(-)/kg respectively. The structural changes of the sorbent, before and after fluoride sorption were studied using FTIR, XRD and SEM with EDAX techniques. There are various physico-chemical parameters such as contact time, pH, co-existing anions, initial fluoride concentration and temperature were optimized for maximum fluoride removal. The equilibrium data was well modeled by Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherms. The present system follows Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm model. The thermodynamic parameters reveals that the feasibility, spontaneity and endothermic nature of fluoride sorption. The performance and efficiency of the adsorbent material was examined with water samples collected from fluoride endemic areas namely Reddiyarchatram and Ammapatti in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu using standard protocols. PMID:26092170

  5. Improvement of the separation of tumour cells from peripheral blood cells using magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, M.; Pachmann, K.; Höffken, K.; Clement, J. H.

    2006-09-01

    Circulating tumour cells are a key challenge in tumour therapy. Numerous approaches are on the way to achieving the elimination of these potential sources of metastasis formation. Antibody-directed magnetic cell sorting is supposed to enrich tumour cells with high selectivity, but low efficiency. The short term application of carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) coated magnetit/maghemit nanoparticles allows the discrimination of tumour cells from leukocytes. In the present work we show that the interaction of CMD nanoparticles is cell-type specific and time dependent. The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the CML cell line K-562 are characterized by a rapid and high interaction rate, whereas leukocytes exhibit a decelerated behaviour. The addition of carboxymethyl dextran or glucose stimulated the magnetic labelling of leukocytes. The variation of the degree of substitution of dextran with carboxymethyl groups did not affect the labelling profile of leukocytes and MCF-7 cells. In order to verify the in vitro results, whole blood samples from 13 cancer patients were analysed ex vivo. Incubation of the purified leukocyte fraction with CMD nanoparticles in the presence of low amounts of plasma reduced the overall cell content in the positive fraction. In contrast, the absolute number of residual tumour cells in the positive fraction was 90% of the initial amount.

  6. Magnetically separable polymer (Mag-MIP) for selective analysis of biotin in food samples.

    PubMed

    Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Rosario Josefina; Khan, Sabir; Wong, Ademar; Picasso, Gino; Pividori, Maria Isabel; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an efficient method for the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (Mag-MIP) through core-shell method for the determination of biotin in milk food samples. The functional monomer acrylic acid was selected from molecular modeling, EGDMA was used as cross-linking monomer and AIBN as radical initiator. The Mag-MIP and Mag-NIP were characterized by FTIR, magnetic hysteresis, XRD, SEM and N2-sorption measurements. The capacity of Mag-MIP for biotin adsorption, its kinetics and selectivity were studied in detail. The adsorption data was well described by Freundlich isotherm model with adsorption equilibrium constant (KF) of 1.46 mL g(-1). The selectivity experiments revealed that prepared Mag-MIP had higher selectivity toward biotin compared to other molecules with different chemical structure. The material was successfully applied for the determination of biotin in diverse milk samples using HPLC for quantification of the analyte, obtaining the mean value of 87.4% recovery. PMID:26212997

  7. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation. PMID:25264107

  8. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation.

  9. Evidence for Two Separate but Interlaced Components of the Chromospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardom, K. P.; Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K.; Warren, H. P.

    2011-01-01

    Chromospheric fibrils are generally thought to trace out low-lying, mainly horizontal magnetic elds that fan out from flux concentrations in the photosphere. A high-resolution (approximately 0.1" per pixel) image, taken in the core of the Ca II 854.2 nm line and covering an unusually large area, shows the dark brils within an active region remnant as fine, looplike features that are aligned parallel to each other and have lengths comparable to a supergranular diameter. Comparison with simultaneous line-of-sight magnetograms confirms that the fibrils are centered above intranetwork areas (supergranular cell interiors), with one end rooted just inside the neighboring plage or strong unipolar network but the other endpoint less clearly defined. Focusing on a particular arcade-like structure lying entirely on one side of a lament channel (large-scale polarity inversion), we find that the total amount of positive-polarity flux underlying this "fibril arcade" is approximately 50 times greater than the total amount of negative-polarity flux. Thus, if the brils represent closed loops, they must consist of very weak fields (in terms of total magnetic flux), which are interpenetrated by a more vertical field that contains most of the flux. This surprising result suggests that the fibrils in unipolar regions connect the network to the nearby intranetwork flux, while the bulk of the network flux links to remote regions of the opposite polarity, forming a second, higher canopy above the fibril canopy. The chromospheric field near the edge of the network thus has an interlaced structure resembling that in sunspot penumbrae.

  10. Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

  11. An improved cryo-FIB method for fabrication of frozen hydrated lamella.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Ji, Gang; Huang, Xiaojun; Xu, Wei; Sun, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides great insights into the ultrastructure of cells and tissues in their native state and provides a promising way to study the in situ 3D structures of macromolecular complexes. However, this technique has been limited on the very thin specimen, which is not applicable for most cells and tissues. Besides cryo-sectioning approach, cryo focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) appeared recently to achieve 'artifact-free' thin frozen hydrated lamella via fabrication. Considering that the current cryo-FIB methods need modified holders or cartridges, here, with a "D-shaped" molybdenum grid and a specific shutter system, we developed a simple cryo-FIB approach for thin frozen hydrated lamella fabrication, which fits both standard transmission cryo-electron microscopes with side-entry cryo-holders and state-of-the-art ones with AutoGrids. Our approach will expand the usage of cryo-FIB approach in many labs. PMID:26876148

  12. Direct visualization of dispersed lipid bicontinuous cubic phases by cryo-electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Demurtas, Davide; Guichard, Paul; Martiel, Isabelle; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Hébert, Cécile; Sagalowicz, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Bulk and dispersed cubic liquid crystalline phases (cubosomes), present in the body and in living cell membranes, are believed to play an essential role in biological phenomena. Moreover, their biocompatibility is attractive for nutrient or drug delivery system applications. Here the three-dimensional organization of dispersed cubic lipid self-assembled phases is fully revealed by cryo-electron tomography and compared with simulated structures. It is demonstrated that the interior is constituted of a perfect bicontinuous cubic phase, while the outside shows interlamellar attachments, which represent a transition state between the liquid crystalline interior phase and the outside vesicular structure. Therefore, compositional gradients within cubosomes are inferred, with a lipid bilayer separating at least one water channel set from the external aqueous phase. This is crucial to understand and enhance controlled release of target molecules and calls for a revision of postulated transport mechanisms from cubosomes to the aqueous phase. PMID:26573367

  13. Direct visualization of dispersed lipid bicontinuous cubic phases by cryo-electron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demurtas, Davide; Guichard, Paul; Martiel, Isabelle; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Hébert, Cécile; Sagalowicz, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Bulk and dispersed cubic liquid crystalline phases (cubosomes), present in the body and in living cell membranes, are believed to play an essential role in biological phenomena. Moreover, their biocompatibility is attractive for nutrient or drug delivery system applications. Here the three-dimensional organization of dispersed cubic lipid self-assembled phases is fully revealed by cryo-electron tomography and compared with simulated structures. It is demonstrated that the interior is constituted of a perfect bicontinuous cubic phase, while the outside shows interlamellar attachments, which represent a transition state between the liquid crystalline interior phase and the outside vesicular structure. Therefore, compositional gradients within cubosomes are inferred, with a lipid bilayer separating at least one water channel set from the external aqueous phase. This is crucial to understand and enhance controlled release of target molecules and calls for a revision of postulated transport mechanisms from cubosomes to the aqueous phase.

  14. The effect of charge separation on nonlinear electrostatic waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with two-temperature ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Pillay, S. R.; Singh, S. V.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2008-09-01

    In view of the observations of parallel (to Earth's magnetic field) spiky electric field structures by the FAST satellite, a theoretical study is conducted using a dusty plasma model comprising Boltzmann distributed hot and cool ions, Boltzmann electrons and a negatively charged cold dust fluid to investigate the existence of similar low frequency nonlinear electrostatic waves in a dusty plasma which could have a similar appearance as the observed waveforms. Charge separation effects are incorporated into our model by the inclusion of Poisson's equation as opposed to assuming quasineutrality. The system of nonlinear equations is then numerically solved. The resulting electric field structure is examined as a function of various plasma parameters such as Mach number, driving electric field amplitude, bulk dust drift speed, particle densities and particle temperatures.

  15. The effect of charge separation on nonlinear electrostatic waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with two-temperature ions

    SciTech Connect

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Pillay, S. R.; Singh, S. V.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2008-09-07

    In view of the observations of parallel (to Earth's magnetic field) spiky electric field structures by the FAST satellite, a theoretical study is conducted using a dusty plasma model comprising Boltzmann distributed hot and cool ions, Boltzmann electrons and a negatively charged cold dust fluid to investigate the existence of similar low frequency nonlinear electrostatic waves in a dusty plasma which could have a similar appearance as the observed waveforms. Charge separation effects are incorporated into our model by the inclusion of Poisson's equation as opposed to assuming quasineutrality. The system of nonlinear equations is then numerically solved. The resulting electric field structure is examined as a function of various plasma parameters such as Mach number, driving electric field amplitude, bulk dust drift speed, particle densities and particle temperatures.

  16. Multicontext fuzzy clustering for separation of brain tissues in magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Jiang, Tianzi

    2003-03-01

    A local image model is proposed to eliminate the adverse impact of both artificial and inherent intensity inhomogeneities in magnetic resonance imaging on intensity-based image segmentation methods. The estimation and correction procedures for intensity inhomogeneities are no longer indispensable because the highly convoluted spatial distribution of different tissues in the brain is taken into consideration. On the basis of the local image model, multicontext fuzzy clustering (MCFC) is proposed for classifying 2D and 3D MR data into tissues of white matter, gray matter, and cerebral spinal fluid automatically. In MCFC, multiple clustering contexts are generated for each pixel, and fuzzy clustering is independently performed in each context to calculate the degree of membership of a pixel to each tissue class. To maintain the statistical reliability and spatial continuity of membership distributions, a fusion strategy is adopted to integrate the clustering outcomes from different contexts. The fusion result is taken as the final membership value of the pixel. Experimental results on both real MR images and simulated volumetric MR data show that MCFC outperforms the classic fuzzy c-means (FCM) as well as other segmentation methods that deal with intensity inhomogeneities. PMID:12667846

  17. Initial exploration of application of open-gradient magnetic separation of coal to beneficiation of liquefaction feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Poutsma, M.L.; Harris, L.A.; Hise, E.C.; Wham, R.M.; Wortman, J.E.

    1983-02-01

    Finely divided multi-component solids can be separated into multiple fractions by Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation if differences in magnetic susceptibility exist among the components. This technique has now been applied to several crushed coals, in particular to the 30-100 mesh cut. Coal fractions have been characterized by petrographic, mineralogical, and analytical data. As one proceeds from the most diamagnetic to the most paramagnetic fractions, there is a progressive decrease in the content of the reactive vitrinite macerals and an increase in the content of the unreactive inertinite macerals, the pyrite, and the nonpyritic minerals. The fact that the inertinite macerals tend to report to the paramagnetic fractions apparently results from epigenetic pyrite cell inclusions. There is also a size discrimination for pyrite with the diamagnetic coal fractions tending to contain the smaller syngenetic fractions tending to contain the larger particles from cleat fill. One set of 9 fractions from the 30-100 mesh cut of a precleaned Kentucky No. 9 coal was subjected to liquefaction conditions in a Short Contact Time solvent for 5 min at 425/sup 0/C. Considerable discrimination was observed in the values of the maf conversion based on pyridine solubility. The conversion of the most diamagnetic fraction (43% of the feed coal; 89% conversion) exceeded that of the feed coal (79% conversion). Conversion levels of successive fractions gradually decreased to approx. 50% before an abrupt increase to 71% for the most paramagnetic fraction. These encouraging initial experimental observations suggest the need for further laboratory studies and for process considerations of the potential benefits.

  18. Colorimetric aptasensing of ochratoxin A using Au@Fe3O4 nanoparticles as signal indicator and magnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengquan; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kun; Yang, Xingwang; Liu, Qian; Hao, Nan; Wang, Chengke; Dong, Xiaoya; Huang, Xingyi

    2016-03-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) doped Fe3O4 (Au@Fe3O4) NPs have been synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method. The peroxidase-like activity of Au@Fe3O4 NPs was effectively enhanced due to the synergistic effect between the Fe3O4 NPs and Au NPs. On this basis, an efficient colorimetric aptasensor has been developed using the intrinsic dual functionality of the Au@Fe3O4 NPs as signal indicator and magnetic separator. Initially, the amino-modified aptamer specific for a typical mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), was surface confined on the amino-terminated glass beads surafce using glutaraldehyde as a linker. Subsequently, the amino-modified capture DNA (cDNA) was labeled with the amino-functionalized Au@Fe3O4 NPs and the aptasensor was thus fabricated through the hybridization reaction between cDNA and the aptamers. While upon OTA addition, aptamers preferred to form the OTA-aptamer complex and the Au@Fe3O4 NPs linked on the cDNA were released into the bulk solution. Through a simple magnetic separation, the collected Au@Fe3O4 NPs can produce a blue colored solution in the presence of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and H2O2. When the reaction was terminated by addition of H(+) ions, the blue product could be changed into a yellow one with higher absorption intensity. This colorimetric aptasensor can detect as low as 30 pgmL(-1) OTA with high specificity. To the best of our knowledge, the present colorimetric aptasensor is the first attempt to use the peroxidase-like activity of nanomaterial for OTA detection, which may provide an acttractive path toward routine quality control of food safety. PMID:26583358

  19. Separation of Intra- and Extramyocellular Lipid Signals in Proton MR Spectra by Determination of Their Magnetic Field Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidle, G.; Machann, J.; Claussen, C. D.; Schick, F.

    2002-02-01

    In skeletal musculature intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) are stored in compartments of different geometry and experience different magnetic field strengths due to geometrical susceptibility effects. The effect is strong enough to-at least partly-separate IMCL and EMCL contributions in 1H MR spectroscopy, despite IMCL and EMCL consisting of the same substances. The assessment of intramyocellular lipid stores in skeletal musculature by 1H MR spectroscopy plays an important role for studying physiological and pathological aspects of lipid metabolism. Therefore, a method using mathematical tools of Fourier analysis is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution (MFD) from the measured spectra by deconvolution. A reference lipid spectrum is required which was recorded in tibial yellow bone marrow. It is shown that the separation of IMCL contributions can be performed more precisely-compared to other methods-based on the MFD. Examples of deconvolution in model systems elucidate the principle. Applications of the proposed approach on in vivo examinations in m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior are presented. Fitting the IMCL part of the MFD by a Gaussian lineshape with a linewidth kept fixed with respect to the linewidth of creatine and with the assumption of a smooth but not necessarily symmetrical shape for the EMCL part, the only free fit parameter, the amplitude of the IMCL part, is definite and subtraction leads to the EMCL part in the MFD. This procedure is especially justified for the soleus muscle showing a severely asymmetrical distribution which might lead to a marked overestimation of IMCL using common line fitting procedures.

  20. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  1. Separation of Quadrupolar and Magnetic Contributions to Spin-Lattice Relaxation in the Case of a Single Isotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, A.; Mali, M.; Roos, J.; Brinkmann, D.

    2000-04-01

    We present a NMR pulse double-irradiation method which allows one to separate magnetic from quadrupolar contributions in the spin-lattice relaxation. The pulse sequence fully saturates one transition while another is observed. In the presence of a ‖Δm‖ = 2 quadrupolar contribution, the intensity of the observed line is altered compared to a standard spin-echo experiment. We calculated analytically this intensity change for spins I = 1, {3}/{2}, {5}/{2}, thus providing a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. Since the pulse sequence we used takes care of the absorbed radiofrequency power, no problems due to heating arise. The method is especially suited when only one NMR sensitive isotope is available. Different cross-checks were performed to prove the reliability of the results obtained. The applicability of this method is demonstrated by a study of the plane oxygen 17O (I = {5}/{2}) in the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu4O8: the 17O spin-lattice relaxation rate consists of magnetic as well as quadrupolar contributions.

  2. Semi-continuous in situ magnetic separation for enhanced extracellular protease production-modeling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Cerff, Martin; Scholz, Alexander; Käppler, Tobias; Ottow, Kim E; Hobley, Tim J; Posten, Clemens

    2013-08-01

    In modern biotechnology proteases play a major role as detergent ingredients. Especially the production of extracellular protease by Bacillus species facilitates downstream processing because the protease can be directly harvested from the biosuspension. In situ magnetic separation (ISMS) constitutes an excellent adsorptive method for efficient extracellular protease removal during cultivation. In this work, the impact of semi-continuous ISMS on the overall protease yield has been investigated. Results reveal significant removal of the protease from Bacillus licheniformis cultivations. Bacitracin-functionalized magnetic particles were successfully applied, regenerated and reused up to 30 times. Immediate reproduction of the protease after ISMS proved the biocompatibility of this integrated approach. Six subsequent ISMS steps significantly increased the overall protease yield up to 98% because proteolytic degradation and potential inhibition of the protease in the medium could be minimized. Furthermore, integration of semi-continuous ISMS increased the overall process efficiency due to reduction of the medium consumption. Process simulation revealed a deeper insight into protease production, and was used to optimize ISMS steps to obtain the maximum overall protease yield. PMID:23475553

  3. A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Guven, Burcu; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Tamer, Ugur; Çalık, Pınar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 μM probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner. PMID:22049365

  4. Processing and size range separation of pristine and magnetic poly(l-lactic acid) based microspheres for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Correia, D M; Sencadas, V; Ribeiro, C; Martins, P M; Martins, P; Gama, F M; Botelho, G; Lanceros-Méndez, S

    2016-08-15

    Biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and PLLA/CoFe2O4 magnetic microspheres with average sizes ranging between 0.16-3.9μm and 0.8-2.2μm, respectively, were obtained by an oil-in-water emulsion method using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) solution as the emulsifier agent. The separation of the microspheres in different size ranges was then performed by centrifugation and the colloidal stability assessed at different pH values. Neat PLLA spheres are more stable in alkaline environments when compared to magnetic microspheres, both types being stable for pHs higher than 4, resulting in a colloidal suspension. On the other hand, in acidic environments the microspheres tend to form aggregates. The neat PLLA microspheres show a degree of crystallinity of 40% whereas the composite ones are nearly amorphous (17%). Finally, the biocompatibility was assessed by cell viability studies with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells. PMID:27209393

  5. Magnetic-optical nanohybrids for targeted detection, separation, and photothermal ablation of drug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ondera, Thomas J; Hamme, Ashton T

    2015-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive and quantitative immunoassay for the targeted detection and decontamination of E. coli based on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and plasmonic popcorn-shaped gold nanostructure attached single-walled carbon nanotubes (AuNP@SWCNT) is presented. The MNPs were synthesized as the support for a monoclonal antibody (mAb@MNP). E. coli (49979) was captured and rapidly preconcentrated from the sample with the mAb@MNP, followed by binding with Raman-tagged concanavalin A-AuNP@SWCNTs (Con A-AuNP@SWCNTs) as detector nanoprobes. A Raman tag 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) generated a Raman signal upon 670 nm laser excitation enabling the detection and quantification of E. coli concentration with a limit of detection of 10(2) CFU mL(-1) and a linear logarithmic response range of 1.0 10(2) to 1.0 10(7) CFU mL(-1). The mAb@MNP could remove more than 98% of E. coli (initial concentration of 1.3 10(4) CFU mL(-1)) from water. The potential of the immunoassay to detect E. coli bacteria in real water samples was investigated and the results were compared with the experimental results from the classical count method. There was no statistically significant difference between the two methods (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the MNP/AuNP@SWCNT hybrid system exhibits an enhanced photothermal killing effect. The sandwich-like immunoassay possesses potential for rapid bioanalysis and the simultaneous biosensing of multiple pathogenic agents. PMID:26469636

  6. Cryo-balloon catheter position planning using AFiT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinoeder, Andreas; Brost, Alexander; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common heart arrhythmia. In certain situations, it can result in life-threatening complications such as stroke and heart failure. For paroxsysmal AFib, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by catheter ablation is the recommended choice of treatment if drug therapy fails. During minimally invasive procedures, electrically active tissue around the pulmonary veins is destroyed by either applying heat or cryothermal energy to the tissue. The procedure is usually performed in electrophysiology labs under fluoroscopic guidance. Besides radio-frequency catheter ablation devices, so-called single-shot devices, e.g., the cryothermal balloon catheters, are receiving more and more interest in the electrophysiology (EP) community. Single-shot devices may be advantageous for certain cases, since they can simplify the creation of contiguous (gapless) lesion sets around the pulmonary vein which is needed to achieve PVI. In many cases, a 3-D (CT, MRI, or C-arm CT) image of a patient's left atrium is available. This data can then be used for planning purposes and for supporting catheter navigation during the procedure. Cryo-thermal balloon catheters are commercially available in two different sizes. We propose the Atrial Fibrillation Planning Tool (AFiT), which visualizes the segmented left atrium as well as multiple cryo-balloon catheters within a virtual reality, to find out how well cryo-balloons fit to the anatomy of a patient's left atrium. First evaluations have shown that AFiT helps physicians in two ways. First, they can better assess whether cryoballoon ablation or RF ablation is the treatment of choice at all. Second, they can select the proper-size cryo-balloon catheter with more confidence.

  7. Principles of cryo-EM single-particle image processing.

    PubMed

    Sigworth, Fred J

    2016-02-01

    Single-particle reconstruction is the process by which 3D density maps are obtained from a set of low-dose cryo-EM images of individual macromolecules. This review considers the fundamental principles of this process and the steps in the overall workflow for single-particle image processing. Also considered are the limits that image signal-to-noise ratio places on resolution and the distinguishing of heterogeneous particle populations. PMID:26705325

  8. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  9. Separation and purification of Si from solidification of hypereutectic Al-Si melt under rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, J. C.; Zou, Q. C.; Wang, H. W.; Sun, J. L.; Lu, Y. P.; Wang, T. M.; Li, T. J.

    2014-08-01

    A low-cost and high-efficiency method to purify Si directly from cheap MG-Si at low temperature was proposed and demonstrated in this paper, which used power frequency rotating magnetic field (RMF) to separate the primary Si from a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy and was followed by the acid peeling. The separation mechanism was based on the flow characteristic of melt under RMF and the cooling condition of the liquid metal. A Si-rich layer with Si content of 65-59 wt% was formed in the periphery of alloy, while the inner microstructure of the alloy was mainly the Al-Si eutectic structure. The refined silicon was collected after aqua regia leaching, and had much fewer typical impurities (Fe, Ti, Ca, B, P) than those in MG-Si, and the metallic impurities besides Al had removal fraction higher than 98%, which is mainly ascribed to the segregation effect of Al-30Si alloy during solidification under RMF.

  10. Nanostructuring of Undoped ZnSb by Cryo-Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Valset, K.; Graff, J. S.; Thøgersen, A.; Gunnæs, A. E.; Luxsacumar, S.; Løvvik, O. M.; Snyder, G. J.; Finstad, T. G.

    2015-08-01

    We report the preparation of nanosized ZnSb powder by cryo-milling. The effect of cryo-milling then hot-pressing of undoped ZnSb was investigated and compared with that of room temperature ball-milling and hot-pressing under different temperature conditions. ZnSb is a semiconductor with favorable thermoelectric properties when doped. We used undoped ZnSb to study the effect of nanostructuring on lattice thermal conductivity, and with little contribution at room temperature from electronic thermal conductivity. Grain growth was observed to occur during hot-pressing, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The thermal conductivity was lower for cryo-milled samples than for room-temperature ball-milled samples. The thermal conductivity also depended on hot-pressing conditions. The thermal conductivity could be varied by a factor of two by adjusting the process conditions and could be less than a third that of single-crystal ZnSb.

  11. Data quality assessment of CryoSat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Bouzinac, Catherine; Fornari, Marco; Mannan, Rubinder

    2013-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. There are three operating modes: low resolution mode (LRM), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (SARIn). Both the Level 1b and the Level 2 data products are defined depending on the operating mode used by the instrument. However, Level 1b products essentially contain an average echo for each location along the ground track while Level 2 products contains an elevation for each location along the satellite track. In this poster we will detail as first the different data products and then the quality achieved on those products will be described after more than 2 years of operational activity of the CryoSat satellite. In particular, the characteristics of the impulse response function in the two direction, the along track and the across track, will be described in order to verify that the performance are in line with expectation as well as stable over the time. To exploit the stability over the 2 years of mission, the products obtained as outcomes of the reprocessing activity will be exploited, allowing to manage an homogeneous set of data processed with the latest version of the CryoSat IPF.

  12. Correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning electron microscopy as a straightforward tool to study host-pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Strnad, Martin; Elsterová, Jana; Schrenková, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy is an imaging technique that enables identification and targeting of fluorescently tagged structures with subsequent imaging at near-to-nanometer resolution. We established a novel correlative cryo-fluorescence microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy workflow, which enables imaging of the studied object of interest very close to its natural state, devoid of artifacts caused for instance by slow chemical fixation. This system was tested by investigating the interaction of the zoonotic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi with two mammalian cell lines of neural origin in order to broaden our knowledge about the cell-association mechanisms that precedes the entry of the bacteria into the cell. This method appears to be an unprecedentedly fast (<3 hours), straightforward, and reliable solution to study the finer details of pathogen-host cell interactions and provides important insights into the complex and dynamic relationship between a pathogen and a host. PMID:26658551

  13. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  14. Low-Cost Cryo-Light Microscopy Stage Fabrication for Correlated Light/Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, David B.; Evans, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of cryo-light microscopy (cryo-LM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) poses a number of advantages for understanding cellular dynamics and ultrastructure. First, cells can be imaged in a near native environment for both techniques. Second, due to the vitrification process, samples are preserved by rapid physical immobilization rather than slow chemical fixation. Third, imaging the same sample with both cryo-LM and cryo-EM provides correlation of data from a single cell, rather than a comparison of "representative samples". While these benefits are well known from prior studies, the widespread use of correlative cryo-LM and cryo-EM remains limited due to the expense and complexity of buying or building a suitable cryogenic light microscopy stage. Here we demonstrate the assembly, and use of an inexpensive cryogenic stage that can be fabricated in any lab for less than $40 with parts found at local hardware and grocery stores. This cryo-LM stage is designed for use with reflected light microscopes that are fitted with long working distance air objectives. For correlative cryo-LM and cryo-EM studies, we adapt the use of carbon coated standard 3-mm cryo-EM grids as specimen supports. After adsorbing the sample to the grid, previously established protocols for vitrifying the sample and transferring/handling the grid are followed to permit multi-technique imaging. As a result, this setup allows any laboratory with a reflected light microscope to have access to direct correlative imaging of frozen hydrated samples. PMID:21673645

  15. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as 'movies' made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired. PMID:26546989

  16. Coupling Underwater Superoleophobic Membranes with Magnetic Pickering Emulsions for Fouling-Free Separation of Crude Oil/Water Mixtures: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Dudchenko, Alexander V; Rolf, Julianne; Shi, Lucy; Olivas, Liana; Duan, Wenyan; Jassby, David

    2015-10-27

    Oil/water separations have become an area of great interest, as growing oil extraction activities are increasing the generation of oily wastewaters as well as increasing the risk of oil spills. Here, we demonstrate a membrane-based and fouling-free oil/water separation method that couples carbon nanotube-poly(vinyl alcohol) underwater superoleophobic ultrafiltration membranes with magnetic Pickering emulsions. We demonstrate that this process is insensitive to low water temperatures, high ionic strength, or crude oil loading, while allowing operation at high permeate fluxes and producing high quality permeate. Furthermore, we develop a theoretical framework that analyzes the stability of Pickering emulsions under filtration mechanics, relating membrane surface properties and hydrodynamic conditions in the Pickering emulsion cake layer to membrane performance. Finally, we demonstrate the recovery and recyclability of the nanomagnetite used to form the Pickering emulsions through a magnetic separation step, resulting in an environmentally friendly, continuous process for oil/water separation. PMID:26422748

  17. Spatiotemporally separating electron and phonon thermal transport in L1{sub 0} FePt films for heat assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, D. B.; Sun, C. J. E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Ho, P.; Chen, J. S.; Chow, G. M. E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Brewe, D. L.; Heald, S. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Han, S.-W.

    2014-06-28

    We report the spatio-temporal separation of electron and phonon thermal transports in nanostructured magnetic L1{sub 0} FePt films at the nanometer length scale and the time domain of tens of picosecond, when heated with a pulsed laser. We demonstrate that lattice dynamics measured using the picosecond time-resolved laser pump/X-ray probe method on the FePt (002) and Ag (002) Bragg reflections from different layers provided the information of nanoscale thermal transport between the layers. We also describe how the electron and phonon thermal transports in nanostructured magnetic thin films were separated.

  18. CryoSat-2: A new perspective on the Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Armitage, T.; Briggs, K.; Flament, T.; Hogg, A. E.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A.; Ridout, A.; Sundal, A.; Tilling, R.; Wingham, D.

    2014-12-01

    CryoSat-2 is ESA's first satellite mission dedicated to measuring changes in the polar land ice and sea ice cover. Following its launch in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the instrument over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer demonstrating that it measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, greatly exceeding the pre-launch specifications (100 micro-radians). Over the polar ice sheets, we have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR imagery from ENVISAT, and we have estimated the precision of individual (20 Hz) measurements to be 2 cm. In summary, with the corrected data products, we are able to confirm that the system performance of CryoSat-2 will meet or exceed its specification over the continental and marine ice sheets. This presenetation sumamrises the key outcomes of the mission performance, and presents a series of example case studies where CryoSat-2 data have been applied to study changes in Earth's land and sea ice cover. We show that in 4 years CryoSat has been able to detect changes in the mass of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets with an accuracy comparable to that of the past 20 years of conventional satellite altimetry and that important changes have occured in these regions, we show that CryoSat has been able to quantify changes in the volume of sea ice across the entire northern hemisphere for the first time and that unexpected changes have occurred, and we show that the mission has been able to detect changes in the volume of rugged, glaciated terrain, that were beyond the capability of past altiemter missions and that are in places extreme in comparison to past observations.

  19. Amphiphilic Janus Particles Generated via a Combination of Diffusion-Induced Phase Separation and Magnetically Driven Dewetting and Their Synergistic Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyu; Feng, Xueyan; Ma, Guiping; Yao, Li; Ge, Maofa

    2016-04-01

    Amphiphilic Janus particles are successfully obtained via a powerful strategy combining diffusion-induced phase separation and magnetically driven dewetting. A large-area, amphiphilic monolayer is been formed via a self-assembly paradigm based on a synergy between the amphiphilicity, shape anisotropy, and external magnetic field. This functionality holds great promise for practical applications in intelligent coatings, anti-bioadhesion, and antifouling surfaces. PMID:26923562

  20. Tandem assays of protein and glucose with functionalized core/shell particles based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianming; Yu, Qian; Lv, Zhongpeng; Du, Xuezhong

    2013-10-11

    Tandem assays of protein and glucose in combination with mannose-functionalized Fe3 O4 @SiO2 and Ag@SiO2 tag particles have promising potential in effective magnetic separation and highly sensitive and selective SERS assays of biomaterials. It is for the first time that tandem assay of glucose is developed using SERS based on the Con A-sandwiched microstructures between the functionalized magnetic and tag particles. PMID:23585333

  1. Validation of CryoSat-2 Elevation Measurements along the Greenland Inland Traverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overly, T. B.; Hawley, R. L.; Wong, G. J.; Lutz, E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Courville, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet's sensitivity to climate change and potential contribution to sea-level rise make its mass balance of critical interest. Altimeter surveys of ice sheet elevation changes are a common method used to estimate changes in ice volume and mass balance. In-situ validation of CryoSat-2's measurements is key to assessing the satellite's performance. The 2011 Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT) provides a detailed elevation profile across 1120km of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We compare GrIT Kinematic GPS elevations to remotely sensed elevation values from CryoSat-2's synthetic aperture interferometric radar altimeter (SIRAL). We examine CryoSat-2 measurement repeatability by comparing "crossover" points from ascending and descending satellite tracks. Overall CryoSat-2 crossover elevations agree, though some repeat measurements differ due to varying surface slope and facies conditions. Comparison of in-situ GPS data along the traverse with CryoSat-2 measured elevations reveals a small but constant vertical offset between GPS and CryoSat-2 elevation measurements. Comparing the mean GPS elevation within a single footprint reduces the offset. Calibrating CryoSat-2 elevations with GPS elevation measurements improves confidence in CryoSat-2 elevation values. Spatially extensive surface elevation measurements from CryoSat-2, validated with GrIT survey-grade GPS and combined with improved accumulation estimates, will reduce uncertainty in the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  2. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3.

    PubMed

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J; Gerrard, Juliet A; Mitra, Alok K; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination. PMID:26817416

  3. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  4. Synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective separation and determination of metronidazole in cosmetic samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jun-Jie; Su, Xiao-Meng; Wu, Zong-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Lei, Fu-Hou; Tan, Xue-Cai; Shi, Zhan-Wang

    2015-05-01

    In this study, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were developed as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) and used for the selective separation of metronidazole (MNZ) in cosmetics; MNZ was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). First, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by the co-precipitation of Fe(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in an ammonia solution; then oleic acid (OA) was modified onto the surface of Fe3O4NPs. Finally, the MMIP was prepared by aqueous suspension polymerization, involving the copolymerization of Fe3O4NPs@OA with MNZ as the template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol maleic rosinate acrylate (EGMRA) as the cross-linking agent, and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator. The MMIP materials showed high selective adsorption capacity and fast binding kinetics for MNZ; the maximum adsorption amount of the MMIP to MNZ was 46.7 mg/g. The assay showed a linear range from 0.1 to 20.0 μg/mL for MNZ with the correlation coefficient 0.999. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of intra- and inter-day ranging from 0.71 to 2.45% and from 1.06 to 5.20% were obtained. The MMIP can be applied to the enrichment and determination of MNZ in cosmetic products with the recoveries of spiked toner, powder, and cream cosmetic samples ranging from 90.6 to 104.2, 84.1 to 91.4, and 90.3 to 100.4%, respectively, and the RSD was <3.54%. PMID:25749799

  5. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic hexacyanoferrate (II) polymeric nanocomposite for separation of cesium from radioactive waste solutions.

    PubMed

    Sheha, Reda R

    2012-12-15

    Nanocrystalline potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate loaded on nanoscale magnetite substrate was successfully synthesized for significantly enhanced removal of cesium from low-level radioactive wastes. A description was given for preparation and properties of these precursors. The physicochemical properties of these nanocomposites were determined using different techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data clarified that supporting potassium zinc hexacyanoferrates on iron ferrite nanoparticles increased their thermal stability. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that the nanocomposites were well coordinated and incorporated in the polymer matrix. The average particle sizes, of these nanoparticles, determined by SEM had a good agreement with XRD results. Based on characterization data, the prepared zinc hexacyanoferrates were proposed to have a zeolitic rhombohedral structure with cavities can host alkali metal ions and water molecules. The magnetic analysis showed a super-paramagnetic behavior. Batch technique was applied to evaluate the influences of initial pH value, contact time, and competing cations on the efficiency of cesium removal. The sorption process was fast initially, and maximum separation was attained within 2h of contact. Cesium exchange was independent from pH value and deviate from ideal exchange phenomena. In neutral solutions, Cs(+) was retained through exchange with K(+); however, in acidic solution, phase transformation was proposed. Sorption capacity of these materials attained values amounted 1965 mg g(-1). The synthesized nanocomposites exhibited different affinities toward Cs(I), Co(II), and Eu(III) elements and showed a good ability to separate them from each other. PMID:23000210

  6. Interim cryo-cooler/detector report

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, K.; Ruhter, W.; Anderson, E.

    1995-04-19

    This report describes development of an electronic system designed to reduce vibration generated by a cryocooler. The diminished vibration makes it practical to use the active cooler to extract heat from a portable gamma ray detector instrument. The system was developed for a Sunpower cryocooler with an integrated counterbalance mass. The overall momentum cancellation approach is also applicable to other similar cryocoolers. The cancellation system is an assembly of several components tailored to accomplish the required vibration reduction with minimum power consumption and volume. It is designed to be powered by a 18--32 Volt battery. Up to ten harmonics of the 58.65 Hz drive frequency are controlled. In addition to the vibration cancellation, the electronic system produces the drive signal for the cryocooler and regulates the cooler temperature. The system employs a sinusoidal drive to reduce the amount of higher harmonic vibration. A digital signal processor (DSP) is used to perform the high speed vibration control. The Texas Instruments TMS320C31 processor is housed on a third-party board. A second board has analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. The DSP was programmed in C. The physical system consists of two sets of electronics. The first is housed in a case that is separate from the detector unit.

  7. Cryo-technical design aspects of the superconducting SIS100 quadrupole doublet modules

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J. P.; Bleile, A.; Fischer, E.; Hess, G.; Macavei, J.; Spiller, P.

    2014-01-29

    The FAIR project was initiated to build an international accelerator and experimental facility for basic research activities in various fields of modern physics. The core component of the project will be the SIS100 heavy ion accelerator, producing heavy ion beams of uniquely high intensities and qualities. The superconducting main quadrupoles and corrector magnets are assembled within complex quadrupole doublet modules (QDMs), combining two superconducting quadrupole (focusing and defocusing), sextupole and steering magnets in one cryostat. In addition a cryo-catcher, a beam position monitor and a cold beam pipe will be integrated. In accordance with the magnet lattice structure, the QDM series for the SIS100 consists of four main families composed of eleven different configurations. The common technical feature of all configurations is a sophisticated common girder structure, mechanically integrating all functional components in one cold mass and being suspended in a corresponding cryostat system. The requirements to position preservation during thermal cycling are to be fulfilled by a precise and stable support of the functional elements, as well as by a reliable, reproducible and stable cold mass suspension system. The main design aspects of the QDMs will be discussed as a result of these requirements.

  8. Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane@Fe3O4@SiO2@fluoropolymer sponges for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Li, Lingxiao; Li, Bucheng; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponges were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to bind the Fe3O4 nanoparticles tightly on the sponge and then dip-coating in a fluoropolymer (FP) aqueous solution. The sponges were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other analytical techniques. The effects of CVD time of TEOS and FP concentration on wettability, mechanical properties, oil absorbency, and oil/water selectivity of the sponges were also investigated. The sponges exhibit fast magnetic responsivity and excellent superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity (CAwater = 157° and CAoil ≈ 0°). The sponges also show very high efficiency in oil/water separation and could, driven by a magnet, quickly absorb floating oils on the water surface and heavy oils under water. Moreover, the PU@Fe3O4@SiO2@FP sponges could be used as membranes for oil/water separation and for continuous separation of large amounts of oil pollutants from the water surface with the help of a pump. The in turn binding of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, SiO2, and FP can also improve mechanical properties of the PU sponge. The sponges maintain the superhydrophobicity even when they are stretched with 200% strain or compressed with 50% strain. The sponges also show excellent mechanical stability, oil stability, and reusability in terms of superhydrophobicity and oil absorbency. The magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic PU sponges are very promising materials for practical oil absorption and oil/water separation. PMID:25671386

  9. MAGNETIC DRUM SEPARATOR PERFORMANCE SCALPING SHREDDED TROMMEL OVERFLOW AT NOMINAL DESIGN CONDITIONS. TEST NO. 4.03, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the first test of the shredded trommel overs magnetic drum separator at the New Orleans, Louisiana, resource recovery facility. Shredded trommel overs refers to waste which reports to the oversize discharge from the trommel and is subsequently shredded. For ...

  10. Recovery and separation of erythromycin from industrial wastewater by imprinted magnetic nanoparticles that exploit β-cyclodextrin as the functional monomer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Jinyang; Wang, FeiFei; Wu, Gang; Qv, Xue; Hong, Hua; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    A type of surface imprinting over magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles utilizing erythromycin-A as a template for use in the separation and recovery of erythromycin was developed and investigated. As the intermolecular forces play a key role in the performance of imprinted materials, differential scanning calorimetry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy was employed to evaluate the interactions between erythromycin and the functional monomer β-cyclodextrin. To synthesize the surface imprinted polymers, magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, the core materials, were modified with a free radical initiator to initialize polymerization in a "grafting from" manner. Then using acryloyl-modified β-cyclodextrin as the functional monomer and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, thin erythromycin-imprinted films were fabricated by the radical-induced graft copolymerization of monomers on the surface of the Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Selectivity experiments showed that the erythromycin-A-imprinted materials had recognition ability toward erythromycin derivatives. Finally, these magnetic molecularly imprinted particles were successfully used for the separation and enrichment of erythromycin from the mother liquor. The recovery, detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and differential pulse voltammetry, approached 97%. The combination of the specific selectivity of the imprinted material and the magnetic separation provided a powerful tool that is simple, flexible, and selective for the separation and recovery of erythromycin. PMID:26805958

  11. Design of a core-shell type immuno-magnetic separation system and multiplex PCR for rapid detection of pathogens from food samples.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, V Cengiz; Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Oktem, H Avni

    2013-11-01

    We report an immuno-magnetic separation system developed by the immobilization of pathogen-specific antibodies on the core-shell magnetic beads. The magnetic beads were grafted with glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). For immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) of target bacterial cells from others, antibodies for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells were immobilized on the magnetic beads via glutaraldehyde coupling reaction. Our IMS system successfully separated Salmonella cells when the concentrations of target (i.e., Salmonella) and interfering (i.e., E. coli) cells were at the same level. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays amplifying the rfb/rfbE region of the E. coli genome and a 647-bp fragment of the invA region of Salmonella were performed as the specific selection to accurately confirm the presence of E. coli and Salmonella, respectively. IMS and multiplex PCR methods can be used for specific and quantitative detection of pathogens from food samples. Thus, this study developed a reliable and direct system for rapid detection of Salmonella and E. coli in food samples. In addition, IMS method could be easily adapted to detect other pathogens by selecting the pertinent antibody. PMID:24048640

  12. Usefulness of two-point Dixon fat-water separation technique in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ying; Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Li, Ren-Chen; Zeng, Meng-Su

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare differences between volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) using two-point Dixon fat-water separation (Dixon-VIBE) and chemically selective fat saturation (FS-VIBE) with magnetic resonance imaging examination. METHODS: Forty-nine patients were included, who were scanned with two VIBE sequences (Dixon-VIBE and FS-VIBE) in hepatobiliary phase after gadoxetic acid administration. Subjective evaluations including sharpness of tumor, sharpness of vessels, strength and homogeneity of fat suppression, and artifacts that were scored using a 4-point scale. The liver-to-lesion contrast was also calculated and compared. RESULTS: Dixon-VIBE with water reconstruction had significantly higher subjective scores than FS-VIBE in strength and homogeneity of fat suppression (< 0.0001) but lower scores in sharpness of tumor (P < 0.0001), sharpness of vessels (P = 0.0001), and artifacts (P = 0.034). The liver-to-lesion contrast on Dixon-VIBE images was significantly lower than that on FS-VIBE (16.6% ± 9.4% vs 23.9% ± 12.1%, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Dixon-VIBE provides stronger and more homogenous fat suppression than FS-VIBE, while has lower clarity of focal liver lesions in hepatobiliary phase after gadoxetic acid administration. PMID:25945017

  13. Multifunctional inorganic-organic hybrid nanospheres for rapid and selective luminescence detection of TNT in mixed nitroaromatics via magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingxin; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Leyu

    2013-11-15

    Rapid, sensitive and selective detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in aqueous solution differentiating from other nitroaromatics and independent of complicated instruments is in high demand for public safety and environmental monitoring. Despite of many methods for TNT detection, it is hard to differentiate TNT from 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) due to their highly similar structures and properties. In this work, via a simple and versatile method, LaF3ːCe(3+)-Tb(3+)and Fe3O4 nanoparticle-codoped multifunctional nanospheres were prepared through self-assembly of the building blocks. The luminescence of these nanocomposites was dramatically quenched via adding nitroaromatics into the aqueous solution. After the magnetic separation, however, the interference of other nitroaromatics including 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and nitrobenzene (NB) was effectively overcome due to the removal of these coexisting nitroaromatics from the surface of nanocomposites. Due to the formation of TNT(-)-RCONH3(+), the TNT was attached to the surface of the nanocomposites and was quantitatively detected by the postexposure luminescence quenching. Meanwhile, the luminescence intensity is negatively proportional to the concentration of TNT in the range of 0.01-5.0 μg/mL with the 3σ limit of detection (LOD) of 10.2 ng/mL. Therefore, the as-developed method provides a novel strategy for rapid and selective detection of TNT in the mixture solution of nitroaromatics by postexposure luminescence quenching. PMID:24148441

  14. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4/AgBr Hybrid Materials: Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Activity and Good Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuhui; Li, Chen; Li, Junli; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-06-01

    Magnetically separable Fe3O4/AgBr hybrid materials with highly efficient photocatalytic activity were prepared by the precipitation method. All of them exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure AgBr in photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. When the loading amount of Fe3O4 was 0.5 %, the hybrid materials displayed the highest photocatalytic activity, and the degradation yield of MO reached 85 % within 12 min. Silver halide often suffers serious photo-corrosion, while the stability of the Fe3O4/AgBr hybrid materials improved apparently than the pure AgBr. Furthermore, depositing Fe3O4 onto the surface of AgBr could facilitate the electron transfer and thereby leading to the elevated photocatalytic activity. The morphology, phase structure, and optical properties of the composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques.

  15. Microwave Heating and Pre-sintering of Copper Powder Metal Compacts in Separated Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Kelly; Johnson, Earnie; Ma, Junkun; Miskovsky, Nicholas; Weisel, Gary; Weiss, Brock; Zimmerman, Darin

    2006-03-01

    We present results of microwave heating and pre-sintering of pure copper metal powder compacts. Using a 2.45GHz, WR284 microwave system operating in TE102 single mode resonance, we have systematically studied the microwave heating and pre-sintering behavior of various copper powder metal compacts as a function of particle size and green density. Cylindrical samples (0.25in by 0.25in) were positioned in either the magnetic-- or electric--field antinode, allowing the study of the separate effects of the two fields. The results show significant differences in heating rates and sample microstructure (SEM) even when average sample temperatures are below half the melting point of bulk copper. Numerical simulations of the absorption and heating have been developed to check the consistency of the experimental results. We acknowledge the additional work of undergraduate students John Diehl, John Rea, Charles Smith, and Devin Spratt, who assisted in the setup of experimental apparatus, sample preparation, and data acquisition.

  16. CryoCart Restoration and Vacuum Pipe Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaidez, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion systems that utilize hypergolic propellants have been used to power space vehicles since the beginning of the space program. Liquid methane and oxygen propulsion systems have emerged as an alternative and have proven to be more environmentally friendly. The incorporation of liquid methane/liquid oxygen (LOX) into the propulsion system has demonstrated an increase in engine performance, as well as a reduction in the volume, size and complexity of the system. Consequently, reducing the total mass of the vehicle which is a crucial aspect that is considered when planning space missions to both the Moon and Mars [1]. Project Morpheus has made significant advancements in liquid oxygen/liquid methane propulsion system technologies by incorporating a LOX/methane propulsion system to a vertical test bed. The vehicle consisted of a 5,000 lb main engine and four 20 lb remote control system (RCS) engines that utilize liquid methane/LOX as its propellant [1]. The vehicle completed successful flight testing at Kennedy Space Center in 2014 which marked the completion of the Morpheus project. Subsequent projects utilizing Morpheus' vertical test bed have been developed to make further advancements. One of the subsequent projects consisted of the addition of a smaller 2,000 lb main engine and a cold helium heat exchanger which would make it possible for a pressurant tank systems to be send to Mars or the Moon by significantly decreasing the overall mass and volume of the pressurant tank. The hot fire tests of the integrated system with the smaller main engine and cold helium heat exchanger were successful at sea level, but further studies are being conducted to better understand how the vertical test bed will behave under thermal-vacuum conditions. For this reason, the integrated vehicle will be taken to Plum Brook to be tested in a chamber capable of simulating these conditions. To ensure that the vehicle will function properly under vacuum conditions, testing will be first completed at the component level. During this process, the igniter of the main engine and the RCS thrusters will be tested under a vacuum. To complete the testing of the components, the test setup first needed to be finalized. The CryoCart is being used to feed the propellants to the test article. The CryoCart is a movable test set-up that was developed in 2009 to provide a mobile platform for testing oxygen/methane systems with hot-fire capability up to 100 lbf. The CryoCart consists of three different systems: Oxygen, Methane, and liquid Nitrogen. The Oxygen and Methane systems are placed into two different carts while the liquid nitrogen system is mainly located in the methane cart. Over the years, the CryoCart has been utilized for different projects and has undergone deterioration. For this reason, a new phase has been developed to rebuild it to working conditions once again. During my internship, I was aiding in the construction and restoration of the CryoCart. In the initial stages of the process, I updated the fluid and electrical schematics for the oxygen, methane, and test article systems. The original CryoCart consisted of an electrical panel that utilized electromechanical relays and a terminal to drive the igniter power and signal, as well as the main fuel and oxygen valves. This electrical panel connected to the CryoCart through various wire harnesses that could be found exiting from the CryoCart. First, it was determined how these harnesses connected to the electromechanical relays so that they worked correctly. Once the electrical system was understood, an alternative for the electromechanical relays and the Molex connectors used throughout the system was sought since these components can often prove to be unreliable. Solid State relays and MIL connectors were purchased to serve as replacements. Upon arrival of the parts, crimping and wiring was completed to install the new solid state relays and MIL connectors. During the replacement of the relays and connectors, system checks of the electrical system were ran to ensure that the system was working correctly. While completing system checks, the pressure transducers that were not functioning properly were also replaced and any issue with the wiring or signal was addressed. Once the electrical components were replaced, the restoration of the fluid system began. Parts of the tubing in the CryoCart had to be rebuild and often consisted of sizing, cutting, bending, filing, and sanding the tubing to prepare it to be flared. Many components had to be proof-tested to bring their certifications up to date, and several components had to be replaced. Various flex hoses, valves, and fittings were send to the Clean Lab because they were new, dirty, or had gone through proof-testing. Once they arrived from the cleaning lab they had to be put back to the system and leak checks and functional tests were conducted. In the Nitrogen system, the copper tubing located in the Oxygen cart was rebuild and Aerogel insulation was added to this section. A new gaseous nitrogen system was added to the CryoCart to purge the vacuum tube which will serve as the test chamber. Once the CryoCart was completed, construction of parts of the vacuum tube began. A flange was manufactured with welded fittings to hold the line of the vacuum pump as well as some extra fittings which will serve as extra inlets used to introduce fluid lines to the vacuum tube. Stress analysis was ran in this flange to ensure that it would not fail under vacuum conditions. The fluid lines leading from the air side of the vacuum to the test article were also constructed and added to the mount that had already been manufactured. Three different sets of tubing were constructed to accommodate the seven different RCS thruster and the main engine igniter that are going to be tested. Full electrical system checks were completed to ensure that all the wire harnesses and valves were functioning. Upon the completion of the CryoCart and the vacuum tube, hot fire testing for the RCS thrusters and the main engine igniter are going to begin. During this time any issues encountered with the engines or igniter will be addressed to ensure that the components function under vacuum conditions. After successful completion of testing, the vertical test bed, Morpheus, will be rebuilt and prepared to be sent to Plum Brook. In Plum Brook, the vehicle will be tested in the thermal-vacuum chamber to demonstrate that integrated lox-methane propulsion system operation in space-like conditions. This internship has allowed me the opportunity to gain valuable hands on experience and to develop skills that will aid in my education as well as in the workforce, while at the same time helping me determine that I would like to further pursue a career in propulsion engineering.

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Systems For CryoSat-2 Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Roger Ian; Maslanik, James A.

    2011-02-01

    A suite of sensors has been assembled to map surface elevation with fine-resolution from small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The sensor package consists of a light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) instrument, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a GPS module, and digital still and video cameras. It has been utilized to map ice sheet topography in Greenland and to measure sea ice freeboard and roughness in Fram Strait. Data collected during these campaigns illustrate its potential to compliment ongoing CryoSat-2 (CS-2) calibration and validation efforts.

  18. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers☆

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Kaufmann, Rainer; Siebert, C. Alistair; Hagen, Christoph; Wodrich, Harald; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. PMID:24262358

  19. 76 FR 4338 - Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo- Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops AGENCY... Laboratory, in conjunction with the Hydrogen Storage team of the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, will be hosting two days of workshops on compressed and cryo-compressed hydrogen storage in the Washington,...

  20. Capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids for downstream cryo-electron microscopy applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electron microscopy cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography are essential techniques used for characterizing basic virus morphology and determining the three-dimensional structure of viruses. Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pa...

  1. Bio-inspired Cryo-ink Preserves Red Blood Cell Phenotype and Function during Nanoliter Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Assal, Rami El; Guven, Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gozen, Irep; Shafiee, Hadi; Dalbeyber, Sedef; Abdalla, Noor; Thomas, Gawain; Fuld, Wendy; Illigens, Ben M.W.; Estanislau, Jessica; Khoory, Joseph; Kaufman, Richard; Zylberberg, Claudia; Lindeman, Neal; Wen, Qi; Ghiran, Ionita; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Current red blood cell cryopreservation methods utilize bulk volumes, causing cryo-injury of cells, which results in irreversible disruption of cell morphology, mechanics, and function. An innovative approach to preserve human red blood cell morphology, mechanics, and function following vitrification in nanoliter volumes is developed using a novel cryo-ink integrated with a bio-printing approach. PMID:25047246

  2. Bio-inspired cryo-ink preserves red blood cell phenotype and function during nanoliter vitrification.

    PubMed

    El Assal, Rami; Guven, Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gozen, Irep; Shafiee, Hadi; Dalbeyler, Sedef; Abdalla, Noor; Thomas, Gawain; Fuld, Wendy; Illigens, Ben M W; Estanislau, Jessica; Khoory, Joseph; Kaufman, Richard; Zylberberg, Claudia; Lindeman, Neal; Wen, Qi; Ghiran, Ionita; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-09-01

    Current red-blood-cell cryopreservation methods utilize bulk volumes, causing cryo-injury of cells, which results in irreversible disruption of cell morphology, mechanics, and function. An innovative approach to preserve human red-blood-cell morphology, mechanics, and function following vitrification in nanoliter volumes is developed using a novel cryo-ink integrated with a bioprinting approach. PMID:25047246

  3. Step-induced magnetic phase separation in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 (100) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, In Hae; Biswas, Amlan

    We investigated thickness dependent magnetic anisotropy in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/SrTiO3 (100) (LSMO/STO) thin films using a combination of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and magnetization measurements. Atomically smooth thin films of LSMO were grown on STO using pulsed laser deposition. The thin films showed step flow growth with unit cell step heights. MFM images of a 40 unit cell (u.c.)-thick film showed out-of-plane magnetic domain structure indicating bulk-like rhombohedral crystalline anisotropy. As the film thickness was decreased to 20 u.c., the MFM images showed signatures of step-induced uniaxial anisotropy. Hence, the magnetic domain structure shows that tensile strain from lattice mismatch weakens the rhombohedral crystalline anisotropy in LSMO. Magnetization vs. field, M (H) measurements for the 20 u.c. thick LSMO film revealed a clear in-plane uniaxial anisotropy with the direction along the steps being the easy axis and the coercive fields along the steps were consistently smaller than across the steps for a broad temperature range. Our combination of bulk and local magnetic measurements suggest that the microscopic origin of magnetic anisotropy is step-induced phase separation in the thinner films which are under higher tensile strain. Thank you for support from NSF-DMR # 1410237.

  4. About the consistency between Envisat and CryoSat-2 radar freeboard retrieval over Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwegmann, S.; Rinne, E.; Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge about Antarctic sea-ice volume and its changes over the past decades has been sparse due to the lack of systematic sea-ice thickness measurements in this remote area. Recently, first attempts have been made to develop a sea-ice thickness product over the Southern Ocean from space-borne radar altimetry and results look promising. Today, more than 20 years of radar altimeter data are potentially available for such products. However, data come from different sources, and the characteristics of individual sensors differ. Hence, it is important to study the consistency between single sensors in order to develop long and consistent time series over the potentially available measurement period. Here, the consistency between freeboard measurements of the Radar Altimeter 2 on-board Envisat and freeboard measurements from the Synthetic-Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter on-board CryoSat-2 is tested for their overlap period in 2011. Results indicate that mean and modal values are comparable over the sea-ice growth season (May-October) and partly also beyond. In general, Envisat data shows higher freeboards in the seasonal ice zone while CryoSat-2 freeboards are higher in the perennial ice zone and near the coasts. This has consequences for the agreement in individual sectors of the Southern Ocean, where one or the other ice class may dominate. Nevertheless, over the growth season, mean freeboard for the entire (regional separated) Southern Ocean differs generally by not more than 2 cm (5 cm, except for the Amundsen/Bellingshausen Sea) between Envisat and CryoSat-2, and the differences between modal freeboard lie generally within ±10 cm and often even below.

  5. Using size-selected gold clusters on graphene oxide films to aid cryo-transmission electron tomography alignment.

    PubMed

    Arkill, Kenton P; Mantell, Judith M; Plant, Simon R; Verkade, Paul; Palmer, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of a nano-scale aqueous object can be achieved by taking a series of transmission electron micrographs tilted at different angles in vitreous ice: cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography. Presented here is a novel method of fine alignment for the tilt series. Size-selected gold clusters of ~2.7 nm (Au₅₆₁±₁₄ ), ~3.2 nm (Au₉₂₃± ₂₂ ), and ~4.3 nm (Au₂₀₅₇±₄₅) in diameter were deposited onto separate graphene oxide films overlaying holes on amorphous carbon grids. After plunge freezing and subsequent transfer to cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography, the resulting tomograms have excellent (de-)focus and alignment properties during automatic acquisition. Fine alignment is accurate when the evenly distributed 3.2 nm gold particles are used as fiducial markers, demonstrated with a reconstruction of a tobacco mosaic virus. Using a graphene oxide film means the fiducial markers are not interfering with the ice bound sample and that automated collection is consistent. The use of pre-deposited size-selected clusters means there is no aggregation and a user defined concentration. The size-selected clusters are mono-dispersed and can be produced in a wide size range including 2-5 nm in diameter. The use of size-selected clusters on a graphene oxide films represents a significant technical advance for 3D cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:25783049

  6. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Robert M; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-02-23

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness. PMID:26386606

  7. O-Allylation of phenols with allylic acetates in aqueous media using a magnetically separable catalytic system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic ethers were synthesized in water using magnetically recoverable heterogeneous Pd catalyst via O-allylation of phenols with allylic acetates under ambient conditions. Aqueous reaction medium, easy recovery of the catalyst using an external magnet, efficient recycling, and ...

  8. Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, Jayaraman; Huang, Ping; Mancini, Giulia Fulvia; Murooka, Yoshie; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; McGrouther, Damien; Cantoni, Marco; Baldini, Edoardo; White, Jonathan Stuart; Magrez, Arnaud; Giamarchi, Thierry; Rønnow, Henrik Moodysson; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers in logic or storage devices thanks to their robustness, guaranteed by the topological protection, and their nanometric size. Currently, little is known about the influence of parameters such as disorder, defects, or external stimuli on the long-range spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the skyrmion lattice. Here, using a large (7.3×7.3 μm2) single-crystal nanoslice (150 nm thick) of Cu2OSeO3, we image up to 70,000 skyrmions by means of cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy as a function of the applied magnetic field. The emergence of the skyrmion lattice from the helimagnetic phase is monitored, revealing the existence of a glassy skyrmion phase at the phase transition field, where patches of an octagonally distorted skyrmion lattice are also discovered. In the skyrmion phase, dislocations are shown to cause the emergence and switching between domains with different lattice orientations, and the temporal fluctuation of these domains is filmed. These results demonstrate the importance of direct-space and real-time imaging of skyrmion domains for addressing both their long-range topology and stability. PMID:26578765

  9. Enrichment of Rare Earth and Niobium from a REE-Nb-Fe Associated Ore via Reductive Roasting Followed by Magnetic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mudan; You, Zhixiong; Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Xiang; Li, Guanghui

    2016-02-01

    REE-Nb-Fe ore is a typical refractory resource rich in valuable elements. In this article, coal-based reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation is proposed to recover rare earth element (REE), niobium (Nb), and powdered metallic iron (Fe) concentrate from a REE-Nb-Fe raw concentrate containing 31.9% total iron grade (TFe), 3.2% rare earth oxides (REO), and 2.9% Nb2O5. Sodium sulfate is employed to enhance the reduction of iron oxide and to facilitate the growth of metallic iron grains. A magnetic fraction with TFe of 89.3%, iron metallization of 95.8% and iron recovery of 91.5% is obtained by magnetic separation after the raw concentrate is reduced to 1100°C for 120 min in the presence of 15 wt.% sodium sulfate. The contents of rare earth and niobium in the nonmagnetic fraction are enriched to 5.4% (REO) and 4.6% (Nb2O5) with recoveries of 96.1% and 95.8%, respectively. The TFe in the nonmagnetic fraction obtained after the separation is decreased to 4.8% accordingly. The reactions between sodium sulfate and SiO2/Al2O3 enhance the reduction by destroying the mineral structure. The separation of iron from rare earth and niobium is highly improved as metallic iron grains grow markedly when roasted in the presence of sodium sulfate.

  10. From CryoSat-2 to Sentinel-3 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, R.

    2011-12-01

    CryoSat-2 carried into Earth orbit the first altimeter using SAR principles, although similar techniques had been used on earlier Venusian missions. Furthermore, it carries a second antenna and receive chain, and has been very carefully calibrated, allowing interferometry between these antennas. The results of the SAR mode and of the interferometer have met all expectations, with handsome margins. Even before the launch of CryoSat-2 the further development of this concept was underway with the radar for the oceanography mission Sentinel-3. While this radar, named SRAL (SAR Radar Altimeter) does not have the interferometer capability of CryoSat-2's SIRAL (SAR Interferometric Radar Altimeter), it does have a second frequency, to enable direct measurement of the delay induced by the ionospheric electron content. Sentinel-3 will have a sun-synchronous orbit, like ERS and EnviSat, and will have a similar latitudinal range: about 82 north and south, compared to CryoSat's 88. Sentinel-3 will operate its radar altimeter in the high-resolution SAR mode over coastal oceans and inland water, and will revert to the more classical pulse-width limited mode over the open oceans. The SAR mode generates data at a high rate, so the major limiting factor is the amount of on-board storage. The power consumption is also higher, imposing less critical constraints. For sizing purposes the coastal oceans are defined as waters within 300 km of the continental shorelines. Sentinel-3 is expected to be launched in 2013 and be followed 18 months later by a second satellite of the same design. The next step in the development of this family of radar altimeters is Jason-CS, which will provide Continuity of Service to the existing Jason series of operational oceanography missions. Jason-CS has a very strong heritage from CryoSat but will fly the traditional Jason orbit, which covers latitudes up to 66 from a high altitude of 1330 km. The new radar is called Poseidon-4, to emphasise the connection to Jason, but its concept owes more to Sentinel-3's SRAL. It retains SRAL's dual frequencies and its SAR mode, but adds some further refinements. Most notably, an operating mode in which SAR operations and full performance pulse-width limited mode are available simultaneously, is under study. This would enable the benefits of SAR mode to be achieved over all ocean areas if the volume of data generated could be stored and downlinked to the ground. This problem only becomes tractable if an on-board processing system can be introduced to perform the first level of SAR processing, reducing the data volume by several orders of magnitude. This is also under study. The architecture of the radar has a further improvement, in the extension of digital technology further into the domain of analog radio-frequency electronics. While this is essentially invisible to the scientific user, it will yield an instrument with higher quality and markedly superior stability. The Jason-CS missions (at least two satellites are planned) are currently in a study phase with an implementation decision expected at the end of 2012. The planned launch date for the first mission is 2017.

  11. Value Engineering in System of Cryoline and Cryo- distribution for ITER: In-kind Contribution from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, B.; Shah, N.; Vaghela, H.; Bhattacharya, R.; Choukekar, K.; Patel, P.; Chang, H.-S.; Badgujar, S.; Chalifour, M.

    2015-12-01

    System of Cryoline and Cryo-distribution for ITER has matured to a stage of preliminary design with the advent of industrial associates. Starting from the cold power source, the system of Cryoline and Cryo-distribution transfers the controlled cold power through a large network to the superconducting magnets and cryopumps. The functional responsibility also includes very high reliability and availability with respect to the operation of the ITER machine. Following the completion of conceptual design, it was necessary to perform a detailed engineering study of the complete network of distribution system in totality, before entering in to the industrial phase. This is to ensure the functional responsibility of the system. Value engineering in the area of distribution boxes including interfacing Cryolines has been performed in order to access the integrated reliable performance with respect to the overall cryogenic system, reducing the risk transferred to the industrial partners. These include technical risk assessment, analysis, mitigation plan and implementation with the industrial partners. The paper describes the methodology of technical risk management, value engineering performed to ensure fulfilment of licensing and regulatory obligations, functional reliability, testing and manufacturability by standard industrial processes, so that highly reliable integrated distribution system is delivered for the project.

  12. Airborne surveys in the Arctic and Antarctic for geophysics, sea-ice thickness, and CryoSat validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, R.; Olesen, A. V.; Hvidegaard, S.; Skourup, H.

    2010-12-01

    Airborne laser and radar measurements over the Greenland ice sheet, Svalbard, and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by DTU-Space in a number of recent Danish/Greenlandic and European project campaigns, with the purpose to monitor ice sheet and sea-ice changes, support of Greenland societal needs (oil exploration and hydropower), and support of CryoSat pre-launch calibration and validation campaigns. The Arctic campaigns have been done using a Twin-Otter aircraft, carrying laser scanners and various radars. Since 2009 a new program of long-range gravity and magnetic surveys have been initiated using a Basler DC3 aircraft for large-scale surveys in the Arctic Ocean and Antarctica, with the 2010 cooperative Danish-Argentinean-Chilean-US ICEGRAV survey of the Antarctic Peninsula additionally including a UTIG 60 MHz ice-penetrating radar. In the paper we outline the recent and upcoming airborne survey activities, outline the usefulness of the airborne data for satellite validation (CryoSat and GOCE), and give examples of measurements and comparisons to satellite and in-situ data.

  13. Cryo-electron microscopy specimen preparation by means of a focused ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Stefano; Melin, Petter; Spellward, Paul; Leifer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a protocol used to prepare cryo-TEM samples of Aspergillus niger spores, but which can easily be adapted for any number of microorganisms or solutions. We make use of a custom built cryo-transfer station and a modified cryo-SEM preparation chamber. The spores are taken from a culture, plunge-frozen in a liquid nitrogen slush and observed in the cryo-SEM to select a region of interest. A thin lamella is then extracted using the FIB, attached to a TEM grid and subsequently thinned to electron transparency. The grid is transferred to a cryo-TEM holder and into a TEM for high resolution studies. Thanks to the introduction of a cooled nanomanipulator tip and a cryo-transfer station, this protocol is a straightforward adaptation to cryogenic temperature of the routinely used FIB preparation of TEM samples. As such it has the advantages of requiring a small amount of modifications to existing instruments, setups and procedures; it is easy to implement; it has a broad range of applications, in principle the same as for cryo-TEM sample preparation. One limitation is that it requires skillful handling of the specimens at critical steps to avoid or minimize contaminations. PMID:25146386

  14. Low cost, high performance processing of single particle cryo-electron microscopy data in the cloud

    PubMed Central

    Cianfrocco, Michael A; Leschziner, Andres E

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a new generation of electron microscopes and direct electron detectors has realized the potential of single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a technique to generate high-resolution structures. Calculating these structures requires high performance computing clusters, a resource that may be limiting to many likely cryo-EM users. To address this limitation and facilitate the spread of cryo-EM, we developed a publicly available ‘off-the-shelf’ computing environment on Amazon's elastic cloud computing infrastructure. This environment provides users with single particle cryo-EM software packages and the ability to create computing clusters with 16–480+ CPUs. We tested our computing environment using a publicly available 80S yeast ribosome dataset and estimate that laboratories could determine high-resolution cryo-EM structures for $50 to $1500 per structure within a timeframe comparable to local clusters. Our analysis shows that Amazon's cloud computing environment may offer a viable computing environment for cryo-EM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06664.001 PMID:25955969

  15. Cryo-electron Microscopy Specimen Preparation By Means Of a Focused Ion Beam

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Stefano; Melin, Petter; Spellward, Paul; Leifer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a protocol used to prepare cryo-TEM samples of Aspergillus niger spores, but which can easily be adapted for any number of microorganisms or solutions. We make use of a custom built cryo-transfer station and a modified cryo-SEM preparation chamber2. The spores are taken from a culture, plunge-frozen in a liquid nitrogen slush and observed in the cryo-SEM to select a region of interest. A thin lamella is then extracted using the FIB, attached to a TEM grid and subsequently thinned to electron transparency. The grid is transferred to a cryo-TEM holder and into a TEM for high resolution studies. Thanks to the introduction of a cooled nanomanipulator tip and a cryo-transfer station, this protocol is a straightforward adaptation to cryogenic temperature of the routinely used FIB preparation of TEM samples. As such it has the advantages of requiring a small amount of modifications to existing instruments, setups and procedures; it is easy to implement; it has a broad range of applications, in principle the same as for cryo-TEM sample preparation. One limitation is that it requires skillful handling of the specimens at critical steps to avoid or minimize contaminations. PMID:25146386

  16. Site-Specific Cryo-focused Ion Beam Sample Preparation Guided by 3D Correlative Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jan; Mahamid, Julia; Lucic, Vladan; de Marco, Alex; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Laugks, Tim; Mayer, Tobias; Hyman, Anthony A; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2016-02-23

    The development of cryo-focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) for the thinning of frozen-hydrated biological specimens enabled cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) analysis in unperturbed cells and tissues. However, the volume represented within a typical FIB lamella constitutes a small fraction of the biological specimen. Retaining low-abundance and dynamic subcellular structures or macromolecular assemblies within such limited volumes requires precise targeting of the FIB milling process. In this study, we present the development of a cryo-stage allowing for spinning-disk confocal light microscopy at cryogenic temperatures and describe the incorporation of the new hardware into existing workflows for cellular sample preparation by cryo-FIB. Introduction of fiducial markers and subsequent computation of three-dimensional coordinate transformations provide correlation between light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/FIB. The correlative approach is employed to guide the FIB milling process of vitrified cellular samples and to capture specific structures, namely fluorescently labeled lipid droplets, in lamellas that are 300 nm thick. The correlation procedure is then applied to localize the fluorescently labeled structures in the transmission electron microscopy image of the lamella. This approach can be employed to navigate the acquisition of cryo-ET data within FIB-lamellas at specific locations, unambiguously identified by fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26769364

  17. Low cost, high performance processing of single particle cryo-electron microscopy data in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Cianfrocco, Michael A; Leschziner, Andres E

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a new generation of electron microscopes and direct electron detectors has realized the potential of single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a technique to generate high-resolution structures. Calculating these structures requires high performance computing clusters, a resource that may be limiting to many likely cryo-EM users. To address this limitation and facilitate the spread of cryo-EM, we developed a publicly available 'off-the-shelf' computing environment on Amazon's elastic cloud computing infrastructure. This environment provides users with single particle cryo-EM software packages and the ability to create computing clusters with 16-480+ CPUs. We tested our computing environment using a publicly available 80S yeast ribosome dataset and estimate that laboratories could determine high-resolution cryo-EM structures for $50 to $1500 per structure within a timeframe comparable to local clusters. Our analysis shows that Amazon's cloud computing environment may offer a viable computing environment for cryo-EM. PMID:25955969

  18. Alignment algorithms and per-particle CTF correction for single particle cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; Hecksel, Corey W; Baldwin, Philip R; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C; Schmid, Michael F; Ludtke, Steven J; Chiu, Wah

    2016-06-01

    Single particle cryo-electron tomography (cryoSPT) extracts features from cryo-electron tomograms, followed by 3D classification, alignment and averaging to generate improved 3D density maps of such features. Robust methods to correct for the contrast transfer function (CTF) of the electron microscope are necessary for cryoSPT to reach its resolution potential. Many factors can make CTF correction for cryoSPT challenging, such as lack of eucentricity of the specimen stage, inherent low dose per image, specimen charging, beam-induced specimen motions, and defocus gradients resulting both from specimen tilting and from unpredictable ice thickness variations. Current CTF correction methods for cryoET make at least one of the following assumptions: that the defocus at the center of the image is the same across the images of a tiltseries, that the particles all lie at the same Z-height in the embedding ice, and/or that the specimen, the cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) grid and/or the carbon support are flat. These experimental conditions are not always met. We have developed a CTF correction algorithm for cryoSPT without making any of the aforementioned assumptions. We also introduce speed and accuracy improvements and a higher degree of automation to the subtomogram averaging algorithms available in EMAN2. Using motion-corrected images of isolated virus particles as a benchmark specimen, recorded with a DE20 direct detection camera, we show that our CTF correction and subtomogram alignment routines can yield subtomogram averages close to 4/5 Nyquist frequency of the detector under our experimental conditions. PMID:27016284

  19. Combination of dynamic magnetophoretic separation and stationary magnetic trap for highly sensitive and selective detection of Salmonella typhimurium in complex matrix.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pei-Lin; Tang, Man; Hong, Shao-Li; Yu, Xu; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-12-15

    Foodborne illnesses have always been a serious problem that threats public health, so it is necessary to develop a method that can detect the pathogens rapidly and sensitively. In this study, we designed a magnetic controlled microfluidic device which integrated the dynamic magnetophoretic separation and stationary magnetic trap together for sensitive and selective detection of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). Coupled with immunomagnetic nanospheres (IMNs), this device could separate and enrich the target pathogens and realize the sensitive detection of target pathogens on chip. Based on the principle of sandwich immunoassays, the trapped target pathogens identified by streptavidin modified QDs (SA-QDs) were detected under an inverted fluorescence microscopy. A linear range was exhibited at the concentration from 1.0×10(4) to 1.0×10(6) colony-forming units/mL (CFU/mL), the limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 5.4×10(3) CFU/mL in milk (considering the sample volume, the absolute detection limit corresponded to 540C FU). Compared with the device with stationary magnetic trap alone, the integrated device enhanced anti-interference ability and increased detection sensitivity through dynamic magnetophoretic separation, and made the detection in complex samples more accurate. In addition, it had excellent specificity and good reproducibility. The developed system provides a rapid, sensitive and accurate approach to detect pathogens in practice samples. PMID:26201979

  20. Magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites: Novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Mitra; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-03-01

    The present work demonstrates preparation of magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts. The resultant samples were characterized using XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, BET, and VSM techniques. The results revealed that weight percent of BiOI has considerable effect on photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Among the prepared samples, the g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI (20%) nanocomposite has the best photocatalytic activity. The activity of this nanocomposite is about 10, 22, and 21-fold higher than that of the g-C3N4 sample in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange under the visible-light irradiation. The excellent activity of the magnetic nanocomposite was attributed to more harvesting of the visible-light irradiation and efficiently separation of the electron-hole pairs. More importantly, the nanocomposite was magnetically separated after five successive cycles. PMID:26669494

  1. EMRinger: side chain-directed model and map validation for 3D cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barad, Benjamin A; Echols, Nathaniel; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Cheng, Yifan; DiMaio, Frank; Adams, Paul D; Fraser, James S

    2015-10-01

    Advances in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) require the development of validation metrics to independently assess map quality and model geometry. We report EMRinger, a tool that assesses the precise fitting of an atomic model into the map during refinement and shows how radiation damage alters scattering from negatively charged amino acids. EMRinger (https://github.com/fraser-lab/EMRinger) will be useful for monitoring progress in resolving and modeling high-resolution features in cryo-EM. PMID:26280328

  2. Thermal-Structural Coupled Analysis of ITER Torus Cryo-Pump Housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Songke; Song, Yuntao; Xie, Han; Lei, Mingzhun

    2012-11-01

    An ITER torus cryo-pump housing (TCPH), which encloses a torus cryo-pump, is connected to a vacuum vessel (VV) by a set of associated double bellows. There are complicated loads due to two different operating states (pumping and regeneration) and foreseeable accidents with the cryo-pump. This paper describes a thermal-structural coupled analysis of the present TCPH according to the allowable stress criteria of RCC-MR, in which the worst cases and outcomes of various load combinations are obtained. Meanwhile, optimization of the structure has been carried out to obtain positive analysis results and an adequate safety margin.

  3. Dengue virus purification and sample preparation for cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joanne L; Lok, Shee Mei

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a valuable tool used to study the structures of icosahedral viruses without having to resort to crystallization. During the last few decades, significant progress has been made where virus structures previously resolved only to low resolution have now breached the sub-nanometer threshold. Critical to such excellent results are the acquisition of highly purified virus samples and well-frozen samples in vitreous ice. With the virus particles locked in their native conformations, cryo-EM together with single-particle analysis can then be deployed to study the structures of the viruses in their fully hydrated states. PMID:24696330

  4. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens: an approach to the study of bulk specimens.

    PubMed

    Erk, I; Delacroix, H; Nicolas, G; Ranck, J L; Lepault, J

    1991-08-01

    We are using and developing cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens. Our main interests concern the structure of muscle and muscular components. Micrographs which generally contain periodic features are analyzed by numerical image processing methods. To detect artifacts induced by the electron microscopy techniques, we correlate our results to those obtained by X-ray diffraction. In this paper, we describe our approach to the study of bulk specimens. Vitrification of such specimens is assessed by cryo-X-ray diffraction. Microscopy is done on cryo-substituted specimens. PMID:1919793

  5. A Unique BSL-3 Cryo-Electron Microscopy Laboratory at UTMB

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Michael B.; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Razmus, Dennis; Yazuka, Shintaro; Koht, Craig; Hilser, Vincent J.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Brocard, Anne-Sophie; Zimmerman, Dee; Chiu, Wah; Watowich, Stanley J.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a unique cryo-electron microscopy (CryoEM) facility to study the three-dimensional organization of viruses at biological safety level 3 (BSL-3). This facility, the W. M. Keck Center for Virus Imaging, has successfully operated for more than a year without incident and was cleared for select agent studies by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Standard operating procedures for the laboratory were developed and implemented to ensure its safe and efficient operation. This facility at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX) is the only such BSL-3 CryoEM facility approved for select agent research. PMID:21852942

  6. Simple synthesis of functionalized superparamagnetic magnetite/silica core/shell nanoparticles and their application as magnetically separable high-performance biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Youjin; Youn, Jongkyu; Na, Hyon Bin; Yu, Taekyung; Kim, Hwan O.; Lee, Sang-mok; Koo, Yoon-mo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Park, Hyun-Gyu; Chang, Ho Nam; Hwang, Misun; Park, Je-Geun; Kim, Jungbae; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the facile large-scale synthesis of magnetite@silica core-shell nanoparticles by a simple addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) into reverse micelles during the formation of uniformly-sized magnetite nanoparticles. The size of magnetic core was determined by the ratio of solvent and surfactant in reverse micelle solution while the thickness of silica shell could be easily controlled by adjusting the amount of added TEOS. Amino group functional groups were grafted to the magnetic nanoparticles, and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CEC) were fabricated on the surface of magnetite@silica nanoparticles. The resulting hybrid materials of magnetite and CEC were magnetically separable, highly active, and stable enough to show no decrease of enzyme activity under rigorous shaking for more than 15 days.

  7. Annealing control of magnetic anisotropy and phase separation in CoFe2O4-BaTiO3 nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Herklotz, A.; Guo, E.-J.; Roth, R.; Schultz, L.; Dörr, K.; Manzoor, Sadia

    2013-12-01

    Multiferroic heteroepitaxial nanocomposite films of BaTiO3 and CoFe2O4 (CFO) have been grown by pulsed laser deposition employing alternating ablation of two ceramic targets. Films grown at temperatures between 650 °C and 710 °C contain columnar CFO grains about 10-20 nm in diameter embedded in a BaTiO3 matrix. The very strong vertical compression of these grains causes large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Post-growth annealing treatments above the growth temperature gradually release the compression. This allows one to tune the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy. Additionally, annealing leads to substantial enhancement of the saturation magnetization MS. Since MS of a pure CFO film remains unchanged by a similar annealing procedure, MS is proposed to depend on the volume fraction of the obtained CFO phase. We suggest that MS can be utilized to monitor the degree of phase separation in nanocomposite films.

  8. Surface-Constrained 3D Reconstruction in Cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Andrew C; Tagare, Hemant; Sigworth, Fred J

    2011-01-01

    Random spherically-constrained (RSC) reconstruction is a new form of single particle reconstruction (SPR) using cryo-EM images of membrane proteins embedded in spherical lipid vesicles to generate a 3D protein structure. The method has many advantages over conventional SPR, including a more native environment for protein particles and an initial estimate of the particle's angular orientation. These advances allow us to determine structures of membrane proteins such as ion channels and derive more reliable structure estimates. We present an algorithm that relates conventional SPR to the RSC model, and generally, to projection images of particles embedded with an axis parallel to the local normal of a general 2D manifold. We illustrate the performance of this algorithm in the spherical system using synthetic data. PMID:24477184

  9. Cryo-stability of HB-Cesic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    The technical requirements for large future space optics are becoming more and more challenging. This is particularly the case with respect to thermal stability under cryogenic conditions. During the past two years, ECM together with its industrial partners carried out extensive cryo-stability tests of its HB-Cesic® optical material under a range of conditions. In this paper we report the test configurations and results of two of these tests and qualification campaigns. The first of the tests was carried out with a 600-mm HB-Cesic® mirror that was polished directly without any overcoating. The second of the tests was carried out with an 800-mm HB-Cesic® mirror whose optical surface was coated with a silicon layer prior to polishing. The 600-mm mirror was tested to a cryogenic temperature of 93 K. The 800-mm mirror was tested to a cryogenic temperature of 18 K.

  10. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  11. Removal of subsurface fluorescence in cryo-imaging using deconvolution

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Wang, Charlie Y.; Steyer, Grant; Wilson, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We compared image restoration methods [Richardson-Lucy (RL), Wiener, and Next-image] with measured “scatter” point-spread-functions, for removing subsurface fluorescence from section-and-image cryo-image volumes. All methods removed haze, delineated single cells from clusters, and improved visualization, but RL best represented structures. Contrast-to-noise and contrast-to-background improvement from RL and Wiener were comparable and 35% better than Next-image. Concerning detection of labeled cells, ROC analyses showed RL ≈Wiener > Next-image >> no processing. Next-image was faster than other methods and less prone to image processing artifacts. RL is recommended for the best restoration of the shape and size of fluorescent structures. PMID:20941133

  12. eCryo SHIIVER Customer/Stakeholder Checkpoint Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoeckler, Joseph G.; Guzik, Monica; Van Dresar, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Given the wide diversity of cryogenic fluid management technology that had been developed at the research level, there was a need for eCryo to prioritize and focus on a limited subset of the possibilities in order to set a practical scope. As part of the effort to determine that focus, a survey was conducted in May of 2014 to solicit opinions of members of the aerospace industry as to what they considered the most important and beneficial cryogenic technologies to be developed in the near term. The project was also directed to consider the SLS exploration upper stage (EUS) as a potential infusion target, and to focus on technology that would provide the most immediate benefit to a cryogenic system of that type.

  13. Improving the visualization of cryo-EM density reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, M; Duraisamy, A K; Schrder, G F

    2015-08-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy yields 3D density maps of macromolecules from single-particle images, tomograms, or 2D crystals. An optimal visualization of the density map is important for its proper interpretation. We have developed a method to improve the visualization of density maps by using general statistical information about proteins for the sharpening process. In particular, the packing density of atoms is highly similar between different proteins, which allows for building a pseudo-atomic model to approximate the true mass distribution. From this model the radial structure factor and density value histogram are estimated and applied as constraints to the 3D reconstruction in reciprocal- and real-space, respectively. Interestingly, similar improvements are obtained when using the correct radial structure factor and density value histogram from a crystal structure. Thus, the estimated pseudo-atomic model yields a sufficiently accurate mass distribution to optimally sharpen a density map. PMID:26072056

  14. The low-temperature magnetostructure and magnetic field response of Pr0.9Ca0.1MnO3: the roles of Pr spins and magnetic phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikkanen, J.; Geilhufe, M.; Frontzek, M.; Hergert, W.; Ernst, A.; Paturi, P.; Udby, L.

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of elucidating the background of photoinduced ferromagnetism phenomena observed in the perovskite structured (Pr,Ca) manganites, the low-temperature magnetostructure of the material \\text{P}{{\\text{r}}0.9}\\text{C}{{\\text{a}}0.1}\\text{Mn}{{\\text{O}}3} was revised using cold neutron powder diffraction, SQUID magnetometry and ab initio calculations. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the presence of nanoscale magnetic phase separation. Previously published results of a canted A-AFM average ground state were reproduced to a good precision both experimentally and theoretically, and complemented by investigating the effects of an applied magnetic field of 2.7 T on the magnetostructure. Explicit evidence of nanoscale magnetic clusters in the material was obtained based on high-resolution neutron diffractograms. Along with several supporting arguments, we present this finding as a justification for extending the nanoscale magnetic phase separation model of manganites to the material under discussion despite its very low Ca doping level in the context of the model. In the light of the new data, we also conclude that the low temperature magnetic moment of Pr must be ca. 300% larger than previously thought in this material, close to the high spin value of 2~{μ\\text{B}} per formula unit.

  15. The low-temperature magnetostructure and magnetic field response of Pr0.9Ca0.1MnO3: the roles of Pr spins and magnetic phase separation.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, J; Geilhufe, M; Frontzek, M; Hergert, W; Ernst, A; Paturi, P; Udby, L

    2016-01-27

    With the goal of elucidating the background of photoinduced ferromagnetism phenomena observed in the perovskite structured (Pr,Ca) manganites, the low-temperature magnetostructure of the material Pr0.9Ca0.1MnO3 was revised using cold neutron powder diffraction, SQUID magnetometry and ab initio calculations. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the presence of nanoscale magnetic phase separation. Previously published results of a canted A-AFM average ground state were reproduced to a good precision both experimentally and theoretically, and complemented by investigating the effects of an applied magnetic field of 2.7 T on the magnetostructure. Explicit evidence of nanoscale magnetic clusters in the material was obtained based on high-resolution neutron diffractograms. Along with several supporting arguments, we present this finding as a justification for extending the nanoscale magnetic phase separation model of manganites to the material under discussion despite its very low Ca doping level in the context of the model. In the light of the new data, we also conclude that the low temperature magnetic moment of Pr must be ca. 300% larger than previously thought in this material, close to the high spin value of 2μB per formula unit. PMID:26732100

  16. Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads for magnetic affinity separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, T A; Fedorchak, M A; Sharonova, O M; Fomenko, E V; Shishkina, N N; Zhizhaev, A M; Kudryavtsev, A N; Frank, L A; Anshits, A G

    2016-01-19

    Magnetic Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads (Ni-ferrosphere beads - NFB) of a core-shell structure were synthesized starting from coal fly ash ferrospheres having diameters in the range of 0.063-0.050 mm. The strategy of NFB fabrication is an oriented chemical modification of the outer surface preserving the magnetic core of parent beads with the formation of micro-mesoporous coverings. Two routes of ferrosphere modification were realized, such as (i) hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline medium resulting in a NaP zeolite layer and (ii) synthesis of micro-mesoporous silica on the glass surface using conventional methods. Immobilization of Ni(2+) ions in the siliceous porous shell of the magnetic beads was carried out via (i) the ion exchange of Na(+) for Ni(2+) in the zeolite layer or (ii) deposition of NiO clusters in the zeolite and silica pores. The final NFB were tested for affinity in magnetic separation of the histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) directly from a cell lysate. Results pointed to the high affinity of the magnetic beads towards the protein in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. The sorption capacity of the ferrosphere-based Ni-beads with respect to GFP was in the range 1.5-5.7 mg cm(-3). PMID:26688000

  17. River flood events in Thailand and Bangladesh observed by CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Karina; Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per

    2015-04-01

    The high along track resolution of the SIRAL altimeter carried on-board CryoSat-2 offers a wide range of unique opportunities for satellite monitoring. This study focuses on the ability of CryoSat-2 to detect the effects of flood events such as increased river levels and inundation of land. Here we study two flood events; the Bangladesh flood event of June 2012 and the flooding in Thailand that lasted between July 2011 and January 2012. The flooding in these areas was caused by abnormal monsoonal rainfall and affected millions of people. We process CryoSat-2 level 1b SAR mode data to derive water levels for the areas and compare these levels before, during and after the flooding events. Other parameters such as the backscatter coefficient and pulse peakiness are also considered. To verify the extent of the flooding observed by CryoSat-2 we compare with independent sources such as Landsat images.

  18. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    PubMed Central

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination. PMID:26817416

  19. Mechanical Property Characterization of Cryo-Rolled Copper by Miniaturized Disk Bend and Nanoindentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Garima; Chatterjee, Arnomitra; Kapoor, Rajeev; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2014-09-01

    The present study reports mechanical behavior of severe plastically deformed pure Cu under cryogenic conditions by miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) and nanoindentation technique. MDBT is a useful technique to determine mechanical property of miniature samples under multiaxial state of stress. The samples were severely deformed by cryo-rolling upto 75% and 95% reduction. Microstructure evolution of cryo-rolled samples has been characterized using optical and EBSD technique. MDBT was performed on cryo-rolled 10-mm disk of ~200-μm thickness. Nanoindentation tests were also performed on the cryo-rolled samples. The hardness values obtained from nanoindentation tests were compared with yield stress obtained from MDBT. The present study established a good quantitative correlation between the two techniques. Mechanical dynamic parameters; strain rate sensitivity (m) and activation volume (V*) determined by MDBT and nanoindentation techniques showed close agreement in the results.

  20. Mechanical Property Characterization of Cryo-Rolled Copper by Miniaturized Disk Bend and Nanoindentation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Garima; Chatterjee, Arnomitra; Kapoor, Rajeev; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports mechanical behavior of severe plastically deformed pure Cu under cryogenic conditions by miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) and nanoindentation technique. MDBT is a useful technique to determine mechanical property of miniature samples under multiaxial state of stress. The samples were severely deformed by cryo-rolling upto 75% and 95% reduction. Microstructure evolution of cryo-rolled samples has been characterized using optical and EBSD technique. MDBT was performed on cryo-rolled 10-mm disk of ~200-μm thickness. Nanoindentation tests were also performed on the cryo-rolled samples. The hardness values obtained from nanoindentation tests were compared with yield stress obtained from MDBT. The present study established a good quantitative correlation between the two techniques. Mechanical dynamic parameters; strain rate sensitivity ( m) and activation volume ( V*) determined by MDBT and nanoindentation techniques showed close agreement in the results.

  1. Retracking CryoSat-2 Ocean Waveforms for Optimal Gravity Field Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, E. S.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    Achieving improved accuracy of the global marine gravity field derived from satellite altimetry depends primarily on two factors - a dense spatial distribution of ground tracks and high range measurement precision. CryoSat-2 is the first altimeter in the past 15 years that offers advancements in both of these capabilities. Over the ocean, the altimeter is operated in two modes, which produce distinct returned signals - one is similar to the conventional pulse-limited waveform, while the new SAR waveform results from along-track focusing. In order to extract physical measurements of the ocean surface, we are developing the models and algorithms for estimating the arrival time of the leading edge of both waveform types, specifically to enhance gravity field recovery. For the conventional-mode data, we have modified our two-pass approach originally developed for retracking ERS-1 waveforms and demonstrate a factor of 1.4 improvement in range precision for CryoSat-2. We attribute this to its 2 times higher pulse repetition frequency. Waveform retracking models and methods for the SAR mode data are still in active development by the community. We are testing three approaches to SAR waveform retracking. The simplest SAR waveform model (Raney, 1998) assumes a boxcar beamform along the track for a perfectly flat ocean surface, which results in a functional form that has the return power rising as the square root of time. A complete analytic waveform model accounts for the effects of a rough surface. Therefore, the flat ocean surface response is convolved with a Gaussian wave height model. We have obtained a solution for the functional form for this first model as well as its derivatives with respect to the arrival time and rise time parameters. The second retracking approach assumes a Gaussian beamform along the track, and this leads to a modified Bessel function representation of the waveform. This particular analytic model for a flat ocean surface cannot be convolved exactly with a Gaussian wave height model, and thus we resort to using a series approximation and numerical integration in separate instances. The third approach utilizes a purely numerical integration via quadrature of both the flat ocean response and the Gaussian wave height model. Comparing the modeled power from these three approaches results in remarkably similar waveform shapes with less than 10% differences for the flat ocean case and smaller differences for a typical Gaussian wave height. The range precision of the SAR mode data is expected to be 2 times better than the conventional mode data. We will select the optimal retracking approach based on the analysis of the CryoSat-2 SAR waveforms, which involves evaluating the data through comparisons with EGM2008 as well as through the analysis of repeat tracks.

  2. Magnetically separable and recyclable Fe3O4-polydopamine hybrid hollow microsphere for highly efficient peroxidase mimetic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujun; Fu, Jianwei; Wang, Minghuan; Yan, Ya; Xin, Qianqian; Cai, Lu; Xu, Qun

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic Fe3O4-polydopamine (PDA) hybrid hollow microspheres, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles were firmly incorporated in the cross-linked PDA shell, have been prepared through the formation of core/shell PS/Fe3O4-PDA composites based on template-induced covalent assembly method, followed by core removal in a tetrahydrofuran solution. The morphology, composition, thermal property and magnetic property of the magnetic hybrid hollow microspheres were characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. Results revealed that the magnetic hybrid hollow microspheres had about 380nm of inner diameter and about 30nm of shell thickness, and 13.6emug(-1) of magnetization saturation. More importantly, the Fe3O4-PDA hybrid hollow microspheres exhibited intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, as they could quickly catalyze the oxidation of typical substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Compared with PDA/Fe3O4 composites where Fe3O4 nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of PDA microspheres, the stability of Fe3O4-PDA hybrid hollow microspheres was greatly improved. As-prepared magnetic hollow microspheres might open up a new application field in biodetection, biocatalysis, and environmental monitoring. PMID:26871276

  3. Liquid Nitrogen Cryo-Impacting: a New Concept for Cell Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Smucker, Richard A.; Pfister, Robert M.

    1975-01-01

    High-efficiency disruption of bacteria can be accomplished in 2 or more min by the new procedure of liquid nitrogen cryo-impacting. Release of the dipicolinic acid-Ca2+ chelate paralleled the breakage of Bacillus megaterium endospores. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was much better in supernates from liquid nitrogen cryo-impacting-broken Escherichia coli cells than in those from sonically treated and broken E. coli cells. Images PMID:810088

  4. Visualizing the global secondary structure of a viral RNA genome with cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Garmann, Rees F.; Gopal, Ajaykumar; Athavale, Shreyas S.; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.; Harvey, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    The lifecycle, and therefore the virulence, of single-stranded (ss)-RNA viruses is regulated not only by their particular protein gene products, but also by the secondary and tertiary structure of their genomes. The secondary structure of the entire genomic RNA of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) was recently determined by selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). The SHAPE analysis suggested a single highly extended secondary structure with much less branching than occurs in the ensemble of structures predicted by purely thermodynamic algorithms. Here we examine the solution-equilibrated STMV genome by direct visualization with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), using an RNA of similar length transcribed from the yeast genome as a control. The cryo-EM data reveal an ensemble of branching patterns that are collectively consistent with the SHAPE-derived secondary structure model. Thus, our results both elucidate the statistical nature of the secondary structure of large ss-RNAs and give visual support for modern RNA structure determination methods. Additionally, this work introduces cryo-EM as a means to distinguish between competing secondary structure models if the models differ significantly in terms of the number and/or length of branches. Furthermore, with the latest advances in cryo-EM technology, we suggest the possibility of developing methods that incorporate restraints from cryo-EM into the next generation of algorithms for the determination of RNA secondary and tertiary structures. PMID:25752599

  5. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:26913144

  6. Single-particle cryo-EM of the ryanodine receptor channel in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:25844145

  7. Ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Fe3O4 nanocomposites: Novel magnetically separable photocatalyst for efficiently degradation of dye pollutants under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekofteh-Gohari, Maryam; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we successfully prepared a series of novel magnetically separable ZnO/Ag3VO4/Fe3O4 nanocomposites by a facile refluxing method using Fe3O4, zinc nitrate, silver nitrate, ammonium metavanadate, and sodium hydroxide as starting materials without using any post preparation treatments. The microstructure, purity, morphology, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were studied using XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, and VSM techniques. The ZnO/Ag3VO4/Fe3O4 nanocomposite with 8:1 weight ratio of ZnO/Ag3VO4 to Fe3O4 has the superior activity in degradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Photocatalytic activity of this nanocomposite is about 11.5-fold higher than that of the ZnO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The results showed that the preparation time and calcination temperature significantly affect on the photocatalytic activity. The trapping experiments revealed that superoxide ions and holes have major influence on the degradation reaction. Furthermore, the enhanced activity of the nanocomposite for degradation of two more dye pollutants was confirmed. Finally, the nanocomposite was magnetically separated from the treated solution after four successive cycles.

  8. Bifunctional magnetic nanobeads for sensitive detection of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus based on immunomagnetic separation and enzyme-induced metallization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Zhou, Chuan-Hua; Chen, Jian-Jun; Xiong, Chaochao; Chen, Ze; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-06-15

    Bifunctional magnetic nanobeads (bi-MBs) were fabricated by co-immobilizing target recognition molecules and signal molecules on a magnetic nanobead surface, which were used as both separation and enrichment carriers and signal carriers. The bi-MBs could capture and separate avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (H7N9 AIV) from complex samples efficiently based on the specific reaction between antigen-antibody and their good magnetic response, which simplified sample pretreatment and saved the detection time. Taking advantages of their high surface to volume ratio and rich surface functional groups, multiple alkaline phosphatase (ALP) signal molecules were tethered on the surface of bi-MBs which greatly amplified the detection signal. As an efficient signal amplification strategy, enzyme-induced metallization had been integrated with bi-MBs and anodic stripping voltammetry to construct an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for H7N9 AIV detection. Under the optimal conditions, the introduction of bi-MBs could amplify the detection signal in about four times compared with the same immunoassay without MBs, and the method showed a wide linear range of 0.01-20 ng/mL with a detection limit of 6.8 pg/mL. The electrochemical immunosensor provides a simple and reliable platform with high sensitivity and selectivity which shows great potential in early diagnosis of diseases. PMID:25643598

  9. A novel magnetically separable TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber with high photocatalytic activity under UV-vis light

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cong-Ju; Wang, Jiao-Na; Wang, Bin; Gong, Jian Ru; Lin, Zhang

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technique, which can be reclaimed with a magnet, and the decolorizing efficiency of MB solution reached 95.87%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers with diameter of 110 {+-} 28 nm have been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol-gel method and electrospinning technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Co{sup 2+} or/and Fe{sup 3+} ions may occupy some of the lattice sites of TiO{sub 2} to form an iron-titanium solid solution and narrow the band gap, which broadens the response region of visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resultant nanofibers not only have high decomposition efficiency with methylene blue (MB) under the UV irradiation, which is close to that of Degussa P25, but also can be separated with a magnet and avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water. -- Abstract: A novel magnetically separable heterogeneous photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technology, followed by heat treatment at 550 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The phase structure, morphology and magnetic property of the composite nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The photocatalytic studies of TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fibers suggested that the presence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} not only enhanced the absorbance of UV light, but also broadened the response region to visible light. The decolorizing efficiency of methylene blue (MB) solution reaches 95.87% over TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers under 300 W Hg lamp after 5 h, which is close to that of Degussa P25. Furthermore, these fibers can be collected with a magnet for reuse and effectively avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water.

  10. Preparation of Fe3O4@SiO2@layered double hydroxide core-shell microspheres for magnetic separation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingfei; Ning, Fanyu; Zhao, Jingwen; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2012-01-18

    Three-component microspheres containing an SiO(2)-coated Fe(3)O(4) magnetite core and a layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelet shell have been synthesized via an in situ growth method. The resulting Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)@NiAl-LDH microspheres display three-dimensional core-shell architecture with flowerlike morphology, large surface area (83 m(2)/g), and uniform mesochannels (4.3 nm). The Ni(2+) cations in the NiAl-LDH shell provide docking sites for histidine and the materials exhibit excellent performance in the separation of a histidine (His)-tagged green fluorescent protein, with a binding capacity as high as 239 ?g/mg. The microspheres show highly selective adsorption of the His-tagged protein from Escherichia coli lysate, demonstrating their practical applicability. Moreover, the microspheres possess superparamagnetism and high saturation magnetization (36.8 emu/g), which allows them to be easily separated from solution by means of an external magnetic field and subsequently reused. The high stability and selectivity of the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)@NiAl-LDH microspheres for the His-tagged protein were retained over several separation cycles. Therefore, this work provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of multifunctional LDH microspheres, which can be used for the practical purification of recombinant proteins, as well as having other potential applications in a variety of biomedical fields including drug delivery and biosensors. PMID:22191643

  11. Experimental investigation of inhomogeneities, nanoscopic phase separation, and magnetism in arc melted Fe-Cu metals with equal atomic ratio of the constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassnain Jaffari, G.; Aftab, M.; Anjum, D. H.; Cha, Dongkyu; Poirier, Gerald; Ismat Shah, S.

    2015-12-01

    Composition gradient and phase separation at the nanoscale have been investigated for arc-melted and solidified with equiatomic Fe-Cu. Diffraction studies revealed that Fe and Cu exhibited phase separation with no trace of any mixing. Microscopy studies revealed that immiscible Fe-Cu form dense bulk nanocomposite. The spatial distribution of Fe and Cu showed existence of two distinct regions, i.e., Fe-rich and Cu-rich regions. Fe-rich regions have Cu precipitates of various sizes and different shapes, with Fe forming meshes or channels greater than 100 nm in size. On the other hand, the matrix of Cu-rich regions formed strips with fine strands of nanosized Fe. Macromagnetic response of the system showed ferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic moment being equal to about 2.13 μB/ Fe atom and a bulk like negligible value of coercivity over the temperature range of 5-300 K. Anisotropy constant has been calculated from various laws of approach to saturation, and its value is extracted to be equal to 1350 J/m3. Inhomogeneous strain within the Cu and Fe crystallites has been calculated for the (unannealed) sample solidified after arc-melting. Annealed sample also exhibited local inhomogeneity with removal of inhomogeneous strain and no appreciable change in magnetic character. However, for the annealed sample phase separated Fe exhibited homogenous strain.

  12. Hybrid Graphene Oxide Based Plasmonic-Magnetic Multifunctional Nanoplatform for Selective Separation and Label-Free Identification of Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Demeritte, Teresa; Nellore, Bhanu Priya Viraka; Kanchanapally, Rajashekhar; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Pramanik, Avijit; Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2015-06-24

    Despite intense efforts, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the top public health crisis for society even at 21st century. Since presently there is no cure for AD, early diagnosis of possible AD biomarkers is crucial for the society. Driven by the need, the current manuscript reports the development of magnetic core-plasmonic shell nanoparticle attached hybrid graphene oxide based multifunctional nanoplatform which has the capability for highly selective separation of AD biomarkers from whole blood sample, followed by label-free surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) identification in femto gram level. Experimental ELISA data show that antibody-conjugated nanoplatform has the capability to capture more than 98% AD biomarkers from the whole blood sample. Reported result shows that nanoplatform can be used for SERS "fingerprint" identification of β-amyloid and tau protein after magnetic separation even at 100 fg/mL level. Experimental results indicate that very high sensitivity achieved is mainly due to the strong plasmon-coupling which generates huge amplified electromagnetic fields at the "hot spot". Experimental results with nontargeted HSA protein, which is one of the most abundant protein components in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), show that multifunctional nanoplatform based AD biomarkers separation and identification is highly selective. PMID:26027901

  13. Magnetically separable ternary hybrid of ZnFe2O4-Fe2O3-Bi2WO6 hollow nanospheres with enhanced visible photocatalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junqi; Liu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically separable ternary hybrid ZnFe2O4-Fe2O3-Bi2WO6 hollow nanospheres were designed and synthesized by an effective three-step approach. Specifically, using phenolic formaldehyde microspheres (PFS) as template direct the sequential coating of α-Fe2O3/ZnFe2O4 layer and subsequent Bi2WO6 layer via impregnating-calcination process. The photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation is in the order of ZnFe2O4-Fe2O3-Bi2WO6 > ZnFe2O4-Bi2WO6 > Bi2WO6 > ZnFe2O4-Fe2O3 > ZnFe2O4. The enhanced activity could be attributed to the cascade electron transfer from ZnFe2O4 to α-Fe2O3 then to Bi2WO6 through the interfacial potential gradient in the ternary hybrid conduction bands, which facilitate the charge separation and retard the charge pair recombination. Furthermore, the ternary hybrid ZnFe2O4-Fe2O3-Bi2WO6 hollow nanospheres could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field, and be chemically and optically stable after several repetitive tests. The study also provides a general and effective method in the composite hollow nanomaterials with sound heterojunctions that may show a variety of applications.

  14. Magnetically separable core-shell structural ?-Fe2O3@Cu/Al-MCM-41 nanocomposite and its performance in heterogeneous Fenton catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yuhan; Long, Mingce; Hu, Peidong; Chen, Ya; Huang, Juwei

    2014-01-15

    To target the low catalytic activity and the inconvenient separation of copper loading nanocatalysts in heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction, a core-shell structural magnetically separable catalyst, with ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as the core layer and the copper and aluminum containing MCM-41 as the shell layer, has been fabricated. The role of aluminum has been discussed by comparing the copper containing mesoporous silica with various Cu contents. Their physiochemical properties have been characterized by XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, TEM, nitrogen physisorption and magnetite susceptibility measurements. Double content Cu incorporation results in an improved catalytic activity for phenol degradation at the given condition (40C, initial pH=4), but leads to a declined BET surface area and less ordered mesophase structure. Aluminum incorporation helps to retain the high BET surface area (785.2m(2)/g) and the regular hexagonal mesoporous structure of MCM-41, which make the catalyst possess a lower copper content and even a higher catalytic activity than that with the double copper content in the absence of aluminum. The catalysts can be facilely separated by an external magnetic field for recycle usage. PMID:24295771

  15. Popcorn-shaped magnetic core-plasmonic shell multifunctional nanoparticles for the targeted magnetic separation and enrichment, label-free SERS imaging, and photothermal destruction of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen; Senapati, Dulal; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Singh, Anant Kumar; Hamme, Ashton; Yust, Brian; Sardar, Dhiraj; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2013-02-18

    Over the last few years, one of the most important and complex problems facing our society is treating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB), by using current market-existing antibiotics. Driven by this need, we report for the first time the development of the multifunctional popcorn-shaped iron magnetic core-gold plasmonic shell nanotechnology-driven approach for targeted magnetic separation and enrichment, label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection, and the selective photothermal destruction of MDR Salmonella DT104. Due to the presence of the "lightning-rod effect", the core-shell popcorn-shaped gold-nanoparticle tips provided a huge field of SERS enhancement. The experimental data show that the M3038 antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can be used for targeted separation and SERS imaging of MDR Salmonella DT104. A targeted photothermal-lysis experiment, by using 670 nm light at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 10 min, results in selective and irreparable cellular-damage to MDR Salmonella. We discuss the possible mechanism and operating principle for the targeted separation, label-free SERS imaging, and photothermal destruction of MDRB by using the popcorn-shaped magnetic/plasmonic nanotechnology. PMID:23296491

  16. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.

  17. Strain-induced oxygen defect formation and interfacial magnetic phase separation in SrTiO3(001)/La1-xSrxCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, Chris

    2012-02-01

    The remarkable functionality and epitaxial compatibility of complex oxides provides many opportunities for new physics and applications in oxide heterostructures. Perovskite manganites and cobaltites provide excellent examples, being of interest for solid oxide fuel cells, catalysis, ferroelectric RAM, gas sensing, resistive switching memory, and oxide spintronics. However, the same delicate balance between phases that provides this diverse functionality also leads to a serious problem - the difficulty of maintaining desired properties close to the interface with other oxides. Although this problem is widespread, manifests itself in several ways, and could present a significant roadblock to the development of heterostructured devices for oxide electronics, there is no consensus as to its origin, or even whether it is driven by electronic or chemical effects. In this work, using SrTiO3(001)/La1-xSrxCoO3 as a model system, we have combined epitaxial growth via high pressure oxygen sputtering with high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy, and detailed magnetic, transport, and neutron scattering measurements to determine the fundamental origin of the deterioration in interfacial transport and magnetism. The effect is found to be due to nanoscopic magnetic phase separation in the near-interface region driven by a significant depletion in interfacial hole doping due to accumulation of O vacancies. This occurs due to a novel mechanism for accommodation of lattice mismatch with the substrate based on formation and long-range ordering of O vacancies, thus providing a fundamental link between strain state and O vacancy density. Further impacts of the O vacancy ordering and interfacial magnetic phase separation, such as formation of a spin-state superlattice and an extraordinary coercivity enhancement, will also be discussed. Work in collaboration with M. Sharma, M. Torija, J. Schmitt, C. He, S. El-Khatib, J. Gazquez, M. Varela, M. Laver and J. Borchers.

  18. Three Birds with One Fe3O4 Nanoparticle: Integration of Microwave Digestion, Solid Phase Extraction, and Magnetic Separation for Sensitive Determination of Arsenic and Antimony in Fish.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yun; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Li; Hou, Xiandeng; Yang, Lu; Zheng, Chengbin

    2015-06-16

    An environmentally friendly and fast sample treatment approach that integrates accelerated microwave digestion (MWD), solid phase extraction, and magnetic separation into a single step was developed for the determination of arsenic and antimony in fish samples by using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Compared to conventional microwave digestion, the consumption of HNO3 was reduced significantly to 12.5%, and the digestion time and temperature were substantially decreased to 6 min and 80 °C, respectively. This is largely attributed to Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles being a highly effective catalyst for rapid generation of oxidative radicals from H2O2, as well as an excellent absorber of microwave irradiation. Moreover, potential interferences from sample matrices were eliminated because the As and Sb species adsorbed on the nanoparticles were efficiently separated from the digests with a hand-held magnet prior to analysis. Limits of detection for arsenic and antimony were in the range of 0.01-0.06 μg g(-1) and 0.03-0.08 μg g(-1) by using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respectively, and further improved to 0.002-0.005 μg g(-1) and 0.005-0.01 μg g(-1) when inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used as a detector. The precision of replicate measurements (n = 9) was better than 6% by analyzing 0.1 g test sample spiked with 1 μg g(-1) arsenic and antimony. The proposed method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (DORM-3 and DORM-4) with good recoveries (90%-106%). PMID:25962876

  19. Resource Recovery and Reuse: Recycled Magnetically Separable Iron-based Catalysts for Phosphate Recovery and Arsenic Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmentally friendly processes that aid human and environmental health include recovering, recycling, and reusing limited natural resources and waste materials. In this study, we re-used Iron-rich solid waste materials from water treatment plants to synthesize magnetic iron-o...

  20. Single-step Antibody-based Affinity Cryo-Electron Microscopy for Imaging and Structural Analysis of Macromolecular Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guimei; Vago, Frank; Zhang, Dongsheng; Snyder, Jonathan E.; Yan, Rui; Zhang, Ci; Benjamin, Christopher; Jiang, Xi; Kuhn, Richard J.; Serwer, Philip; Thompson, David H.; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an emerging powerful tool for structural studies of macromolecular assemblies (i.e., protein complexes and viruses). Although single particle cryo-EM requires less concentrated and smaller amounts of samples than X-ray crystallography, it remains challenging to study specimens that are low-abundance, low-yield, or short-lived. The recent development of affinity grid techniques can potentially further extend single particle cryo-EM to these challenging samples by combining sample purification and cryo-EM grid preparation into a single step. Here we report a new design of affinity cryo-EM approach, cryo-SPIEM, that applies a traditional pathogen diagnosis tool Solid Phase Immune Electron Microscopy (SPIEM) to the single particle cryo-EM method. This approach provides an alternative, largely simplified and easier to use affinity grid that directly works with most native macromolecular complexes with established antibodies, and enables cryo-EM studies of native samples directly from cell cultures. In the present work, we extensively tested the feasibility of cryo-SPIEM with multiple samples including those of high or low molecular weight, macromolecules with low or high symmetry, His-tagged or native particles, and high- or low-yield macromolecules. Results for all these samples (nonpurified His-tagged bacteriophage T7, His-tagged E. coli ribosomes, native Sindbis virus, and purified but low-concentration native Tulane virus) demonstrated the capability of cryo-SPIEM approach in specifically trapping and concentrating target particles on TEM grids with minimal view constraints for cryo-EM imaging and determination of 3D structures. PMID:24780590

  1. Glycine receptor mechanism elucidated by electron cryo-microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Lü, Wei; Wu, Shenping; Cheng, Yifan; Gouaux, Eric

    2015-10-01

    The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and brainstem and is linked to neurological disorders, including autism and hyperekplexia. Understanding of molecular mechanisms and pharmacology of glycine receptors has been hindered by a lack of high-resolution structures. Here we report electron cryo-microscopy structures of the zebrafish α1 GlyR with strychnine, glycine, or glycine and ivermectin (glycine/ivermectin). Strychnine arrests the receptor in an antagonist-bound closed ion channel state, glycine stabilizes the receptor in an agonist-bound open channel state, and the glycine/ivermectin complex adopts a potentially desensitized or partially open state. Relative to the glycine-bound state, strychnine expands the agonist-binding pocket via outward movement of the C loop, promotes rearrangement of the extracellular and transmembrane domain 'wrist' interface, and leads to rotation of the transmembrane domain towards the pore axis, occluding the ion conduction pathway. These structures illuminate the GlyR mechanism and define a rubric to interpret structures of Cys-loop receptors. PMID:26344198

  2. A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Colin M.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. PMID:24275523

  3. An ultra-rapid cryo-technique for complex organisms.

    PubMed

    Irdani, T; Fortunato, A; Torre, R

    2015-12-01

    The soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent research model in cell biology, human disease and developmental studies. In this study, a novel cryopreservation technique based on a rapid cooling procedure, previously established for juveniles, was applied to adult-worms. Here we demonstrated that adults of C. elegans, a complex metazoan organism, survive to a rapid cooling and storage in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) with a very high survival percentage (85%). The procedure relies on a Low CryoProtectant Technique (LCPT) and Ultra Rapid Cooling (URC). The high cooling rate is achieved through the reduction of sample volumes and the effectiveness of a nylon carrier. Our technique complies with the requirements for vitrification to occur. The main distinctive characters of this cryopreservation technique compared to other methods, e.g. Slow Freezing and Vitrification, are presented. Our results show that this cryopreservation method is valid for both unicellular and multicellular organisms; it is suitable for short or long time storage in liquid-nitrogen. This technique promises to be a unique and simpler method for cryostorage of cells, organisms and tissues. PMID:26499841

  4. Glycine receptor mechanism illuminated by electron cryo-microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Lü, Wei; Wu, Shenping; Cheng, Yifan; Gouaux, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Summary The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) mediates inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and brainstem and is linked to neurological disorders including autism and hyperekplexia. Understanding of molecular mechanisms and pharmacology of GlyRs has been hindered by a dearth of high-resolution structures. Here we report electron cryo-microscopy structures of the α1 GlyR with strychnine, glycine, or glycine/ivermectin. Strychnine arrests the receptor in an antagonist-bound, closed ion channel state, glycine stabilizes the receptor in an agonist-bound open channel state, and the glycine/ivermectin complex adopts a potentially desensitized or partially open state. Relative to the glycine-bound state, strychnine expands the agonist-binding pocket via outward movement of the C loop, promotes rearrangement of the extracellular and transmembrane domain ‘wrist’ interface, and leads to rotation of the transmembrane domain toward the pore axis, occluding the ion conduction pathway. These structures illuminate GlyR mechanism and define a rubric to interpret structures of Cys-loop receptors. PMID:26344198

  5. A national facility for biological cryo-electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Saibil, Helen R.; Grünewald, Kay; Stuart, David I.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief update on the use of cryo-electron microscopy for integrated structural biology, along with an overview of the plans for the UK national facility for electron microscopy being built at the Diamond synchrotron. Three-dimensional electron microscopy is an enormously powerful tool for structural biologists. It is now able to provide an understanding of the molecular machinery of cells, disease processes and the actions of pathogenic organisms from atomic detail through to the cellular context. However, cutting-edge research in this field requires very substantial resources for equipment, infrastructure and expertise. Here, a brief overview is provided of the plans for a UK national three-dimensional electron-microscopy facility for integrated structural biology to enable internationally leading research on the machinery of life. State-of-the-art equipment operated with expert support will be provided, optimized for both atomic-level single-particle analysis of purified macromolecules and complexes and for tomography of cell sections. The access to and organization of the facility will be modelled on the highly successful macromolecular crystallography (MX) synchrotron beamlines, and will be embedded at the Diamond Light Source, facilitating the development of user-friendly workflows providing near-real-time experimental feedback.

  6. CryoSat-2 commissioning phase results summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.

    2010-12-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on 8th April 2010 and following a 3 day LEOP entered its 6 month commissioning phase. The primary payload of the platform consists of the Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL-2) with support for its data processing coming from data acquired from on-board DORIS DGXX and star trackers. We present a description of the payload and provide post-launch performance summaries in terms of SIRAL internal/external calibration in combination with an assessment of global data acquisition achievement in each of the three science modes: Low resolution pulse-width limited mode (LRM) over interior land-ice and ocean to support POD, Synthetic aperture radar mode (SARM) for sea-ice and SAR interferometric mode (SARInM) for higher surface slope land-ice sheet margin acquisitions. Commissioning activities are summarised with examples and we provide conclusions on the experiences gained with the data during this period. Specific issues are highlighted and that Users of the data products should consider taking into account with their analyses. Finally, present performances of the three science modes over transponders and open ocean calibration zones are provided in addition to specific cases over land and sea ice. Preliminary performances of DORIS and star trackers will be provided in the context of overall SIRAL performance.

  7. Comparison of the cryo-tolerance of vitrified gorgonian oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sujune; Yang, Vivian; Lin, Chiahsin

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs have been declining considerably in recent years because of changes to the environment and climate. The cryopreservation of coral gametes is an essential alternative method that yields immense success in preserving corals. This study focuses on developing vitrification techniques for Junceella fragilis and Ellisella robusta oocytes, and presents a comparison on the cryotolerance of their vitrified oocytes. The results revealed that these coral oocytes could be preserved for a longer period in equilibration solution 2 and vitrification solution (VS) 2 at 5 °C than at 26 °C. Oocyte viability decreased significantly when VS2 was used for >4 min at 26 °C compared with the control. Cryoprotectant tolerance was higher in E. robusta oocytes than in J. fragilis oocytes. However, E. robusta was determined to be more cryo-tolerant, with differences attributed to their habitats, thus making E. robusta is likely a superior candidate species for further study. The results of this study on the effects of coral cryopreservation provide a foundation for developing protocols further for the cryopreservation of the oocytes of gorgonian corals. PMID:26984101

  8. Comparison of the cryo-tolerance of vitrified gorgonian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Yang, Vivian; Lin, Chiahsin

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs have been declining considerably in recent years because of changes to the environment and climate. The cryopreservation of coral gametes is an essential alternative method that yields immense success in preserving corals. This study focuses on developing vitrification techniques for Junceella fragilis and Ellisella robusta oocytes, and presents a comparison on the cryotolerance of their vitrified oocytes. The results revealed that these coral oocytes could be preserved for a longer period in equilibration solution 2 and vitrification solution (VS) 2 at 5 °C than at 26 °C. Oocyte viability decreased significantly when VS2 was used for >4 min at 26 °C compared with the control. Cryoprotectant tolerance was higher in E. robusta oocytes than in J. fragilis oocytes. However, E. robusta was determined to be more cryo-tolerant, with differences attributed to their habitats, thus making E. robusta is likely a superior candidate species for further study. The results of this study on the effects of coral cryopreservation provide a foundation for developing protocols further for the cryopreservation of the oocytes of gorgonian corals. PMID:26984101

  9. Morphology of the pore space in claystones - evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-SEM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; Kukla, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mudrocks and clay-rich fault gouges are important mechanical elements in the Earth’s crust and form seals for crustal fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Other fields of interest are the storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and radioactive waste in geologic formations. In addition, coupled flows, capillary processes, and associated deformation are of importance in many applied fields. A key factor to understanding these processes is a detailed understanding of the morphology of the pore space. Classic studies of porosity in fine grained materials are performed on dried or freeze dried samples and include metal injection methods, magnetic susceptibility measurement, SEM and TEM imaging, neutron scattering, NMR spectroscopy, and ESEM. Confocal microscopy and X-ray tomography are used to image porosity in coarse grained sediments but the resolution of these techniques is not sufficient at present for applications to mudrocks or clay-rich fault gouges. Therefore, observations and interpretations remain difficult because none of these approaches is able to directly describe the in-situ porosity at the pore scale. In addition, some methods require dried samples in which the natural structure of pores may have been damaged to some extent due to desiccation and dehydration of the clay minerals. A recently developed alternative is to study wet samples using a cryo-SEM, which allows stabilization of wet media at cryo-temperature, in-situ sample preparation by ion beam cross-sectioning (BIB, FIB) and observations of the stabilized microstructure at high resolution. We report on a study of Boom clay from a proposed disposal site of radioactive waste (Mol site, Belgium) using cryo-SEM at cryogenic temperature, with ion beam cross-sectioning to prepare smooth, damage free surfaces. Pores commonly have crack-like tips, preferred orientation parallel to bedding and power law size distribution. We define a number of pore types depending on shape and location in the microstructure. 3-D reconstruction by serial cross-sectioning shows 3-D connectivity of the pore space. These findings offer a new insight into the morphology of pores down to nano-scale and provide the basis for microstructure-based models of transport in clays. SEM image (SE) of a Broad Ion Beam polished cross-section performed on dry Boom clay (Mol site, Belgium) showing the 2D apparent porosity (26.3%). The cross-section is perpendicular to the bedding.

  10. Structural characterization of components of protein assemblies by comparative modeling and electron cryo-microscopy.

    PubMed

    Topf, Maya; Baker, Matthew L; John, Bino; Chiu, Wah; Sali, Andrej

    2005-02-01

    We explore structural characterization of protein assemblies by a combination of electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) and comparative protein structure modeling. Specifically, our method finds an optimal atomic model of a given assembly subunit and its position within an assembly by fitting alternative comparative models into a cryoEM map. The alternative models are calculated by MODELLER [J. Mol. Biol. 234 (1993) 313] from different sequence alignments between the modeled protein and its template structures. The fitting of these models into a cryoEM density map is performed either by FOLDHUNTER [J. Mol. Biol. 308 (2001) 1033] or by a new density fitting module of MODELLER (Mod-EM). Identification of the most accurate model is based on the correlation between the model accuracy and the quality of fit into the cryoEM density map. To quantify this correlation, we created a benchmark consisting of eight proteins of different structural folds with corresponding density maps simulated at five resolutions from 5 to 15 angstroms, with three noise levels each. Each of the proteins in the set was modeled based on 300 different alignments to their remotely related templates (12-32% sequence identity), spanning the range from entirely inaccurate to essentially accurate alignments. The benchmark revealed that one of the most accurate models can usually be identified by the quality of its fit into the cryoEM density map, even for noisy maps at 15 angstroms resolution. Therefore, a cryoEM density map can be helpful in improving the accuracy of a comparative model. Moreover, a pseudo-atomic model of a component in an assembly may be built better with comparative models of the native subunit sequences than with experimentally determined structures of their homologs. PMID:15681235

  11. Fine Ice Sheet margins topography from swath processing of CryoSat SARIn mode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourmelen, N.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Shepherd, A.; Foresta, L.; Muir, A.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A. E.; Roca, M.; Baker, S.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The lack of such sustained observations was identified in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Cryosphere Theme Report as a major shortcoming. Conventional altimetry measurements over GISMs exist, but coverage has been sparse and characterized by coarse ground resolution. Additionally, and more importantly, they proved ineffective in the presence of steep slopes, a typical feature of GISM areas. Since the majority of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss is estimated to lie within 100 km from the coast, but only about 10% is surveyed, there is the need for more robust and dense observations of GISMs, in both time and space. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the Cryosphere. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry. The corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over GISMs and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) is a standard product of the CryoSat mission. Here we present an approach for more comprehensively exploiting the SARIn mode of CryoSat and produce an ice elevation product with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 height products. In this so called L2-swath processing approach, the full CryoSat waveform is exploited under specific conditions of signal and surface characteristics. We will present the rationale, validation exercises and preliminary results from the Eurpean Space Agency's STSE CryoTop study over selected test regions of the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  12. Magnetically-Separable and Highly-Stable Enzyme System Based on Crosslinked Enzyme Aggregates Shipped in Magnetite-Coated Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinwoo; Na, Hyon Bin; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jin Hyung; Lee, Byoungsoo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hwang, Yosun; Park, Je-Geun; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Shin, Chae-Ho; Grate, Jay W.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Jungbae

    2009-10-15

    Magnetically-separable and highly-stable enzyme system was developed by adsorption of enzymes in superparamagnetic hierarchically ordered mesocellular mesoporous silica (M-HMMS) and subsequent enzyme crosslinking. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into hierarchically-ordered mesocellular mesoporous silica (HMMS) by the decomposition of preformed iron propionate complex. The size of incorporated superparamagnetic 15 nanoparticles was around 5 nm, generating a magnetically separable host with high pore volumes and large pores (M-HMMS). α-chymotrypsin (CT) was adsorbed into M-HMMS with high loading (~30 wt%) in less than 30 minutes. Glutaraldehyde (GA) treatment of adsorbed CT resulted in nanometer scale crosslinked enzyme aggregates in M-HMMS (CLEA-M). The activity of these CT aggregates in M-HMMS (CLEA-M-CT) was 34 times than that of simply adsorbed CT in M20 HMMS, due to an effective prevention of enzyme leaching during washing via a ship-in-a-bottle approach. CLEA-M-CT maintained the intial activity not only under shaking (250 rpm) for 30 days, but also under recycled uses of 35 times. The same approach was employed for the synthesis of CLEA-M of lipase (CLEA-M-LP), and proven to be effective in improving the loading, activity, and stability of enzyme when compared to those of adsorbed LP in M-HMMS.

  13. Synthesis of Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@graphene composite: A magnetically separable and efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ran; Bi, Huiping; He, Guangyu; Zhu, Junwu; Chen, Haiqun

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was prepared by one-step solvent–thermal method. • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite exhibited the highest catalytic activity with excellent stability. • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was magnetically separable. - Abstract: In this work, the Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was prepared easily by a one-step solvent–thermal method, which achieved the formation of Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs), Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) and reduction of GO simultaneously. The morphology and structure of the composite was fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The time-dependent adsorption spectra of the reaction mixture was measured by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the Cu NPs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs were densely and evenly deposited on the graphene (GE) sheets. It was found that the Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite exhibited high catalytic activities on the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Furthermore, the composite catalyst can be easily recovered due to its magnetic separability and high stability.

  14. Adsorption of phosphate from water by easily separable Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with hydrous lanthanum oxide.

    PubMed

    Lai, Li; Xie, Qiang; Chi, Lina; Gu, Wei; Wu, Deyi

    2016-03-01

    Hydrous lanthanum oxide was loaded onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell magnetic nanoparticles to obtain an easily separable adsorbent (abbreviated as Fe-Si-La) for efficient separation of phosphate from water. Fe-Si-La was characterized with XRF, XRD, TEM, specific surface area and magnetization and their performance for phosphate removal was investigated. The Fe3O4@SiO2 core/shell structure was confirmed and the hydrous lanthanum oxide was successfully loaded onto its surface. The newly developed adsorbent had magnetization of 51.27emu/g. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of phosphate by Fe-Si-La reached 27.8mg/g by loading only 1mmol lanthanum per gram of magnetite. The adsorption was fast; nearly 99% of phosphate could be removed within 10min. The removal of phosphate was favored within the pH range 5.0-9.0. The adsorption on Fe-Si-La was not significantly influenced by ionic strength and by the coexistence of the anions of chloride and nitrate but sulfate, bicarbonate and humic acid showed slightly greater negative effects. Phosphate removal efficiency of higher than 95% was attained for real effluent of a wastewater treatment plant when the dose of adsorbent was >0.2kg/ton. The results showed that adsorbed phosphate could be nearly completely desorbed with NaOH solution for further use. In conclusion, Fe-Si-La is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of phosphate from water. PMID:26641568

  15. Efficient separation and sensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes using an impedance immunosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles, a microfluidic chip, and an interdigitated microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Kanayeva, Damira A; Wang, Ronghui; Rhoads, Douglas; Erf, Gisela F; Slavik, Michael F; Tung, Steve; Li, Yanbin

    2012-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes continues to be a major foodborne pathogen that causes food poisoning, and sometimes death, among immunosuppressed people and abortion among pregnant women. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of 30 nm were functionalized with anti-L. monocytogenes antibodies via biotin-streptavidin bonds to become immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMNPs) to capture L. monocytogenes in a sample during a 2-h immunoreaction. A magnetic separator was used to collect and hold the IMNPs-L. monocytogenes complex while the supernatants were removed. After the washing step, the nanoparticle-L. monocytogenes complex was separated from the sample and injected into a microfluidic chip. The impedance change caused by L. monocytogenes was measured by an impedance analyzer through the interdigitated microelectrode in the microfluidic chip. For L. monocytogenes in phosphate-buffered saline solution, up to 75% of the cells in the sample could be separated, and as few as three to five cells in the microfluidic chip could be detected, which is equivalent to 10(3) CFU/ml of cells in the original sample. The detection of L. monocytogenes was not interfered with by other major foodborne bacteria, including E. coli O157:H7, E. coli K-12, L. innocua, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. A linear correlation (R(2) = 0.86) was found between the impedance change and the number of L. monocytogenes in a range of 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/ml. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that the impedance change was mainly due to the decrease in medium resistance when the IMNPs-L. monocytogenes complexes existed in mannitol solution. Finally, the immunosensor was evaluated with food sample tests; the results showed that, without preenrichment and labeling, 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/ml L. monocytogenes in lettuce, milk, and ground beef samples could be detected in 3 h. PMID:23127703

  16. Chapter 3 Exact Signal-Noise Separation by Froissart Doublets in Fast Padé Transform for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkic, Dz; Evad

    In the present study, it is demonstrated that the fast padé transform (FPT) is capable of providing the exponential convergence rate (the spectral convergence) for the exact reconstructions of all the spectral parameters from time signals equivalent to the corresponding in vivo free induction decay curves encoded by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy with short echo times of about 20 ms at the standard clinical magnetic field strength 1.5 T from the brain of a healthy volunteer. Further, it is shown that residual spectra (the difference between the model and input spectra) are a necessary, but not a sufficient, criterion to estimate the error invoked in quantification. Full validation of the performed quantification within the FPT is possible by monitoring stabilization of all the reconstructed spectral parameters as a function of the partial signal length for a fixed bandwidth (this is equivalent to varying the total acquisition time). Moreover, all the converged fundamental frequencies and amplitudes found in this way must further be cross-validated by checking whether they also represent the joint results of both Padé variants, the FPT(+) and the FPT(-), inside and outside the unit circle, as done in the present study. The Froissart doublets (pole-zero cancellations) are used to unequivocally distinguish between genuine and spurious resonances in both noise-free and noise-corrupted time signals. This permits the exact reconstruction of all the genuine spectral parameters including the fundamental frequencies, the corresponding amplitudes, and the true number of physical resonances. The FPT is shown to be able to resolve and quantify tightly overlapped resonances that are abundantly seen in magnetic resonance spectra generated using encoded in vivo time signals. Most importantly, precisely such overlapping resonances are often of critical relevance for diagnostics in clinical oncology.

  17. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E M; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-02-23

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling. PMID:26846888

  18. Separation and characterization of modified pregabalins in terms of cyclodextrin complexation, using capillary electrophoresis and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Béni, Szabolcs; Sohajda, Tamás; Neumajer, Gábor; Iványi, Róbert; Szente, Lajos; Noszál, Béla

    2010-03-11

    The (S)-(+)-isomer of 3-isobutyl-GABA (pregabalin), the blockbuster drug in the treatment of neuropathic pain has been separated from its R isomer by cyclodextrin modified capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using uncoated fused-silica capillary. Derivatization of the single isomer and the racemate with tosyl- and dansyl-chloride was carried out to introduce strong UV chromophores of different size. CE-pH titrations were performed to determine the dissociation constants for both derivatives. 30 cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives as chiral agents were used at four different pH values to study the enantioseparation of the differently protonated guest molecules. The separation was optimized as a function of CD concentration, buffer type and concentration, pH and applied voltage. For the tosylated derivate the best resolution (R(s)=2.76) was found with 6-monodeoxy-6-mono-(3-hydroxy)-propylamino-beta-cyclodextrin hydrochloride (PA-beta-CD) at pH 6.8, while with the same selector at pH 7.2 enantioseparation with an R(s) value of 4.32 could be achieved for the dansylated pregabalin. At pH 2.5 for the dansylated derivative trimethylated alpha- and beta-CD systems resulted the most significant separation (R(s)=7.38 and R(s)=7.74, respectively). Experiments with dual CD systems were carried out as well. The stoichiometry of the complexes was determined using the Job plot method and resulted in a 1:1 complex in both cases. The structures of the inclusion complexes were elucidated using 2D ROESY NMR experiments. PMID:19914021

  19. Separation of lanthanides and actinides using magnetic silica particles bearing covalently attached tetra-CMPO-calix[4]arenes.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Volker; Dozol, Jean-François; Grüttner, Cordula; Liger, Karine; Matthews, Susan E; Rudershausen, Sandra; Saadioui, Mohamed; Wang, Pingshan

    2004-08-21

    Calix[4]arene tetraethers in the cone conformation bearing four -NH-CO-CH2-P(O)Ph2 (= CMPO) residues on their wide rim and one, two or four omega-amino alkyl residues of various lengths at the narrow rim were synthesized. Reaction with dichlorotriazinyl (DCT) functionalized magnetic particles led to complete coverage of the available surface by covalently linked CMPO-calix[4]arenes in all cases. Magnetically assisted removal of Eu(iii) and Am(iii) from acidic solutions was distinctly more efficient with these particles in comparison to analogous particles bearing the same amount of analogous single-chain CMPO-functions. The best result, an increase of the extraction efficiency by a factor of 140-160, was obtained for attachment via two propyl spacers. The selectivity Am/Eu was in the range of 1.9-2.8. No decrease of the extraction ability was observed, when the particles were repeatedly used, after simple back extraction with water. PMID:15305214

  20. A mechanism of viral immune evasion revealed by cryo-EM analysis of the TAP transporter.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Michael L; Hite, Richard K; Steffen, Alanna M; Damko, Ermelinda; Li, Zongli; Walz, Thomas; Chen, Jue

    2016-01-28

    Cellular immunity against viral infection and tumour cells depends on antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Intracellular antigenic peptides are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and then loaded onto the nascent MHC I molecules, which are exported to the cell surface and present peptides to the immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize non-self peptides and program the infected or malignant cells for apoptosis. Defects in TAP account for immunodeficiency and tumour development. To escape immune surveillance, some viruses have evolved strategies either to downregulate TAP expression or directly inhibit TAP activity. So far, neither the architecture of TAP nor the mechanism of viral inhibition has been elucidated at the structural level. Here we describe the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human TAP in complex with its inhibitor ICP47, a small protein produced by the herpes simplex virus I. Here we show that the 12 transmembrane helices and 2 cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains of the transporter adopt an inward-facing conformation with the two nucleotide-binding domains separated. The viral inhibitor ICP47 forms a long helical hairpin, which plugs the translocation pathway of TAP from the cytoplasmic side. Association of ICP47 precludes substrate binding and prevents nucleotide-binding domain closure necessary for ATP hydrolysis. This work illustrates a striking example of immune evasion by persistent viruses. By blocking viral antigens from entering the endoplasmic reticulum, herpes simplex virus is hidden from cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to establishing a lifelong infection in the host. PMID:26789246

  1. Separation and extraction of Co(II) using magnetic chitosan nanoparticles grafted with β-cyclodextrin and determination by FAAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghimi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A novel and selective method for the fast determination of trace amounts of Co(II) ions in water samples has been developed. The procedure is based on the selective sorption of Co(II) ions using magnetic chitosan nanoparticles grafted with β-cyclodextrin at different pH followed by elution with organic eluents and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry The preconcentration factor was 100 (1 mL elution volume) for a 100 mL sample volume. The limit of detection of the proposed method is 1.0 ng mL-1. The maximum sorption capacity of sorbent under optimum conditions has been found to be 5 mg of Co per gram of sorbent. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions was 3.0% ( n = 10). Accuracy and applicability of the method was estimated using test samples of natural and model water with different amounts of Co(II).

  2. High efficiency annular magnetically insulated line oscillator-transit time oscillator with three separate frequencies in three bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Yongpeng; Shao, Hao

    2009-08-01

    To increase the efficiency of the magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) and expand its frequency band, a coaxial transit time oscillator (TTO) is introduced to use the load currents of an annular MILO, called the annular MILO-TTO, which comprises an inward-emitting MILO, an outward-emitting MILO, and a coaxial TTO. In simulation, when the input power is 78 GW and the diode voltage is 520 kV, three microwaves with powers of 3.2, 9.6, and 7.0 GW are generated, with a total efficiency of 25.4%, in the inward-emitting MILO, the outward-emitting MILO, and the coaxial TTO, and the frequencies are 1.7, 3.3, and 4.2 GHz, corresponding to L, S, and C bands, respectively.

  3. 3D structural analysis of flagella/cilia by cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Bui, Khanh Huy; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Three dimensional arrangement of proteins inside the axoneme is essential information to elucidate the flagellar/ciliary bending mechanism. Cryo-electron tomography provides structural information in situ at ~30 Å resolution and thus is a suitable method for flagella/cilia research. The biggest challenge in cryo-electron tomography is the low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, subtomogram averaging, an in silico processing step to detect identical structural units based on 3D image analysis, aligns them three dimensionally and average is required to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. When structural units are not exactly identical, they must be classified. In this chapter, we describe our strategy to extract, align, classify, and average molecular structures from cryo-electron tomograms of flagella/cilia, utilizing longitudinal periodicity and pseudo-ninefold symmetry in the axoneme. PMID:23498747

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of adult mouse neocortex comparing aldehyde perfusion with cryo fixation.

    PubMed

    Korogod, Natalya; Petersen, Carl C H; Knott, Graham W

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of brain ultrastructure using electron microscopy typically relies on chemical fixation. However, this is known to cause significant tissue distortion including a reduction in the extracellular space. Cryo fixation is thought to give a truer representation of biological structures, and here we use rapid, high-pressure freezing on adult mouse neocortex to quantify the extent to which these two fixation methods differ in terms of their preservation of the different cellular compartments, and the arrangement of membranes at the synapse and around blood vessels. As well as preserving a physiological extracellular space, cryo fixation reveals larger numbers of docked synaptic vesicles, a smaller glial volume, and a less intimate glial coverage of synapses and blood vessels compared to chemical fixation. The ultrastructure of mouse neocortex therefore differs significantly comparing cryo and chemical fixation conditions. PMID:26259873

  5. Coastal sea level from inland CryoSat-2 interferometric SAR altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulaitijiang, Adili; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-03-01

    The European Space Agency's CryoSat-2 satellite can operate in a novel synthetic aperture radar interferometric (SARIn) mode where its nominal footprint (swath) is observed by two antennas and the phase difference between the signals is used to determination the exact location of the scatterer through an off-nadir correction. The potential of SARIn for sea level determination is investigated over the fjords of Eastern Greenland. In principle the satellite should only track sea level within its nominal footprint of 7 km across track, but we observe that scattering targets (fjords) within twice its nominal footprint are frequently observed but mislocated in CryoSat-2 due to phase wrapping. We devised a way to relocate the observations and correct the range accordingly. When CryoSat-2 is flying inland we consequently observed that the satellite occasionally provide valid sea level in fjords up to 13 km away in the across-track direction.

  6. Fabs enable single particle cryoEM studies of small proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Kim, JungMin; Booth, David S.; Greenberg, Charles H.; Rossi, Andrea; Liao, Maofu; Li, Xueming; Alian, Akram; Griner, Sarah L.; Juge, Narinobu; Yu, Yadong; Mergel, Claudia M.; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Strop, Pavel; Tampé, Robert; Edwards, Robert H.; Stroud, Robert M.; Craik, Charles S.; Cheng, Yifan

    2012-01-01

    Summary In spite of its recent achievements, the technique of single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has not been widely used to study proteins smaller than 100kDa, although it is a highly desirable application of this technique. One fundamental limitation is that images of small proteins embedded in vitreous ice do not contain adequate features for accurate image alignment. We describe a general strategy to overcome this limitation by selecting a fragment antigen binding (Fab) to form a stable and rigid complex with a target protein, thus providing a defined feature for accurate image alignment. Using this approach, we determined a three-dimensional structure of a ~65 kDa protein by single particle cryoEM. Because Fabs can be readily generated against a wide range of proteins by phage display, this approach is generally applicable to study many small proteins by single particle cryoEM. PMID:22483106

  7. Fabs enable single particle cryoEM studies of small proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Avila-Sakar, Agustin; Kim, JungMin; Booth, David S; Greenberg, Charles H; Rossi, Andrea; Liao, Maofu; Li, Xueming; Alian, Akram; Griner, Sarah L; Juge, Narinobu; Yu, Yadong; Mergel, Claudia M; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Strop, Pavel; Tampé, Robert; Edwards, Robert H; Stroud, Robert M; Craik, Charles S; Cheng, Yifan

    2012-04-01

    In spite of its recent achievements, the technique of single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has not been widely used to study proteins smaller than 100 kDa, although it is a highly desirable application of this technique. One fundamental limitation is that images of small proteins embedded in vitreous ice do not contain adequate features for accurate image alignment. We describe a general strategy to overcome this limitation by selecting a fragment antigen binding (Fab) to form a stable and rigid complex with a target protein, thus providing a defined feature for accurate image alignment. Using this approach, we determined a three-dimensional structure of an ∼65 kDa protein by single particle cryoEM. Because Fabs can be readily generated against a wide range of proteins by phage display, this approach is generally applicable to study many small proteins by single particle cryoEM. PMID:22483106

  8. An introduction to sample preparation and imaging by cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Rebecca F.; Walker, Matt; Siebert, C. Alistair; Muench, Stephen P.; Ranson, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (EM) is a versatile technique that can be used to image biological specimens ranging from intact eukaryotic cells to individual proteins >150 kDa. There are several strategies for preparing samples for imaging by EM, including negative staining and cryogenic freezing. In the last few years, cryo-EM has undergone a ‘resolution revolution’, owing to both advances in imaging hardware, image processing software, and improvements in sample preparation, leading to growing number of researchers using cryo-EM as a research tool. However, cryo-EM is still a rapidly growing field, with unique challenges. Here, we summarise considerations for imaging of a range of specimens from macromolecular complexes to cells using EM. PMID:26931652

  9. An introduction to sample preparation and imaging by cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rebecca F; Walker, Matt; Siebert, C Alistair; Muench, Stephen P; Ranson, Neil A

    2016-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (EM) is a versatile technique that can be used to image biological specimens ranging from intact eukaryotic cells to individual proteins >150kDa. There are several strategies for preparing samples for imaging by EM, including negative staining and cryogenic freezing. In the last few years, cryo-EM has undergone a 'resolution revolution', owing to both advances in imaging hardware, image processing software, and improvements in sample preparation, leading to growing number of researchers using cryo-EM as a research tool. However, cryo-EM is still a rapidly growing field, with unique challenges. Here, we summarise considerations for imaging of a range of specimens from macromolecular complexes to cells using EM. PMID:26931652

  10. Three-Dimensional Structures of Pathogenic and Saprophytic Leptospira Species Revealed by Cryo-Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Raddi, Gianmarco; Morado, Dustin R.; Yan, Jie; Haake, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is the primary causative agent of the most widespread zoonotic disease, leptospirosis. An in-depth structural characterization of L. interrogans is needed to understand its biology and pathogenesis. In this study, cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was used to compare pathogenic and saprophytic species and examine the unique morphological features of this group of bacteria. Specifically, our study revealed a structural difference between the cell envelopes of L. interrogans and Leptospira biflexa involving variations in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer. Through cryo-ET and subvolume averaging, we determined the first three-dimensional (3-D) structure of the flagellar motor of leptospira, with novel features in the flagellar C ring, export apparatus, and stator. Together with direct visualization of chemoreceptor arrays, DNA packing, periplasmic filaments, spherical cytoplasmic bodies, and a unique “cap” at the cell end, this report provides structural insights into these fascinating Leptospira species. PMID:22228733

  11. Greenland 2012 melt event effects on CryoSat-2 radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Johan; Vallelonga, Paul; Simonsen, Sebastian B.; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hvidberg, Christine S.; Kjær, Helle A.; Satow, Kazuhide

    2015-05-01

    CryoSat-2 data are used to study elevation changes over an area in the interior part of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the extreme melt event in July 2012. The penetration of the radar signal into dry snow depends heavily on the snow stratigraphy, and the rapid formation of refrozen ice layers can bias the surface elevations obtained from radar altimetry. We investigate the change in CryoSat-2 waveforms and elevation estimates over the melt event and interpret the findings by comparing in situ surface and snow pit observations from the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project camp. The investigation shows a major transition of scattering properties around the area, and an apparent elevation increase of 56 ± 26 cm is observed in reprocessed CryoSat-2 data. We suggest that this jump in elevation can be explained by the formation of a refrozen melt layer that raised the reflective surface, introducing a positive elevation bias.

  12. Phasing of the Triatoma virus diffraction data using a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Estrozi, L.F.; Neumann, E.; Squires, G.; Rozas-Dennis, G.; Costabel, M.; Rey, F.A.; Guerin, D.M.A. Navaza, J.

    2008-05-25

    The blood-sucking reduviid bug Triatoma infestans, one of the most important vector of American human trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is infected by the Triatoma virus (TrV). TrV has been classified as a member of the Cripavirus genus (type cricket paralysis virus) in the Dicistroviridae family. This work presents the three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction of the TrV capsid at about 25 A resolution and its use as a template for phasing the available crystallographic data by the molecular replacement method. The main structural differences between the cryo-EM reconstruction of TrV and other two viruses, one from the same family, the cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) and the human rhinovirus 16 from the Picornaviridae family are presented and discussed.

  13. The 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Devika; Chen, Zhenguo; Sun, Lei; Klose, Thomas; Pierson, Theodore C; Rossmann, Michael G; Kuhn, Richard J

    2016-04-22

    The recent rapid spread of Zika virus and its unexpected linkage to birth defects and an autoimmune neurological syndrome have generated worldwide concern. Zika virus is a flavivirus like the dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. We present the 3.8 angstrom resolution structure of mature Zika virus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of Zika virus is similar to other known flavivirus structures, except for the ~10 amino acids that surround the Asn(154) glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins that make up the icosahedral shell. The carbohydrate moiety associated with this residue, which is recognizable in the cryo-EM electron density, may function as an attachment site of the virus to host cells. This region varies not only among Zika virus strains but also in other flaviviruses, which suggests that differences in this region may influence virus transmission and disease. PMID:27033547

  14. Reconstructing virus structures from nanometer to near-atomic resolutions with cryo-electron microscopy and tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Juan; Liu, Xiangan; Rochat, Ryan H.; Baker, Matthew L.; Chiu, Wah

    2014-01-01

    The past few decades have seen tremendous advances in single particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM). The field has matured to the point that near-atomic resolution density maps can be generated for icosahedral viruses without the need for crystallization. In parallel, substantial progress has been made in determining the structures of non-icosahedrally arranged proteins in viruses by employing either single particle cryo-EM or cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). Implicit in this course has been the availability of a new generation of electron cryo-microscopes and the development of the computational tools that are essential for generating these maps and models. This methodology has enabled structural biologists to analyze structures in increasing detail for virus particles that are in different morphogenetic and biochemical states. Furthermore, electron imaging of frozen, hydrated cells, in the process of being infected by viruses, has also opened up a new avenue for studying virus structures “in situ”. Here we present the common techniques used to acquire and process cryo-EM and cryo-ET data and discuss their implications for structural virology both now and in the future. PMID:22297510

  15. Pulse-to-pulse correlation in CryoSat SAR mode radar altimeter echoes from the sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Serial correlation among successive radar echoes returned from the ocean surface is an important design constraint in satellite altimetry. Walsh [1974, 1982] established the conventional wisdom. Taking the radar footprint to be a uniformly radiating disk, he derived a theoretically expected echo decorrelation time of about 0.5 milliseconds. Following Walsh, ocean altimeters usually employ a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) around 2 kHz, in order to obtain statistically independent echoes at (so it is thought) the maximum possible rate. CryoSat, designed for ranging to ice surfaces, employs a PRF of 18.2 kHz in its SAR mode. CryoSat SAR echo sequences over ocean surfaces can be used to empirically determine the ocean echo decorrelation, and thus to test Walsh's model. Such a test is presented in this paper. The analysis begins by forming the ensemble average of complex cross products of pairs of echoes separated by a time lag L * PRI, where the pulse repetition interval (PRI) is 55 microseconds and the echo lag L runs from 0 to 32. The L = 0 case yields the conventional pulse-limited waveform, which is used to determine the sea state in each ensemble average. The averages of lagged echo cross products reveal the complex coherency, with sampling in both slow time (lag, L), and fast time (range, sampled in waveform gates). Data from many areas and sea states are analyzed, and the results are explained using a simple theory approximating the complex coherency expected from a Gaussian radar pulse. This theory generalizes the classical Brown [1977] waveform model to lagged echo cross products, and generalizes Walsh's work to the case of footprints with non-uniform illumination and diffuse edges. Phase is due to vertical motion of the antenna. Amplitude variations in fast time are due to horizontal motion of the antenna, and are independent of wave height; their functional form confirms Brown's assumption that scattering is independent of azimuth. In slow time, the amplitude decays with lag at a rate that depends on wave height, and without zero crossings. This is in contrast to Walsh's theory, which established the conventional wisdom based on the first zero crossing of Bessel function J1. These results may be applied to determine the optimally weighted average of SAR echoes that yields the best conventional waveform for inter-calibration of SAR and conventional measurements. This calibration is useful for CryoSat and will be necessary for Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS. The present work finds that a conventional altimeter may obtain useful data at rates as high as 9 kHz. This suggests that the interleaved mode option under consideration for Jason-CS could yield optimal conventional measurements as well as simultaneous SAR. I gratefully acknowledge Ron Abileah, Eric Leuliette, John Lillibridge, Laury Miller, Tom Newman and the CryoSat team for helpful discussions.

  16. Fine Ice Sheet margins topography from swath processing of CryoSat SARIn mode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foresta, Luca; Gourmelen, Noel; Shepherd, Andrew; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Muir, Alan; Briggs, Kate; Roca, Monica; Baker, Steven; Drinkwater, Mark; Nienow, Pete

    2014-05-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of Glacier and Ice Sheet Margin (GISM) topography are critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The lack of such sustained observations was identified in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) Cryosphere Theme Report as a major shortcoming. Conventional altimetry measurements over GISMs exist, but coverage has been sparse and characterized by coarse ground resolution. Additionally, and more importantly, they proved ineffective in the presence of steep slopes, a typical feature of GISM areas. Since the majority of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss is estimated to lie within 100 km from the coast, but only about 10% is surveyed, there is the need for more robust and dense observations of GISMs, in both time and space. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the Cryosphere. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry. The corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over GISMs and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA) is a standard product of the CryoSat mission. Here we present a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the SARIn mode of CryoSat and produce an ice elevation product with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 height products. In this so called L2-swath processing approach, the signal beyond the POCA is exploited when signal and surface characteristics are favourable. We will present the rationale, validation exercises and preliminary results from the STSE CryoTop study over selected test regions of the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  17. Using Tomoauto: A Protocol for High-throughput Automated Cryo-electron Tomography.

    PubMed

    Morado, Dustin R; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET) is a powerful three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique for visualizing macromolecular complexes in their native context at a molecular level. The technique involves initially preserving the sample in its native state by rapidly freezing the specimen in vitreous ice, then collecting a series of micrographs from different angles at high magnification, and finally computationally reconstructing a 3-D density map. The frozen-hydrated specimen is extremely sensitive to the electron beam and so micrographs are collected at very low electron doses to limit the radiation damage. As a result, the raw cryo-tomogram has a very low signal to noise ratio characterized by an intrinsically noisy image. To better visualize subjects of interest, conventional imaging analysis and sub-tomogram averaging in which sub-tomograms of the subject are extracted from the initial tomogram and aligned and averaged are utilized to improve both contrast and resolution. Large datasets of tilt-series are essential to understanding and resolving the complexes at different states, conditions, or mutations as well as obtaining a large enough collection of sub-tomograms for averaging and classification. Collecting and processing this data can be a major obstacle preventing further analysis. Here we describe a high-throughput cryo-ET protocol based on a computer-controlled 300kV cryo-electron microscope, a direct detection device (DDD) camera and a highly effective, semi-automated image-processing pipeline software wrapper library tomoauto developed in-house. This protocol has been effectively utilized to visualize the intact type III secretion system (T3SS) in Shigella flexneri minicells. It can be applicable to any project suitable for cryo-ET. PMID:26863591

  18. Cryo-EM Techniques to Resolve the Structure of HSV-1 Capsid-Associated Components

    PubMed Central

    Rochat, Ryan H.; Hecksel, Corey W.; Chiu, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy has become a routine technique to determine structure of biochemically purified herpes simplex virus capsid particles. This chapter describes the procedures of specimen preparation by cryopreservation; low dose and low temperature imaging in an electron cryo-microscope; and data processing for reconstructio