Science.gov

Sample records for cryogenic devices

  1. Cryogenic storage devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pelloux-gervais, P.

    1982-02-09

    The present invention relates to a device for the cryogenic storing of products. In a tank, canisters are suspended via rods, and these rods rest on the rim of the tank via retaining heads. The invention is applicable to the cryogenic storage of seeds, semen, vegetable substances, etc.

  2. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  3. Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Genfa (Yorktown, VA); Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Hayes, VA)

    2008-12-30

    A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

  4. Vortex expansion devices for high temperature cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, J. M.

    The authors describe several promising methods which use vortex expansion devices. The author presents an analysis of the thermodynamics of vortex expansion, evaluation of design limitations of vortex tube devices and resulting design enhancements, and results of experiments using the enhanced designs including applications in both high and low temperature cryogenic refrigeration systems. The term high temperature cryogenic describes temperatures ranging from above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, -320 F (-195 C) up to -58 F (-50 C), the generally defined upper limit of study referred to as cryogenics.

  5. 21 CFR 882.4250 - Cryogenic surgical device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cryogenic surgical device. 882.4250 Section 882.4250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4250 Cryogenic surgical device. (a) Identification. A cryogenic...

  6. 21 CFR 882.4250 - Cryogenic surgical device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cryogenic surgical device. 882.4250 Section 882.4250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4250 Cryogenic surgical device. (a) Identification. A cryogenic...

  7. 21 CFR 882.4250 - Cryogenic surgical device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cryogenic surgical device. 882.4250 Section 882.4250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4250 Cryogenic surgical device. (a) Identification. A cryogenic...

  8. 21 CFR 882.4250 - Cryogenic surgical device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cryogenic surgical device. 882.4250 Section 882.4250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4250 Cryogenic surgical device. (a) Identification. A cryogenic...

  9. Advanced Devices for Cryogenic Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.; Garzon, J.; Beres, M.; Gilchrist, A.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes six advanced cryogenic thermal management devices/subsystems developed by Swales Aerospace for ground/space-based applications of interest to NASA, DoD, and the commercial sector. The devices/subsystems described herein include the following: (a) a differential thermal expansion cryogenic thermal switch (DTE-CTSW) constructed with high purity aluminum end-pieces and an Ultem support rod for the 6 K Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) (b) a quad-redundant DTE-CTSW assembly for the 35 K science instruments (NIRCam, NIRSpec, and FGS) mounted on the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) (c) a cryogenic diode heat pipe (CDHP) thermal switching system using methane as the working fluid for the 100 K CRISM hyperspectral mapping instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and (d) three additional devices/subsystems developed during the AFRL-sponsored CRYOTOOL program, which include a dual DTE-CTSW/dual cryocooler test bed, a miniaturized neon cryogenic loop heat pipe (mini-CLHP), and an across gimbal cryogenic thermal transport system (GCTTS). For the first three devices/subsystems mentioned above, this paper describes key aspects of the development efforts including concept definition, design, fabrication, and testing. For the latter three, this paper provides brief overview descriptions as key details are provided in a related paper.

  10. Device applications of cryogenic optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Seletskiy, Denis V.; Epstein, Richard I.; Alden, Jay V.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2014-02-01

    With the coldest solid-state temperatures (ΔT <185K from 300K) achievable by optical refrigeration, it is now timely to apply this technology to cryogenic devices. Along with thermal management and pump absorption, this work addresses the most key engineering challenge of transferring cooling power to the payload while efficiently rejecting optical waste-heat fluorescence. We discuss our optimized design of such a thermal link, which shows excellent performance in optical rejection and thermal properties.

  11. 21 CFR 882.4250 - Cryogenic surgical device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cryogenic surgical device. 882.4250 Section 882.4250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4250 Cryogenic surgical...

  12. Cryogenic Propellant Management Device: Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.

  13. Development of cryotribological theories & application to cryogenic devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2001-03-12

    This is the final report of a research program on low-temperature friction and wear, primarily focused on development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices, particularly superconducting magnets.

  14. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  15. Novel SiGe Semiconductor Devices for Cryogenic Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R. R.; Dawson, W. J.; Zhu, L.; Kirschman, R. K.; Niu, G.; Nelms, R. M.; Mueller, O.; Hennessy, M. J.; Mueller, E. K.

    2006-03-01

    It is predicted that systems for electrical power generation, conversion and distribution on ships and aerospace vehicles could be made smaller, lighter, more efficient, more versatile, and lower maintenance by operating these systems—partly or entirely—at cryogenic temperatures. In view of this, we have taken initial steps in the investigation and development of SiGe semiconductor devices for cryogenic power applications. We have (1) simulated, designed, fabricated and characterized SiGe power diodes, and (2) evaluated these SiGe diodes in cryogenic power converters. Our target low-end temperature is 55 K, although we characterize devices and circuits down to approximately 30 K. We have demonstrated, experimentally, favorable characteristics for SiGe power diodes and have shown higher conversion efficiency compared to equivalent Si power diodes in a 100-W boost switching DC-DC power converter, over an ambient temperature range of 300 K down to approximately 30 K.

  16. Method and apparatus of cryogenic cooling for high temperature superconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Mine, Susumu

    2005-02-15

    A method and apparatus for providing cryogenic cooling to HTS devices, in particular those that are used in high-voltage electric power applications. The method involves pressurizing liquid cryogen to above one atmospheric pressure to improve its dielectric strength, while sub-cooling the liquid cryogen to below its saturation temperature in order to improve the performance of the HTS components of the device. An apparatus utilizing such a cooling method consists of a vessel that contains a pressurized gaseous cryogen region and a sub-cooled liquid cryogen bath, a liquid cryogen heating coupled with a gaseous cryogen venting scheme to maintain the pressure of the cryogen to a value in a range that corresponds to optimum dielectric strength of the liquid cryogen, and a cooling system that maintains the liquid cryogen at a temperature below its boiling point to improve the performance of HTS materials used in the device.

  17. Charge dissipative dielectric for cryogenic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, Robin Harold (Inventor); Hall, John Addison (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) is disclosed comprising a pair of resistively shunted Josephson junctions connected in parallel within a superconducting loop and biased by an external direct current (dc) source. The SQUID comprises a semiconductor substrate and at least one superconducting layer. The metal layer(s) are separated by or covered with a semiconductor material layer having the properties of a conductor at room temperature and the properties of an insulator at operating temperatures (generally less than 100 Kelvins). The properties of the semiconductor material layer greatly reduces the risk of electrostatic discharge that can damage the device during normal handling of the device at room temperature, while still providing the insulating properties desired to allow normal functioning of the device at its operating temperature. A method of manufacturing the SQUID device is also disclosed.

  18. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Devices for Cryogenic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Kudlac, Maureen T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an on-going project to study the application screen channel liquid acquisition devices to cryogenic propellant systems. The literature of screen liquid acquisition devices is reviewed for prior cryogenic experience. Test programs and apparatus are presented to study these devices. Preliminary results are shown demonstrating bubble points for 200 x 1400 wires per inch and 325 x 2300 wires per inch Dutch twill screens. The 200 x 1400 screen has a bubble point of 15.8 inches of water in isopropyl alcohol and 6.6 inches of water in liquid nitrogen. The 325 x 2300 screen has a bubble point of 24.5 inches of water in isopropyl alcohol, 10.7 inches of water in liquid nitrogen, and 1.83 inches of water in liquid hydrogen. These values are found to be in good agreement with the results reported in the literature.

  19. Inverted Outflow Ground Testing of Cryogenic Propellant Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Hartwig, Jason W.; Rame, Enrique; McQuillen, John B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing propulsion system concepts for human exploration. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free acquisition and delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks during periods of microgravity to the exploration vehicles engines. Propellant management devices (PMDs), such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LADs), vanes and sponges have been used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and other spacecraft propulsion systems, but only very limited propellant management capability currently exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA is developing PMD technology as a part of their cryogenic fluid management (CFM) project. System concept studies have looked at the key factors that dictate the size and shape of PMD devices and established screen channel LADs as an important component of PMD design. Modeling validated by normal gravity experiments is examining the behavior of the flow in the LAD channel assemblies (as opposed to only prior testing of screen samples) at the flow rates representative of actual engine service (similar in size to current launch vehicle upper stage engines). Recently testing of rectangular LAD channels has included inverted outflow in liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper will report the results of liquid oxygen testing compare and contrast them with the recently published hydrogen results; and identify the sensitivity these results to flow rate and tank internal pressure.

  20. Inverted Outflow Ground Testing of Cryogenic Propellant Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Hartwig, Jason W.; Rame, Enrique; McQuillen, John B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing propulsion system concepts for human exploration. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free acquisition and delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks during periods of microgravity to the exploration vehicles engines. Propellant management devices (PMD's), such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD's), vanes and sponges have been used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and other spacecraft propulsion systems, but only very limited propellant management capability currently exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA is developing PMD technology as a part of their cryogenic fluid management (CFM) project. System concept studies have looked at the key factors that dictate the size and shape of PMD devices and established screen channel LADs as an important component of PMD design. Modeling validated by normal gravity experiments is examining the behavior of the flow in the LAD channel assemblies (as opposed to only prior testing of screen samples) at the flow rates representative of actual engine service (similar in size to current launch vehicle upper stage engines). Recently testing of rectangular LAD channels has included inverted outflow in liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper will report the results of liquid oxygen testing compare and contrast them with the recently published hydrogen results; and identify the sensitivity of these results to flow rate and tank internal pressure.

  1. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices.

    PubMed

    Colless, J I; Reilly, D J

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with -3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements. PMID:25430132

  2. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    SciTech Connect

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with −3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  3. On-wafer, cryogenic characterization of ultra-low noise HEMT devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Laskar, J.; Szydlik, P.

    1995-01-01

    Significant advances in the development of high electron-mobility field-effect transistors (HEMT's) have resulted in cryogenic, low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) whose noise temperatures are within an order of magnitude of the quantum noise limit (hf/k). Further advances in HEMT technology at cryogenic temperatures may eventually lead to the replacement of maser and superconducting insulator superconducting front ends in the 1- to 100-GHz frequency band. Key to identification of the best HEMT's and optimization of cryogenic LNA's are accurate and repeatable device measurements at cryogenic temperatures. This article describes the design and operation of a cryogenic coplanar waveguide probe system for the characterization and modeling of advanced semiconductor transistors at cryogenic temperatures. Results on advanced HEMT devices are presented to illustrate the utility of the measurement system.

  4. Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.; Knaus, R.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

  5. Cryogenic switching of inductive loads using semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, R.R.; Nelms, R.M.

    1998-07-01

    A cryogenic inductive energy storage system may be utilized to supply the pulse power requirements of some future electric propulsion systems for deep space vehicles. Discussed in this paper is the operation of one inductive storage approach at temperatures down to {minus}184 C. Three different semiconductor technologies (IGBTs, MOSFETs, and MCTs) are evaluated at low temperatures to determine their potential application as an opening switch in a cryogenic inductive energy storage system. Low temperature tests indicate that an IGBT protected by an transient voltage suppressor should be employed in this inductive storage approach.

  6. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  7. Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P. ); Rabinowicz, E. Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA . Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.)

    1992-09-15

    High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials' low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

  8. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens. PMID:21547016

  9. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

  10. Electrical performance of semiconductor devices at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ventrice, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The electrical performance of semiconductor devices is examined over the temperature range from 300 to 1.4K The design, fabrication, and testing of p-channel field effective transistors (MOSFET) are emphasized to develop a device that will perform satisfactorily in the temperature range from 4.2 to 1.4K. The current-voltage characteristics of the device are obtained as a function of temperature for varying channel lengths and channel dopant levels. The MOSFET's with average channel lengths of 3.27, 5.68, 8.37, and 11.39 microns are examined. It is indicated that the devices with the shorter channel lengths perform better in the 4 to 20K range than those with the longer channel lengths.

  11. Ultra-Low Noise HEMT Device Models: Application of On-Wafer Cryogenic Noise Analysis and Improved Parameter Extraction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Hamai, M.; Nishimoto, M.; Laskar, J.; Szydlik, P.; Lai, R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant advances in the development of HEMT technology have resulted in high performance cryogenic low noise amplifiers whose noise temperatures are within an order of magnitude of the quantum noise limit. Key to the identification of optimum HEMT structures at cryogenic temperatures is the development of on-wafer noise and device parameter extraction techniques. Techniques and results are described.

  12. Spin-transfer switching of orthogonal spin-valve devices at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L. Gopman, D. B.; Rehm, L.; Backes, D.; Wolf, G.; Kent, A. D.; Ohki, T.; Kirichenko, A. F.; Vernik, I. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.

    2014-05-07

    We present the quasi-static and dynamic switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 12 K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for slowly varied current as well as for current pulses with durations as short as 200 ps. We demonstrate 100% switching probability with current pulses 0.6 ns in duration. We also present a switching probability diagram that summarizes device switching operation under a variety of pulse durations, amplitudes, and polarities.

  13. Device for in situ casting and tensile testing of materials freezing at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, S.

    1981-09-01

    Tensile testing of materials that freeze at subambient temperatures usually requires casting of the material in a mold, transferring the cast specimen into precooled test fixtures held in a moisture-free environment to avoid frosting, followed by performing the test at the desired cryogenic temperature. In this report we describe a device that allows the casting as well as testing to be completed in one assembly and cool-down cycle, eliminating the cumbersome intermediate steps.

  14. A cryogenic device for reversibly blocking transmission through small regions of the spinal cord white matter.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, A V; Hodge, C J; Martin, R J; Stevens, R T

    1989-08-01

    A simple cryogenic device is described. This device is capable of cooling neural tissue in contact with the probe and maintaining the tissue at the desired temperature for extended periods of time. The cold probe can thereby reversibly block neural transmission through small portions of the spinal cord white matter. Interruption of axonal transmission is achieved by placing the tip of the device in contact with the exposed surface of the spinal cord and cooling the tip of the probe to -1 to +2 degrees C. The investigator monitors the tip temperature and adjusts the pump rate to maintain a constant tip temperature. The cross-sectional area under the probe where effective transmission block is achieved is about 1.5 mm2 which approximates the size of a single funiculus in the cat thoracic spinal cord. The cryogenic device was constructed for less than $700. The properties of this device were studied in physiologic experiments in cats. This device reversibly, selectively and repeatedly blocked the ascending mass action potential in the dorsolateral funiculus, transmission through ascending spinal axons in the dorsal columns, transmission through axons of spinal dorsal horn cells, the descending inhibitory input to the dorsal horn and the activity of thalamic nociceptive neurons. The reversible cold block effects on single units were observed for the duration of the experiments (up to 18 h) with no detectable damage to the underlying tissue. The physiologic effects of the cold block were usually reversed a few minutes after rewarming, although in some cases it took up to 40 min for the complete reversal of the cold block. This cryogenic device is useful for studying spinal cord pathways. PMID:2549308

  15. A new cryogenic test facility for large superconducting devices at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, A.; Derking, J. H.; Serio, L.; Stewart, L.; Benda, V.; Bremer, J.; Pirotte, O.

    2015-12-01

    To expand CERN testing capability to superconducting devices that cannot be installed in existing test facilities because of their size and/or mass, CERN is building a new cryogenic test facility for large and heavy devices. The first devices to be tested in the facility will be the S-FRS superconducting magnets for the FAIR project that is currently under construction at the GSI Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany. The facility will include a renovated cold box with 1.2 kW at 4.5 K equivalent power with its compression system, two independent 15 kW liquid nitrogen precooling and warm-up units, as well as a dedicated cryogenic distribution system providing cooling power to three independent test benches. The article presents the main input parameters and constraints used to define the cryogenic system and its infrastructure. The chosen layout and configuration of the facility is presented and the characteristics of the main components are described.

  16. Do-It-Yourself Device for Recovery of Cryopreserved Samples Accidentally Dropped into Cryogenic Storage Tanks

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

    2012-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues 1,2. The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn'2, which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces2. In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks1. These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials3. However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy. PMID:22617806

  17. Do-It-Yourself device for recovery of cryopreserved samples accidentally dropped into cryogenic storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

    2012-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues (1,2). The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn' (2), which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces (2). In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks (1). These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials (3). However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy. PMID:22617806

  18. Proton irradiation of a swept charge device at cryogenic temperature and the subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Smith, P. H.; Pool, P.; Hall, D. J.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that a room temperature proton irradiation may not be sufficient to provide an accurate estimation of the impact of the space radiation environment on detector performance. This is a result of the relationship between defect mobility and temperature, causing the performance to vary subject to the temperature history of the device from the point at which it was irradiated. Results measured using Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) irradiated at room temperature therefore tend to differ from those taken when the device was irradiated at a cryogenic temperature, more appropriate considering the operating conditions in space, impacting the prediction of in-flight performance. This paper describes the cryogenic irradiation, and subsequent annealing of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 irradiated at -35.4°C with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons · cm-2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector that will be flown on-board the Chandrayaan-2 and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope spacecraft, in the Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer and the Soft X-ray Detector respectively. The SCD is readout continually in order to benefit from intrinsic dither mode clocking, leading to suppression of the surface component of the dark current and allowing the detector to be operated at warmer temperatures than a conventional CCD. The SCD is therefore an excellent choice to test and demonstrate the variation in the impact of irradiation at cryogenic temperatures in comparison to a more typical room temperature irradiation.

  19. Parametric analysis of the liquid hydrogen and nitrogen bubble point pressure for cryogenic liquid acquisition devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Adin Mann, Jay; Darr, Samuel R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the parametric investigation of the factors which govern screen channel liquid acquisition device bubble point pressure in a low pressure propellant tank. The five test parameters that were varied included the screen mesh, liquid cryogen, liquid temperature and pressure, and type of pressurant gas. Bubble point data was collected using three fine mesh 304 stainless steel screens in two different liquids (hydrogen and nitrogen), over a broad range of liquid temperatures and pressures in subcooled and saturated liquid states, using both a noncondensible (helium) and autogenous (hydrogen or nitrogen) gas pressurization scheme. Bubble point pressure scales linearly with surface tension, but does not scale inversely with the fineness of the mesh. Bubble point pressure increases proportional to the degree of subcooling. Higher bubble points are obtained using noncondensible pressurant gases over the condensable vapor. The bubble point model is refined using a temperature dependent pore diameter of the screen to account for screen shrinkage at reduced liquid temperatures and to account for relative differences in performance between the two pressurization schemes. The updated bubble point model can be used to accurately predict performance of LADs operating in future cryogenic propellant engines and cryogenic fuel depots.

  20. A Study on the Body Insulators for the Bushing for HTS Devices at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, S. H.

    A bushing for high temperature superconducting devices (HTS bushing) is important because of applying high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. It is cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) and is insulated with various insulators. For the development of the HTS bushing, it is necessary to know the fundamental characteristics of various insulators at cryogenic temperature. The electrical characteristics of the breakdown were studied under AC and impulse voltages. Also, the mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength in air and LN2 were studied. It was confirmed that GFRP is excellent not only electrical characteristics but also mechanical characteristics in LN2.

  1. Cryogenic refrigeration requirements for superconducting insertion devices in a light source

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Green, Michael A.; Green, Michael A.

    2003-08-15

    This report discusses cryogenic cooling superconducting insertion devices for modern light sources. The introductory part of the report discusses the difference between wiggler and undulators and how the bore temperature may affect the performance of the magnets. The steps one would take to reduce the gap between the cold magnet pole are discussed. One section of the report is devoted to showing how one would calculate the heat that enters the device. Source of heat include, heat entering through the vacuum chamber, heating due to stray electrons and synchrotron radiation, heating due to image current on the bore, heat flow by conduction and radiation, and heat transfer into the cryostat through the magnet leads. A section of the report is devoted to cooling options such as small cryo-cooler and larger conventional helium refrigerators. This section contains a discussion as to when it is appropriate to use small coolers that do not have J-T circuits. Candidate small cryo-coolers are discussed in this section of the report. Cooling circuits for cooling with a conventional refrigerator are also discussed. A section of the report is devoted to vibration isolation and how this may affect how the cooling is attached to the device. Vibration isolation using straps is compared to vibration isolation using helium heat pipes. The vibration isolation of a conventional refrigeration system is also discussed. Finally, the cool down of an insertion device is discussed. The device can either be cooled down using liquid cryogenic nitrogen and liquid helium or by using the cooler used to keep the devices cold over the long haul.

  2. Micromachined cryogenic cooler for cooling electronic devices down to 30 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H. S.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; Vanapalli, S.; Lerou, P. P. P. M.; Blom, M.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2013-02-01

    Cryogenic temperatures are required for improving the performance of electronic devices and for operating superconducting sensors and circuits. The broad implementation of cooling these devices has long been constrained by the availability of reliable and low cost cryocoolers. After the successful development of single-stage micromachined coolers able to cool to 100 K, we now present a micromachined two-stage microcooler that cools down to 30 K from an ambient temperature of 295 K. The first stage of the microcooler operates at about 94 K with nitrogen gas and pre-cools the second stage operating with hydrogen gas. The microcooler is made from just three glass wafers and operates with modest high-pressure gases and without moving parts facilitating high yield fabrication of these microcoolers. We have successfully cooled a YBCO film through its superconducting transition state to demonstrate a load on the microcooler at cryogenic temperatures. This work could expedite the application of superconducting and electronic sensors and detectors among others in medical and space applications.

  3. Thermal expansion of blood vessels in low cryogenic temperatures Part I: A new experimental device

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to study the mechanical behavior of biological material during cryopreservation processes, the current study focuses on thermal expansion of blood vessels at low cryogenic temperatures. The current paper (Part I) describes a new experimental device for thermal expansion measurements of blood vessels in typical conditions of vitrification, which are associated with rapid cooling rates. For validation purposes, the thermal strain of frozen arteries in the absence of cryoprotectants was measured, and found to be about 10% larger than that of polycrystalline water; this observation agrees with literature data. The companion paper (Part II) reports on experimental results of cryoprotectants permeated with VS55, DP6 and 7.05M DMSO at high cooling rates applicable to vitrification. PMID:16487503

  4. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-09-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.

  5. NASA Flexible Screen Propellant Management Device (PMD) Demonstration With Cryogenic Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollen, Mark; Bakke, Victor; Baker, James

    2012-01-01

    While evaluating various options for liquid methane and liquid oxygen propellant management for lunar missions, Innovative Engineering Solutions (IES) conceived the flexible screen device as a potential simple alternative to conventional propellant management devices (PMD). An apparatus was designed and fabricated to test flexible screen devices in liquid nitrogen. After resolution of a number of issues (discussed in detail in the paper), a fine mesh screen (325 by 2300 wires per inch) spring return assembly was successfully tested. No significant degradation in the screen bubble point was observed either due to the screen stretching process or due to cyclic fatigue during testing. An estimated 30 to 50 deflection cycles, and approximately 3 to 5 thermal cycles, were performed on the final screen specimen, prior to and between formally recorded testing. These cycles included some "abusive" pressure cycling, where gas or liquid was driven through the screen at rates that produced differential pressures across the screen of several times the bubble point pressure. No obvious performance degradation or other changes were observed over the duration of testing. In summary, it is felt by the author that these simple tests validated the feasibility of the flexible screen PMD concept for use with cryogenic propellants.

  6. Design and demonstrate the performance of cryogenic components representative of space vehicles: Start basket liquid acquisition device performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to design, fabricate and test an integrated cryogenic test article incorporating both fluid and thermal propellant management subsystems. A 2.2 m (87 in) diameter aluminum test tank was outfitted with multilayer insulation, helium purge system, low-conductive tank supports, thermodynamic vent system, liquid acquisition device and immersed outflow pump. Tests and analysis performed on the start basket liquid acquisition device and studies of the liquid retention characteristics of fine mesh screens are discussed.

  7. Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

  8. A New Device for Mechanical Testing of Blood Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to study the thermo-mechanical effects associated with cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous in Latin means glassy), the current study focuses on the development of a new device for mechanical testing of blood vessels at cryogenic temperatures. This device is demonstrated on a bovine carotid artery model, permeated with the cryoprotectant cocktail VS55 and a reference solution of 7.05M DMSO, below glass transition. Results are also presented for crystallized specimens, in the absence of cryoprotectants. Results indicate that the elastic modulus of a specimen with no cryoprotectant, at about ?140°C (8.6°C and 15.5°C below the glass transition temperature of 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively), is 1038.8 ± 25.2 MPa, which is 8% and 3% higher than that of a vitrified specimen permeated with 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively. The elastic modulus of a crystallized material at ?50°C is lower by ~20% lower from that at ?140°C. PMID:18958183

  9. Precision control of thermal transport in cryogenic single-crystal silicon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-03-28

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path ℓ is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than ℓ, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 5–10 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 μm. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order ℓ, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of ±8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  10. Precision Control of Thermal Transport in Cryogenic Single-Crystal Silicon Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 510 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 microns. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of +/-8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  11. Liquid Acquisition Device Hydrogen Outflow Testing on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Design Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Statham, Geoff; Garces, Rachel; Cartagena, Will

    2015-01-01

    As part of the NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Engineering Design Unit (EDU) testing with liquid hydrogen, screen-channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) were tested during liquid hydrogen outflow from the EDU tank. A stainless steel screen mesh (325x2300 Dutch T will weave) was welded to a rectangular cross-section channel to form the basic LAD channel. Three LAD channels were tested, each having unique variations in the basic design. The LADs fed a common outflow sump at the aft end of the 151 cu. ft. volume aluminum tank, and included a curved section along the aft end and a straight section along the barrel section of the tank. Wet-dry sensors were mounted inside the LAD channels to detect when vapor was ingested into the LADs during outflow. The use of warm helium pressurant during liquid hydrogen outflow, supplied through a diffuser at the top of the tank, always led to early breakdown of the liquid column. When the tank was pressurized through an aft diffuser, resulting in cold helium in the ullage, LAD column hold-times as long as 60 minutes were achieved, which was the longest duration tested. The highest liquid column height at breakdown was 58 cm, which is 23 less than the isothermal bubble-point model value of 75 cm. This paper discusses details of the design, construction, operation and analysis of LAD test data from the CPST EDU liquid hydrogen test.

  12. Cryogenic shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D. (Inventor); Magner, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetically operated shutter mechanism is provided that will function in cryogenic or cryogenic zero gravity environments to selectively block radiation such as light from passing through a window to a target object such as a mirror or detector located inside a cryogenic container such as a dewar. The mechanism includes a shutter paddle blade that is moved by an electromagnetically actuated torquing device between an open position where the target object is exposed to ambient radiation or light and a closed position where the shutter paddle blade shields the ambient radiation or light from the target object. The purpose of the shuttering device is to prevent the mirror or other target object from being directly exposed to radiation passing through the window located on the side wall of the dewar, thereby decreasing or eliminating any temperature gradient that would occur within the target object due to exposure to the radiation. A special nylon bearing system is utilized to prevent the device from binding during operation and the paddle blade is also termally connected to a reservoir containing the cryogen to further reduce the internal temperature.

  13. Cryogenic shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D. (Inventor); Magner, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A magnetically operated shutter mechanism is provided that will function in cryogenic or cryogenic zero gravity environments to selectively block radiation such as light from passing through a window to a target object such as a mirror or detector located inside a cryogenic container such as a dewar. The mechanism includes a shutter paddle blade that is moved by an electromagnetically actuated torquing device between an open position where the target object is exposed to ambient radiation or light and a closed position where the shutter paddle blade shields the ambient radiation or light from the target object. The purpose of the shuttering device is to prevent the mirror or other target object from being directly exposed to radiation passing through the window located on the side wall of the dewar, thereby decreasing or eliminating any temperature gradient that would occur within the target object due to exposure to the radiation. A special nylon bearing system is utilized to prevent the device from binding during operation and the paddle blade is also thermally connected to a reservoir containing cryogen to further reduce the internal temperature.

  14. Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taie, H. Kelly, M. J.; Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE ; Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; See, P.

    2013-06-17

    We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a “quantum yield” is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

  15. Room Temperature Bubble Point Tests on Porous Screens: Implications for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for room temperature bubble point tests conducted at the Cedar Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Cell 7 (CCL-7) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the performance of three different fine mesh screens in room temperature liquids to provide pretest predictions in cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and hydrogen (LH2) as part of NASA's microgravity LAD technology development program. Bench type tests based on the maximum bubble point method were conducted for a 325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, and 510 x 3600 mesh sample in pure room temperature liquid methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, water, and mixtures of methanol and water to cover the intermediate to upper surface tension range. A theoretical model for the bubble point pressure is derived from the Young-LaPlace equation for the pressure drop across a curved interface. Governing equations are reduced in complexity through a set of simplifying assumptions to permit direct comparison with the experimental data. Screen pore sizes are estimated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to make pretest predictions. Pore sizes based on SEM analysis are compared with historical data available in the literature for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 screens as well with data obtained from bubble point tests conducted in this work. Experimental results show that bubble point pressure is proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. We show that there is excellent agreement between data and model for pure fluids when the data is corrected for non-zero contact angle measured on the screens using a modified Sessile Drop technique. SEM image analysis of the three meshes indicated that bubble point pressure would be a maximum for the finest mesh screen. The pore diameters based on SEM analysis and experimental data obtained here are in excellent agreement for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 meshes, but not for the finest 510 x 3600 mesh. Therefore the simplified model can be used to interpolate predictions for low surface tension cryogenic liquids only when pore diameters are based on room temperature bubble point tests and not SEM analysis as presently implemented.

  16. MOSFET's for Cryogenic Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehaye, R.; Ventrice, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Study seeks ways to build transistors that function effectively at liquid-helium temperatures. Report discusses physics of metaloxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) and performances of these devices at cryogenic temperatures. MOSFET's useful in highly sensitive cryogenic preamplifiers for infrared astronomy.

  17. Steps toward fabricating cryogenic CMOS compatible single electron devices for future qubits.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Childs, Kenton David; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Eng, Kevin; Stevens, Jeffrey; Nordberg, Eric; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Lilly, Michael Patrick

    2008-08-01

    We describe the development of a novel silicon quantum bit (qubit) device architecture that involves using materials that are compatible with a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 0.35 mum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process intended to operate at 100 mK. We describe how the qubit structure can be integrated with CMOS electronics, which is believed to have advantages for critical functions like fast single electron electrometry for readout compared to current approaches using radio frequency techniques. Critical materials properties are reviewed and preliminary characterization of the SNL CMOS devices at 4.2 K is presented.

  18. A device to investigate the delamination strength in laminates at room and cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingyi; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2014-12-01

    We construct an instrument to study the behavior of delamination strength in laminates which can be defined as the critical transverse stress at which an actual delamination occurs. The device allows the anvil measurements at room temperature or the liquid nitrogen temperature. For the electro-magnetic laminated materials (e.g., a superconducting YaBa2Cu3O(7-x) coated conductor which has a typical laminated structure), the delamination strength was measured while the properties of transport current were also recorded. Moreover, the influences of external magnetic field on the delamination strength were presented. PMID:25554334

  19. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  20. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  1. An RF Sensor for Gauging Screen-Channel Liquid Acquisition Devices for Cryogenic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Metzger, Scott; Asipauskas, Marius

    2014-01-01

    A key requirement of a low-gravity screen-channel liquid acquisition device (LAD) is the need to retain 100% liquid in the channel in response to propellant outflow and spacecraft maneuvers. The point at which a screen-channel LAD ingests vapor is known as breakdown, and can be measured several different ways such as: visual observation of bubbles in the LAD channel outflow; a sudden change in pressure drop between the propellant tank and LAD sump outlet; or, an indication by wet-dry sensors placed in the LAD channel or outflow stream. Here we describe a new type of sensor for gauging a screen-channel LAD, the Radio Frequency Mass Gauge (RFMG). The RFMG measures the natural electromagnetic modes of the screen-channel LAD, which is very similar to an RF waveguide, to determine the amount of propellant in the channel. By monitoring several of the RF modes, we show that the RFMG acts as a global sensor of the LAD channel propellant fill level, and enables detection of LAD breakdown even in the absence of outflow. This paper presents the theory behind the RFMG-LAD sensor, measurements and simulations of the RF modes of a LAD channel, and RFMG detection of LAD breakdown in a channel using a simulant fluid during inverted outflow and long-term stability tests.

  2. Capillary acquisition devices for high-performance vehicles: Executive summary. [evaluation of cryogenic propellant management techniques using the centaur launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatt, M. H.; Bradshaw, R. D.; Risberg, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Technology areas critical to the development of cryogenic capillary devices were studied. Passive cooling of capillary devices was investigated with an analytical and experimental study of wicking flow. Capillary device refilling with settled fluid was studied using an analytical and experimental program that resulted in successful correlation of a versatile computer program with test data. The program was used to predict Centaur D-1S LO2 and LH2 start basket refilling. Comparisons were made between the baseline Centaur D-1S propellant feed system and feed system alternatives including systems using capillary devices. The preferred concepts from the Centaur D-1S study were examined for APOTV and POTV vehicles for delivery and round trip transfer of payloads between LEO and GEO. Mission profiles were determined to provide propellant usage timelines and the payload partials were defined.

  3. CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

    2002-07-22

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

  4. Cryogenic ion implantation near amorphization threshold dose for halo/extension junction improvement in sub-30 nm device technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hugh; Todorov, Stan; Colombeau, Benjamin; Rodier, Dennis; Kouzminov, Dimitry; Zou Wei; Guo Baonian; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Decker-Lucke, Kurt

    2012-11-06

    We report on junction advantages of cryogenic ion implantation with medium current implanters. We propose a methodical approach on maximizing cryogenic effects on junction characteristics near the amorphization threshold doses that are typically used for halo implants for sub-30 nm technologies. BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant at a dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2} does not amorphize silicon at room temperature. When implanted at -100 Degree-Sign C, it forms a 30 - 35 nm thick amorphous layer. The cryogenic BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant significantly reduces the depth of the boron distribution, both as-implanted and after anneals, which improves short channel rolloff characteristics. It also creates a shallower n{sup +}-p junction by steepening profiles of arsenic that is subsequently implanted in the surface region. We demonstrate effects of implant sequences, germanium preamorphization, indium and carbon co-implants for extension/halo process integration. When applied to sequences such as Ge+As+C+In+BF{sub 2}{sup +}, the cryogenic implants at -100 Degree-Sign C enable removal of Ge preamorphization, and form more active n{sup +}-p junctions and steeper B and In halo profiles than sequences at room temperature.

  5. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    DOEpatents

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  6. Optical Detection Of Cryogenic Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, Lynn M.

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual system identifies leakage without requiring shutdown for testing. Proposed device detects and indicates leaks of cryogenic liquids automatically. Detector makes it unnecessary to shut equipment down so it can be checked for leakage by soap-bubble or helium-detection methods. Not necessary to mix special gases or other materials with cryogenic liquid flowing through equipment.

  7. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William; Garces, Luis Jose

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  8. Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices. Interim report, June 15, 1985--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P.; Rabinowicz, E.

    1992-09-15

    High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials` low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

  9. Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China. PMID:24517821

  10. Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

    2006-01-01

    Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

  11. Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  12. RHIC cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iarocci, M. A.; Brown, D.; Sondericker, J.; Wu, K. C.; Benson, J.; Farah, Y.; Lac, C.; Morgillo, A.; Nicoletti, A.; Quimby, E.; Rank, J.; Rehak, M.; Werner, A.

    2003-03-01

    An integrated helium cryogenic system was designed with the specific performance goal of cooling and refrigerating the cryogenic magnets to below their nominal operating temperature. These magnets make up the steering and focusing elements for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In addition to meeting the accelerator demands, reliability, flexibility, safety, and ease of operation were key considerations during the design phase of the project. The refrigerator, with a capacity of 25 kW at about 4 K, was originally designed to match the load for the Colliding Beam Accelerator Project. The existing refrigerator, along with its complimentary warm compressor system was reconfigured slightly to meet the cooling process cycle design for RHIC. The original VAX based process control system was also adapted for RHIC, and later expanded upon to integrate a new programmable logic controller based ring resident control system, hence forming a common system to monitor and control all cryogenic components.

  13. Acquisition and correlation of cryogenic nitrogen mass flow data through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. Stephen; Saiyed, Naseem H.; Nyland, Ted W.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a series of multiple orifice Joule-Thomson devices, known as Visco Jets, over a wide range of flow resistance. The test rig used to acquire the data was designed to minimize heat transfer so that fluid expansion through the Visco Jets would be isenthalpic. The data include a range of fluid inlet pressures from 30 to 60 psia, fluid inlet temperatures from 118 to 164 R, outlet pressures from 2.8 to 55.8 psia, outlet temperatures from 117 to 162 R and flow rate from 0.04 to 4.0 lbm/hr of nitrogen. A flow rate equation supplied by the manufacturer was found to accurately predict single-phase (noncavitating) liquid nitrogen flow through the Visco Jets. For cavitating flow, the manufacturer's equation was found to be inaccurate. Greatly improved results were achieved with a modified version of the single-phase equation. The modification consists of a multiplication factor to the manufacturer's equation equal to one minus the downstream quality on an isenthalpic expansion of the fluid across the Visco Jet. For a range of flow resistances represented by Visco Jet Lohm ratings between 17,600 and 80,000, 100 percent of the single-phase data and 85 percent of the two-phase data fall within + or - 10 percent of predicted values.

  14. Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

  15. Cryogenic Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Kevin Rivers, Thermal Structures Branch, checks electronic wiring on a test panel for a cryogenic insulation system. The thermal-mechanical testing is being done for Lockheed Martin as part of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The foam panel, encased in an aluminum alloy, will be subjected to very low and very high temperatures and then be placed under heavyloads as part of the testing. Material in this panel may be used as part of an RLV fuel tank.

  16. Cryogenic regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-07-01

    Importance of regenerators in cryogenic refrigerators is highlighted. Design aspects of regenerator are reviewed and the factors involved in the selection of regenerator material are enumerated. Various methods used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and regenerator effectiveness are mentioned. Variation of effectiveness with various parameters is calculated by a computer program using the ideal, Ackermann and Tipler formulae. Results are presented in graphical form. Listing of the computer program is given in the Appendix.

  17. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

  18. Advances in Helium Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciver, S. W. Van

    This review provides a survey of major advances that have occurred in recent years in the area of helium cryogenics. Helium-temperature cryogenics is the enabling technology for a substantial and growing number of low-temperature systems from superconducting magnets to space-based experimental facilities. In recent years there have been many advances in the technology of low-temperature helium, driven mostly by new applications. However, to keep the review from being too broad, this presentation focuses mainly on three of the most significant advances. These are: (1) the development of large-scale recuperative refrigeration systems mainly for superconducting magnet applications in accelerators and other research facilities; (2) the use of stored superfluid helium (He II) as a coolant for spacebased astrophysics experiments; and (3) the application of regenerative cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperatures primarily for cooling superconducting devices. In each case, the reader should observe that critical technologies were developed to facilitate these applications. In addition to these three primary advances, other significant helium cryogenic technologies are briefly reviewed at the end of this chapter, along with some vision for future developments in these areas.

  19. The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-01

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types will be compared for vibration, efficiency, and cost. Some solutions to specific problems of integrating cryocoolers to superconducting devices are presented.

  20. Cryogenic Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John

    2010-01-01

    An acousto-optic cryogenic flow sensor (CFS) determines mass flow of cryogens for spacecraft propellant management. The CFS operates unobtrusively in a high-pressure, high-flowrate cryogenic environment to provide measurements for fluid quality as well as mass flow rate. Experimental hardware uses an optical plane-of-light (POL) to detect the onset of two-phase flow, and the presence of particles in the flow of water. Acousto-optic devices are used in laser equipment for electronic control of the intensity and position of the laser beam. Acousto-optic interaction occurs in all optical media when an acoustic wave and a laser beam are present. When an acoustic wave is launched into the optical medium, it generates a refractive index wave that behaves like a sinusoidal grating. An incident laser beam passing through this grating will diffract the laser beam into several orders. Its angular position is linearly proportional to the acoustic frequency, so that the higher the frequency, the larger the diffracted angle. If the acoustic wave is traveling in a moving fluid, the fluid velocity will affect the frequency of the traveling wave, relative to a stationary sensor. This frequency shift changes the angle of diffraction, hence, fluid velocity can be determined from the diffraction angle. The CFS acoustic Bragg grating data test indicates that it is capable of accurately determining flow from 0 to 10 meters per second. The same sensor can be used in flow velocities exceeding 100 m/s. The POL module has successfully determined the onset of two-phase flow, and can distinguish vapor bubbles from debris.

  1. Cryogenic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, H.; Andoh, M.; Hayashi, M.; Isaka, H.; Mitani, H.

    1984-10-23

    A cryogenic refrigerator of rotary type which comprises a generally cylindrical rotor and an expander formed about a first axial portion of the rotor which is used as the expander rotor, with a plurality of radial vanes for defining about the expander rotor a series of expansion compartments which vary in volume as the rotor rotates. A regenerator is provided inside or outside and about a second axial portion of the rotor adjacent to and in fluid communication with the expander compartments. A compressor supplies compressed gas to the expander compartments for adiabatic expansion accompanied by a temperature drop of the expanded gas, which is conducted through the regenerator back to the compressor. The compressor may be of a rotary type and formed about a third axial portion of the rotor adjacent to the regenerator, with the third rotor portion being used as the compressor rotor having a plurality of radial vanes for defining about the compressor rotor a series of compression compartments which, as the rotor rotates, vary in volume in a predetermined correlation to the variation of volume of the expansion compartments.

  2. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  3. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  4. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, M. G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

  5. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  6. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  7. Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

  8. Cryogenic wind tunnels. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Specific problems pertaining to cryogenic wind tunnels, including LN(2) injection, GN(2) exhaust, thermal insulation, and automatic control are discussed. Thermal and other physical properties of materials employed in these tunnels, properties of cryogenic fluids, storage and transfer of liquid nitrogen, strength and toughness of metals and nonmetals at low temperatures, and material procurement and qualify control are considered. Safety concerns with cryogenic tunnels are covered, and models for cryogenic wind tunnels are presented, along with descriptions of major cryogenic wind-tunnel facilities the United States, Europe, and Japan. Problems common to wind tunnels, such as low Reynolds number, wall and support interference, and flow unsteadiness are outlined.

  9. Cryogenics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the cryogenics program of the Goddard Space Flight Center is given in viewgraph form. Goddard's role and the flight programs requiring cryogenics are outlined. Diagrams are given of the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, a liquid cryogenic cooler for the Shuttle Glow Experiment, a liquid helium dewar, and the X-ray spectrometer on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  10. Fundamentals of Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley; Tomsik, Thomas; Moder, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the extreme conditions that are encountered in cryogenic systems requires the most effort out of analysts and engineers. Due to the costs and complexity associated with the extremely cold temperatures involved, testing is sometimes minimized and extra analysis is often relied upon. This short course is designed as an introduction to cryogenic engineering and analysis, and it is intended to introduce the basic concepts related to cryogenic analysis and testing as well as help the analyst understand the impacts of various requests on a test facility. Discussion will revolve around operational functions often found in cryogenic systems, hardware for both tests and facilities, and what design or modelling tools are available for performing the analysis. Emphasis will be placed on what scenarios to use what hardware or the analysis tools to get the desired results. The class will provide a review of first principles, engineering practices, and those relations directly applicable to this subject including such topics as cryogenic fluids, thermodynamics and heat transfer, material properties at low temperature, insulation, cryogenic equipment, instrumentation, refrigeration, testing of cryogenic systems, cryogenics safety and typical thermal and fluid analysis used by the engineer. The class will provide references for further learning on various topics in cryogenics for those who want to dive deeper into the subject or have encountered specific problems.

  11. NASA's Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Motil, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) Project's primary objective is to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens that will support the enabling of high performance cryogenic propulsion systems, lunar surface systems and economical ground operations. Such technologies can significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, reduce or even eliminate propellant tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, and simplify vehicle operations. This paper will present the status of the specific technologies that the CFM Project is developing. The two main areas of concentration are analysis models development and CFM hardware development. The project develops analysis tools and models based on thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, and existing flight/test data. These tools assist in the development of pressure/thermal control devices (such as the Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS), and Multi-layer insulation); with the ultimate goal being to develop a mature set of tools and models that can characterize the performance of the pressure/thermal control devices incorporated in the design of an entire CFM system with minimal cryogen loss. The project does hardware development and testing to verify our understanding of the physical principles involved, and to validate the performance of CFM components, subsystems and systems. This database provides information to anchor our analytical models. This paper describes some of the current activities of the NASA's Cryogenic Fluid Management Project.

  12. Germanium JFET for Cryogenic Readout Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, N. C.; Monroy, C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

    1999-01-01

    The n-channel Germanium junction field effect transistor (Ge-JFET) was designed and fabricated for cryogenic applications. The Ge-JFET exhibits superior noise performance at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). From the device current voltage characteristics of n-channel JFETs, it is seen that transconductance increases monotonically with the lowering of temperature to 4.2 K (liquid helium temperature).

  13. Cryogenic structural materials for superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-02-22

    This paper reviews research in the United States and Japan on structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets are used for magnetic fusion energy devices and for accelerators that are used in particle-physics research. The cryogenic structural materials that we review are used for magnet cases and support structures. We expect increased materials requirements in the future.

  14. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vols. 35A & 35B - Proceedings of the 1989 Cryogenic Engineering Conference, University of California, Los Angeles, July 24-28, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    The book presents a review of literature on superfluid helium, together with papers under the topics on heat and mass transfer in He II; applications of He II for cooling superconducting devices in space; heat transfer to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen; multilayer insulation; applications of superconductivity, including topics on magnets and other devices, magnet stability and coil protection, and cryogenic techniques; and refrigeration for electronics. Other topics discussed include refrigeration of superconducting systems; the expanders, cold compressors, and pumps for liquid helium; dilution refrigerators; magnetic refrigerators; pulse tube refrigerators; cryocoolers for space applications; properties of cryogenic fluids; cryogenic instrumentation; hyperconducting devices (cryogenic magnets); cryogenic applications in space science and technology and in transportation; and miscellaneous cryogenic techniques and applications.

  15. Passive Cryogenic Sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampling is the key step in any analysis regime. Gaseous systems only magnify the critical nature of the sampling step. The Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler provides a proven, cost-effective way to obtain high-quality samples. This report specifies some advantages and design specifications of the Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler.

  16. Passive Cryogenic Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Sampling is the key step in any analysis regime. Gaseous systems only magnify the critical nature of the sampling step. The Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler provides a proven, cost-effective way to obtain high-quality samples. This report specifies some advantages and design specifications of the Passive Cryogenic Gas Sampler.

  17. Cryogenic Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, Robert A.; Marquardt, Eric D.; Fusilier, Fred C.; Fesmire, James E.

    2003-01-01

    The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) is a not-for-profit corporation dedicated to preserving and distributing cryogenic information to government, industry, and academia. The heart of the CIC is a uniform source of cryogenic data including analyses, design, materials and processes, and test information traceable back to the Cryogenic Data Center of the former National Bureau of Standards. The electronic database is a national treasure containing over 146,000 specific bibliographic citations of cryogenic literature and thermophysical property data dating back to 1829. A new technical/bibliographic inquiry service can perform searches and technical analyses. The Cryogenic Material Properties (CMP) Program consists of computer codes using empirical equations to determine thermophysical material properties with emphasis on the 4-300K range. CMP's objective is to develop a user-friendly standard material property database using the best available data so government and industry can conduct more accurate analyses. The CIC serves to benefit researchers, engineers, and technologists in cryogenics and cryogenic engineering, whether they are new or experienced in the field.

  18. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-06-23

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  19. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  20. Positive-displacement cryogenic expander pump

    SciTech Connect

    Filin, N.V.; Vidineeva, T.Yu.; D`yachkov, M.I.

    1995-07-01

    Today cryogenic circulating systems are used in many branches of technology as cryostats for superconducting devices and in cryogenic vacuum pumps where a high vacuum or a high capacity is required. One of the most important elements in these systems is the flow driver - the device which causes the cryogenic liquid to circulate. Systems which include a mechanical or jet pump are widely used, as are those in which the liquid is circulated by a compressor in a single-loop system. The operational principle of a new device for circulating cryogenic liquid - an expander pump - is as follows. Previously compressed gas, with a temperature somewhat higher than the saturation temperature, expands in a cylinder and does work by pumping the liquid. At the end of the expansion process, part of the working gas condenses and can completely or partially compensate the loss of liquid in the utilization loop. The use of an expander pump has many advantages over other flow drivers. These advantages are discussed.

  1. Cryogenic Current Lead Analysis Model Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-01-01

    CCLAMP was developed to provide a tool for tha analysis of superconducting or normal current leads used to supply electricity from a warm interface (usually room temperature) to a device at cryogenic temperatures. It determines the heat leak to the cryogenic connection and the mass flow of the cryogen (typically helium) for the lead and installation modelled. It may be used to thermally optimize a lead design for a particular application. The user provides relevantmore » geometry details to model the electrical (length, diameter, superconducting length) and heat exchanger design of the lead (heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer area). It has a transient analysis capability so that lead transients such as cool down, current ramping, flow disruptions, and control simulations can be performed.« less

  2. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  3. Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least 25 C colder than the coldest expected operating temperature. This quenching process is the opposite of the standard burn-in procedure. Normal burn-in raises the temperature (and voltage) to activate quickly any possible manufacturing defects remaining in the device that were not already rejected at a functional test step. The proposed inverse burn-in or quenching process is custom-tailored to the electronic device being used. The doping profiles, materials, minimum dimensions, interfaces, and thermal expansion coefficients are all taken into account in determining the ramp rate, dwell time, and temperature.

  4. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Casagrande, F.

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  5. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, D.; Casagrande, F.; Campisi, I.; Gurd, P.; Howell, M.; Stout, D.; Strong, H.; Arenius, D.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2006-04-27

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  6. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hatfield; F. Casagrande; I. Campisi; P. Gurd; M. Howell; D. Stout; H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; and P. Knudsen

    2005-08-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  7. Cryogenic Insulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Randall C. (inventor); Taylor, Allan H. (inventor); Jackson, L. Robert (inventor); Mcauliffe, Patrick S. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to reusable, low density, high temperature cryogenic foam insulation systems and the process for their manufacture. A pacing technology for liquid hydrogen fueled, high speed aircraft is the development of a fully reusable, flight weight cryogenic insulation system for propellant tank structures. In the invention cryogenic foam insulation is adhesively bonded to the outer wall of the fuel tank structure. The cryogenic insulation consists of square sheets fabricated from an array of abutting square blocks. Each block consists of a sheet of glass cloth adhesively bonded between two layers of polymethacrylimide foam. Each block is wrapped in a vapor impermeable membrane, such as Kapton(R) aluminum Kapton(R), to provide a vapor barrier. Very beneficial results can be obtained by employing the present invention in conjunction with fibrous insulation and an outer aeroshell, a hot fuselage structure with an internal thermal protection system.

  8. Recent Subjects in Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Hiroshi

    Several topics in the field of cryogenic engineering are described. Those are cryopumping and small refrigerators, Squid and its applications, large superconducting equipments such as a magnet for nuclear fusion, a magnet for NMR-CT, and magnetic refrigerators.

  9. Cryogenic wind tunnels. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The basic principles of cryogenic wind-tunnel operation are presented, and a typical cryogenic wind tunnel is described. Low-speed cryogenic wind tunnels are considered, along with some experiments conducted in these tunnels. Focus is placed on real-gas effects including condensation and thermal and caloric imperfections. The operating limits set by the saturation boundaries of nitrogen and air are analyzed, and the consequences of thermal and caloric imperfections on both isentropic and normal-shock flow in nitrogen are considered. The extension of analytical real-gas studies, including both laminar and turbulent boundary layers is covered. It is concluded that the deviation of the nitrogen boundary-layer parameters from their ideal-gas values are small, and that large real-gas effects will not be a factor in cryogenic tunnel simulation of the complex flows met in flight.

  10. Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

  11. Cryogenic Feedthrough Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, Antony

    2009-01-01

    The cryogenic feedthrough test rig (CFTR) allows testing of instrumentation feedthroughs at liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen temperature and pressure extremes (dangerous process fluid) without actually exposing the feedthrough to a combustible or explosive process fluid. In addition, the helium used (inert gas), with cryogenic heat exchangers, exposes the feedthrough to that environment that allows definitive leak rates of feedthrough by typical industry-standard helium mass spectrometers.

  12. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  13. Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Smith, Trent; Breakfield, Robert; Baughner, Kevin; Heckle, Kenneth; Meneghelli, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus (CMA) is designed for quantifying the amount of moisture from the surrounding air that is taken up by cryogenic-tank-insulating material specimens while under typical conditions of use. More specifically, the CMA holds one face of the specimen at a desired low temperature (e.g., the typical liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77 K) while the opposite face remains exposed to humid air at ambient or near-ambient temperature. The specimen is weighed before and after exposure in the CMA. The difference between the "after" and "before" weights is determined to be the weight of moisture absorbed by the specimen. Notwithstanding the term "cryogenic," the CMA is not limited to cryogenic applications: the low test temperature can be any temperature below ambient, and the specimen can be made of any material affected by moisture in air. The CMA is especially well suited for testing a variety of foam insulating materials, including those on the space-shuttle external cryogenic tanks, on other cryogenic vessels, and in refrigerators used for transporting foods, medicines, and other perishables. Testing is important because absorbed moisture not only adds weight but also, in combination with thermal cycling, can contribute to damage that degrades insulating performance. Materials are changed internally when subjected to large sub-ambient temperature gradients.

  14. Highly resolved online organic-chemical speciation of evolved gases from thermal analysis devices by cryogenically modulated fast gas chromatography coupled to single photon ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saraji-Bozorgzad, Mohammad R; Eschner, Markus; Groeger, Thomas M; Streibel, Thorsten; Geissler, Robert; Kaisersberger, Erwin; Denner, Thomas; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    Multi-dimensional analysis (MDA) in analytical chemistry is often applied to improve the selectivity of an analytical device and, therefore, to achieve a better overview of a sample composition. Recently, the hyphenation of thermogravimetry with single photo ionization mass spectrometry (TG-SPIMS) using an electron beam pumped excimer lamp (EBEL) for VUV radiation was applied. The concept of MDA has been realized by upgrading the TG-SPIMS system with a quasi comprehensive chromatographic separation step before the soft ionization (TG-GCxSPIMS). The system was characterized by the thermal analysis of diesel fuel, which has often been investigated by the GCxGC-community and is therefore a well-known sample material in MDA. Data from this measurement are used to explain the three-dimensional data structure and the advantages of the online TG-GCxSPIMS as compared to TG-SPIMS. Subsequently, the thermal decomposition behavior of a polymer, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), is investigated. TG-GCxSPIMS provides a two-dimensional analysis of the evolved gaseous products. TG relevant data are obtained as well as an improved resolution power to separate isobaric molecular structures without losing any fraction of the samples, as is often the case in heart cutting approaches. Additionally, this solution is not associated with any extension of the measurement time. The assignment of the substance pattern to distinct species is improved as compared to solely using mass spectrometry without a preceding separation step. Furthermore, hitherto undetected compounds have been found in the evolved gases from the thermal degradation of ABS. Finally, a first estimation of the limit of detection has been carried out. This results in a significant decrease of the LOD in case of TG-GCxSPIMS (500 ppt for toluene) as compared to 30 ppb, which could be reached with TG-SPIMS. PMID:21043436

  15. CRYOGENIC FACITLITY DESIGN IN BEPC II SUPERCONDUCTING UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.X.; WANG,L.; YANG,G.D.; ET AL.

    2004-05-11

    Three kinds of superconducting device are to be constructed at interaction regions in the upgrade of Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII). Two sets of refrigerators with each capacity of 500W at 4.5K are adopted to provide the refrigeration for them. The cryogenic systems to support the operation of the superconducting facilities are under design by Harbin Institute of Technology in China. This paper presents the current design of main cryogenic facilities.

  16. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  17. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  18. Physical sciences: Thermodynamics, cryogenics, and vacuum technology: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technological developments which have potential application outside the aerospace community are reported. A variety of thermodynamic devices including heat pipes and cooling systems are described along with methods of handling cryogenic fluids. Vacuum devices are also described. Pata et information is included.

  19. Surface-confined molecular coolers for cryogenics.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Giulia; Jenkins, Mark; González-Monje, Pablo; Arauzo, Ana; Sesé, Javier; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Roubeau, Olivier; Evangelisti, Marco

    2013-06-01

    An excellent molecule-based cryogenic magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium acetate tetrahydrate, is here used to decorate selected portions of silicon substrate. By quantitative magnetic force microscopy for a variable applied magnetic field near liquid-helium temperature, the molecules are demonstrated to hold their magnetic properties intact, and therefore their cooling functionality, after their deposition. These results represent a step forward towards the realization of a molecule-based micro-refrigerating device at very low temperatures. PMID:23401287

  20. A linear optical coupler for cryogenic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, M.; Perego, M.; Pessina, G.

    2000-04-01

    We present an improved version of a linear low-noise optical coupler having differential input and capable of driving a twisted cable to long distances, avoiding ground loops and electromagnetic interference. Owing to device optimization, this circuit version is able to be fast. Its frequency bandwidth is about 900 kHz, more than ten times larger than our previous implementation. The optical coupler presented is therefore suitable to be used with most of the applications with cryogenic detectors.

  1. TPC magnet cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.W.

    1980-03-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) magnet at LBL and its compensation solenoids are adiabatically stable superconducting solenoid magnets. The cryogenic system developed for the TPC magnet is discussed. This system uses forced two-phase tubular cooling with the two cryogens in the system. The liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are delivered through the cooled load by forced tubular flow. The only reservoirs of liquid cryogen exist in the control dewar (for liquid helium) and the conditioner dewar (for liquid nitrogen). The operation o these systems during virtually all phases of system operation are described. Photographs and diagrams of various system components are shown, and cryogenic system data are presented in the following sections: (1) heat leaks into the TPC coil package and the compensation solenoids; (2) heat leaks to various components of the TPC magnet cryogenics system besides the magnets and control dewar; (3) the control dewar and its relationship to the rest of the system; (4) the conditioner system and its role in cooling down the TPC magnet; (5) gas-cooled electrical leads and charging losses; and (6) a summation of the liquid helium and liquid nitrogen requirements for the TPC superconducting magnet system.

  2. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C.

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  3. CEBAF cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The CEBAF cryogenic system consists of 3 refrigeration systems: Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), and End Station Refrigerator (ESR). CHL is the main cryogenic system for CEBAF, consisting of a 4.8 kW, 2.0 K refrigerator and transfer line system to supply 2.0 K and 12 kW of 50 K shield refrigeration for the Linac cavity cryostats and 10 g/s of liquid for the end stations. This paper describes the 9-year effort to commission these systems, concentrating on CHL with the cold compressors. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of 3 K which use magnetic bearings, thereby eliminating the possibility of air leaks into the subatmospheric He.

  4. Cryogenic wind tunnels. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the cryogenic concept to various types of tunnels including Ludwieg tube tunnel, Evans clean tunnel, blowdown, induced-flow, and continuous-flow fan-driven tunnels is discussed. Benefits related to construction and operating costs are covered, along with benefits related to new testing capabilities. It is noted that cooling the test gas to very low temperatures increases Reynolds number by more than a factor of seven. From the energy standpoint, ambient-temperature fan-driven closed-return tunnels are considered to be the most efficient type of tunnel, while a large reduction in the required tunnel stagnation pressure can be achieved through cryogenic operation. Operating envelopes for three modes of operation for a cryogenic transonic pressure tunnel with a 2.5 by 2.5 test section are outlined. A computer program for calculating flow parameters and power requirements for wind tunnels with operating temperatures from saturation to above ambient is highlighted.

  5. Cryogenic bolometric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, Miikka Matias

    The big bang, early galaxy formation, the interstellar medium, and high z galaxy cluster evolution are all science objectives that are studied in the far infrared (FIR). The cosmological parameters that describe the universe are encoded in anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and can be extracted from precision subdegree angular resolution FIR maps. Cryogenic bolometers are well suited for these science objectives, and are evolving rapidly today. A cryogenic bolometric system is made up of a few building blocks, which can be modularized or integrated depending on the maturity of the scientific field they are used for. Integration of systems increases with the maturity of the technology. The basic building blocks are the bolometer, the cryogenics, the dewar, the optics, the filters, and electronics. The electronics can be further subdivided into room temperature back-end and cryogenic front-end electronics. The electronics are often partly integrated into the dewar. The dewar is part of the support structure, and only the subkelvin portion the dewar is referred to as cryogenics here. Each of these can be a sophisticated engineering feat on their own, and this dissertation revolves around the development of several of these elements. The microfabrication sequence for a free standing micromesh detector was developed. Polarization preserving photometer optics and filters were constructed and tested. A test dewar mechanical and optical structure was created to test single pixel photometers prior to mounting in the flight dewar. A modular flight dewar capable of holding an array of photometers and adaptable to a number of different cryogenics schemes and detector arrays was engineered and constructed. A zero gravity dilution refrigerator coil was constructed and tested. A corrugated platelet array concept was designed and tested. Metal mesh filter design and fabrication techniques were developed. Kevlar isolator structures were improved to work in subkelvin dewars, and detector modules that mounted the bolometer chips to the photometer tubes were created. These subsystems underwent testing to compare the predicted behavior and actual performance.

  6. Cryogenic applications for environment simulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardgrove, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the applications of cryogenics for simulating space environmental conditions are reviewed, and typical existing space simulation facilities are described. The techniques of adapting cryogenics to environmental simulation are discussed. Special attention is given to cryosorption pumps designed to accelerate cryogenic cooling of the adsorbent material.

  7. Exhaust control for cryogenic freezer

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, D. J.

    1985-07-16

    An exhaust system for a cryogenic freezer is set forth wherein the system senses the temperature of an aperture in the freezer to detect any outward passage of cryogenic vapors and based upon that sensing, controllably operates an exhaust fan to remove such cryogenic vapors.

  8. Cryogenic Model Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, W. M.; Kuhn, N. S.; Berry, R. F.; Newman, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    An overview and status of current activities seeking alternatives to 200 grade 18Ni Steel CVM alloy for cryogenic wind tunnel models is presented. Specific improvements in material selection have been researched including availability, strength, fracture toughness and potential for use in transonic wind tunnel testing. Potential benefits from utilizing damage tolerant life-prediction methods, recently developed fatigue crack growth codes and upgraded NDE methods are also investigated. Two candidate alloys are identified and accepted for cryogenic/transonic wind tunnel models and hardware.

  9. Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, K. A.; Monko, G. G.

    2004-06-01

    For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

  10. Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

  11. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  12. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, V. G.; Bell, W. H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Vià, C.; Devine, S. R. H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenço, C.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Shea, V. O.'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux.

  13. History, status and future applications of spaceborne cryogenic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic cooling is employed for an increasing number of space instruments. Cryogenic cooling is needed to provide the required detector response, reduce preamplifier noise, and/or reduce background radiation. Cryogenic cooling is required by instruments employed for applications missions, gamma-ray and X-ray astronomy, cosmic ray measurements, space surveillance, IR astronomy, relativity measurements, superconductivity devices, and basic research experiments. The cooling is provided with the aid of radiant coolers, stored solid cryogen coolers, stored liquid-helium coolers, mechanical coolers, He-3 coolers, adiabatic demagnetization, refrigeration, and higher temperature adsorption and magnetic systems. Radiant coolers will continue to find widespread application for low cooling-load/high-temperature situation. It is pointed out that a long-lifetime closed-cycle, mechanical cooler is one of the most critical space technological needs.

  14. Cryogenics Research and Engineering Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space have a direct impact on NASA, government and commercial programs. Research and development on thermal insulation, propellant servicing, cryogenic components, material properties and sensing technologies provides industry, government and research institutions with the cross-cutting technologies to manage low-temperature applications. Under the direction of the Cryogenic Testing Lab at Kennedy Space Center, the work experience acquired allowed me to perform research, testing, design and analysis of current and future cryogenic technologies to be applied in several projects.

  15. Compact cryogenic inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Carr, W.J. Jr.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Hordubay, T.D.; Chuboy, H.L. . Science and Technology Center)

    1994-07-01

    Power systems requiring power levels as high as a few megawatts to a few gigawatts for periods of several microseconds to several milliseconds with repetitive frequencies of a few hertz to a few kilohertz are being considered for potential space applications. The impulsive nature of the power presents the opportunity to use inductive energy storage techniques for pulse duty to enhance economic and practical considerations. An inductors must be efficient, lightweight, and reliable, and it must have high energy density if it is to be used in space based power systems. Cryogenic inductors are best studied for such an application. Parametric analyses of the two potential types of cryogenic inductors (superconducting and hyperconducting reveal that the hyperconducting (high purity aluminum)) inductor would be significantly lighter and achieve higher energy densities without the added penalty of a helium refrigeration system, thus resulting in improved overall system reliability. The lightweight hyperconducting cryogenic inductor technology is, however, in its infancy. This paper describes the required technology base which would allow the eventual application of the lightweight cryogenic inductor in space power systems, and also conclusively demonstrates the underlying principles.

  16. Cryogenic structural support

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Mataya, Karl F. (Lemont, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A tensile support member is provided for use in a cryogenic environment. The member is in the form of a link formed of an epoxy glass laminate with at least one ply of the laminate having its fibers aligned circumferentially about the link.

  17. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  18. Vapor cooled current lead for cryogenic electrical equipment

    DOEpatents

    Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method are provided for conducting electric current to cryogenic electrical equipment devices. A combination of inner and outer tubes together form a plurality of hollow composite tubes housed in a sheath. Top and bottom block mounting means are fitted to hold the composite tubes and are affixed to the ends of the sheath. This combination forms a current lead. The current lead is attached to a cryogenic device housing a fluid coolant which moves through the current lead, cooling the current lead as the fluid travels.

  19. Temperature-sensed cryogenic bleed maintains liquid state in transfer line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindgren, A. R.

    1967-01-01

    Inverted tee, installed at a high point in a cryogenic transfer line, is equipped with an insulated bleed line that passes a fixed amount of cryogenic fluid at atmospheric pressure. A sensing device activates a vent valve in the tee stack whenever gaseous nitrogen is present.

  20. Insulation design of cryogenic bushing for superconducting electric power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Shin, W. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J. T.; Lee, B. W.; Lee, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the superconductivity projects to develop commercial superconducting devices for extra high voltage transmission lines have been undergoing in many countries. One of the critical components to be developed for high voltage superconducting devices, including superconducting transformers, cables, and fault current limiters, is a high voltage bushing, to supply high current to devices without insulating difficulties, that is designed for cryogenic environments. Unfortunately, suitable bushings for HTS equipment were not fully developed for some cryogenic insulation issues. Such high voltage bushings would need to provide electrical insulation capabilities from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. First, the dielectric strength of three kinds of metals has been measured with uniform and non-uniform electrodes by withstand voltage of impulse and AC breakdown test in LN2. Second, puncture breakdown voltage of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) plates has been analyzed with non-uniform electrodes. Finally, creepage discharge voltages were measured according to the configuration of non-uniform and uniform electrode on the FRP plate. From the test results, we obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic environment.

  1. Design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C; Baltz, J; Malsbury, T; Atkinson, D; Brugmann, V; Coffield, F; Edwards, O; Haid, B; Locke, S; Shiromizu, S; Skulina, K

    2008-06-10

    The United States Department of Energy has embarked on a campaign to conduct credible fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2010. The target assembly specified for this campaign requires the formation of a deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel ice layer in a 2 mm diameter capsule at the center of a 9 mm long by 5 mm diameter cylinder, called a hohlraum. The ice layer must be formed and maintained at temperatures below 20 K. At laser shot time, the target is positioned at the center of the NIF target chamber, aligned to the laser beams and held stable to less than 7 {micro}m rms. We have completed the final design of the Cryogenic Target System and are integrating the devices necessary to create, characterize and position the cryogenic target for ignition experiments. These designs, with supporting analysis and prototype test results, will be presented.

  2. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  3. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1987-10-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  4. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOEpatents

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  5. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

    1999-12-21

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  6. Cryogenic Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Goloborod'ko, S.; /Fermilab

    1989-02-27

    The control system (CS) for the cryogenic arrangement of the DO Liquid Argon Calorimeter consists of a Texas instruments 560/565 Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), two remote bases with Remote Base Controllers and a corresponding set of input/output (I/O) modules, and a PC AST Premium 286 (IBM AT Compatible). The PLC scans a set of inputs and provides a set of outputs based on a ladder logic program and PID control loops. The inputs are logic or analog (current, voltage) signals from equipment status switches or transducers. The outputs are logic or analog (current or voltage) signals for switching solenoids and positioning pneumatic actuators. Programming of the PLC is preformed by using the TISOFT2/560/565 package, which is installed in the PC. The PC communicates to the PLC through a serial RS232 port and provides operator interface to the cryogenic process using Xpresslink software.

  7. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  8. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  9. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P.

    1983-06-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  10. Cryogenic thermal diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Brandon R.; Batty, J. C.; Agren, John

    2000-01-01

    Space based cryogenic thermal management systems for advanced infrared sensor platforms are a critical failure mode to the spacecraft missions they are supporting. Recent advances in cryocooler technologies have increased the achievable cooling capacities and decreased the operating temperatures of these systems, but there is still a fundamental need for redundancy in these systems. Cryogenic thermal diodes act as thermal switches, allowing heat to flow through them when in a conduction mode and restricting the flow of heat when in an isolation mode. These diodes will allow multiple cryocoolers to cool a single infrared focal plane array. The Space Dynamics Laboratory has undertaken an internal research and development effort to develop this innovative technology. This paper briefly describes the design parameters of several prototype thermal diodes that were developed and tested. .

  11. Cryogenic mirror analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, S.

    1988-01-01

    Due to extraordinary distances scanned by modern telescopes, optical surfaces in such telescopes must be manufactured to unimaginable standards of perfection of a few thousandths of a centimeter. The detection of imperfections of less than 1/20 of a wavelength of light, for application in the building of the mirror for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, was undertaken. Because the mirror must be kept very cold while in space, another factor comes into effect: cryogenics. The process to test a specific morror under cryogenic conditions is described; including the follow-up analysis accomplished through computer work. To better illustrate the process and analysis, a Pyrex Hex-Core mirror is followed through the process from the laser interferometry in the lab, to computer analysis via a computer program called FRINGE. This analysis via FRINGE is detailed.

  12. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOEpatents

    Bravo, Jose Luis; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  13. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  14. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Nurge, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Under our NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project we have theoretically demonstrated a novel selective surface that reflects roughly 100 times more solar radiation than any other known coating. If this prediction holds up under experimental tests it will allow cryogenic temperatures to be reached in deep space even in the presence of the sun. It may allow LOX to be carried to the Moon and Mars. It may allow superconductors to be used in deep space without a refrigeration system.

  15. A compact cryogenic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Caldwell, Shane; Clark, Jason A.; Gulick, Sidney; Hecht, Adam; Lascar, Daniel D.; Levand, Tony; Morgan, Graeme; Orford, Rodney; Savard, Guy; Sharma, Kumar S.; Van Schelt, Jonathon

    2016-04-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been designed at Argonne National Laboratory to circulate liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a closed circuit allowing the recovery of excess fluid. The pump can circulate LN2 at rates of 2-10 L/min, into a head of 0.5-3 m. Over four years of laboratory use the pump has proven capable of operating continuously for 50-100 days without maintenance.

  16. The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

    1995-01-01

    The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

  17. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamowski, M.; Bremer, J.; Geynisman, M.; Hentschel, S.; Montanari, D.; Nessi, M.; Norris, B.

    2015-12-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these installations (parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). This paper gives an overview of the installations involved in these cryogenic projects, describes the functional demands made to these cryogenic systems and presents the initial studies on which these future cryogenic systems will be based.

  18. Developments in advanced and energy saving thermal isolations for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The cooling power consumption in large scale superconducting systems is huge and cryogenic devices used in space applications often require an extremely long cryogen holding time. To economically maintain the device at its operating temperature and minimize the refrigeration losses, high performance of thermal isolation is essential. The radiation from warm surrounding surfaces and conducting heat leaks through supports and penetrations are the dominant heat loads to the cold mass under vacuum condition. The advanced developments in various cryogenic applications to successfully reduce the heat loads through radiation and conduction are briefly and systematically discussed and evaluated in this review paper. These include: (1) thermal Insulation for different applications (foams, perlites, glass bubbles, aerogel and MLI), (2) sophisticated low-heat-leak support (cryogenic tension straps, trolley bars and posts with dedicated thermal intercepts), and (3) novel cryogenic heat switches.

  19. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  20. Experiments on Cryogenic Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, O.; Sekine, W.; Kubota, J.; Uotani, N.; Chikasue, M.; Shindo, M.

    2009-11-10

    Experiments on a cryogenic complex plasma have been performed. Preliminary experiments include production of a plasma in a liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by a pulsed discharge. The extended production of a plasma has been realized in a vapor of liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by rf discharge. The charge of dust particles injected in such a plasma has been studied in detail.

  1. Precision Cryogenic Dilatometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudik, Matthew; Halverson, Peter; Levine-West, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    A dilatometer based on a laser interferometer is being developed to measure mechanical creep and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of materials at temperatures ranging from ambient down to 15 K. This cryogenic dilatometer has been designed to minimize systematic errors that limit the best previously available dilatometers. At its prototype stage of development, this cryogenic dilatometer yields a strain measurement error of 35 ppb or 1.7 ppb/K CTE measurement error for a 20-K thermal load, for low-expansion materials in the temperature range from 310 down to 30 K. Planned further design refinements that include a provision for stabilization of the laser and addition of a high-precision sample-holding jig are expected to reduce the measurement error to 5-ppb strain error or 0.3-ppb/K CTE error for a 20-K thermal load. The dilatometer (see figure) includes a common-path, differential, heterodyne interferometer; a dual-frequency, stabilized source bench that serves as the light source for the interferometer; a cryogenic chamber in which one places the material sample to be studied; a cryogenic system for cooling the interior of the chamber to the measurement temperature; an ultra-stable alignment stage for positioning the chamber so that the sample is properly positioned with respect to the interferometer; and a data-acquisition and control system. The cryogenic chamber and the interferometer portion of the dilatometer are housed in a vacuum chamber on top of a vibration isolating optical table in a cleanroom. The sample consists of two pieces a pillar on a base both made of the same material. Using reflections of the interferometer beams from the base and the top of the pillar, what is measured is the change in length of the pillar as the temperature in the chamber is changed. In their fundamental optical and electronic principles of operation, the laser light source and the interferometer are similar to those described in Common-Path Heterodyne Interferometers (NPO-20786), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 12a, and Interferometer for Measuring Displacement to Within 20 pm (NPO- 21221), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 7 (July 2003), page 8a. However, the present designs incorporate a number of special geometric, optical, and mechanical features to minimize optical and thermal-expansion effects that contribute to measurement errors. These features include the use of low-thermal expansion materials for structural components, kinematic mounting and symmetrical placement of optical components, and several measures taken to minimize spurious reflections of laser beams.

  2. Refrigeration and Cryogenics Specialist. J3ABR54530

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This document package contains an Air Force course used to train refrigeration and cryogenics specialists. The course is organized in six blocks designed for group instruction. The blocks cover the following topics: electrical principles; fundamentals of tubing and piping; metering devices, motor controls, domestic and commercial refrigeration;…

  3. Closed-cycle cryogenic pump suitable for sounding rockets use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, P. W.; Zipf, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    We have successfully used a closed-cycle cryogenic cooling system as a high-speed UHV pump for instruments carried into the upper atmosphere on board sounding rockets. The device utilizes a commercially available, Sterling-cycle refrigerator that has proven to be rugged and simple to use under field conditions.

  4. Expandable Purge Chambers Would Protect Cryogenic Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2004-01-01

    Expandable ice-prevention and cleanliness-preservation (EIP-CP) chambers have been proposed to prevent the accumulation of ice or airborne particles on quick-disconnect (QD) fittings, or on ducts or tubes that contain cryogenic fluids. In the original application for which the EIP-CP chambers were conceived, there is a requirement to be able to disconnect and reconnect the QD fittings in rapid succession. If ice were to form on the fittings by condensation and freezing of airborne water vapor on the cold fitting surfaces, the ice could interfere with proper mating of the fittings, making it necessary to wait an unacceptably long time for the ice to thaw before attempting reconnection. By keeping water vapor away from the cold fitting surfaces, the EIP-CP chambers would prevent accumulation of ice, preserving the ability to reconnect as soon as required. Basically, the role of an EIP-CP chamber would be to serve as an enclosure for a flow of dry nitrogen gas that would keep ambient air away from QD cryogenic fittings. An EIP-CP chamber would be an inflatable device made of a fabriclike material. The chamber would be attached to an umbilical plate holding a cryogenic QD fitting.

  5. Polyamide 66 as a cryogenic dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncer, Enis; Polizos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; Randy James, D.; Ellis, Alvin R.; Messman, Jamie M.; Aytu?, Tolga

    2009-09-01

    Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, e.g., cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, it etc., with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ conventional insulation materials to these new systems. However, at low temperatures, thermal contraction and loss of mechanical strength in many materials make them unsuitable for superconducting power applications. In this paper, a widely used commercial material was characterized as a potential cryogenic dielectric. The material is used in "oven bags" which is a heat-resistant polyamide (nylon) used in cooking (produced by ; this value is approximately 46kVmm higher than PPLP™. Comparison of the mechanical properties of PA and PPLP™ indicates that PA66 has low storage and loss moduli than PPLP™. It is concluded that PA66 may be a good candidate for cryogenic applications. Finally, a summary of dielectric properties of some of the commercial tape insulation materials and various polymers is also provided.

  6. Thermoelectric Generators used as Cryogenic Heat Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Ordonez, C. A.

    1997-03-01

    A future experiment is being planned at the University of North Texas to design, build, and test a cryogenic heat engine(C. A. Ordonez, Am. J. Phys. 64), 479 (1996). suitable as an electric-vehicle power system. The power system shall then be installed in a demonstration vehicle. This will be a next-generation vehicle following the current project described in the accompanying poster, ``Experimental Car Which Uses Liquid Nitrogen as Its Fuel" by M. E. Parker et al. The cryogenic heat engine electric vehicle power system will incorporate both a thermoelectric generator and an ambient-temperature turbine or pneumatic-motor/generator. The thermoelectric generator shall use liquid nitrogen (under pressure) as its cold reservoir. Energy is produced with the thermoelectric generator by using the liquid/gas phase change to absorb heat. At the present time a study is being carried out to determine the efficiency of thermoelectric devices which are used as cryogenic heat engines. Initial data is being taken using frozen H_2O and CO2 as cold reservoirs. The results of the study shall be presented.

  7. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway Lamb, I. D.; Colless, J. I.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Pauka, S. J.; Waddy, S. J.; Frechtling, M. K.; Reilly, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  8. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conway Lamb, I D; Colless, J I; Hornibrook, J M; Pauka, S J; Waddy, S J; Frechtling, M K; Reilly, D J

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications. PMID:26827335

  9. Cryogenic 3D printing for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Michal; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new cryogenic 3D printing technology for freezing hydrogels, with a potential impact to tissue engineering. We show that complex frozen hydrogel structures can be generated when the 3D object is printed immersed in a liquid coolant (liquid nitrogen), whose upper surface is maintained at the same level as the highest deposited layer of the object. This novel approach ensures that the process of freezing is controlled precisely, and that already printed frozen layers remain at a constant temperature. We describe the device and present results which illustrate the potential of the new technology. PMID:26548335

  10. Optomechanics and thermometry of cryogenic silica microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A. J. R.; Hauer, B. D.; Rojas, X.; Kim, P. H.; Popowich, G. G.; Davis, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of silica optomechanical resonators, known as bottle resonators, passively cooled in a cryogenic environment. These devices possess a suite of properties that make them advantageous for preparation and measurement in the mechanical ground state, including high mechanical frequency, high optical and mechanical quality factors, and optomechanical sideband resolution. Performing thermometry of the mechanical motion, we find that the optical and mechanical modes demonstrate quantitatively similar laser-induced heating, limiting the lowest average phonon occupation observed to just ˜1500 . Thermalization to the 9 mK thermal bath would facilitate quantum measurements on these promising nanogram-scale mechanical resonators.

  11. Insight into clogging of micromachined cryogenic coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerou, P. P. P. M.; ter Brake, H. J. M.; Holland, H. J.; Burger, J. F.; Rogalla, H.

    2007-02-01

    Cryogenic microcoolers can be used to cool small electronic devices to improve their performance. The authors present a micro-cold-stage of only 0.05cm3 that cools to 96K, applying Joule-Thomson expansion in a 300nm high flow restriction. Critical in such a microcooler is the deposition of water molecules that migrate to the restriction and block the flow. Because the microcooler is made of glass the authors had the unique opportunity to monitor this phenomenon and combine this visualization with experimental data. This provides significant insight in the way this clogging develops and opens possibilities to realize stable operation.

  12. Kodak AMSD Cryogenic Test Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary; Hammon, John; Barrett, David; Russell, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NGST will be an IR based optical system that will operate at cryogenic temperatures. As part of the AMSD program, Kodak must demonstrate the ability of our system to perform at these very cold temperatures. Kodak will discuss the test approach that will be used for cryogenic testing at MSFC's XRCF.

  13. Spacelab cryogenic propellant management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Spacelab cryogen management experiment was performed to demonstrate toe desirability and feasibility of subcritical cryogenic fluid orbital storage and supply. A description of the experimental apparatus, definition of supporting requirements, procedures, data analysis, and a cost estimate are included.

  14. Vibration dampers for cryogenic turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Olan, Emmanuel; Ibrahim, Azman Syed; Kascak, Albert F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of effective and reliable minimum-weight and minimum-envelope vibration dampers for cryogenic turbines. To meet this objective, a high speed test rig was designed and fabricated, which is currently used to test a curved beam type damper. The operation, capacity, structural characteristics, measurement system, and safety features of the cryogenic damper test rig are discussed.

  15. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  16. The Vulcain cryogenic engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastal, J.; Barton, J. R. L.

    The Ariane 5 was developed for the purpose of serving as the next generation Ariane launcher. The Ariane 5 main stage is powered by the Vulcain cryogenic engine. The engine operation, its main technical characteristics, and its development activities are described. The features present due to the use of liquid oxygen and, especially, liquid hydrogen are emphasized: start up procedures; ignition of the combustion; materials; mastering liquid hydrogen leakages; and safety studies. A brief development status is given. 440 engines tests and more than 100,000 seconds are planned before the end of the development to ensure reliability and safety.

  17. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D.; Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F.

    2014-01-29

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  18. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  19. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  20. Cryogenic insulation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhard, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Multilayer insulations for long term cryogenic storage are described. The development effort resulted in an insulation concept using lightweight radiation shields, separated by low conductive Dacron fiber tufts. The insulation is usually referred to as Superfloc. The fiber tufts are arranged in a triangular pattern and stand about .040 in. above the radiation shield base. Thermal and structural evaluation of Superfloc indicated that this material is a strong candidate for the development of high performance thermal protection systems because of its high strength, purge gas evacuation capability during boost, its density control and easy application to a tank.

  1. Cryogenic Propellant Scavenging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, B.; Kemp, N. J.; Daney, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer model that has been developed for assessing the feasibility of low g cryogen propellant scavenging from the space shuttle External Tank (ET) is given. Either pump-assisted or pressure-induced propellant transfer may be selected. The program will accept a wide range of input variables, including the fuel to be transferred (LOX or LH2), heat leaks, tank temperatures, and piping and equipment specifications. The model has been parametrically analyzed to determine initial design specification for the system.

  2. The SNS Cryogenic Control System: Experiences in Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    W.H. Strong; P.A. Gurd; J.D. Creel; B.S. Bevins

    2001-11-01

    The cryogenic system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed by Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) personnel and is based on the existing JLab facility. Our task is to use the JLab control system design [2] as much as practical while remaining consistent with SNS control system standards. Some aspects of the systems are very similar, including equipment to be controlled, the need for PID loops and automatic sequences,and the use of EPICS. There are differences in device naming, system hardware, and software tools. The cryogenic system is the first SNS system to be developed using SNS standards. This paper reports on our experiences in integrating the new and the old.

  3. Commissioning of the cryogenics of the LHC long straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; Darve, C.; Ferlin, G.; Millet, F.; Parente, C.; Rabehl, R.; Soubiran, M.; van Weelderen, R.; Wagner, U.; /CERN

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

  4. Electromechanical Materials for Cryogenic Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidinger, Peter; Pilgrim, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    Electromechanical materials can be used in smart sensor and actuator devices. Yet none performing at low temperatures are available. To meet this need, Pb((MgNi)(1/3)Ta(2/3))03 was synthesized as an electrostrictive ceramic for applications in cryogenic environments. Employing the columbite precursor route, samples with 0% to 100% Ni substitution for Mg were prepared, but only samples with Ni-substitutions less than or equal to 20% yielded primarily the desired perovskite phase. For these compositions the temperature of highest permittivity decreased linearly with increasing Ni content to yield a minimum value of -124 C for 20% Ni-substitution. This composition showed good relaxor dielectric behavior with a maximum relative permittivity of 5890 at 1 kHz. Additionally, in samples with excess MgO, the magnitude of permittivity doubled. In this effort, Pb((MgNi)(1/3)Ta(2/3))03 (PMNiTa) was fabricated to lower its transition temperature by substituting Ni for Mg successively.

  5. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  6. Cryogenic measurements of a digital pixel readout integrated circuit for LWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Atia; Yazici, Melik; Kayahan, Huseyin; Ceylan, Omer; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents and discusses the cryogenic temperature (77K) measurement results of a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) for a 32x32 long wavelength infrared pixel sensor array designed in 90nm CMOS process. The chip achieves a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 58dB with a charge handling capacity of 2.03Ge- at cryogenic temperature with 1.3mW of power dissipation. The performance of the readout is discussed in terms of power dissipation, charge handling capacity and SNR considering the fact that the process library models are not optimized for cryogenic temperature operation of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) devices. These results provide an insight to foresee the design confrontations due to non-optimized device models for cryogenic temperatures particularly for short channel devices

  7. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  8. Cryogenics maintenance strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzat, Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is an interferometer composed of 66 independent systems, with specific maintenance requirements for each subsystem. To optimize the observation time and reduce downtime maintenance, requirements are very demanding. One subsystem with high maintenance efforts is cryogenics and vacuum. To organize the maintenance, the Cryogenic and Vacuum department is using and implementing different tools. These are monitoring and problem reporting systems and CMMS. This leads to different maintenance approaches: Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance. In order to coordinate activities with other departments the preventive maintenance schedule is kept as flexible as systems allow. To cope with unavoidable failures, the team has to be prepared to work under any condition with the spares on time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) will help to manage inventory control for reliable spare part handling, the correct record of work orders and traceability of maintenance activities. For an optimized approach the department is currently evaluating where preventive or condition based maintenance applies to comply with the individual system demand. Considering the change from maintenance contracts to in-house maintenance will help to minimize costs and increase availability of parts. Due to increased number of system and tasks the cryo team needs to grow. Training of all staff members is mandatory, in depth knowledge must be built up by doing complex maintenance activities in the Cryo group, use of advanced computerized metrology systems.

  9. Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dresar, N. T.; Siegwarth, J. D.

    2004-06-01

    The transient behavior of a small-scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near-horizontal tube. The tube diameter was 1 cm and the overall length was 4.4 m. The apparatus was equipped with view-ports in the near-horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns. Wall temperatures were measured at various locations along the length of the transfer line. Each test was conducted at a constant liquid volumetric flowrate at the transfer line inlet until saturation temperatures were obtained throughout the system. Liquid flowrate was varied by more than two orders of magnitude and resulted in chilldown times ranging from a few minutes to several hours. An optimum flowrate exists that minimizes liquid consumption during the chilldown process. At higher flowrates, there is insufficient time for heat transfer from the liquid to the wall and inefficiencies result from the greater amount of incompletely vaporized liquid passing through the system. At lower flowrates, chilldown time and total ambient heat leak into the system increase, which raises liquid consumption. The experimental values of liquid consumption are compared to analytical estimates. At low flowrates, the data compares favorably to a minimum consumption model while at high flowrates the maximum consumption model overpredicts hydrogen consumption and underpredicts nitrogen consumption.

  10. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Geynisman et al.

    2003-09-15

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider, a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon stop prototype.

  11. CONE - An STS-based cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. S.; Vento, D. M.; Hanna, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the CONE program is presented which includes a definition of the technology addressed by CONE and a baseline experiment set, a description of the experimental and support subsystems, interface requirements between the STS and the experiment carrier (Hitchhiker M), and the reusability and expansion capacity for additional experiment flights. CONE evaluates three primary technologies: the active thermodynamic vent system, the passive thermodynamic vent system, and liquid acquisition device performance. The cryogenic fluid management technology database that the system offers will allow for efficient subcritical cryogenic system designs for operation in a low-gravity environment. This system maximizes the balance between existing component technology and the need for the development of a cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) test bed to investigate and demonstrate methods of storage and handling arenas.

  12. Cryogenic distribution for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Arenius, Dana; Fila, Adam; Geutschow, P.; Laumer, Helmut; Johnson, Matt; Waltz, Cory S.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2012-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new National User Facility for nuclear science funded by the Department of Energy Office of Science and operated by Michigan State University. The FRIB accelerator linac consists of superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) cavities operating at 2 K and SC magnets operating at 4.5 K all cooled by a large scale cryogenic refrigeration system. A major subsystem of the cryogenic system will be the distribution system whose primary components will include a distribution box, the transfer lines and the interconnect valve boxes at each cryogenic device. An overview of the conceptual design of the distribution system including engineering details, capabilities and schedule is described.

  13. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  14. Design and Construction of Cryogenic Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghun; Underwood, Mitchell; Mason, David; Jayich, Andrew; Kashkanova, Anya; Harris, Jack

    2013-03-01

    One key challenge to observing quantum phenomena in a macroscopic mechanical oscillator is reaching its ground state. To achieve the low temperatures required for this, we utilize resolved sideband laser cooling of a few hundred kHz mechanical oscillator with high mechanical Q (a Si3N4 membrane) inside a high finesse optical cavity, in addition to cryogenically reducing the bath temperature. Realizing high Q and high finesse cavity optomechanical devices in a cryogenic environment requires overcoming a number of challenges. In this talk, we describe the design and construction of such a device working at a bath temperature of 300 mK (in a 3He refrigerator) and suited for operation at lower temperatures (in a dilution refrigerator). The design incorporates in-situ commercial piezo actuators (manufactured by Janssen Precision Engineering) to couple externally prepared laser light into the cold optical cavity. The design also incorporates filtering cavities to suppress classical laser noise, and acoustic and seismic isolation of the experiment.

  15. Cryogenic Cooling for Myriad Applications-A STAR Is Born

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenics, the science of generating extremely low temperatures, has wide applicability throughout NASA. The Agency employs cryogenics for rocket propulsion, high-pressure gas supply, breathable air in space, life support equipment, electricity, water, food preservation and packaging, medicine, imaging devices, and electronics. Cryogenic liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen systems are also replacing solid rocket motor propulsion systems in most of the proposed launch systems, a reversion to old-style liquid propellants. In the late 1980s, NASA wanted a compact linear alternator/motor with reduced size and mass, as well as high efficiency, that had unlimited service life for use in a thermally driven power generator for space power applications. Prior development work with free-piston Stirling converters (a Stirling engine integrated with a linear actuator that produces electrical power output) had shown the promise of that technology for high-power space applications. A dual use for terrestrial applications exists for compact Stirling converters for onsite combined heat and power units. The Stirling cycle is also usable in reverse as a refrigeration cycle suitable for cryogenic cooling, so this Stirling converter work promised double benefits as well as dual uses. The uses for cryogenic coolers within NASA abound; commercial applications are similarly wide-ranging, from cooling liquid oxygen and nitrogen, to cryobiology and bio-storage, cryosurgery, instrument and detector cooling, semiconductor manufacturing, and support service for cooled superconducting power systems.

  16. Evaluation of cryogenic power conditioning subsystems for electric propulsion spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Das, R.S.L.; Krauthamer, S.; Frisbee, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    The power requirement of vehicles designed to transport cargo supporting a piloted expedition to Mars is in the range of megawatts. Therefore, it is imperative that the megawatt-class power processing unit designed for high-power nuclear electric propulsion vehicles using turboalternators and advanced magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters should be such that the overall system efficiency is as high as possible with minimum system specific mass. This paper examines the use of cryogenic power conditioning subsystems to achieve that goal since they have very high efficiency. However, in the past, cryogenic power conditioning subsystems have shown complexity of design and implementation and were costly and somewhat uncertain. With recent advances in materials, devices used in power conversion and cooling methods, further improvements in efficiency and specific mass are realizable. Cryogenically cooled MOSFETs and MCTs are considered for power conversion and two configurations have been examined. It is found that a system efficiency of 92.67% and specific mass of 9.99 kg/kW{sub e} can be realized using MOSFET-based cryogenic power conditioning systems for electric propulsion spacecraft using MPD thrusters. With cryogenically cooled MCTs, the specific mass decreases to 9.77 kg/kW{sub e}, but the efficiency also decreases to 90.94%.

  17. Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Anthony G.

    Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /? where ? is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency stabilities in the range of a few times 10-15 to a few times 10-16. In this contribution we review only liquid-helium-cooled secondary frequency standards, such as those just mentioned, which have attained frequency stabilities of 10-14 or better.

  18. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  19. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  20. Cryogenic magnetic shielding for SCUBA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollister, Matthew; McGregor, Helen; Woodcraft, Adam; Bintley, Dan; MacIntosh, Michael; Holland, Wayne

    2008-07-01

    SCUBA-2 is a new wide-field submillimeter continuum instrument being commissioned on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. SCUBA-2 uses large-scale arrays of superconducting bolometers with SQUID- (superconducting quantum interference device) based multiplexing and amplification. The sensitivity of the devices that compose the detector arrays to magnetic fields is such that magnetic shielding, consisting of superconducting and high-permeability materials, was fitted to the detector enclosure at 1 K to reduce the magnetic field strength at the focal plane. This paper describes the design and construction of the cryogenic shielding, and presents verification measurements. The shielding performance was found to meet the instrument requirements, and compared well to the modelled results.

  1. Cryogenic insulation strength and bond tester

    SciTech Connect

    Schuerer, P. H.; Ehl, J. H.; Prasthofer, W. P.

    1985-10-22

    A method and apparatus for testing the tensile strength and bonding strength of sprayed-on foam insulation attached to metal cryogenic fuel tanks. A circular cutter is used to cut the insulation down to the surface of the metal tank to form plugs of the insulation for testing ''in situ'' on the tank. The apparatus comprises an electro-mechanical pulling device powered by a belt battery pack. The pulling device comprises a motor driving a mechanical pulling structure comprising a horizontal shaft connected to two bell cranks which are connected to a central member. When the lower end of member is attached to fitting, which in turn is bonded to plug, a pulling force is exerted on plug sufficient to rupture it. The force necessary to rupture the plug or pull it loose is displayed as a digital read-out on screen.

  2. Cryogenic insulation strength and bond tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerer, P. H.; Ehl, J. H.; Prasthofer, W. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing the tensile strength and bonding strength of sprayed-on foam insulation attached to metal cryogenic fuel tanks is described. A circular cutter is used to cut the insulation down to the surface of the metal tank to form plugs of the insulation for testing in situ on the tank. The apparatus comprises an electromechanical pulling device powered by a belt battery pack. The pulling device comprises a motor driving a mechanical pulling structure comprising a horizontal shaft connected to two bell cracks which are connected to a central member. When the lower end of member is attached to a fitting, which in turn is bonded to a plug, a pulling force is exerted on the plug sufficient to rupture it. The force necessary to rupture the plug or pull it loose is displayed as a digital read-out.

  3. Cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeown, D.; Sonnenschein, G.; Fox, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A radiatively cooled Cryogenic Quartz Crystal Microbalance designed to monitor highly volatile contaminants on the shuttle is described. Measurements are made with two 15-MHz microbalances having removable, optically polished sensors mounted in a radiant cooler. One sensor operates below the freezing point of water and monitors contamination including that of water vapor. The second sensor is heated and monitors the contamination background. It provides a reference from which the density of the water vapor cloud enveloping the shuttle is determined. The design incorporates a low-power dissipation oscillator, heaters for ice removal, and a method for attaching second-surface mirrors to the radiator employing an indium type solder instead of a room temperature vulcanizer.

  4. Nanodielectrics for Cryogenic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O; More, Karren; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Woodward, Jonathan; Rondinone, Adam Justin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the recent advances in nanodielectrics that were developed and tested for cryogenic dielectric applications. The systems studied are composed of nanometer size particles. Particles were produced using either an ex-situ or in-situ technique. It is observed that there are clear differences in the structural properties of materials produced using these two approaches. Either no significant degradation or improvement in the electrical insulation properties were observed for ex-situ nano-particle samples processed with an ultrasonic processor and in-situ nano-particle samples. Nanodielectrics have the potential to be tailored with better thermal and mechanical properties without losing their electrical insulation characteristics.

  5. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  6. Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

    1980-09-30

    A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

  7. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  8. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

    1983-01-04

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

  9. LUX Cryogenics and Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Adam

    2012-10-01

    LUX is a new dark matter direct detection experiment being carried out at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the renewed Homestake mine in Lead, SD. The detector's large size supports effective internal shielding from natural radioactivity of the surrounding materials and environment. The LUX detector consists of a cylindrical vessel containing 350 kg of liquid xenon (LXe) cooled down and maintained at 175-K operating temperature using a novel cryogenic system. We report the efficiency of our thermosyphon-based cooling system, as well as the efficiency of a unique internal heat exchanger with standard gas phase purification using a heated getter, which allows for very high flow purification without requiring large cooling power. Such systems are required for multi-ton scale up.

  10. A planar Al-Si Schottky barrier metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor operated at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purches, W. E.; Rossi, A.; Zhao, R.; Kafanov, S.; Duty, T. L.; Dzurak, A. S.; Rogge, S.; Tettamanzi, G. C.

    2015-08-01

    Schottky Barrier-MOSFET technology offers intriguing possibilities for cryogenic nano-scale devices, such as Si quantum devices and superconducting devices. We present experimental results on a device architecture where the gate electrode is self-aligned with the device channel and overlaps the source and drain electrodes. This facilitates a sub-5 nm gap between the source/drain and channel, and no spacers are required. At cryogenic temperatures, such devices function as p-MOS Tunnel FETs, as determined by the Schottky barrier at the Al-Si interface, and as a further advantage, fabrication processes are compatible with both CMOS and superconducting logic technology.

  11. Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

  12. Cryogenic storage tank thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric study discusses relationship between cryogenic boil-off and factors such as tank size, insulation thickness and performance, structural-support heat leaks and use of vapor-cooled shields. Data presented as series of nomographs and curves.

  13. Adhesive for cryogenic temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    Adhesive, which bonds a metal liner to a filament wound composite structure used for cryogenic pressure vessels, prevents the metal liner from buckling under depressurization. The adhesive consists of adducts of urethane and epoxy resins.

  14. Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment: Results overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, T.; Buchko, M.; Brennan, P.; Bello, M.; Stoyanof, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the flight results of the Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment (CRYOTP), which was a Hitchhiker based experiment that flew on the space shuttle Columbia in March of 1994 (STS-62). CRYOTP tested two new technologies for advanced cryogenic thermal control; the Space Heat Pipe (SHP), which was a constant conductance cryogenic heat pipe, and the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU), which was a cryogenic phase-change thermal storage device. These two devices were tested independently during the mission. Analysis of the flight data indicated that the SHP was unable to start in either of two attempts, for reasons related to the fluid charge, parasitic heat leaks, and cryocooler capacity. The BETSU test article was successfully operated with more than 250 hours of on-orbit testing including several cooldown cycles and 56 freeze/thaw cycles. Some degradation was observed with the five tactical cryocoolers used as thermal sinks, and one of the cryocoolers failed completely after 331 hours of operation. Post-flight analysis indicated that this problem was most likely due to failure of an electrical controller internal to the unit.

  15. The RHIC cryogenic control system

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, Y.; Sondericker, J.

    1993-08-01

    A cryogenic process control system for the RHIC Project is discussed. It is independent of the main RHIC Control System, consisting of an upgrade of the existing 24.8 Kw helium refrigerator control section with the addition of a ring control section that regulates and monitors all cryogenic signals in the RHIC tunnel. The system is fully automated, which can run without the continuous presence of operators.

  16. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  17. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  18. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  19. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  20. Superconducting thermometer for cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, F. A.

    1977-01-01

    Digital electronic device uses superconducting filaments as sensors. Simple solid-state circuitry combined with filaments comprise highly-reliable temperature monitor. Device has ability to track very fast thermal transients and "on/off" output is adaptable to remote sensing and telemetry.

  1. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  2. Development of a Flat-plate Cryogenic Oscillating Heat Pipe for Improving HTS Magnet Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Mito, T.; Yanagi, N.; Tamura, H.

    A new method of including cryogenic oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) in the HTS coil windings as a thermal transport device has been studied. In this work, two type of OHPs are tested in low temperature. Employed working fluids are H2, Ne, N2. We have attained high performance thermal property using a bent-pipe cryogenic OHP as a prototype. Obtained effective conductivities have reached to 46000 W/m K. Then a flat-plate cryogenic OHP has been developed, that is suitable for imbedding in magnet windings. Preliminary experiments have been conducted and the result has been promising.

  3. R&D ERL: Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL cryogenic system will supply cooling to a super-conducting RF (SCRF) gun and the 5-cell super-conducting RF cavity system that need to be held cold at 2K. The engineering of the cavity cryomodules were carried out by AES in collaboration with BNL. The 2K superfluid bath is produced by pumping on the bath using a sub-atmospheric warm compression system. The cryogenic system makes use of mainly existing equipment relocated from other facilities: a 300W 4.5K coldbox, an 45 g/s screw compressor, a 3800 liter liquid helium storage dewar, a 170 m{sup 3} warm gas storage tank, and a 40,000 liter vertical low pressure liquid nitrogen storage dewar. An existing wet expander obtained from another facility has been added to increase the plant capacity. In order to deliver the required 3 to 4 bar helium to the cryomodules while using up stored liquid capacity at low pressure, a new subcooler will be installed to function as the capacity transfer device. A 2K to 4K recovery heat exchanger is also implemented for each cryomodule to recover refrigeration below 4K, thus maximizing 2K cooling capacity with the given sub-atmospheric pump. No 4K-300K refrigeration recovery is implemented at this time of the returning sub-atmospheric cold vapor, hence the 2K load appears as a liquefaction1 load on the cryogenic plant. A separate LN2 cooling loop supplies liquid nitrogen to the superconducting gun's cathode tip.

  4. Polyamide 66 as a Cryogenic Dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Messman, Jamie M; Aytug, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, \\eg, cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, \\etc, with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ conventional insulation materials to these new systems. However, at low temperatures, thermal contraction and loss of mechanical strength in many materials make them unsuitable for superconducting power applications. In this paper, a widely used commercial material was characterized as a potential cryogenic dielectric. The material is used in ``oven bag'' a heat-resistant polyamide (nylon) used in cooking (produced by Reynolds\\textregistered, Richmond, VA, USA). It is first characterized by Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction techniques and determined to be composed of polyamide 66 (PA66) polymer. Secondly the complex dielectric permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength of the PA66 films are investigated. The dielectric data are then compared with data reported in the literature. A comparison of dielectric strength with a widely used high-temperature superconductor electrical insulation material, polypropylene-laminated paper (PPLP\\texttrademark\\ a product of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Japan), is provided. It is observed that the statistical analysis of the PA66 films yields 1\\% failure probability at $127\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$; this value is approximately $46\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$ higher than PPLP\\texttrademark. It is concluded that PA66 may be a good candidate for cryogenic applications. Finally, a summary of dielectric properties of some of the commercial tape insulation materials and various polymers is also provided.

  5. Current measurement system utilizing cryogenic techniques for the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Murayama, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sakuraba, T. ); Shiota, F. )

    1989-04-01

    A series of systems composed of cryogenic devices such as a Josephson potentiometer and a cryogenic current comparator has been proposed and developed to precisely measure a current with any value up to 1 A. These systems will be used to measure the injected electrical energy with an uncertainty of the order of 0.01 ppm or less in the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum by superconducting magnetic levitation. Some preliminary experiments are described.

  6. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-09

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  7. Experimental Observations on Material Damping at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie; Shido, Lillian; Leland, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a unique experimental facility designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The test facility removes other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device. Damping data reported herein are obtained for materials (Aluminum, Aluminum/Terbium/Dysprosium, Titanium, Composites) vibrating in free-free bending modes with low strain levels (< 10(exp -6) ppm). The fundamental frequencies of material samples are ranged from 14 to 202 Hz. To provide the most beneficial data relevant to TPF-like precision optical space missions, the damping data are collected from room temperatures (around 293 K) to cryogenic temperatures (below 40 K) at unevenly-spaced intervals. More data points are collected over any region of interest. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic damping can be as low as 10(exp -4) %, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. However, Titanium 15-3-3-3 shows a remarkable increase in damping at cryogenic temperatures. It demonstrates over one order of magnitude increase in damping in comparison to Aluminum 6061-T6. Given its other properties (e.g., good stiffness and low conductivity) this may prove itself to be a good candidate for the application on TPF. At room temperatures, the test data are correlated well with the damping predicted by the Zener theory. However, large discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the Zener theory and the test data are observed.

  8. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  9. Cryogenic Neutron Spectrometer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Niedermayr, T; Hau, I D; Friedrich, S; Burger, A; Roy, U N; Bell, Z W

    2006-03-08

    Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors operating at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K have been developed for the last two decades, driven mostly by the need for ultra-high energy resolution (<0.1%) in X-ray astrophysics and dark matter searches [1]. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed different cryogenic detector technologies for applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to nuclear science and non-proliferation. In particular, we have adapted cryogenic detector technologies for ultra-high energy resolution gamma-spectroscopy [2] and, more recently, fast-neutron spectroscopy [3]. Microcalorimeters are essentially ultra-sensitive thermometers that measure the energy of the radiation from the increase in temperature upon absorption. They consist of a sensitive superconducting thermometer operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state, where its resistance changes very rapidly with temperature such that even the minute energies deposited by single radiation quanta are sufficient to be detectable with high precision. The energy resolution of microcalorimeters is fundamentally limited by thermal fluctuations to {Delta}E{sub FWHM} {approx} 2.355 (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C{sub abs}){sup 1/2}, and thus allows an energy below 1 keV for neutron spectrometers for an operating temperature of T {approx} 0.1 K . The {Delta}E{sub FWHM} does not depend on the energy of the incident photon or particle. This expression is equivalent to the familiar (F{var_epsilon}E{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} considering that an absorber at temperature T contains a total energy C{sub abs}T, and the associated fluctuation are due to variations in uncorrelated (F=1) phonons ({var_epsilon} = k{sub B}T) dominated by the background energy C{sub abs}T >> E{gamma}. The rationale behind developing a cryogenic neutron spectrometer is the very high energy resolution combined with the high efficiency. Additionally, the response function is simple and the instrument is transportable. We are currently developing a fast neutron spectrometer with 0.1% energy resolution at 1 MeV neutron energy with an efficiency of > 1%. Our fast-neutron spectrometers use boron-based and {sup 6}LiF absorber crystals with Mo/Cu thermistors readout. They have achieved an energy resolution of 5.5 keV FWHM for 2.79 MeV deposited in {sup 10}B by thermal neutron capture (fig. 1), and 46 keV FWHM for fast (MeV) neutrons absorbed in {sup 6}LiF (fig. 2). Since the energy resolution does not depend on the neutron energy, we expect a similar energy resolution for MeV neutron energies. The response function is given simply by the cross section of the capture reaction, offset from zero by the Q-value of the capture reaction. This allows straightforward discrimination against gamma-events, most of which deposit less that Q{sub 6Li} = 4.79 MeV in the {sup 6}LiF absorber, and easy deconvolution of the neutron spectrum, since there is only a single capture reaction in {sup 6}Li and the spectrum is not affected by edge effects or geometric broadening. The current challenge for microcalorimeters is their necessarily small effective pixel area, {approx}1cm{sup 3} for neutron spectrometer pixels, and their slow decay time, {approx}10ms for neutron spectrometers. The pixel size is limited by the requirement for low Cabs for high energy resolution; the decay time is set by the intrinsically weak thermal coupling between materials at low temperatures. Both issues can be addressed by fabricating large detector arrays. This will enable high-precision neutron spectrometry with high statistics, such as simulated for Pu analysis in fig 3.

  10. Cryogenic refrigeration. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and applications of cryogenic refrigeration technology. Citations discuss performance evaluations of specific systems, equipment descriptions, the cooling of instrumentation, superconducting devices, reactor devices, and applications in satellites and spaceborne vehicles. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Cryogenic refrigeration. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and applications of cryogenic refrigeration technology. Citations discuss performance evaluations of specific systems, equipment descriptions, the cooling of instrumentation, superconducting devices, reactor devices, and applications in satellites and spaceborne vehicles. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Cryogenic refrigeration. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and applications of cryogenic refrigeration technology. Citations discuss performance evaluations of specific systems, equipment descriptions, the cooling of instrumentation, superconducting devices, reactor devices, and applications in satellites and spaceborne vehicles. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Cryogenic focussing, ohmically heated on-column trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springston, Stephen R.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is described for depositing a conductive layer of gold on the exterior of a fused-silica capillary used in gas chromatography. By subjecting a section of the column near the inlet to a thermal cycle of cryogenic cooling and ohmic heating, volatile samples are concentrated and subsequently injected. The performance of this trap as a chromatographic injector is demonstrated. Several additional applications are suggested and the unique properties of this device are discussed.

  14. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  15. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, T.J.

    1983-03-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of crygenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  16. Commissioning of the cryogenic safety test facility PICARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, C.; Schön, H.; Stamm, M.; Grohmann, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sizing of cryogenic safety relief devices requires detailed knowledge on the evolution of the pressure increase in cryostats following hazardous incidents such as the venting of the insulating vacuum with atmospheric air. Based on typical design and operating conditions in liquid helium cryostats, the new test facility PICARD, which stands for Pressure Increase in Cryostats and Analysis of Relief Devices, has been constructed. The vacuum-insulated test stand has a cryogenic liquid volume of 100 liters and a nominal design pressure of 16 bar(g). This allows a broad range of experimental conditions with cryogenic fluids. In case of helium, mass flow rates through safety valves and rupture disks up to about 4kg/s can be measured. Beside flow rate measurements under various conditions (venting diameter, insulation, working fluid, liquid level, set pressure), the test stand will be used for studies on the impact of two-phase flow and for the measurement of flow coefficients of safety devices at low temperature. This paper describes the operating range, layout and instrumentation of the test stand and presents the status of the commissioning phase.

  17. Liquid Cryogens, vol 1 Theory and Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Experts in the field contribute detailed discussions of the fundamentals of refrigeration, liquefaction, storage and handling of cryogenic fluids in these two volumes. Emphasis is placed on helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and liquified natural gas (LNG). New and updated information resulting from the great expansion of cryogenic technology and its applications is presented. Theories for the safe use and handling of cryogens begin this volume. Liquefaction equipment and refrigeration techniques are described. Transfer systems, storage and transport of cryogenic fluids are also examined.

  18. Resistance of Metallic Screens in a Cryogenic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Alexander; Stief, Malte

    The propellant behaviour in cryogenic upper stages tanks imposes challenging requirements on the design, especially for future upper stages designed for multiple restarts and long ballistic flight phases. The main challenge is the supply of the propellants to the feed system prior to the engine reignition. During the entire mission the engine requires a gaseous and bubble free liquid supply of propellant at the required thermodynamic conditions. The current research focus is to prepare the initial steps for the maturation of the Propellant Management Device (PMD) technology for cryogenic tank systems. Main components of such a PMD are metallic screens. The metallic screens are used as barrier for any gas bubbles within the fluid stream approaching the space craft engines. The screen characteristics are of fundamental importance for the PMD and feed system design. The paper presents a summary on available experimental screen data with regard to the flow resistance and gives a comparison with theoretical and empirical predictions found in literature. The lack on comparable data with regard to space craft applications and the need on further research with cryogenic flows is demonstrated. The DLR Institute of Space Systems is preparing various cryogenic tests to collect the desired information about the flow properties of such metallic screens. The planned test setup and the foreseen experiments will be presented.

  19. Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

  20. The application of the cryogenic system on the HTS power cable circuit in actual grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hun; Lee, Su-Kil; Jang, Hyun-Man; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Keun-Tae; Choi, Chang-Youl; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi; Kim, Han-Joong; Hwang, Si-Dole; Yang, Hyung-Suk; Sohn, Song-Ho; Lim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    The 22.9 kV/50 MVA AC HTS power cable system consisted of power cable with 410 m length and cryogenic system has been manufactured by LS Cable & System and installed in Icheon substation of KEPCO grid in the end of 2010. High temperature superconductor only appears the superconductivity at the constant temperate range. So in order to maintain the superconductivity, the cryogenic system is needed. The cryogenic system, the open-loop type, is consisted of the Pressure Control System (PCS), Gas/liquid separator, Circulation Pump, Decompression unit, Filter and so on. Decompression unit is a device that keeps the sub-cooled nitrogen by way of the latent heat of evaporation and includes the heat exchanger. The effectiveness-NTU method is used for the design of the heat exchanger. After installation of the cryogenic system on the site, the test of the cooling capacity of the cryogenic system and commissioning tests were performed. During the grid operation of the HTS power cable system, no major problems have been encountered to this point. The cryogenic system has been operated sufficiently to maintain a stable of the HTS power cable system. This paper will summarize the design of the cryogenic system and the results of the grid operation.

  1. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H.

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  2. Recent achievements with a cryogenic ultra-lightweighted HB-Cesic mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Hofbauer, Peter; Devilliers, Christophe; Sodnik, Zoran; Robert, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    During the past two years, ECM, Germany, together with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO), Japan, developed a new carbon-fiber-reinforced SiC material, called HB-Cesic®, which possesses superior mechanical and thermal cryogenic properties compared to traditional Cesic®. This combination makes HB-Cesic® an excellent choice for large cryogenic mirrors, which will be required for future scientific space missions, such as SPICA and DARWIN. ESA contracted Thales Alenia Space (TAS), France, to design a super-lightweighted HB-Cesic® mirror with a diameter of 600 mm, isostatic fixations, and a special astigmatism compensation device (ACD) for mirror shape control. The mirror was manufactured by ECM, polished and coated by Société Européenne de Systèmes Optiques (SESO), France, and tested to cryogenic temperatures by TAS. The measured wave-front error at ambient and cryogenic temperatures demonstrated the excellent homogeneity of HB-Cesic® and TAS' expertise in mirror mounting. Furthermore, when thermally actuated, the ACD exhibited perfect control of the mirror shape. This success confirmed HB-Cesic®'s superior material properties and its applicability to future cryogenic space mirrors. In this paper we describe the design and fabrication process of this cryogenic mirror and give test results at ambient and cryogenic temperatures.

  3. Cryogenic Faraday isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A

    2010-05-26

    A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

  4. Cryogenic wind-tunnel technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The cryogenic concept and the advantages it offers with respect to achieving full scale Reynolds number in a moderate size tunnel at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure are described. Aspects which must be considered during the development of a facility that uses gaseous nitrogen as the test gas are examined. These include the properties of nitrogen, particularly at high pressure; isentropic expansion and normal shock flows in nitrogen; real gas ratios; and the problem of condensation. Sources of information on cryogenic technology are cited.

  5. Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

  6. A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

    2014-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

  7. Magnetic bearings for cryogenic turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannello, Victor; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic bearings offer a number of advantages over gas bearings for the support of rotors in cryogenic turboexpanders and compressors. Their performance is relatively independent of the temperature or pressure of the process gas for a large range of conditions. Active magnetic bearing systems that use capacitive sensors have been developed for high speed compressors for use in cryogenic refrigerators. Here, the development of a magnetic bearing system for a miniature ultra high speed compressor is discussed. The magnetic bearing has demonstrated stability at rotational speeds exceeding 250,000 rpm. This paper describes the important features of the magnetic bearing and presents test results demonstrating its performance characteristics.

  8. Programmable 2-D Addressable Cryogenic Aperture Masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, A. S.; Moseley, S. H.; Jhabvala, M.; Li, M.; Schwinger, D. S.; Silverberg, R. F.; Wesenberg, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a two-dimensional array of square microshutters (programmable aperture mask) for a multi-object spectrometer for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This device will provide random access selection of the areas in the field to be studied. The device is in essence a close packed array of square slits, each of which can be opened independently to select areas of the sky for detailed study.The device is produced using a 100-micron thick silicon wafer as a substrate with 0.5-micron thick silicon nitride shutters on top of it. Silicon nitride has been selected as the blade and flexure material because its stiffness allows thinner and lighter structures than single crystal Si, the chief alternative, and because of its ease of manufacture. The 100 micron silicon wafer is backetched in a high aspect ratio Deep Reactive Ion Etching (Deep RIE) to leave only a support grid for the shutters and the address electronics. The shutter actuation is done magnetically whereas addressing is electrostatic. 128x128 format microshutter arrays have been produced. Their operation has been demostarted on 32x32 subarrays. Good reliability of the fabrication process and good quality of the microshutters has been achieved. The mechanical behavior and optical performance of the fabricated arrays at cryogenic temperature are being studied.

  9. Status Of Sorption Cryogenic Refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews sorption refrigeration. Developed for cooling infrared detectors, cryogenic research, and other advanced applications, sorption refrigerators have few moving parts, little vibration, and lifetimes of 10 years or more. Describes types of sorption stages, multistage and hybrid refrigeration systems, power requirements, cooling capacities, and advantages and disadvantages of various stages and systems.

  10. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Dale H. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  11. Cryogenics Testbed Technology Focus Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Our mission is to bring together the mutual elements of research, industry, and training in the field of cryogenics to advance technology development for the spaceports of the future. Successful technology and productive collaboration comes from these three ingredients working together in a triangle of interaction.

  12. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  13. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M. C.; Bell, W. H.; Berglund, P.; de Boer, W.; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Viá, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenço, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T. O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V. G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, "resuscitate" when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the "Lazarus effect". The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors.

  14. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O.

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  15. Gravity Probe B cryogenic payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everitt, C. W. F.; Parmley, R.; Taber, M.; Bencze, W.; Burns, K.; Frank, D.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Mester, J.; Muhlfelder, B.; Murray, D.; Reynolds, G.; Till, W.; Vassar, R.

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of the Gravity Probe B cryogenic payload comprised of a unique Dewar and Probe. The design, fabrication, assembly, and ground and on-orbit performance will be discussed, culminating in a 17 month 9 day on-orbit liquid helium lifetime.

  16. JWST's cryogenic position metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitman, Tony L.; Hammond, Randolph P.; Orndorff, Joe; Hope, Stephen; Smee, Stephen A.; Scorse, Thomas; Havey, Keith A.

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will undergo a full system test in the cryogenic vacuum chamber A at the Johnson Spaceflight Center in order to verify the overall performance of the combined telescope and instrument suite. This will be the largest and most extensive cryogenic test ever undertaken. Early in the test system development, it was determined that precise position measurements of the overall hardware would enhance the test results. Various concepts were considered before selecting photogrammetry for this metrology. Photogrammetry has been used in space systems for decades, however cryogenic use combined with the size and the optical/thermal sensitivity of JWST creates a unique set of implementation challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST photogrammetric system and mitigation strategies for three key engineering design challenges: 1) the thermal design of the viewing windows to prevent excessive heat leak and stray light to the test article 2) cost effective motors and mechanisms to provide the angle diversity required, and 3) camera-flash life and reliability sufficient for inaccessible use during the number and duration of the cryogenic tests.

  17. Ames Research Center cryogenics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs describe the Ames Research Center's cryogenics program. Diagrams are given of a fluid management system, a centrifugal pump, a flow meter, a liquid helium test facility, an extra-vehicular activity coupler concept, a dewar support with passive orbital disconnect, a pulse tube refrigerator, a dilution refrigerator, and an adiabatic demagnetization cooler.

  18. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  19. Cryogenic MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinreb, S.; Gaier, T.; Fernandez, J.; Erickson, N.; Wielgus, J.

    2000-01-01

    Monolithic (MMIC) and discrete transistor (MIC) low noise amplifiers are compared on the basis of performance, cost, and reliability. The need for cryogenic LNA's for future large microwave arrays for radio astronomy is briefly discussed and data is presented on a prototype LNA for the 1 to 10 GZH range along with a very wideband LNA for the 1 to 60 GHz range.

  20. Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-03-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  1. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into the pump, and the pump was successfully operated meeting all expected operating parameters. Unique pump sub-assembly parts were designed and manufactured by the CTL using specialized materials determined to be superior for cryogenic thermal applications under the pump design conditions. This work is a proof-of-concept/proof-of-operation of the pump only. Other known internal design modifications to the pump should be accomplished for the long-term use of the pump. An upscaled version of this pump, which is under development and testing at the CTL, can be used either for current or future vehicle loading or for vehicle replenishment. Scaling of this pump can be easily accomplished.

  2. Structural Design and Analysis of a 150 kJ HTS SMES Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Peng; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Li, Laifeng; Yang, Huihui

    A 150 kJ high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) system is under manufacturing in China. This paper focuses on the structural design and analysis of the SMES cryogenic system. The cryogenic system is designed and fabricated to maintain the working temperature. The system includes a vacuum vessel, its thermal radiation shield, its supporting devices, conduction plates, and current leads. Two G-M cryocoolers are used for the system cooling, the main one is connected to the HTS coils and the other is connected to the thermal shield and the lower ends of the current leads. In this study, the 3D models of the SMES cryogenic system were created with CATIA, a 3D model design software, and the analysis of the SMES cryogenic system was done by ANSYS. The mechanical analysis results on the vacuum vessel, suspension devices and supporting devices are presented, particularly the analyses on suspenders and shelf supports are of vital importance since the finished SMES system should meet vehicle-mounted requirements in long time transport. The heat load and the temperature distribution of the thermal shield were analyzed. A cooling experiment of the cryogenic system was made and the thermal shield was cooled down to about 50 K.

  3. Fastener load tests and retention systems tests for cryogenic wind-tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A-286 stainless steel screws were tested to determine the tensile load capability and failure mode of various screw sizes and types at both cryogenic and room temperature. Additionally, five fastener retention systems were tested by using A-286 screws with specimens made from the primary metallic alloys that are currently used for cryogenic models. The locking system effectiveness was examined by simple no-load cycling to cryogenic temperatures (-275 F) as well as by dynamic and static loading at cryogenic temperatures. In general, most systems were found to be effective retention devices. There are some differences between the various devices with respect to ease of application, cleanup, and reuse. Results of tests at -275 F imply that the cold temperatures act to improve screw retention. The improved retention is probably the result of differential thermal contraction and/or increased friction (thread-binding effects). The data provided are useful in selecting screw sizes, types, and locking devices for model systems to be tested in cryogenic wind tunnels.

  4. Performance and behaviour of photomultiplier tubes at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Vignoli, C.

    2006-11-01

    Noble-gas liquids, such as xenon and argon, have been recently proposed as scintillators in some experiments dedicated to neutrino physics and dark matter research. These experiments need to use large-area high-sensitivity light detectors directly immersed in the liquid phase and operating at cryogenic temperature. We carried out a detailed investigation on the use of conventional and dedicated photomultiplier tubes in collaboration with two manufacturers: Electron Tubes Ltd. and Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Once verified the capability to withstand thermal shocks from room to cryogenic temperature, we studied the device characteristics in different temperature conditions. Good quantum efficiencies can be achieved with multialkali photocathodes or bialkali photocathodes on platinum under-coatings. Gain losses and an increase of the dark count rate at low temperature are also observed.

  5. Identification of vibration sources in pulse tube cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.

    2007-04-01

    As is known, a cold finger of a pulse tube cryogenic refrigerator does not contain moving mechanical components and, therefore, is traditionally thought of as producing low vibration and having extended lifespan. Because of these outstanding features, such cryogenic engines are especially attractive for use in a variety of vibration-sensitive instrumentation, such as infra-red imagers, scanning electron microscopes (SEM), superconductive quantum interference devices (SQUID), etc. However, even relatively low-level vibration produced by a cold tip of a pulse tube, resulting from oscillation of a gas pressure along with a vibration transmitted from a compressor through a metallic gas transfer tube, may sometimes appear to be excessive for the above vibration-sensitive applications. By making an extensive use of the finite element analysis supported by the full-scale experimentation, the authors are attempting to identify the sources of vibration occurring in a cold tip of a pulse tube.

  6. Reliability of Electronics for Cryogenic Space Applications Being Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    Many future NASA missions will require electronic parts and circuits that can operate reliably and efficiently in extreme temperature environments below typical device specification temperatures. These missions include the Mars Exploration Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Europa Orbiter, surface rovers, and deep-space probes. In addition to NASA, the aerospace and commercial sectors require cryogenic electronics in applications that include advanced satellites, military hardware, medical instrumentation, magnetic levitation, superconducting energy management and distribution, particle confinement and acceleration, and arctic missions. Besides surviving hostile space environments, electronics capable of low-temperature operation would enhance circuit performance, improve system reliability, extend lifetime, and reduce development and launch costs. In addition, cryogenic electronics are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature.

  7. Flight Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Kobel, Mark; Bugby, David; Kroliczek, Edward; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the flight test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5) which flew on the Space Shuttle STS-95 in October of 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight was the first in-space demonstration of the CCPL, a lightweight heat transport and thermal switching device for future integrated cryogenic bus systems. The CCPL-5 utilized nitrogen as the working fluid and operated between 80K and 110K. Flight results indicated excellent performance of the CCPL-5 under zero-G environment. The CCPL could start from a supercritical condition in all tests, and the loop operating temperature could be tightly controlled regardless of changes in the heat load and/or the sink temperature. In addition, the loop demonstrated successful operation with a heat load of 0.5 W as well as with parasitic heat loads alone.

  8. Detecting MALDI ions with a cryogenic detector

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, W. Henry

    1997-09-12

    Progress in cryogenic detector technology has led to the development of new devices appropriate for use as ion detectors. We have recently begun to evaluate one type of cryogenic detector called a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector. Initial tests were conducted by replacing a microchannel plate ion detector in a matrix-assisted-laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) with a STJ detector. In those initial tests we showed that 1) the STJ detector produces pulses appropriate for timing large ions and 2) the height of the pulses is proportional to ion energy and thus useful for deducing ion charge. We now report additional STJ ion energy measurements that help to reveal some aspects of ion fragmentation in MALDI mass spectrometry. The height of the output pulse from a STJ detector is related approximately linearly to ion energy, thus doubly charged ions in a MALDI:TOF-MS produce pulses about twice as large as singly charged ions. Cryogenic detectors show excellent energy resolution for X rays, but poorer energy resolution is observed when MALDI ions are analyzed. The cause for the poor energy resolution of MALDI ions is not fully understood; nevertheless, it appears feasible to use STJ detectors to study the energy distribution of MALDI ions. The detectors appear to be sensitive enough to measure individual ion impacts and processes which influence ion energy such as in-source fragmentation and the deficit of ion energy caused by accelerating ions through a MALDI plume. In this study, we show how a STJ detector can be used to measure the time of flight of macroglobulin ions (725,000 Daltons), determine ion charge using detector pulse height and investigate in-source fragmentation patterns. It is found that the energy response of the STJ detector not only provides a way to assign charge to ions but also provides a way to examine fragmentation patterns for MALDI ions. The simple model described above appears to account for the flight times and expected energy of the ions that lead to clusters of crescent shaped data points. Work is under way to investigate the fragmentation of multiply charged ions.

  9. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management technology as it applies to the current human Mars mission scenarios.

  10. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  11. Feasibility study for a Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybak, S. C.; Willen, G. S.; Follett, W. H.; Hanna, G. J.; Cady, E. C.; Distefano, E.; Meserole, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    This feasibility study presents the conceptual design of a spacecraft for performing a series of cryogenic fluid management flight experiments. This spacecraft, the Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite, will use liquid hydrogen as the test fluid, be launched on a Delta expendable launch vehicle, and conduct a series of experiments over a two to three month period. These experiments will investigate the physics of subcritical cryogens in the low gravity space environment to characterize their behavior and to correlate the data with analytical and numerical models of in-space cryogenic fluid management systems. Primary technologies addressed by COLD-SAT are: (1) pressure control; (2) chilldown; (3) no-vent fill; (4) liquid acquisition device fill; (5) pressurization; (6) low-g fill and drain; (7) liquid acquisition device expulsion; (8) line chilldown; (9) thermodynamic state control; and (10) fluid dumping.

  12. Design Issues for Cryogenic Cooling of Short Period Superconducting Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Dietderich, D.R.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, S.O.; Schlueter, R.D.

    2004-06-23

    Superconducting insertion devices, which produce periodic magnetic fields, have been built and installed in a number of synchrotron-light source storage-rings. For the most part, these devices have been wigglers, which have relatively long period lengths. This report concerns itself with the special cryogenic issues associated with short period undulators. The motivation for considering the incorporation of superconducting technology in insertion device designs is to achieve higher magnetic fields than can be achieved with more conventional permanent magnet technology. Since the peak field decreases sharply with increased magnet gap to period ratio, the cryogenic design of the magnet system is crucial. In particular, the insulation required for a warm vacuum bore device is impractical for short period undulators. This report describes the issues that are related to a cold bore ({approx}4 K) and an intermediate temperature bore (30 to 70 K) designs. The criteria for the use of small cryocoolers for cooling a short period undulator are presented. The problems associated with connecting small coolers to an undulator at 4.2 K are discussed.

  13. Advanced Reusable Foam Cryogenic Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Allan H.; Mcauliffe, P. S.; Sparks, L. L.

    1990-01-01

    Lightweight, reusable cryogenic containers reduce costs of operation of advanced hypersonic airplanes and space launch vehicles. Specimens demonstrated in temperature range of negative 420 to positive 400 degrees F (negative 251 to positive 204 degrees C). Prototype reusable cryogenic foam insulation developed. Consists of two discrete layers of closed-cell polymethacrylimide foam of density 6.9 lb/ft to the 3rd power (111 kg/m to the 3rd power) bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Additionally reinforced with 0.003-in. (0.08-mm)-thick layer of fiberglass cloth. Wrapped with precut and preformed vapor-barrier cover. Such containers useful on Earth in laboratories, factories, and transportation systems.

  14. Cryogenic VPH grisms for MOIRCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Ichiyama, Kotaro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Murata, Chihiro; Taniguchi, Yuichiro; Okura, Tsutomu; Harashima, Masakazu; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Maruyama, Miyoko; Iye, Masanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    We present the development and first astronomical applications of VPH grisms which are now operated at cryogenic temperature in MOIRCS, a Cassegrain near-infrared instrument of the Subaru Telescope. We designed and fabricated the VPH grisms with a resolving power ~3000 for the use in near-infrared bands. The VPH grating, encapsulated in BK7 glass, is glued between two ZnSe prisms with vertex angle of 20 deg. After repeating several thermal cycles down to ~100 K carefully enough not to cause irreparable damage on the grism during cooling, we evaluated the performance at cryogenic temperature in the laboratory and found no deterioration and no large difference in the performance from that measured in room temperature. Based on commissioning observations with MOIRCS, we have confirmed the high efficiency (~0.8) and the resolving power of the original design. Common use of the grisms is due to start in the second semester of 2008.

  15. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  16. Electromagnetic dampers for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic turbomachinery of the type used to pump high-pressure liquid hydrogen at -423 F and liquid oxygen at -297 F to the main engines of the Space Shuttle are subjected to lateral rotor vibrations from unbalance forces and transient loads. Conventional dampers which utilize viscous fluids such as lubricating oil cannot be used in turbopumps because the bearing components are filled with either liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen, which have viscosity comparable to air and, therefore, are not effective in viscous dampers. Electromagentic dampers are currently being explored as a means of providing damping in cryogenic turbopumps because their damping effectiveness increases as temperature decreases and because they are compatible with the liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen in the turbopumps.

  17. Cryogenic Power Converter Module Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennessy, M. J.; Mueller, E. K.; Mueller, O.; Park, J. N.; Neal, R. R.

    2006-03-01

    Several cryogenic power converter modules were built and tested, including a low-voltage, high-power series based on Cryo-MOSFETs and a high-voltage, high-power series based on Cryo-IGBTs. Half-bridge modules were manufactured and demonstrated in liquid nitrogen. The hardware is such that several half-bridge modules can be interconnected to form a multiphase full bridge. Conduction losses in the MOSFET modules were reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Switching powers up to 340 kW were achieved in the MOSFET modules, and 720 kW was demonstrated in the IGBT series. These modules can be utilized in fully integrated, megawatt-level cryogenic power systems.

  18. Cryogenic moderator simulations : confronting reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-06

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities.

  19. Cryogenic blackbody radiation calibration source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic blackbody radiation source for providing target temperatures between room temperature and -100 C was designed, fabricated, and tested. This blackbody radiation source is intended for calibration of radiometric infrared imaging systems down to -100 C. The construction and operating principles of this apparatus are described. The long term and short term stability of the radiant source have been investigated. The emittance of the source and the source radiant uniformity have been addressed.

  20. Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

  1. Foam Insulation for Cryogenic Flowlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonju, T. R.; Carbone, R. L.; Oves, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Welded stainless-steel vacuum jackets on cryogenic ducts replaced by plastic foam-insulation jackets that weigh 12 percent less. Foam insulation has 85 percent of insulating ability of stainless-steel jacketing enclosing vacuum of 10 microns of mercury. Foam insulation easier to install than vacuum jacket. Moreover, foam less sensitive to damage and requires minimal maintenance. Resists vibration and expected to have service life of at least 10 years.

  2. Cryogenics for the superconducting module test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A group of laboratories and universities, with Fermilab taking the lead, are constructing a superconducting cryomodule test facility (SMTF) in the Meson Detector Building (MDB) area at Fermilab. The facility will be used for testing and validating designs for both pulsed and CW systems. A multi phase approach is taken to construct the facility. For the initial phase of the project, cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule will be supplied from the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. A cryogenic distribution system to supply cryogens from CTF to MDB is under construction. This paper describes plans, status and challenges of the initial phase of the SMTF cryogenic system.

  3. Proposal for a cryogenic magnetic field measurement system for SSC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Hansen, L.

    1991-03-01

    This proposal describes the research and development required, and the subsequent fabrication of, a system capable of making integrated magnetic multipole measurements of cryogenic 40-mm-bore SSC dipole magnets utilizing a cryogenic probe. Our experience and some preliminary studies indicate that it is highly unlikely that a 16-meter-long probe can be fabricated that will have a twist below several milliradians at cryogenic temperatures. We would anticipate a twist of several milliradians just as a result of cooldown stresses. Consequently, this proposal describes a segmented 16-meter-long probe, for which we intend to calibrate the phase of each segment to within 0.1 milliradians. The data for all segments will be acquired simultaneously, and integrated data will be generated from the vector sums of the individual segments. The calibration techniques and instrumentation required to implement this system will be described. The duration of an integral measurement at one current is expected to be under 10 seconds. The system is based on an extrapolation of the techniques used at LBL to measure cryogenic 1-meter models of SSC magnets with a cryogenic probe. It should be noted that the expansion of the dipole bore from 40 to 50 mm may make a warm-finger device practical at a cost of approximately one quarter of the cryogenic probe. A warm quadrupole measurement system can be based upon the same principles. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Solid-cryogen-stabilized, cable-in-conduit (CIC) superconducting cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voccio, J. P.; Michael, P. C.; Bromberg, L.; Hahn, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the use of a solid cryogen as a means to stabilize, both mechanically and thermally, magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting strands within a dual-channel cable-in-conduit (CIC) cable for use in AC applications, such as a generator stator winding. The cable consists of two separate channels; the outer channel contains the superconducting strands and is filled with a fluid (liquid or gas) that becomes solid at the device operating temperature. Several options for fluid will be presented, such as liquid nitrogen, hydrocarbons and other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that have a range of melting temperatures and volumetric expansions (from solid at operating temperature to fixed volume at room temperature). Implications for quench protection and conductor stability, enhanced through direct contact with the solid cryogen, which has high heat capacity and thermal conductivity (compared with helium gas), will be presented. Depending on the cryogen, the conductor will be filled initially either with liquid at atmospheric conditions or a gas at high pressure (∼100 atm). After cooldown, the cryogen in the stranded-channel will be solid, essentially locking the strands in place, preventing strand motion and degradation due to mechanical deformation while providing enhanced thermal capacity for stability and protection. The effect of cryogen porosity is also considered. The relatively high heat capacity of solid cryogens at these lower temperatures (compared to gaseous helium) enhances the thermal stability of the winding. During operation, coolant flow through the open inner channel will minimize pressure drop.

  5. Usaf Space Sensing Cryogenic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, F.

    2010-04-01

    Infrared (IR) space sensing missions of the future depend upon low mass components and highly capable imaging technologies. Limitations in visible imaging due to the earth's shadow drive the use of IR surveillance methods for a wide variety of applications for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications, and almost certainly in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. Utilization of IR sensors greatly expands and improves mission capabilities including target and target behavioral discrimination. Background IR emissions and electronic noise that is inherently present in Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and surveillance optics bench designs prevents their use unless they are cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This paper describes the role of cryogenic coolers as an enabling technology for generic ISR and BMD missions and provides ISR and BMD mission and requirement planners with a brief glimpse of this critical technology implementation potential. The interaction between cryogenic refrigeration component performance and the IR sensor optics and FPA can be seen as not only mission enabling but also as mission performance enhancing when the refrigeration system is considered as part of an overall optimization problem.

  6. Neutrino physics with cryogenic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2010-04-01

    The recent results on neutrino oscillations and the consequent need to measure the value of the neutrino mass are briefly discussed. The operating principle of cryogenic detectors working at low temperatures, where the small heat capacity allows one to record and measure the temperature increase due to the tiny energy lost by a particle in form of heat is described. An application of these detectors is the measurement, or at least an upper constraint, of the neutrino mass in ? decay. This approach is complementary and can, in the future, be competitive with experiments based on the spectrometric measurement of the electron energy. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay could reach a better sensitivity on the mass if a neutrino is a Majorana particle. A large cryogenic detector, named CUORICINO, on neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) of 130Te already yields the best constraint on the absolute value of the Majorana neutrino mass. A much larger detector, named CUORE, for Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events, is currently under construction. With its active mass of 750 kg of natural TeO 2 it aims to reach the sensitivity in the determination of the Majorana neutrino mass suggested by the results of neutrino oscillation under the inverse hierarchy hypothesis. The problem is closely connected with what I call “the second mystery of Ettore Majorana” who suggested a particle that would violate the lepton number.

  7. Cryogenic actuator for subnanometer positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, B. v.; Janssen, H.; Paalvast, S.; Albers, R.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses the development, realization, and qualification of a positioning actuator concept specifically for cryogenic environments. Originally developed for quantum physics research, the actuator also has many applications in astronomic cryogenic instruments to position optical elements with nanometer level accuracy and stability. Typical applications include the correction of thermally induced position errors of optical components after cooling down from ambient to cryogenic temperatures or sample positioning in microscopes. The actuator is nicknamed the ‘PiezoKnob’ because it is piezo based and it is compatible with the typical manipulator knob often found in standard systems for optical benches, such as linear stages or tip/tilt lens holders. Actuation with high stiffness piezo elements enables the Piezoknob to deliver forces up to 50 Newton which allows relatively stiff guiding mechanisms or large pre-loads. The PiezoKnob has been qualified at 77 Kelvin and was shown to work down to 2 Kelvin. As part of the qualification program, the custom developed driving electronics and set point profile have been fine-tuned, by combing measurements with predictions from a dynamic model, thus maximizing efficiency and minimizing power dissipation. Furthermore, the actuator holds its position without power and thanks to its mechanical layout it is absolutely insensitive to drift of the piezo elements or the driving electronics.

  8. Cryogenic fluid management in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1988-01-01

    Many future space based vehicles and satellites will require on orbit refuelling procedures. Cryogenic fluid management technology is being developed to assess the requirements of such procedures as well as to aid in the design and development of these vehicles. Cryogenic fluid management technology for this application could be divided into two areas of study, one is concerned with fluid transfer process and the other with cryogenic liquid storage. This division is based upon the needed technology for the development of each area. In the first, the interaction of fluid dynamics with thermodynamics is essential, while in the second only thermodynamic analyses are sufficient to define the problem. The following specific process related to the liquid transfer area are discussed: tank chilldown and fill; tank pressurization; liquid positioning; and slosh dynamics and control. These specific issues are discussed in relation with the required technology for their development in the low gravity application area. In each process the relevant physics controlling the technology is identified and methods for resolving some of the basic questions are discussed.

  9. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  10. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  11. Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

  12. Inert gas spraying device aids in repair of hazardous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teleha, S.

    1965-01-01

    Inert gas spraying device aids in safely making mechanical repairs to a cryogenic fluid system without prior emptying of the system. This method can be applied to any natural or bottled gas system and with modifications to gasoline transports.

  13. Cryogenics at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Arnold, P.; Hees, J. Fydrych. W.; Jurns, J. M.; Wang, X. L.

    Cryogenics plays an important role at the European Spallation Source, a world class neutron science center, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden. Three principal applications of cryogenics are found at ESS. The SRF cryomodules of the ESS proton linac require cooling at 2 K, 4.5 K and 40 K; the hydrogenmoderator surrounding the target that produces neutrons, requires cooling via 16.5 K helium and LHe is required for many of the scientific instruments. These needs will be met by a set of three cryogenic refrigeration/liquefaction plants and an extensive cryogenic distribution system. Significant progress has been made on the ESS cryogenic system in preparation for the expected first beam on target in 2019. This work includes: funding of industry studies for the accelerator cryoplant, preliminary design of the cryogenic distribution system, investigation of possible in kind contributors and release of the invitation to tender for the accelerator cryoplant.This paper describes the requirements, design solutions and current status of the ESS cryogenic system. The planned recovery of waste heat from the cryogenic plants, a unique aspect of ESS, is described. The procurement of the cryogenic system, expected to be done via a combination of purchase via competitive bids and in kind contributions is also discussed.

  14. Cryogenic gas purification process and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eyre, D.V.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a process for the ultrapurification of cryogenic low boiling liquified gases containing trace impurities. It comprises: introducing the cryogenic gas to be purified into a first distillation column, the cryogenic gas to be purified being substantially at its liquid-gas equilibrium temperature at the pressures within the first distillation column; separating the cryogenic feed by distillation into a first cryogenic vapor fraction containing low boiling point impurities and a first cryogenic liquid fraction containing high boiling point impurities; withdrawing the first cryogenic vapor fraction from the first distillation column; introducing the first cryogenic vapor fraction into a second distillation column, the first cryogenic vapor fraction being substantially at its liquid-gas equilibrium temperature at the pressures within the second distillation column; separating the first vapor fraction by distillation into a second vapor fraction containing low boiling point impurities and a second liquid fraction free of trace impurities; and, withdrawing the second liquid fraction free of trace impurities as ultrapure product.

  15. Direct WIMP detection with cryogenic detectors.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Hans

    2003-11-15

    Cryogenic detectors have been developed since the mid 1980s and have been applied successfully to dark-matter searches since the mid 1990s. Among the advantages of cryogenic detectors are their high sensitivity to nuclear recoil, their low detection thresholds, the wide choice of target materials and the possibility of implementing event type recognition on an event-by-event basis. I explain the basics of cryogenic detectors, review various implementations, discuss advantages and drawbacks and give an overview of current dark-matter-search experiments based upon cryogenic detectors. PMID:14667319

  16. Electron-beam apparatus for testing lwir detectors in a cryogenically shielded environment

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, L.D.; Clement, R.E.; Dahle, R.N.; Bates, R.L.; Arrington, D.C.; Eisenman, W.L.

    1987-12-01

    A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been modified to probe infrared detectors operating in a cryogenically shielded environment. A reduced infrared photon background is obtained by incorporating the SEM objective aperture as part of a liquid helium cooled radiation shield which surrounds the device under test. Use of this equipment will facilitate determination of the response mechanisms of long wavelength detectors to ionizing radiation.

  17. A new capsule platinum resistance thermometer for cryogenic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. S.; Krause, J. K.

    2013-09-01

    Standards grade platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) obtain their high stability in part due to the strain-free mounting of the sensing wire. The space required for this strain-free mounting normally results in thermometers on the order of 6 mm diameter by 40 mm length in size. While these SPRTs are acceptable in many applications, it is desirable to reduce the size as much as possible for cryogenic use where space is of major concern. For over 40 years Minco Products, Inc. provided a smaller alternative with their model S1059, a high-stability cryogenic capsule platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) packaged in a copper canister sized only 3.2 mm diameter by 9.7 mm length. The packaging was compatible for use over the 13 K to 533 K temperature range. Unfortunately, this product was discontinued in 2009. In its absence, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., has worked with Advanced Sensing Products to develop a similarly sized replacement sensor for cryogenic use. The replacement capsule PRT is manufactured using the model S1059 design, but with modifications to reduce the chance of lead breakage at the epoxy-lead interface. Test devices have been fabricated and tested for temperature response and stability upon repeated calibration from 13 K to 330 K. The new sensor design features and performance data are presented in this work.

  18. Effects of electrostatic discharge on three cryogenic temperature sensor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. Scott; Mott, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic temperature sensors are not usually thought of as electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitive devices. However, the most common cryogenic thermometers in use today are thermally sensitive diodes or resistors - both electronic devices in their base form. As such, they are sensitive to ESD at some level above which either catastrophic or latent damage can occur. Instituting an ESD program for safe handling and installation of the sensor is costly and it is desirable to balance the risk of ESD damage against this cost. However, this risk cannot be evaluated without specific knowledge of the ESD vulnerability of the devices in question. This work examines three types of cryogenic temperature sensors for ESD sensitivity - silicon diodes, Cernox{trade mark, serif} resistors, and wire wound platinum resistors, all manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Testing was performed per TIA/EIA FOTP129 (Human Body Model). Damage was found to occur in the silicon diode sensors at discharge levels of 1,500 V. For Cernox{trade mark, serif} temperature sensors, damage was observed at 3,500 V. The platinum temperature sensors were not damaged by ESD exposure levels of 9,900 V. At the lower damage limit, both the silicon diode and the Cernox{trade mark, serif} temperature sensors showed relatively small calibration shifts of 1 to 3 K at room temperature. The diode sensors were stable with time and thermal cycling, but the long term stability of the Cernox{trade mark, serif} sensors was degraded. Catastrophic failure occurred at higher levels of ESD exposure.

  19. Effects of electrostatic discharge on three cryogenic temperature sensor models

    SciTech Connect

    Courts, S. Scott; Mott, Thomas B.

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic temperature sensors are not usually thought of as electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitive devices. However, the most common cryogenic thermometers in use today are thermally sensitive diodes or resistors - both electronic devices in their base form. As such, they are sensitive to ESD at some level above which either catastrophic or latent damage can occur. Instituting an ESD program for safe handling and installation of the sensor is costly and it is desirable to balance the risk of ESD damage against this cost. However, this risk cannot be evaluated without specific knowledge of the ESD vulnerability of the devices in question. This work examines three types of cryogenic temperature sensors for ESD sensitivity - silicon diodes, Cernox(trade mark, serif) resistors, and wire wound platinum resistors, all manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Testing was performed per TIA/EIA FOTP129 (Human Body Model). Damage was found to occur in the silicon diode sensors at discharge levels of 1,500 V. For Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors, damage was observed at 3,500 V. The platinum temperature sensors were not damaged by ESD exposure levels of 9,900 V. At the lower damage limit, both the silicon diode and the Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors showed relatively small calibration shifts of 1 to 3 K at room temperature. The diode sensors were stable with time and thermal cycling, but the long term stability of the Cernox(trade mark, serif) sensors was degraded. Catastrophic failure occurred at higher levels of ESD exposure.

  20. Cryogenic transistor measurement and modeling for engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Abbé, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    This article deals with the methodology of an electronic system design at liquid-helium temperatures. This technique includes the active device selection, characterization and simulation. Based on certain engineering criteria one commercial reference of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors is selected. Then, the technique of device characterization and measurement is considered. Typical output characteristics are given for this reference. All the tested devices of this reference are classified into three groups according to the presence of different low-temperature phenomena. An accurate and easy-to-use neural network model based on their experimental DC characteristics is proposed. This model is implemented in Agilent ADS Software, and the simulation results are compared with measurements in the course of the cryogenic amplifier design.

  1. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOEpatents

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  2. Experiments in thermosensitive cavitation of a cryogenic rocket propellant surrogate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Sean Benjamin

    Cavitation is a phase-change phenomenon that may appear in practical devices, often leading to loss of performance and possible physical damage. Of particular interest is the presence of cavitation in rocket engine pumps as the cryogenic fluids cavitate in impellers and inducers. Unlike water, which has been studied exhaustively, cryogenic fluids undergo cavitation with significant thermal effect. Past attempts at analyzing this behavior in water have led to poor predictive capability due to the lack of data in the regime defined as thermosensitive cavitation. Fluids flowing near their thermodynamic critical point have a liquid-vapor density ratio that is orders of magnitude less than typical experimental fluids, so that the traditional equation-of-state and cavitation models do not apply. Thermal effects in cavitation have not been fully investigated due to experimental difficulties handling cryogenics. This work investigates the physical effects of thermosensitive cavitation in a model representative of a turbopump inducer in a modern rocket engine. This is achieved by utilizing a room-temperature testing fluid that exhibits a thermal effect equivalent to that experienced by cryogenic propellants. Unsteady surface pressures and high speed imaging collected over the span of thermophysical regimes ranging from thermosensitive to isothermal cavitation offer both quantitative and qualitative insight into the physical process of thermal cavitation. Physical and thermodynamic effects are isolated to identify the source of cavity conditions, oscillations and growth/collapse behavior. Planar laser imaging offers an instantaneous look inside the vapor cavity and at the behavior of the boundary between the two-phase region and freestream liquid. Nondimensional parameters are explored, with cavitation numbers, Reynolds Numbers, coefficient of pressure and nondimensional temperature in a broad range. Results in the form of cavitation regime maps, Strouhal Number of cavity collapse, and cavity length offer a mechanistic analysis of the phenomenon. Linear stability analysis of the boundary is performed, as well as analysis of the thermal effects in the cavity and the oscillatory behavior of the cavity and reentrant jet.

  3. Issues of Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratov, C. B.; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern multi-layer insulation (MLI) allows to sharply reduce the heat leak into cryogenic propellant storage tanks through the tank surface and, as a consequence, significantly extend the storage duration. In this situation the MLI penetrations, such as support struts, feed lines, etc., become one of the most significant challenges of the tanks heat management. This problem is especially acute for liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, since currently no efficient cryocoolers exist that operate at very low LH2 temperatures (20K). Even small heat leaks under microgravity conditions and over the period of many months give rise to a complex slowly-developing, large-scale spatiotemporal physical phenomena in a multi-phase liquid-vapor mixture. These phenomena are not well-understood nor can be easily controlled. They can be of a potentially hazardous nature for long-term on-orbital cryogenic torage, propellant loading, tank chilldown, engine restart, and other in-space cryogenic fluid management operations. To support the engineering design solutions that would mitigate these effects a detailed physics-based analysis of heat transfer, vapor bubble formation, growth, motion, coalescence and collapse is required in the presence of stirring jets of different configurations and passive cooling devices such as MLI, thermodynamic vent system, and vapor-cooled shield. To develop physics-based models and correlations reliable for microgravity conditions and long-time scales there is a need for new fundamental data to be collected from on-orbit cryogenic storage experiments. Our report discusses some of these physical phenomena and the design requirements and future studies necessary for their mitigation. Special attention is payed to the phenomena occurring near MLI penetrations.

  4. RRM3 Fluid Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfknecht, P.; Benson, D.; Boyle, R.; DeLee, C.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Whitehouse, P.

    2015-01-01

    The current development progress of the fluid management device (FMD) for the Robotic Resupply Mission 3 (RRM3) cryogen source Dewar is described. RRM3 is an on-orbit cryogenic transfer experiment payload for the International Space Station. The fluid management device is a key component of the source Dewar to ensure the ullage bubble is located away from the outlet during transfer. The FMD also facilitates demonstration of radio frequency mass gauging within the source Dewar. The preliminary design of the RRM3 FMD is a number of concentric cones of Mylar which maximizes the volume of liquid in contact with the FMD in the source Dewar. This paper describes the design of the fluid management device and progress of hardware development

  5. Multi-Channel Electronically Scanned Cryogenic Pressure Sensor And Method For Making Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Hopson, Purnell, Jr. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature, multi-channel, electronically scanned pressure measuring device uses electrostatically bonded silicon dies in a multi-element array. These dies are bonded at specific sites on a glass, pre-patterned substrate. Thermal data is multiplexed and recorded on each individual pressure measuring diaphragm. The device functions in a cryogenic environment without the need of heaters to keep the sensor at constant temperatures.

  6. Shutter mechanism for calibration of the cryogenic diffused infrared background experiment (DIRBE) instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, Allen

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, the assembly and alignment, and the test program for a shutter mechanism which must operate at cryogenic temperature and draw less than 1.0 milliwatt are discussed. The design solution to meet these requirements is a device that positions a mirror with repeated accuracy, has no wearing surfaces, and operates at 2.0 K. The unique feature of this device is the simplicity of the mechanism, thus obtaining high reliability.

  7. Developing Low-Noise GaAs JFETs For Cryogenic Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses aspects of effort to develop low-noise, low-gate-leakage gallium arsenide-based junction field-effect transistors (JFETs) for operation at temperature of about 4 K as readout amplifiers and multiplexing devices for infrared-imaging devices. Transistors needed to replace silicon transistors, relatively noisy at 4 K. Report briefly discusses basic physical principles of JFETs and describes continuing process of optimization of designs of GaAs JFETs for cryogenic operation.

  8. Cryogenic/thermal system for the SIRTF cryogenic telescope assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Richard A.; Finley, Paul T.; Schweickart, Russell B.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2003-03-01

    The Cryogenic Telescope Assembly (CTA) houses the SIRTF Science Instruments and provides them a 1.3 K temperature heat sink. It also provides the telescope, which is maintained at 5.5 K temperature in order to achieve the low photon background required for the 160 micron detector array. This unique cryogenic/thermal system provides the necessary cooling through passive means along with use of vapor cooling from the helium gas vented from the 360 liter superfluid helium cryostat. The cryostat vacuum shell temperature is low enough that the heat load to the helium reservoir is due almost entirely to instrument power dissipation, thus resulting in a predicted lifetime over 5 years. The corresponding helium loss rate is over 7 times lower than achieved by previously flown helium-cooled instrument systems, such as IRAS, COBE, and ISO. This extraordinary performance is made possible by the highly favorable thermal environment achieved in an Earth-trailing solar orbit at a distance of about 0.3 AU from the Earth. Attaining this outer orbit with the slight lift capacity of a Delta-II launch vehicle is made possible by the mass-saving approach of having the telescope outside the cryostat and warm at launch. The general end-to-end system architecture, verification approach, and predicted performance are discussed.

  9. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan D

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  10. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System was tested with LH2 and LOX in a vacuum chamber to simulate space vacuum and the temperatures of low Earth orbit. Testing was successful and results validated the scaling study model that predicts active cooling reduces upper stage cryogenic propulsion mass for loiter periods greater than 2 weeks.

  11. Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

    1984-01-01

    Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

  12. Neutron Detection with Cryogenics and Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    bell, Z.W.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2005-03-10

    The common methods of neutron detection are reviewed with special attention paid to the application of cryogenics and semiconductors to the problem. The authors' work with LiF- and boron-based cryogenic instruments is described as well as the use of CdTe and HgI{sub 2} for direct detection of neutrons.

  13. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  14. Control of large cryogenic tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Kilgore, W. A.; Thibodeaux, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    For the efficient and economic operation of large cryogenic wind tunnels, automatic control is necessary to precisely regulate the temperature, pressure, and Mach number. The features of the control system currently in operation at the U.S. National Transonic Facility are presented. Some unique features of the tunnel temperature control law are the automatic tunnel cool down utilizing structural temperature feedback and the fan power based liquid nitrogen nozzle switching logic that have played a key role in realizing good automatic tunnel control.

  15. Fiberglass supports for cryogenic tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication, and test activities were conducted to develop additional technology needed for application of filament-wound fiberglass struts to cryogenic flight tankage. It was conclusively verified that monocoque cylinder or ogive struts are optimum or near-optimum for the range of lengths and loads studied, that a higher strength-to-weight ratio can be achieved for fiberglass struts than for any metallic struts, and that integrally-wrapped metallic end fittings can be used to achieve axial load transfer without reliance on bond strength or mechanical fasteners.

  16. Self-Sealing Cryogenic Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin Xiang; Chow, Wen Lung; Moslemian, Davood; Lin, Gary; Melton, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Self-sealing fitting for cryogenic tubes remains free of leakage from room temperature to liquid-helium temperature even at internal pressure as high as 2.7 MPa. Fitting comprises parts made of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion to prevent leakage gaps from forming as temperature decreases. Consists of coupling nut, two flared tube ends, and flared O-ring spacer. Spacer contracts more than tube ends do as temperature decreases. This greater contraction seals tube ends more tightly, preventing leakage.

  17. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  18. Cryogenic, high speed, turbopump bearing cooling requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Fred J.; Gibson, Howard G.; Cannon, James L.; Cody, Joe C.

    1988-01-01

    Although the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has repeatedly demonstrated the capability to perform during launch, the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) main shaft bearings have not met their 7.5 hour life requirement. A tester is being employed to provide the capability of subjecting full scale bearings and seals to speeds, loads, propellants, temperatures, and pressures which simulate engine operating conditions. The tester design permits much more elaborate instrumentation and diagnostics than could be accommodated in an SSME turbopump. Tests were made to demonstrate the facilities; and the devices' capabilities, to verify the instruments in its operating environment and to establish a performance baseline for the flight type SSME HPOTP Turbine Bearing design. Bearing performance data from tests are being utilized to generate: (1) a high speed, cryogenic turbopump bearing computer mechanical model, and (2) a much improved, very detailed thermal model to better understand bearing internal operating conditions. Parametric tests were also made to determine the effects of speed, axial loads, coolant flow rate, and surface finish degradation on bearing performance.

  19. Cryogenic Cermic Multilayer Capacitors for Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Alberta, E. F.; Hackenberger, W. S.

    2006-03-31

    Recent advances in the areas of high temperature superconductors and low temperature MOSFET devices have opened the door to the possibility of developing highly efficient low-temperature power electronics. The most commonly used high-efficiency capacitors are based on high dielectric constant (K {approx} 1000-4000) barium titanate doped to yield and X7R temperature dependence ({+-}15% change in capacitance from -55 deg. C to 125 deg. C); however, below their minimum use temperature the capacitance drops-off quickly leading to a low volumetric efficiency and high temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) at cryogenic temperatures.A series of low temperature materials with moderate to high dielectric constants have been specifically developed for low temperature operation (below 80K). The capacitors fall into three main categories: low TCC, high volumetric efficiency, and energy storage. In the low TCC category, co-fired multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) were fabricated with capacitance values up to 62nF at 30K, TCCs from 0.9 to 2% below 80K, and losses on the order of 0.0001. In the high volumetric efficiency category, dielectrics with permittivities ranging from 1,000 to 30,000 were demonstrated.

  20. Development of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, Subhash; Narasimham, G. S. V. L.; Nadig, D. S.; Behera, Upendra; Kumar, Dinesh

    2008-03-01

    The design of a cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is presented in the paper. As the wick is required only in the evaporator section, very small pore size wicks can be used in applications with high thermal transport requirements and/or where the heat must be transported over a long distance against gravity. A FORTRAN program to solve the mathematical model and to determine the parameters for various boundary conditions has been developed. The CLHP is designed to transfer 5W heat at 70K using nitrogen or oxygen as working fluid. It will be a self priming type device which can operate against gravity with evaporator above the condenser as well as under microgravity condition. A G-M type single stage double inlet pulse tube refrigerator is coupled to the CLHP to test its performance. The mathematical model, design, fabrication integration of the heat pipe with the pulse tube system and testing with stainless steel wick at the evaporator will be described in the paper.

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the protection of the tank assembly and piping system. The discharge from these devices...

  2. Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam

    2015-12-01

    The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.

  3. Techniques for on-orbit cryogenic servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLee, C. H.; Barfknecht, P.; Breon, S.; Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Huynh, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Wegel, D.

    2014-11-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has a renewed interest in on-orbit cryogen storage and transfer to support its mission to explore near-earth objects such as asteroids and comets. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission (CPST-TDM), managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and scheduled for launch in 2018, will demonstrate numerous key technologies applicable to a cryopropellant fuel depot. As an adjunct to the CPST-TDM work, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will support the development of techniques to manage and transfer cryogens on-orbit and expand these techniques as they may be applicable to servicing science missions using solid cryogens such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The results of several ground experiments are described, including autogenous pressurization used for transfer of liquid nitrogen and argon, characterization of the transfer and solidification of argon, and development of robotic tools for cryogen transfer.

  4. Novel Cryogenic Insulation Materials: Aerogel Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan

    2001-01-01

    New insulation materials are being developed to economically and reliably insulate future reusable spacecraft cryogenic tanks over a planned lifecycle of extreme thermal challenges. These insulation materials must prevent heat loss as well as moisture and oxygen condensation on the cryogenic tanks during extended groundhold, must withstand spacecraft launch conditions, and must protect a partly full or empty reusable cryogenic tank from significant reentry heating. To perform over such an extreme temperature range, novel composites were developed from aerogels and high-temperature matrix material such as Space Shuttle tile. These materials were fabricated and tested for use both as cryogenic insulation and as high-temperature insulation. The test results given in this paper were generated during spacecraft re-entry heating simulation tests using cryogenic cooling.

  5. Challenges for Cryogenics at Iter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, L.

    2010-04-01

    Nuclear fusion of light nuclei is a promising option to provide clean, safe and cost competitive energy in the future. The ITER experimental reactor being designed by seven partners representing more than half of the world population will be assembled at Cadarache, South of France in the next decade. It is a thermonuclear fusion Tokamak that requires high magnetic fields to confine and stabilize the plasma. Cryogenic technology is extensively employed to achieve low-temperature conditions for the magnet and vacuum pumping systems. Efficient and reliable continuous operation shall be achieved despite unprecedented dynamic heat loads due to magnetic field variations and neutron production from the fusion reaction. Constraints and requirements of the largest superconducting Tokamak machine have been analyzed. Safety and technical risks have been initially assessed and proposals to mitigate the consequences analyzed. Industrial standards and components are being investigated to anticipate the requirements of reliable and efficient large scale energy production. After describing the basic features of ITER and its cryogenic system, we shall present the key design requirements, improvements, optimizations and challenges.

  6. Cryogenic machining of Kevlar composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Allen, M. N.; Mander, S. J.

    Previous attempts to machine Kevlar aramid fibre reinforced plastics (KFRP) with coventional cutting tools have proven to be extremely difficult. This has somewhat restricted the material's usage, often negating the advantages of its high strength-to-weight ratio and fatigue tolerance. The present paper describes a novel technique of machining KFRP under cryogenic conditions with remarkable results compared to those obtained at ambient temperatures. The investigation carried out with turning operation shows dramatic improvement of the tool performance and surface quality. The effects of various machining parameters such as workpiece temperature, cutting speed, and tool geometry on the machinability of KFRP are presented and analyzed. It appears that care is necessary to judge the tool life as the typical tool wear growth and surface finish or cutting force may produce contradictory results. It is also suggested that, for KFRP, surface finish of the machined workpiece is a very good criterion to determine the tool life. To aid the understanding of the machining mechanics, a microscopic investigation of the cutting zone while actually machining a testpiece at ambient and cryogenic temperatures is also reported.

  7. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  8. CRYOTE (Cryogenic Orbital Testbed) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravlee, Mari; Kutter, Bernard; Wollen, Mark; Rhys, Noah; Walls, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrating cryo-fluid management (CFM) technologies in space is critical for advances in long duration space missions. Current space-based cryogenic propulsion is viable for hours, not the weeks to years needed by space exploration and space science. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) provides an affordable low-risk environment to demonstrate a broad array of critical CFM technologies that cannot be tested in Earth's gravity. These technologies include system chilldown, transfer, handling, health management, mixing, pressure control, active cooling, and long-term storage. United Launch Alliance is partnering with Innovative Engineering Solutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and others to develop CRYOTE to fly as an auxiliary payload between the primary payload and the Centaur upper stage on an Atlas V rocket. Because satellites are expensive, the space industry is largely risk averse to incorporating unproven systems or conducting experiments using flight hardware that is supporting a primary mission. To minimize launch risk, the CRYOTE system will only activate after the primary payload is separated from the rocket. Flying the testbed as an auxiliary payload utilizes Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle performance excess to cost-effectively demonstrate enhanced CFM.

  9. Models for cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Model requirements, types of model construction methods, and research in new ways to build models are discussed. The 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel was in operation for 16 years and many 2-D airfoil pressure models were tested. In addition there were airfoil models dedicated to transition detection techniques and other specialized research. There were also a number of small 3-D models tested. A chronological development in model building technique is described which led to the construction of many successful models. The difficulties of construction are illustrated by discussing several unsuccessful model fabrication attempts. The National Transonic Facility, a newer and much larger tunnel, was used to test a variety of models including a submarine, transport and fighter configurations, and the Shuttle Orbiter. A new method of building pressure models was developed and is described. The method is centered on the concept of bonding together plates with pressure channels etched into the bond planes, which provides high density pressure instrumentation with minimum demand on parent model material. With care in the choice of materials and technique, vacuum brazing can be used to produce strong bonds without blocking pressure channels and with no bonding voids between channels. Using multiple plates, a 5 percent wing with 96 orifices was constructed and tested in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Samples of test data are presented and future applications of the technology are suggested.

  10. Low Thermal Loss Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmund, M. E.; Francis, W.; Batton, W. D.; Mallick, K.; Dillard, J. E.

    2004-06-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore using composite-material technology to minimize thermal losses in a cryogenic fluid pump. Composite materials are used to replace the metallic parts in the drive shaft as well as the inner and outer housing structures. This can provide two independent benefits, conduction loss reduction and pump efficiency improvement. In a typical BNI cryogenic pump the conduction loss contributes to only 3-5% of the pump's total thermal losses, while the pump inefficiency comprises the remaining majority. By switching to a composite material, the conduction losses are reduced by an order of magnitude and the pump efficiency has the potential for significant improvement. With the almost negligible conduction losses the shaft can be greatly reduced in length, helping to achieve the higher operating speed and improved pump efficiency. BNI has shown by engineering estimates a potential 46% reduction in total heat input for a typical pump using composite parts. This paper examines the efforts to qualify the performance of the composite material and the integrity of the composite-bonded-metallic components. Currently a prototype pump is under construction to prove the concept in an operational hydrogen pump.

  11. Ultrathin fiber-taper coupling with nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masazumi; Zhao, Hong-Quan; Noda, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-12-15

    We demonstrate cooling of ultrathin fiber tapers coupled with nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds to cryogenic temperatures. Nanodiamonds containing multiple NV centers are deposited on the subwavelength 480-nm-diameter nanofiber region of fiber tapers. The fiber tapers are successfully cooled to 9 K using our home-built mounting holder and an optimized cooling speed. The fluorescence from the nanodiamond NV centers is efficiently channeled into a single guided mode and shows characteristic sharp zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) of both neutral and negatively charged NV centers. The present nanofiber/nanodiamond hybrid systems at cryogenic temperatures can be used as NV-based quantum information devices and for highly sensitive nanoscale magnetometry in a cryogenic environment. PMID:26670490

  12. Design and Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Kroliczek, Edward J.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Ted; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the flight configuration and pre-flight performance test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5). This device will fly on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight represents the first in-space demonstration of a CCPL, a miniaturized two-phase fluid circulator for thermally linking cryogenic cooling sources to remote cryogenic components. CCPL-5 utilizes N2 as the working fluid and has a practical operating range of 75-110 K. Test results indicate that CCPL-5, which weighs about 200 grams, can transport over 10 W of cooling a distance of 0.25 m (or more) with less than a 5 K temperature drop.

  13. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  14. Ultrathin fiber-taper coupling with nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masazumi; Zhao, Hong-Quan; Noda, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate cooling of ultrathin fiber tapers coupled with nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds to cryogenic temperatures. Nanodiamonds containing multiple NV centers are deposited on the subwavelength 480-nm-diameter nanofiber region of fiber tapers. The fiber tapers are successfully cooled to 9 K using our home-built mounting holder and an optimized cooling speed. The fluorescence from the nanodiamond NV centers is efficiently channeled into a single guided mode and shows characteristic sharp zero-phonon lines of both neutral and negatively charged NV centers. The present nanofiber/nanodiamond hybrid systems at cryogenic temperatures can be used as NV-based quantum information devices and for highly sensitive nanoscale magnetometry in a cryogenic environment.

  15. Computer-controlled cryogenic-temperature controller. Final report, September 1982-January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin, R.E.

    1990-01-10

    In laboratories which do materials characterization it is necessary to have a temperature controller which can be computer controlled, is accurate to within .1-.2K, can control temperature from 15-350K with a drift of no more than .1, and is relatively unaffected by the presence of a magnetic field on the sample container. The subject controller uses two thermometers to meet these requirements. One is a commercially available calibrated silicon diode manufactured expressly for this type of application. The second thermometer is used for control. Once the sample has reached the setpoint according to the calibrated thermometer the control thermometer's value is sampled and used as the new setpoint. Since the control thermometer should be insensitive to a mag field the sample will remain at the desired temperature when the magnetic field is applied. Cryogenic, Computer control, Magnetic field, Cryogenics, Cryogenic storage devices.

  16. Cryogenic refrigeration. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning cryogenic refrigeration or cryocooling. Design, development, testing, and evaluation of cryogenic cooling systems are discussed. Design applications in spacecraft, magnet cooling, superconductors, liquid fuel storage, radioastronomy, and medicine are presented. Material properties at cryogenic temperatures and cryogenic rocket propellants are considered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Throttling Cryogen Boiloff To Control Cryostat Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An improved design has been proposed for a cryostat of a type that maintains a desired low temperature mainly through boiloff of a liquid cryogen (e.g., liquid nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure. (A cryostat that maintains a low temperature mainly through boiloff of a cryogen at atmospheric pressure is said to be of the pour/fill Dewar-flask type because its main component is a Dewar flask, the top of which is kept open to the atmosphere so that the liquid cryogen can boil at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic liquid can be added by simply pouring it in.) The major distinguishing feature of the proposed design is control of temperature and cooling rate through control of the flow of cryogen vapor from a heat exchanger. At a cost of a modest increase in complexity, a cryostat according to the proposal would retain most of the compactness of prior, simpler pour/fill Dewar-flask cryostats, but would utilize cryogen more efficiently (intervals between cryogen refills could be longer).

  18. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, S. M.; Woods, S. I.; Jung, T. M.; Carter, A. C.; Datla, R. U.

    2014-07-15

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/√(Hz) for the measured experimental parameters.

  19. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer.

    PubMed

    Carr, S M; Woods, S I; Jung, T M; Carter, A C; Datla, R U

    2014-07-01

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/?Hz for the measured experimental parameters. PMID:25085171

  20. Power Electronics Being Developed for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Electronic circuits and systems designed for deep space missions need to operate reliably and efficiently in harsh environments that include very low temperatures. Spacecraft that operate in such cold environments carry a large number of heaters so that the ambient temperature for the onboard electronics remains near 20 C. Electronics that can operate at cryogenic temperatures will simplify system design and reduce system size and weight by eliminating the heaters and their associated structures. As a result, system development and launch cost will be reduced. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, an ongoing program is focusing on the development of power electronics geared for deep space low-temperature environments. The research and development efforts include electrical components design, circuit design and construction, and system integration and demonstration at cryogenic temperatures. Investigations are being carried out on circuits and systems that are targeted for use in NASA missions where low temperatures will be encountered: devices such as ceramic and tantalum capacitors, metal film resistors, semiconductor switches, magnetics, and integrated circuits including dc/dc converters, operational amplifiers, voltage references, and motor controllers. Test activities cover a wide range of device and circuit performance under simple as well as complex test conditions, such as multistress and thermal cycling. The effect of low-temperature conditions on the switching characteristics of an advanced silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor is shown. For gate voltages (VGS) below 2.6 V, drain currents at -190 C are lower than drain currents at room temperature (20 C).

  1. Cryogenic Control Architecture for Large-Scale Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornibrook, J. M.; Colless, J. I.; Conway Lamb, I. D.; Pauka, S. J.; Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C.; Watson, J. D.; Gardner, G. C.; Fallahi, S.; Manfra, M. J.; Reilly, D. J.

    2015-02-01

    Solid-state qubits have recently advanced to the level that enables them, in principle, to be scaled up into fault-tolerant quantum computers. As these physical qubits continue to advance, meeting the challenge of realizing a quantum machine will also require the development of new supporting devices and control architectures with complexity far beyond the systems used in today's few-qubit experiments. Here, we report a microarchitecture for controlling and reading out qubits during the execution of a quantum algorithm such as an error-correcting code. We demonstrate the basic principles of this architecture using a cryogenic switch matrix implemented via high-electron-mobility transistors and a new kind of semiconductor device based on gate-switchable capacitance. The switch matrix is used to route microwave waveforms to qubits under the control of a field-programmable gate array, also operating at cryogenic temperatures. Taken together, these results suggest a viable approach for controlling large-scale quantum systems using semiconductor technology.

  2. Thermal Design and Analysis for the Cryogenic MIDAS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth McElroy

    1997-01-01

    The Materials In Devices As Superconductors (MIDAS) spaceflight experiment is a NASA payload which launched in September 1996 on the Shuttle, and was transferred to the Mir Space Station for several months of operation. MIDAS was developed and built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The primary objective of the experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity and spaceflight on the electrical properties of high-temperature superconductive (HTS) materials. The thermal challenge on MIDAS was to maintain the superconductive specimens at or below 80 K for the entire operation of the experiment, including all ground testing and 90 days of spaceflight operation. Cooling was provided by a small tactical cryocooler. The superconductive specimens and the coldfinger of the cryocooler were mounted in a vacuum chamber, with vacuum levels maintained by an ion pump. The entire experiment was mounted for operation in a stowage locker inside Mir, with the only heat dissipation capability provided by a cooling fan exhausting to the habitable compartment. The thermal environment on Mir can potentially vary over the range 5 to 40 C; this was the range used in testing, and this wide range adds to the difficulty in managing the power dissipated from the experiment's active components. Many issues in the thermal design are discussed, including: thermal isolation methods for the cryogenic samples; design for cooling to cryogenic temperatures; cryogenic epoxy bonds; management of ambient temperature components self-heating; and fan cooling of the enclosed locker. Results of the design are also considered, including the thermal gradients across the HTS samples and cryogenic thermal strap, electronics and thermal sensor cryogenic performance, and differences between ground and flight performance. Modeling was performed in both SINDA-85 and MSC/PATRAN (with direct geometry import from the CAD design tool Pro/Engineer). Advantages of both types of models are discussed. Correlation of several models to ground testing and flight data (where available) is presented. Both SINDA and PATRAN models predicted the actual thermal performance of the experiment well, even without post-flight correlation adjustments of the models.

  3. Apparatus and method for evacuating an insulated cryogenic hose

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W.D.; Zwick, E.B.

    1990-05-15

    This patent describes a cryogenic hose for use in ambient environments. It comprises: a cryogenic tube for conducting the flow of a cryogenic fluid at a cryogenic temperature; an insulating chamber thermally coupled with the cryogenic tube for insulating the cryogenic tube; and a predetermined fluid disposed in the chamber, the predetermined fluid being gaseous at ambient temperatures and liquefying or solidifying at the cryogenic temperature, heat conducted from the predetermined fluid disposed in the chamber into the cryogenic tube causing the predetermined fluid to liquefy or solidify, thereby substantially evacuating the chamber, the evacuated chamber thermally insulating the cryogenic tube from the ambient environments, whereby the hose provides for delivery of the cryogenic fluid without the need for repeated evacuation of the chamber by external pumping.

  4. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  5. A cryogenic waveplate rotator for polarimetry at mm and submm wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salatino, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Polarimetry at mm and submm wavelengths is the new frontier of research in cosmic microwave background and interstellar dust studies. Polarimeters working in the IR to MM range need to be operated at cryogenic temperatures to limit the systematic effects related to the emission of the polarization analyzer. Aims: We study the effect of the temperature of the different components of a waveplate polarimeter and describe a system able to rotate a birefringent crystal at 4 K in a completely automated way. Methods: We simulate the main systematic effects related to the temperature and non-ideality of the optical components in a Stokes polarimeter. To limit these effects, a cryogenic implementation of the polarimeter is mandatory. In our system, the rotation produced by a step motor running at room temperature is transmitted down to cryogenic temperatures by means of a long shaft and gears running on custom cryogenic bearings. Results: Our system is able to rotate a birefringent crystal at 4 K in a completely automated way and dissipates only a few mW in the cold environment. A readout system based on optical fibers allows us to control the rotation of the crystal to better than 0.1°. Conclusions: This device fulfills the stringent requirements for operations in cryogenic space experiments, such as the forthcoming PILOT, BOOMERanG and LSPE.

  6. Highly efficient cryogenic thermal insulation for optical devices and pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurskaya, T. A.; Mikhal'Chenko, R. S.; Getmanets, V. F.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the improved efficiency of shielding vacuum thermal insulation (SVTI) with gaskets fabricated from polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) film treated with antistatic substances (surface-active substances (SAS)) for reduction of electrostatic charges and contact heat transfer (by 30% or more).

  7. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic temperatures, and will not crack or produce leaks. The outer layer serves as more of a high-performance structural unit for the inner layer, and can handle external environments.

  8. Cryogenic storage tank with a retrofitted in-tank cryogenic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, E.B.; Brigham, W.D.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a low boiloff submersible pump assembly for use in a conventional cryogenic tank having an open access port. It comprises: a pump; a removable pump mounting tube extending through the access port of the cryogenic tank. The pump mounting tube having an inner surface thermally insulated from an outer surface of the tube and thermally insulated from the access port of the cryogenic tank. The tube having an open lower end, the upper end of the tube including means adapted to make a gas-tight seal with the pump mounted thereto. The tube extending through the tank and into the cryogen stored in the tank; and block means for thermally insulating the removable pump mounting tube from the cryogenic tank at the access port of the cryogenic tank. The mounting tube connecting the tank only at the access port through the block means.

  9. Structural damping studies at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of an engineering study to measure changes in structural damping properties of two cryogenic wind tunnel model systems and two metallic test specimens at cryogenic temperatures are presented. Data are presented which indicate overall, a trend toward reduced structural damping at cryogenic temperatures (-250 degrees F) when compared with room temperature damping properties. The study was focused on structures and materials used for model systems tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The study suggests that the significant reductions in damping at extremely cold temperatures are most likely associated with changes in mechanical joint compliance damping rather than changes in material (solid) damping.

  10. Nanosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser

    SciTech Connect

    Perevezentsev, E A; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Vadimova, O L; Palashov, O V

    2014-05-30

    A cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser is modernised to increase its average and peak power. The master oscillator unit of the laser is considerably modified so that the pulse duration decreases to several nanoseconds with the same pulse energy. A cryogenic disk laser head with a flow-through cooling system is developed. Based on two such laser heads, a new main amplifier is assembled according to an active multipass cell scheme. The total small-signal gain of cryogenic cascades is ∼10{sup 8}. (lasers)

  11. Design, production, and testing of field effect transistors. [cryogenic MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sclar, N.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic MOSFETS (CRYOFETS), specifically designed for low temperature preamplifier application with infrared extrinsic detectors were produced and comparatively tested with p-channel MOSFETs under matched conditions. The CRYOFETs exhibit lower voltage thresholds, high source-follower gains at lower bias voltage, and lower dc offset source voltage. The noise of the CRYOFET is found to be 2 to 4 times greater than the MOSFET with a correspondingly lower figure of merit (which is established for source-follower amplifiers). The device power dissipation at a gain of 0.98 is some two orders of magnitude lower than for the MOSFET. Further, CRYOFETs are free of low temperature I vs V character hysteresis and balky conduction turn-on effects and operate effectively in the 2.4 to 20 K range. These devices have promise for use on long term duration sensor missions and for on-focal-plane signal processing at low temperatures.

  12. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  13. Small-Scale Bolometers for Cryogenic Helium Turbulence Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jolinda; Wybourne, M. N.

    1998-03-01

    We have developed small (50 =B5m) bolometers for use at the Cryogenic Helium Turbulence Laboratory at the University of Oregon. The devices are composed of AuGe sensing elements on 50 =B5m diameter optic fibers. Micron-size bolometers have recently been reported; however, in these devices the sensing elements were defined using a crude wire-masking technique.(O. Chanal, B. Baguenard, O. B=E9thoux, and B. Chabaud, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68), 2442 (1997) By using electron-beam lithography to define the sensing elements, we have greater control over their geometry and electrical characteristics. We will also discuss the application of electron-beam lithography to the fabrication of submicron bolometers and anemometers.

  14. Versatile cryogenic rotary positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birner, Robert; Sodeikat, Dieter W.; Ruppert, U.

    1990-11-01

    Systems for scan mirror positioning and filter wheel grating and indexing used in the Infrared Background Signature Survey sensor are described. A control loop which incorporates a cryogenic brushless torquer, an ironless inductive position sensor, and associated control electronics is used to achieve precise angular positioning with the angular range of +/- 7.5 deg. The motion programs include step, sawtooth, and staircase operations. A positioning accuracy of greater than 0.03 deg and a position resolution of greater than 0.001 deg have been achieved. Fixation of grating and mirror mechanism during launch is accomplished using short circuiting of motor windings for providing high braking torques. For a filter wheel indexing, the inductive position sensor is replaced by Hall probes, and the torque motor commutation uses Hall sensor signals. The same signals are applied to control the required 12 positions. A Hall sensor located at the filter wheel marks a reference position.

  15. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  16. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  17. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  18. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  19. ESS Cryogenic System Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Su, X. T.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility funded and supported in collaboration with 17 European countries in Lund, Sweden. Cryogenic cooling at ESS is vital particularly for the linear accelerator, the hydrogen target moderators, a test stand for cryomodules, the neutron instruments and their sample environments. The paper will focus on specific process design criteria, design decisions and their motivations for the helium cryoplants and auxiliary equipment. Key issues for all plants and their process concepts are energy efficiency, reliability, smooth turn-down behaviour and flexibility. The accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) and the target moderator cryoplant (TMCP) in particular need to be prepared for a range of refrigeration capacities due to the intrinsic uncertainties regarding heat load definitions. Furthermore the paper addresses questions regarding process arrangement, 2 K cooling methodology, LN2 precooling, helium storage, helium purification and heat recovery.

  20. A cryogenic infrared calibration target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ? 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 ?m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 ?m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ? 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

  1. A cryogenic infrared calibration target.

    PubMed

    Wollack, E J; Kinzer, R E; Rinehart, S A

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ? 0.003, from 800?to?4800?cm(-1) (12 - 2??m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000?cm(-1) (25 - 1??m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ? 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ?4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented. PMID:24784638

  2. XFEL Injector-1 Cryogenic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyata, E.; Belova, L.; Boeckmann, T.; Kholopov, M.; Konstantinov, V.; Kulikov, V.; Sellmann, D.; Zhirnov, A.; Zolotukhina, N.

    Two accelerator cryomodules will be delivered for the XFEL injector-1. It comprises: an end cap of the 1.3 GHz cryomodule, a feed cap with Joule-Thomson box of the 3.9 GHz cryomodule, a feed box, a valve box and a transfer line connecting the feed cap with a feed box. The first injector will be located at the minus 7th level of XTIN. At this level the end cap, two accelerator cryomodules and the feed cap with the Joule-Thomson box are placed. The feed box and the injector valve box will be located at the minus 4th level. The cryogenic supply of the first injector's accelerator cryomodulesare separated from the supply of the second injector'scryomodules and linac in the main tunnel.

  3. Computed tomography of cryogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2001-08-30

    Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions.

  4. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Saint Charles, IL, June 14-18, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on superconductivity applications including magnets, electronics, rectifiers, magnet stability, coil protection, and cryogenic techniques. Also considered are insulation, heat transfer to liquid helium and nitrogen, heat and mass transfer in He II, superfluid pumps, and refrigeration for superconducting systems. Other topics include cold compressors, refrigeration and liquefaction, magnetic refrigeration, and refrigeration for space applications. Papers are also presented on cryogenic applications, commercial cryogenic plants, the properties of cryogenic fluids, and cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition.

  5. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  6. Cryogenic xenon droplets for advanced lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.

    1996-04-01

    A cryogenic xenon droplet production system for use in anadvanced laser plasma source for x-ray lithography has been designed, fabricated, and tested at ORNL. The droplet generator is based on proven (ink jet printer) drop-on-demand.

  7. Inexpensive cryogenic insulation replaces vacuum jacketed line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Commercially available aluminized Mylar, cork and fiber glass form a multilayered sealed system and provide rugged and economical field installed insulation for cryogenic /liquid nitrogen or oxygen/ pipe lines in an exposed environment.

  8. Evaluation of two designs for cryogenic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Shingle-type, crinkled, aluminized polyethylene ester is thermally and structurally tested for cryogenic insulation. Insulation systems require thermal efficiency with minimum weight, and the ability to withstand vibration, acceleration, and rapid pressure drops.

  9. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  10. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  11. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2010-04-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost-effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailorable array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given.

  12. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ke-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Jiu; Yue, Ke-Juan; Dai, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ling; Jiang, Bo

    2008-04-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control, PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) control loops, real-time data access and data storage, alarm handler and human machine interface. It is capable of automatic recovery as well. This paper describes the BEPCII cryogenic control system, data communication between S7-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), and the integration of the flow control, the low level interlock, the AB-PLC, and EPICS.

  13. OASIS: cryogenically-optimized resistive arrays and IRSP subsystems for space-background IR simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Jay; Bryant, Paul; Solomon, Steve; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; Oleson, Jim; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott; Huffman, Alan

    2006-05-01

    SBIR has completed design and development of prototype emitter arrays and is completing custom cryogenic vacuum device packaging and support electronics for the Optimized Arrays for Space-background Infrared Simulation (OASIS) program. The OASIS array is a 512 x 512 device featuring high output dynamic range, a selectable analog/digital scene data interface, and the capability to operate from cryogenic to ambient substrate temperatures - thereby providing an enabling technology for projection of simulated radiance of space-background scenes. Prototype emitter production has been completed at RTI International in support of initial deliveries. The OASIS array package incorporates novel electrical bussing schemes optimized for the OASIS RIIC and a modular architecture to allow user re-configuration of both window and emitter shield. The OASIS package leverages LFRA operation features, and supports both ambient and cryogenic chamber-based operation with a minimum of mechanical and electrical re-configuration. The OASIS close support electronics (CSE) supports both analog and digital input data modes, while providing easy electronic connection between arrays installed in the cryogenic chamber and the external control and scene-generation systems. We present a technical overview of the OASIS array/package and CSE designs, and will report on measured radiometric performance from prototype OASIS arrays.

  14. Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H. (inventor); Schein, Michael E. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain a cryogen through surface tension effects during launch and zero-g operations and maintains instrumentation within the temperature range of 10 to 140 K. The cooler operation is completely passive, with no inherent vibration or power requirements.

  15. Visual-Inspection Probe For Cryogenic Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, Steve; Valenzuela, James; Yoshinaga, Jay

    1990-01-01

    Visual-inspection probe that resembles borescope enables observer at ambient temperature to view objects immersed in turbulent flow of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, or other cryogenic fluid. Design of probe fairly conventional, except special consideration given to selection of materials and to thermal expansion to provide for expected range of operating temperatures. Penetrates wall of cryogenic chamber to provide view of interior. Similar probe illuminates scene. View displayed on video monitor.

  16. Filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. S.; Timberlake, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports for a LH2 tank, a LF2/FLOX tank and a CH4 tank. These supports consist of filament-wound fiberglass tubes with titanium end fittings. These units were satisfactorily tested at cryogenic temperatures, thereby offering a design that can be reliably and economically produced in large or small quantities. The basic design concept is applicable to any situation where strong, lightweight axial load members are desired.

  17. Large Cryogenic Germanium Detector. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mandic, Vuk

    2013-02-13

    The goal of this project was to investigate possible ways of increasing the size of cryogenic Ge detectors. This project identified two possible approaches to increasing the individual cryogenic Ge detector size. The first approach relies on using the existing technology for growing detector-grade (high-purity) germanium crystals of dislocation density 100-7000 cm{sup -2}. The second approach is to consider dislocation-free Ge crystals.

  18. Upgrade of the Tevatron cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Theilacker, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Fermilabs superconducting Tevatron accelerator has reached its tenth year of operation. This year, three significant upgrades to the cryogenic system will become operational; a second central helium liquefier, a Tevatron satellite refrigerator lower temperature upgrade, and a satellite refrigerator controls system upgrade. The decision to build a second central helium liquefier (CHL) was originally based on redundancy; protecting accelerator operation from a major CHL failure such as a heat exchanger. Higher capacity turbines were used in the second coldbox, which will result in an estimated 5400 liters per hour production rate. Preliminary commissioning of the coldbox took place in 1992. Full capacity testing will take place in 1993. To aid in the discovery of the top quark, it is desirable to increase the particle energy in the Tevatron accelerator. The machine is limited to an energy of 900 GeV due to magnet conductor short sample current at the existing operating temperature. An upgrade is underway to lower the temperature of the accelerator {approximately}1K. The short term goal is 1000 GeV operation with a 1100 GeV long term goal. Cold vapor compressors will be used in each of the 24 satellite refrigerators to achieve the temperature reduction. An upgrade of the existing satellite refrigerator controls system is necessary to incorporate the added control devices, instrumentation, and controls algorithms required by the low temperature upgrade. The existing Z80 Multibus I based system will be replaced with a 386 Multibus II system. New features will be incorporated, including processor to processor communications, fast event driven circular buffer, hierarchical alarm system, higher level language support, and more elaborate controlling algorithms.

  19. The Fast Alternative Cryogenic Experiment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Alfred; Holmes, Warren

    2000-01-01

    One of the challenges in the area of cryogenics for space exploration in the next millennium is providing the capability for inexpensive, frequent, access to space. Faced with this challenge during the International Space Station (ISS) build era, when other Space Shuttle manifesting opportunities are unavailable, a "proof of concept" cryostat has been developed to demonstrate the ability to accommodate low temperature science investigations within the constraints of the Hitchhiker siderail carrier. The Hitchhiker siderail carrier is available on a "mass available" basis during the ISS build era. In fact, several hitchhiker payloads flew with the deployment of the Unity module. Hitchhiker siderail carrier payloads have historically flown an average of about four times a year. A hybrid Solid Neon - Superfluid Helium cryostat has been developed with Janis Research Company to accommodate instruments of 16.5 cm diameter and 30 cm. length. This hybrid approach was taken in part to provide adequate on-orbit lifetime for instruments with high (conducted) heat loads from the instrumentation wiring. Mass, volume, lifetime and the launch hold scenario were all design drivers. In addition, with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, a multichannel VME architecture Germanium Resistance Thermometer (GRT) readout and heater control servo system has been developed. In a flight system, the cryostat and electronics payloads would be umbilically attached in a paired Hitchhiker siderail mount, and permit on-orbit command and telemetry capability. The results of performance tests of both the cryostat, and a helium sample instrument will be presented. The instrument features a self contained, miniaturized, nano-Kelvin resolution High Resolution Thermometer (HRT). This high level of thermal resolution is achieved through the utilization of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). Although developed for the Low Temperature Microgravity Fundamental Physics investigator community, many design features are applicable in fields such as infrared and x-ray astronomy.

  20. D0 Cryogenic System Operator Training

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1991-11-30

    D0 is a collider detector. It will be operating and doing physics at the same time as CDP, therefore it has been decided to train CDP operators to operate and respond to the D0 cryogenic control system. A cryogenic operator will be required to be in residence at D0, during the cooldown and liquid Argon fill of any of the calorimeters. The cryogenic system at D0 is designed to be unmanned during steady state operation. CDP operations has 2 man cryogenic shifts 24 hours a day. It is intended that CDP operators monitor the D0 cryogenic systems, evaluate and respond to alarms, and notify a D0 cryo expert in the event of an unusual problem. A D0 cryogenic system view node has been installed at CDP to help facilitate these goals. It should be noted that even though the CDP view node is a fully operational node it is intended that it be more of an information node and is therefore password protected. The D0 cryo experts may reassess the use of the CDP node at a later date based on experience and operating needs. This engineering note outlines the format of the training and testing given to the CDP operators to make them qualified D0 operators.

  1. Cryogenic ion chemistry and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Arron B; Leavitt, Christopher M; Garand, Etienne; Johnson, Mark A

    2014-01-21

    The use of mass spectrometry in macromolecular analysis is an incredibly important technique and has allowed efficient identification of secondary and tertiary protein structures. Over 20 years ago, Chemistry Nobelist John Fenn and co-workers revolutionized mass spectrometry by developing ways to non-destructively extract large molecules directly from solution into the gas phase. This advance, in turn, enabled rapid sequencing of biopolymers through tandem mass spectrometry at the heart of the burgeoning field of proteomics. In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. This is accomplished by first cooling the ions close to 10 K and condensing onto them weakly bound, chemically inert small molecules or rare gas atoms. This assembly can then be used as a medium in which to quench reactive encounters by rapid evaporation of the adducts, as well as provide a universal means for acquiring highly resolved vibrational action spectra of the embedded species by photoinduced mass loss. Moreover, the spectroscopic measurements can be obtained with readily available, broadly tunable pulsed infrared lasers because absorption of a single photon is sufficient to induce evaporation. We discuss the implementation of these methods with a new type of hybrid photofragmentation mass spectrometer involving two stages of mass selection with two laser excitation regions interfaced to the cryogenic ion source. We illustrate several capabilities of the cryogenic ion spectrometer by presenting recent applications to peptides, a biomimetic catalyst, a large antibiotic molecule (vancomycin), and reaction intermediates pertinent to the chemistry of the ionosphere. First, we demonstrate how site-specific isotopic substitution can be used to identify bands due to local functional groups in a protonated tripeptide designed to stereoselectively catalyze bromination of biaryl substrates. This procedure directly reveals the particular H-bond donor and acceptor groups that enforce the folded structure of the bare ion as well as provide contact points for noncovalent interaction with substrates. We then show how photochemical hole-burning involving only vibrational excitations can be used in a double-resonance mode to systematically disentangle overlapping spectra that arise when several conformers of a dipeptide are prepared in the ion source. Finally, we highlight our ability to systematically capture reaction intermediates and spectroscopically characterize their structures. Through this method, we can identify the pathway for water-network-mediated, proton-coupled transformation of nitrosonium, NO(+) to HONO, a key reaction controlling the cations present in the ionosphere. Through this work, we reveal the critical role played by water molecules occupying the second solvation shell around the ion, where they stabilize the emergent product ion in a fashion reminiscent of the solvent coordinate responsible for the barrier to charge transfer in solution. Looking to the future, we predict that the capture and characterization of fleeting intermediate complexes in the homogeneous catalytic activation of small molecules like water, alkanes, and CO2 is a likely avenue rich with opportunity. PMID:23972279

  2. Mass Driver Two - Cryogenic module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fine, K.; Williams, F.; Mongeau, P.; Kolm, H.

    1979-01-01

    The cryogenic module of Mass Driver Two comprises a 3.25 inch (82.55 mm) OD bucket with two 44 kilo-ampere-turn coils made with .028 inch (.71 mm) diam niobium-titanium multi-filamentary cable in a copper matrix, impregnated with lead alloy for thermal inertia, as well as the service station to refrigerate, energize and eject the bucket. The station is housed in a six inch flanged pyrex cross which connects to the four inch pyrex tube of the mass driver itself. The bucket is refrigerated by being forced against a copper braid cradle attached to the bottom of a liquid helium reservoir which protrudes into the cross from above. The bucket is energized inductively by turning off two superconducting coils which are also attached to the helium reservoir, and which have maintained the correct flux linkage through the bucket coils during their cool-down through the critical temperature. Once charging is completed, the clamping pressure is released and the bucket is injected into the mass driver by means of two normal-conductor pulse coils surrounding the horizontal branches of the cross.

  3. Active Costorage of Cryogenic Propellants for Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, E. R.; Boyle, R. F.; Mustafi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term storage of cryogenic propellants is a critical requirement for NASA's effort to return to the moon. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen provide the highest specific impulse of any practical chemical propulsion system, and thus provides the greatest payload mass per unit of launch mass. Future manned missions will require vehicles with the flexibility to remain in orbit for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogenic liquids. For decades cryogenic scientific satellites have used cryogens to cool instruments. In many cases, the lifetime of the primary cryogen tank has been extended by intercepting much of the heat incident on the tank at an intermediate-temperature shield cooled either by a second cryogen tank or a mechanical cryocooler. For an LH2/LO2 propellant system, a combination of these ideas can be used, in which the shield around the LO2 tank is attached to, and at the same temperature as, the LO2 tank, but is actively cooled so as to remove all heat impinging on the tank and shield. This configuration eliminates liquid oxygen boil-off and cuts the liquid hydrogen boil-off to a small fraction of the unshielded rate. This paper studies the concept of active costorage as a means of long-term cryogenic propellant storage. The paper describes the design impact of an active costorage system for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This paper also compares the spacecraft level impact of the active costorage concept with a passive storage option in relation to two different scales of spacecraft that will be used for the lunar exploration effort, the CEV and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS). Spacecraft level studies are performed to investigate the impact of scaling of the costorage technologies for the different components of the Lunar Architecture and for different mission durations.

  4. Electronic Components and Systems for Cryogenic Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammoud, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S.; Elbuluk, M. E.; Overton, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic components and systems capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated in many future NASA space missions such as deep space probes and planetary surface exploration. For example, an unheated interplanetary probe launched to explore the rings of Saturn would reach an average temperature near Saturn of about - 183 C. In addition to surviving the deep space harsh environment, electronics capable of low temperature operation would contribute to improving circuit performance, increasing system efficiency, and reducing payload development and launch costs. Terrestrial applications where components and systems must operate in low temperature environments include cryogenic instrumentation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetic levitation transportation system, and arctic exploration. An on-going research and development program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on the development of reliable electronic devices and efficient power systems capable of surviving in low temperature environments. An overview of the program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low temperature test facilities along with selected data obtained from in-house component testing will also be discussed. Ongoing research activities that are being performed in collaboration with various organizations will also be presented.

  5. On 32-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Ortiz, G. G.; Duh, K. H. G.; Kopp, W. F.; Ho, P.; Chao, P. C.; Kao, M. Y.; Smith, P. M.; Ballingall, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The cryogenic noise temperature performance of a two-stage and a three-stage 32 GHz High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifier was evaluated. The amplifiers employ 0.25 micrometer conventional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices, hybrid matching input and output microstrip circuits, and a cryogenically stable dc biasing network. The noise temperature measurements were performed in the frequency range of 31 to 33 GHz over a physical temperature range of 300 K down to 12 K. Across the measurement band, the amplifiers displayed a broadband response, and the noise temperature was observed to decrease by a factor of 10 in cooling from 300 K to 15 K. The lowest noise temperature measured for the two-stage amplifier at 32 GHz was 35 K with an associated gain of 16.5 dB, while the three-stage amplifier measured 39 K with an associated gain of 26 dB. It was further observed that both amplifiers were insensitive to light.

  6. 32-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duh, K. H. George; Kopp, William F.; Ho, Pin; Chao, Pane-Chane; Ko, Ming-Yih; Smith, Phillip M.; Ballingall, James M.; Bautista, J. Javier; Ortiz, Gerardo G.

    1989-01-01

    The cryogenic noise temperature performance of a two-stage and a three-stage 32 GHz high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier was evaluated. The amplifiers employ 0.25 micrometer conventional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices, hybrid matching input and output microstrip circuits, and a cryogenically stable dc biasing network. The noise temperature measurements were performed in the frequency range of 31 to 33 GHz over a physical temperature range of 300 K down to 12 K. Across the measurement band, the amplifiers displayed a broadband response, and the noise temperature was observed to decrease by a factor of 10 in cooling from 300 to 15 K. The lowest noise temperature measured for the two-stage amplifier at 32 GHz was 35 K with an associated gain of 16.5 dB, while the three-stage amplifier measured 39 K with an associated gain of 26 dB. It was further observed that both amplifiers were insensitive to light.

  7. Engineering and fabrication cost considerations for cryogenic wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, R. M., Jr.; Davenport, J. B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication cost drivers for cryogenic transonic wind tunnel models are defined. The major cost factors for wind tunnel models are model complexity, tolerances, surface finishes, materials, material validation, and model inspection. The cryogenic temperatures require the use of materials with relatively high fracture toughness but at the same time high strength. Some of these materials are very difficult to machine, requiring extensive machine hours which can add significantly to the manufacturing costs. Some additional engineering costs are incurred to certify the materials through mechanical tests and nondestructive evaluation techniques, which are not normally required with conventional models. When instrumentation such as accelerometers and electronically scanned pressure modules is required, temperature control of these devices needs to be incorporated into the design, which requires added effort. Additional thermal analyses and subsystem tests may be necessary, which also adds to the design costs. The largest driver to the design costs is potentially the additional static and dynamic analyses required to insure structural integrity of the model and support system.

  8. Cryogenic pellet production developments for long-pulse plasma operation

    SciTech Connect

    Meitner, S. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; McGill, J. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; McGinnis, W. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2014-01-29

    Long pulse plasma operation on large magnetic fusion devices require multiple forms of cryogenically formed pellets for plasma fueling, on-demand edge localized mode (ELM) triggering, radiative cooling of the divertor, and impurity transport studies. The solid deuterium fueling and ELM triggering pellets can be formed by extrusions created by helium cooled, twin-screw extruder based injection system that freezes deuterium in the screw section. A solenoid actuated cutter mechanism is activated to cut the pellets from the extrusion, inserting them into the barrel, and then fired by the pneumatic valve pulse of high pressure gas. Fuel pellets are injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, and ELM triggering pellets are injected at rates up to 20 Hz. The radiative cooling and impurity transport study pellets are produced by introducing impurity gas into a helium cooled section of a pipe gun where it deposits in-situ. A pneumatic valve is opened and propellant gas is released downstream where it encounters a passive punch which initially accelerates the pellet before the gas flow around the finishes the pellet acceleration. This paper discusses the various cryogenic pellet production techniques based on the twin-screw extruder, pipe gun, and pellet punch designs.

  9. Cryogenic pellet production developments for long-pulse plasma operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitner, S. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; McGill, J. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; McGinnis, W. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Long pulse plasma operation on large magnetic fusion devices require multiple forms of cryogenically formed pellets for plasma fueling, on-demand edge localized mode (ELM) triggering, radiative cooling of the divertor, and impurity transport studies. The solid deuterium fueling and ELM triggering pellets can be formed by extrusions created by helium cooled, twin-screw extruder based injection system that freezes deuterium in the screw section. A solenoid actuated cutter mechanism is activated to cut the pellets from the extrusion, inserting them into the barrel, and then fired by the pneumatic valve pulse of high pressure gas. Fuel pellets are injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, and ELM triggering pellets are injected at rates up to 20 Hz. The radiative cooling and impurity transport study pellets are produced by introducing impurity gas into a helium cooled section of a pipe gun where it deposits in-situ. A pneumatic valve is opened and propellant gas is released downstream where it encounters a passive punch which initially accelerates the pellet before the gas flow around the finishes the pellet acceleration. This paper discusses the various cryogenic pellet production techniques based on the twin-screw extruder, pipe gun, and pellet punch designs.

  10. Thin semi-rigid coaxial cables for cryogenics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushino, Akihiro; Kasai, Soichi

    2013-03-01

    We have developed cryogenic coaxial cables for low temperature signal readout from sensitive devices, such as transition edge sensors, superconducting tunnel junctions, and kinetic inductance detectors. In order to reduce heat penetration into cryogenic stages, low thermal conductivity metals were chosen for both center and outer electrical conductors. Various types of coaxial cables, employing stainless-steel, cupro-nickel, brass, beryllium-copper, phosphor-bronze, niobium, and niobium-titanium, were manufactured using drawing dies. Thermal and electrical properties were investigated between 1 and 8 K. Coaxial cables made of copper alloys showed thermal conductance roughly consistent with literature, meanwhile Nb coaxial cable must be affected by the drawing process and thermal conductance was lowered. Attenuation of superconducting Nb and NbTi coaxial cables were observed to be adequately small up to above 10 GHz compared to those of normal conducting coaxial cables, which are subject to the Wiedemann-Franz law. We also measured normal conducting coaxial cables with silver-plated center conductors to improve high frequency performance.

  11. Cryogenic processes and equipment - 1984; Proceedings of the Fifth Intersociety Cryogenics Symposium, New Orleans, LA, December 9-14, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kerney, P.J.; Chatterjee, N.; Cranwford, D.B.; El-Masri, M.

    1984-01-01

    The topics of cryogenic processes for LNG and EOR, cryogenic refrigerators, components for cryogenic systems, liquid hydrogen as a fuel, cryogenic processes and equipment for large systems, and cryogenic thermodynamics and heat transfer are discussed. The papers include analysis of process efficiency for baseload LNG production, process efficiency considerations for nitrogen rejection units, design and performance analysis of gas sorption compressors, cryogenic vacuum pump design, and thehydrogen-fueled hydrogen transport rail system (a NASA proposal). In addition, refueling considerations for liquid hydrogen-fueled vehicles, variable oxygen supply systems, and orientation dependence to liquid helium heat transfer from a cable-in-channel configuration are considered.

  12. Cryogenic processes and equipment - 1984; Proceedings of the Fifth Intersociety Cryogenics Symposium, New Orleans, LA, December 9-14, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerney, P. J.; Chatterjee, N.; Crawford, D. B.; El-Masri, M.

    The topics of cryogenic processes for LNG and EOR, cryogenic refrigerators, components for cryogenic systems, liquid hydrogen as a fuel, cryogenic processes and equipment for large systems, and cryogenic thermodynamics and heat transfer are discussed. The papers include analysis of process efficiency for baseload LNG production, process efficiency considerations for nitrogen rejection units, design and performance analysis of gas sorption compressors, cryogenic vacuum pump design, and the hydrogen-fueled hydrogen transport rail system (a NASA proposal). In addition, refueling considerations for liquid hydrogen-fueled vehicles, variable oxygen supply systems, and orientation dependence to liquid helium heat transfer from a cable-in-channel configuration are considered.

  13. Ceramic Fiber Structures for Cryogenic Load-Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This invention is intended for use as a load-bearing device under cryogenic temperatures and/or abrasive conditions (i.e., during missions to the Moon). The innovation consists of small-diameter, ceramic fibers that are woven or braided into devices like ropes, belts, tracks, or cables. The fibers can be formed from a variety of ceramic materials like silicon carbide, carbon, aluminosilicate, or aluminum oxide. The fiber architecture of the weave or braid is determined by both the fiber properties and the mechanical requirements of the application. A variety of weave or braid architectures is possible for this application. Thickness of load-bearing devices can be achieved by using either a 3D woven structure, or a layered, 2D structure. For the prototype device, a belt approximately 0.10 in. (0.25 cm) thick, and 3.0 in. (7.6 cm) wide was formed by layering and stitching a 2D aluminosilicate fiber weave.

  14. Flight Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Kobel, Mark; Bugby, David; Kroliczek, Edward; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1999-01-01

    Future space-based cryogenic systems will require enhanced integration flexibility, lower weight reduced parasitic penalties, better vibration isolation, and a variety of other improvements to meet performance goals. Additionally, there is an increasing need to locate cooling sources remotely from cooled components. In the past flexible conductive links were used and worked well in most cases. However, as the transport lengths increase, conductive couplings become heavier and less effective, and must be replaced by higher performance systems. One available option, which can meet many of these future requirements, is the cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL). The development of the CCPL technology started in 1992, following the success of the room temperature CPLS. The extrapolation of CCPL technology to cryogenic temperatures offers many performance benefits, which are not currently within the reach of traditional heat pipes or conductive links. Specific advantages of the CCPL technology pertaining to cryocooler integration include: (1) greater capillary pumping pressure for improved ground testability; (2) improved mechanical isolation; (3) faster diode shutdown and lower reverse heat leaks; (4) tighter control of detector temperature; (5) variable or fixed conductance operation; and (6) ease of integration due to their flexibility. The applications of CCPL technology are numerous. Military and commercial applications include surveillance satellites, earth observing satellites, deep space observation systems, medical devices, and many other cryogenic systems. Over the past few years, several breadboard and prototype CCPLs have been built and ground tested. A prototype CCPL has demonstrated successful operation between 80K and 110K with heat loads between O.5W and 12W using nitrogen as the working fluid, and 35K and 40K with head loads of 0.25W to 3.5W using neon. In order to verify CCPL performance in a microgravity environment, a flight unit, CCPL-5, was tested onboard the Space Shuttle STS-95 in October of 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight was the first in-space demonstration of the CCPL. The CCPL-5 utilized nitrogen as the working fluid and operated between 75K and 110K. Flight results indicated excellent performance of the CCPL-5 under zero-G environment The CCPL could start from a supercritical condition in all tests, and the loop operating temperature could be tightly controlled regardless of changes in the heat load and/or the sink temperature. In addition, the loop demonstrated successful operation with a heat load of 0.5W as well as with parasitic heat loads alone. There were no noticeable differences between zero-G and one-G operation.

  15. Thermodynamic Vent System for an On-Orbit Cryogenic Reaction Control Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Romig, Kris A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Flores, Sam

    2012-01-01

    A report discusses a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) that integrates a Joule-Thompson (JT) device (expansion valve) and thermodynamic vent system (TVS) with a cryogenic distribution system to allow fine control of the propellant quality (subcooled liquid) during operation of the device. It enables zero-venting when coupled with an RCS engine. The proper attachment locations and sizing of the orifice are required with the propellant distribution line to facilitate line conditioning. During operations, system instrumentation was strategically installed along the distribution/TVS line assembly, and temperature control bands were identified. A sub-scale run tank, full-scale distribution line, open-loop TVS, and a combination of procured and custom-fabricated cryogenic components were used in the cryogenic RCS build-up. Simulated on-orbit activation and thruster firing profiles were performed to quantify system heat gain and evaluate the TVS s capability to maintain the required propellant conditions at the inlet to the engine valves. Test data determined that a small control valve, such as a piezoelectric, is optimal to provide continuously the required thermal control. The data obtained from testing has also assisted with the development of fluid and thermal models of an RCS to refine integrated cryogenic propulsion system designs. This system allows a liquid oxygenbased main propulsion and reaction control system for a spacecraft, which improves performance, safety, and cost over conventional hypergolic systems due to higher performance, use of nontoxic propellants, potential for integration with life support and power subsystems, and compatibility with in-situ produced propellants.

  16. Mechanical response of nonwoven polyester fabric/epoxy composites at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Yasuhide; Takeda, Tomo; Narita, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we characterize the cryogenic mechanical response of nonwoven polyester/epoxy composites for high temperature superconducting devices. The test specimens were produced from the composite cylindrical components, and tension, compression and flexure tests were performed at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) to evaluate the elastic and strength properties of the composites. The failure characteristics of the composites were examined by microscopic observations of failed specimens. The temperature dependence and anisotropy of the composite properties were discussed.

  17. A 2.3-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT amplifier for DSS 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanida, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype 2.3 GHz (S band) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier/closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) system was installed in the DDS-13 feedcone, replacing the 2.3 GHz maser. The amplifier is cryogenically cooled to a physical temperature of 12 K and provides 31.5 K antenna system noise temperature and 29 dB of gain. The HEMT device used in the amplifier is a prototype.

  18. The SHOOT cryogenic components - Testing and applicability to other flight programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, Michael J.; Schein, Michael E.; Boyle, Robert F.; Figueroa, Orlando; Lindauer, David A.; Mchugh, Daniel C.; Shirron, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    Cryogenic components and techniques for the superfluid helium on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) flight demonstration are described. Instrumentation for measuring liquid quantity, position, flow rate, temperature, and pressure has been developed using the data obtained from the IRAS, Cosmic Background Explorer, and Spacelab 2 helium dewars. Topics discussed include valves and burst disks, fluid management devices, structural/thermal components, instrumentation, and ground support equipment and performance test apparatus.

  19. The Future with Cryogenic Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scurlock, R. G.

    The applications of cryogenic systems have expanded over the past 50 years into many areas of our lives. During this time, the impact of the common features of Cryogenic Fluid Dynamics, CryoFD, on the economic design of these cryogenic systems, has grown out of a long series of experimental studies carried out by teams of postgraduate students at Southampton University.These studies have sought to understand the heat transfer and convective behavior of cryogenic liquids and vapors, but they have only skimmed over the many findings made, on the strong convective motions of fluids at low temperatures. The convection takes place in temperature gradients up to 10,000 K per meter, and density gradients of 1000% per meter and more, with rapid temperature and spatially dependent changes in physical properties like viscosity and surface tension, making software development and empirical correlations almost impossible to achieve. These temperature and density gradients are far larger than those met in other convecting systems at ambient temperatures, and there is little similarity. The paper will discuss the likely impact of CryoFD on future cryogenic systems, and hopefully inspire further research to support and expand the use of existing findings, and to improve the economy of present-day systems even more effectively. Particular examples to be mentioned include the following. Doubling the cooling power of cryo-coolers by a simple use of CryoFD. Reducing the boil-off rate of liquid helium stored at the South Pole, such that liquid helium availability is now all-the-year-round. Helping to develop the 15 kA current leads for the LHC superconducting magnets at CERN, with much reduced refrigeration loads. Improving the heat transfer capability of boiling heat transfer surfaces by 10 to 100 fold. This paper is an edited text of an invited plenary presentation at ICEC25/ICMC2014 by Professor Scurlock on the occasion of his being presented with the ICEC Mendelssohn Award for his many contributions to Cryogenics. As long ago as 1992, he first proposed in his "History and Origins of Cryogenics" that the temperature range for Cryogenics should be extended up to the ice-point at 273K. This paper expands on this proposal with the implicit assumption that Cryogenic Fluid Dynamics can provide a universal basis for modelling heat transfer and convective fluid behaviour of all fluids, at all temperatures, below the ice-point at 273K; or below 250K if you wish to exclude refrigeration engineering."

  20. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  1. Cryogenic System for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Arenius, D.; Chronis, W.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2004-06-23

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a neutron-scattering facility being built at Oak Ridge, TN for the US Department of Energy. The SNS accelerator linac consists of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in cryostats (cryomodules). The linac cryomodules are cooled to 2.1 K by a 2300 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. As an SNS partner laboratory, Jefferson Lab is responsible for the installed integrated cryogenic system design for the SNS linac accelerator consisting of major subsystem equipment engineered and procured from industry. Jefferson Lab's work included developing the major vendor subsystem equipment procurement specifications, equipment procurement, and the integrated system engineering support of the field installation and commissioning. The major cryogenic system components include liquid nitrogen storage, gaseous helium storage, cryogen distribution transfer line system, 2.1-K cold box consisting of four stages of cold compressors, 4.5-K cold box, warm helium compressors with its associated oil removal, gas management, helium purification, gas impurity monitoring systems, and the supportive utilities of electrical power, cooling water and instrument air. The system overview, project organization, the important aspects, and the capabilities of the cryogenic system are described.

  2. Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  3. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  4. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  5. Cryogenic applications of commercial electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Harvey Moseley, S.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2 K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG [1] and in the GISMO [2] camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  6. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J. G.; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  7. Apparatus permits flexure testing of specimens at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denaburg, C. R.; Reece, O. Y.

    1965-01-01

    Cryostat with support structure for test specimen allows flexure fatigue testing of honeycomb composite sandwich structures at cryogenic temperatures. The cryostat consists of a cryogen container enclosing two pairs of yokes which support two rotating end clamps.

  8. Energy Efficient Cryogenics on Earth and in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for energy-efficient cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  9. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet gallium arsenide (GaAs) junction field effect transistors (JFET's) have been investigated down to liquid-helium temperatures. Noise characterization was performed with the field effect transistor (FET) in the floating-gate mode, in the grounded-gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible, and with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages to determine optimum operating conditions. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to silicon (Si) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET's) operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n channel junction field effect transistor (n-JFET's) operating at 300 K.

  10. Cryogenic optomechanics with a 261kHz mechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghun; Jayich, Andrew; Sankey, Jack; Yang, Chen; Childress, Lily; Underwood, Mitchell; Borkje, Kjetil; Girvin, Steve; Harris, Jack

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical motion can interact with light via radiation pressure force. With recent experimental advances over the last few years, such optomechanical coupling has been used to reach quantum ground state of mechanical oscillators, which opens interesting new regime of observing quantum mechanics in macroscopic objects. The optomechanical devices used in this talk consist of a dielectric SiN membrane located inside a high finesse optical cavity. Combining cryogenic cooling in He3 refrigerator and resolved sideband laser cooling enables us to cool the membrane's mechanical mode (whose mechanical frequency is 261kHz) to less than 60 phonons. We will describe some technical challenges in our experiments such as the role of classical phase noise of the cooling laser at the mechanical frequency and our efforts to significantly reduce it via a filter cavity.

  11. The cryogenic transonic wind tunnel for high Reynolds number research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.; Ray, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with the transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept has been shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects.

  12. Cryogenic Amplifier Based Receivers at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore and; Schlecht, Erich; Lin, Robert; Deal, William

    2012-01-01

    The operating frequency of InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based amplifiers has moved well in the submillimeter-wave frequencies over the last couple of years. Working amplifiers with usable gain in waveguide packages has been reported beyond 700 GHz. When cooled cryogenically, they have shown substantial improvement in their noise temperature. This has opened up the real possibility of cryogenic amplifier based heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths for ground-based, air-borne, and space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary, and Earth science applications. This paper provides an overview of the science applications at submillimeter wavelengths that will benefit from this technology. It also describes the current state of the InP HEMT based cryogenic amplifier receivers at submillimeter wavelengths.

  13. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  14. Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S

    2012-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

  15. Cryogenic transfer module for geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiknine, Claude

    1992-02-01

    Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) is developing a Cryogenic Transfer Module (CTM) which will be able to raise a 2,100-kg satellite from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit. The CTM is fully independent of the satellite payload during the entire transfer mission, which can last about 10 days. It is powered by a cryogenic propulsion unit of 10,000-N thrust, using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. Total burn time is 2,100 seconds, typically divided into five discrete burns at perigee and apogee. The stage mass fraction is 0.87, with a maximum cryogenic propellant mass of 4,800 kg. Ground tests of the propulsion unit have been started.

  16. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  17. Long term storage of cryogens in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, D. A.; Eberhardt, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental design procedures leading to the configuration of a space-based cryogenic fluids test system are reported. Large quantities of cryogenic fluids are expected to be required in space for cooling systems, chemical and electrical OTVs, and resupply tankers. The design was guided by the necessity for representative storage and supply systems to be compatible with the Shuttle. Consideration was given to liquid hydrogen, oxygen, methane, and argon containers and concommitant fluid dynamics, thermal, and structural analyses. A 5% initial ullage was included for the liquids, except for methane, which was calculated at 8.9%. The Ar, CH4, and O2 tanks were set at 12.5 cu m, while the H2 tank was 37.4 cu m. The orbital experiment is required to provide actual thermal stabilization lags in a zero-g environment. Details of the Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility test module for flight on board the Shuttle are presented.

  18. Performance of Power Converters at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Power converters capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated to play an important role in the power system architecture of future NASA deep space missions. Design of such converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance and reduce development and launch costs. Aerospace power systems are mainly a DC distribution network. Therefore, DC/DC and DC/AC converters provide the outputs needed to different loads at various power levels. Recently, research efforts have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to design and evaluate DC/DC converters that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. This paper presents a summary of the research performed to evaluate the low temperature performance of five DC/DC converters. Various parameters were investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 20 to -196 C. Data pertaining to the output voltage regulation and efficiency of the converters is presented and discussed.

  19. Cryogenic insulation standard data and methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although some standards exist for thermal insulation, few address the sub-ambient temperature range and cold-side temperatures below 100 K. Standards for cryogenic insulation systems require cryostat testing and data analysis that will allow the development of the tools needed by design engineers and thermal analysts for the design of practical cryogenic systems. Thus, this critically important information can provide reliable data and methodologies for industrial efficiency and energy conservation. Two Task Groups have been established in the area of cryogenic insulation systems Under ASTM International's Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation. These are WK29609 - New Standard for Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems and WK29608 - Standard Practice for Multilayer Insulation in Cryogenic Service. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Thermal Energy Laboratory of LeTourneau University are conducting Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) of selected insulation materials. Each lab carries out the measurements of thermal properties of these materials using identical flat-plate boil-off calorimeter instruments. Parallel testing will provide the comparisons necessary to validate the measurements and methodologies. Here we discuss test methods, some initial data in relation to the experimental approach, and the manner reporting the thermal performance data. This initial study of insulation materials for sub-ambient temperature applications is aimed at paving the way for further ILS comparative efforts that will produce standard data sets for several commercial materials. Discrepancies found between measurements will be used to improve the testing and data reduction techniques being developed as part of the future ASTM International standards.

  20. Development of dual solid cryogens for high reliability refrigeration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caren, R. P.; Coston, R. M.

    1967-01-01

    High reliability solid cryogen refrigeration system consists of a container initially filled with a solid cryogen which is coupled thermally to an infrared detector by means of a link of high thermal conductivity extending from a heat exchanger within the cryogen container.

  1. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: 1) Store cryogenic propellants in a manner that maximizes their availability for use regardless of mission duration. 2) Efficiently transfer conditioned cryogenic propellant to an engine or tank situated in a microgravity environment. 3) Accurately monitor and gauge cryogenic propellants situated in a microgravity environment.

  2. Sorption cryogenic refrigeration - Status and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1988-01-01

    The operation principles of sorption cryogenic refrigeration are discussed. Sorption refrigerators have virtually no wear-related moving parts, have negligible vibration, and offer extremely long life (at least ten years), making it possible to obtain efficient, long life and low vibration cooling to as low as 7 K for cryogenic sensors. The physisorption and chemisorption systems recommended for various cooling ranges down to 7 K are described in detail. For long-life cooling at 4-5 K temperatures, a hybrid chemisorption-mechanical refrigeration system is recommended.

  3. Adjustable expandable cryogenic piston and ring

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Peter O. (Aurora, IL); Pallaver, Carl B. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    The operation of a reciprocating expansion engine for cryogenic refrigeration is improved by changing the pistons and rings so that the piston can be operated from outside the engine to vary the groove in which the piston ring is located. This causes the ring, which is of a flexible material, to be squeezed so that its contact with the wall is subject to external control. This control may be made manually or it may be made automatically in response to instruments that sense the amount of blow-by of the cryogenic fluid and adjust for an optimum blow-by.

  4. Cryogenic electron beam induced chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aiden A; Toth, Milos

    2014-11-12

    Cryogenic cooling is used to enable efficient, gas-mediated electron beam induced etching (EBIE) in cases where the etch rate is negligible at room and elevated substrate temperatures. The process is demonstrated using nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) as the etch precursor, and Si, SiO2, SiC, and Si3N4 as the materials volatilized by an electron beam. Cryogenic cooling broadens the range of precursors that can be used for EBIE, and enables high-resolution, deterministic etching of materials that are volatilized spontaneously by conventional etch precursors as demonstrated here by NF3 and XeF2 EBIE of silicon. PMID:25333843

  5. MCP-based photodetectors for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmapalan, R.; Mane, A.; Byrum, K.; Demarteau, M.; Elam, J.; May, E.; Wagner, R.; Walters, D.; Xia, L.; Xie, J.; Zhao, H.

    2016-02-01

    The Argonne MCP-based photo detector is an offshoot of the Large Area Pico-second Photo Detector (LAPPD) project, wherein 6 cm × 6 cm sized detectors are made at Argonne National Laboratory. We have successfully built and tested our first detectors for pico-second timing and few mm spatial resolution. We discuss our efforts to customize these detectors to operate in a cryogenic environment. Initial plans aim to operate in liquid argon. We are also exploring ways to mitigate wave length shifting requirements and also developing bare-MCP photodetectors to operate in a gaseous cryogenic environment.

  6. Liquid Cryogens, Vol 2 Properties and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Experts in the field contribute detailed discussions of the fundamentals of refrigeration, liquefaction, storage and handling of cryogenic fluids in these two volumes. Emphasis is placed on helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and liquified natural gas (LNG). New and updated information resulting from the great expansion of cryogenic technology and its applications is presented. Applications of the fundamentals to small scale laboratory situations and to large scale installations such as those associated with the international commerce of LNG are considered. Also included are discussions on applications of superconducting, and space and magnetic refrigeration systems.

  7. Thermoelectric Module Performance in Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Morita, Ryo; Omoto, Kazuyuki; Koji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Noishiki, Koji

    Performance of thermoelectric (TE) modules for the TE power conversion system combined with open rack type LNG vaporizer (ORV) is discussed. Most of the conventional BiTe TE modules suffer sudden decrease of the power at cryogenic temperature as low as -160°C. This is called as Mayer-Marschall effect. Authors investigated the cause of this effect and found TE modules that could avoid such effect. Performance data of such TE modules obtained at the cryogenic thermoelectric (CTE) test rig which could realize temperature and fluid dynamic condition of the ORV is presented.

  8. Current developments in NASA cryogenic cooler technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Cooler technologies that are being developed by NASA to meet the varying temperature and cooling power requirements of NASA instruments are described. In addition to providing the desired operating temperature and cooling power by stabilizing temperatures from room temperature down to 0.1 K or less, these coolers will have working lifetimes commensurate with the 10 to 15 year lifetime expected for major future NASA facilities. The types of coolers currently under development are discussed, including radiative coolers, solid cryogen coolers, surface tension confined liquid cryogen coolers, mechanical coolers, liquid helium dewars, He3 adsorption coolers, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, and dilution refrigerators.

  9. MSFC COI NMSD Cryogenic Test Data Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD) from Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) was developed in support of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The goal was to produce a 1.6 m class, ultra light-weight (<15 kg/sq m), glass-on-composite mirror that could be operated at 35 K. The mirror has been cryogenically tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) a total of two times. This paper will describe the test goals, the test instrumentation, and the test results (low & high order figure and radius of curvature) for both cryogenic tests.

  10. A cryogenic helium II system for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J. B.; Karr, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a helium II storage and gas delivery system which is to provide refrigeration to a scanning infrared telescope experiment which will be flown in space in 1981 aboard the Spacelab 2 mission. Instead of submerging the infrared apparatus within a large, specially constructed helium dewar, which has been the usual approach to space cryogenics, it was decided to separate the cooled infrared optical system from the storage dewar. As a result of this decision the cryogenic supply system will be able to deliver gaseous or liquid helium cooling to other types of experiments on later Spacelab missions.

  11. Cryogenic fluid management experiment trunnion fatigue verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.; Toth, J. M., Jr.; Kasper, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    A subcritical liquid hydrogen orbital storage and transfer experiment was designed for flight in the Shuttle cargo bay. The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) includes a liquid hydrogen tank supported in a vacuum jacket by two fiberglass epoxy trunnion mounts. This composite material was selected for the trunnions since it provides desirable strength, weight and thermal characteristics for supporting cryogenic tankage. An experimental program was conducted to provide material property and fatigue data for S-glass epoxy composite materials at ambient and liquid hydrogen temperatures and to verify structural integrity of the CFME trunnion supports.

  12. Amplifier development for multiplexed cryogenic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiviranta, Mikko

    2012-12-01

    We make some considerations on the question of driving the cable from the cryogenic stage of refrigerators to the room temperature, in the case of multiplexed detector array systems where a high total Shannon information capacity is required. We have constructed large SQUID arrays for the purpose, some of which exhibit lower than 5 × 10-8 Φ0 Hz-1/2 flux noise at 4.2 K and do not require magnetic shielding in a typical laboratory environment. The option of using class-D amplifiers to reduce the cryogenic heat load is briefly reviewed.

  13. Superconductivity and cryogenics for mirror fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, D. N.

    1980-05-01

    A brief introduction to the mainline experiments being presently pursued in mirror fusion research is followed by a more detailed description of the cryogenic and superconductive aspects of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and its extension to a tandem machine. The large volume of magnetic field required for confinement has maximum intensity of close to 8 T and is produced by a variety of superconducting magnets. A large and complex cryogenic system is necessary to provide the 4 K environment for these coils and to meet the large cryopumping needs of the machine.

  14. Superconductivity and cryogenics for mirror fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, D.N.

    1980-05-19

    A brief introduction to the mainline experiments being presently pursued in mirror fusion research is followed by a more detailed description of the cryogenic and superconductive aspects of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) and its extension to a tandem machine. The large volume of magnetic field required for confinement has a maximum intensity of close to 8 T and is produced by a variety of superconducting magnets. A large and complex cryogenic system is necessary to provide the 4-K environment for these coils and to meet the large cryopumping needs of the machine.

  15. Large scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LCGT Collaborations

    2005-01-01

    Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (LCGT) is proposed to detect directly gravitational waves from neutron binary star coalescences at 240 Mpc away from our galaxy with signal-to-noise ration of 10. The designed strain sensitivity is 3×10-241/√(Hz) at 100 Hz. To realize this sensitivity, LCGT is to be set in a stable and low seismic noise environment such as the Kamioka mine, to have sapphire cryogenic mirrors and suspension fibers, and to utilize broad band RSE technique combining with a power recycling technique. Two identical telescopes are set in the same site to enhance reliable detection. We will introduce the refined LCGT design.

  16. Estimating Transient Pressure Surges in Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, P.; Gunnerson, F.; Hosler, E.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially-damaging pressure waves anticipated and, therefore, avoided. Mathematical model developed for prediction of pressure behavior in single-and two-phase cryogenic systems. Transient liquid-flow analysis modified to incorporate behavior of vapor bubbles and used to predict maximum pressure in cryogenic transfer systems consisting of complex pipe and valve arrangements under both steady-state and transient conditions. Simulation compared favorably with data obtained during transfer of liquid oxygen from ground storage tanks to Space Shuttle orbiter external tanks. Program written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  17. Fractional watt Vuillemier cryogenic refrigerator program engineering notebook. Volume 1: Thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    The cryogenic refrigerator thermal design calculations establish design approach and basic sizing of the machine's elements. After the basic design is defined, effort concentrates on matching the thermodynamic design with that of the heat transfer devices (heat exchangers and regenerators). Typically, the heat transfer device configurations and volumes are adjusted to improve their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. These adjustments imply that changes be made to the active displaced volumes, compensating for the influence of the heat transfer devices on the thermodynamic processes of the working fluid. Then, once the active volumes are changed, the heat transfer devices require adjustment to account for the variations in flows, pressure levels, and heat loads. This iterative process is continued until the thermodynamic cycle parameters match the design of the heat transfer devices. By examing several matched designs, a near-optimum refrigerator is selected.

  18. Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

  19. Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-29

    The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

  20. Environmental testing of high Tc superconductive thermal isolators for space-borne cryogenic detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Randolf, Henry W.; Verbelyi, Darren; Haertling, Gene H.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Selim, Raouf; Caton, Randall

    1992-01-01

    Thick films of superconductive material on low thermal conductivity substrates (e.g., yttria-stabilized zirconia and fused silica) are considered as a replacement for the existing electrical connections between the detector array and data acquisition and storage electronics in the cryogenic detector systems being developed by NASA. The paper describes some of the design constraints on the superconducting device and presents results of a preliminary analysis of the effects of vibration, gamma irradiation, and long-term exposure to high vacuum and liquid nitrogen encountered in operating such a device in space.

  1. Two-Phase Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for the Thermodynamic Vent System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A two-phase cryogenic heat exchanger for a thermodynamic vent system was designed and analyzed, and the predicted performance was compared with test results. A method for determining the required size of the Joule-Thomson device was also developed. Numerous sensitivity studies were performed to show that the design was robust and possessed a comfortable capacity margin. The comparison with the test results showed very similar heat extraction performance for similar inlet conditions. It was also shown that estimates for Joule- Thomson device flow rates and exit quality can vary significantly and these need to be accommodated for with a robust system design.

  2. Characterization of large area PMTs at cryogenic temperature for rare event physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnes, P.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.

    2014-03-01

    We carried out a careful evaluation of the behaviour of the large cathode area Hamamatsu R5912-MOD and R5912-2-MOD photomultiplier tubes operating at cryogenic temperature. The measurements were focused on evaluating the parameters which mainly characterize the operating performances of the devices down to 77K. The results that we obtained demonstrate that both photomultipliers models are suited, with some distinguishing characteristics, for light detection in such unconventional operating conditions, certifying the devices for the direct measurement of scintillation light coming from noble-gas liquids in detectors dedicated to neutrino physics and Dark Matter research.

  3. CRYOGENIC AND VACUUM TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE LOW-ENERGY ELECTROSTATIC CRYOGENIC STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. A.; Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Sieber, T.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A.; Rappaport, M.

    2008-03-16

    The cryogenic and vacuum concepts for the electrostatic Cryogenic ion Storage Ring (CSR), under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, is presented. The ring will operate in a broad temperature range from 2 to 300 K and is required to be bakeable up to 600 K. Extremely high vacuum and low temperatures are necessary to achieve long lifetimes of the molecular ions stored in the ring so that the ions will have enough time to cool by radiation to their vibrational and rotational ground states. To test cryogenic and vacuum technological aspects of the CSR, a prototype is being built and will be connected to the commercial cryogenic refrigerator recently installed, including a specialized 2-K connection system. The first results and the status of current work with the prototype are also presented.

  4. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Zelipsky, Steven A. (Tinley Park, IL); Rezmer, Ronald R. (Lisle, IL); Smelser, Peter (Bruner, MO)

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  5. Cryogenic Technology, part 1. [conference proceedings; cryogenic wind tunnel design and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Different engineering problems associated with the design of mechanisms and systems to operate in a cryogenic environment are discussed. The focal point for the entire engineering effort was the design of the National Transonic Facility, which is a closed-circuit cryogenic wind tunnel. The papers covered a variety of mechanical, structural, and systems design subjects including thermal structures insulation systems, noise, seals, and materials.

  6. Cryogenic Laser Calorimetry for Impurity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swimm, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a one-year effort to determine the applicability of laser-calorimetric spectroscopy to the study of deep-level impurities in silicon are presented. Critical considerations for impurity analysis by laser-calorimetric spectroscopy are discussed, the design and performance of a cryogenic laser calorimeter is described, and measurements of background absorption in high-purity silicon are presented.

  7. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; van Slyke, V.; Barrera, F.; Petersen, H.; Rago, C.E.; Rinta, R.I.; Talaska, D.; Watt, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin. The tests identified problems with the cryogenic system and the 2800 refrigerator. Procedures for successful operation and quenching of the superconducting magnet were developed. 19 references.

  8. Cryogenics Testbed Laboratory Flange Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, Marie Lei Ysabel D.

    2013-01-01

    As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), I was involved in research for the Fluids and Propulsion Division of the NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate. I was immersed in the Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project for the majority of my time at KSC, primarily with the Ground Operations Demonstration Unit Liquid Oxygen (GODU L02) branch of IGODU. This project was established to develop advancements in cryogenic systems as a part of KSC's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. The vision of AES is to develop new approaches for human exploration, and operations in and beyond low Earth orbit. Advanced cryogenic systems are crucial to minimize the consumable losses of cryogenic propellants, develop higher performance launch vehicles, and decrease operations cost for future launch programs. During my internship, I conducted a flange torque tracking study that established a baseline configuration for the flanges in the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at the KSC Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) - the testing environment for GODU L02.

  9. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  10. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  11. Cryogenic Propellant Boil-Off Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, D. W.; Christie, R. J.; Carlberg, E.; Feller, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    Lunar missions under consideration would benefit from incorporation of high specific impulse propellants such as LH2 and LO2, even with their accompanying boil-off losses necessary to maintain a steady tank pressure. This paper addresses a cryogenic propellant boil-off reduction system to minimize or eliminate boil-off. Concepts to do so were considered under the In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Project. Specific to that was an investigation of cryocooler integration concepts for relatively large depot sized propellant tanks. One concept proved promising—it served to efficiently move heat to the cryocooler even over long distances via a compressed helium loop. The analyses and designs for this were incorporated into NASA Glenn Research Center's Cryogenic Analysis Tool. That design approach is explained and shown herein. Analysis shows that, when compared to passive only cryogenic storage, the boil-off reduction system begins to reduce system mass if durations are as low as 40 days for LH2, and 14 days for LO2. In addition, a method of cooling LH2 tanks is presented that precludes development issues associated with LH2 temperature cryocoolers.

  12. Preliminary Thermal Design of Cryogenic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Mustafi, Shuvo; Boutte, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic Hydrogen Radiation Shielding (CHRS) is the most mass efficient material radiation shielding strategy for human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Future human space flight, mission beyond LEO could exceed one year in duration. Previous radiation studies showed that in order to protect the astronauts from space radiation with an annual allowable radiation dose less than 500 mSv, 140 kgm2 of polyethylene is necessary. For a typical crew module that is 4 meter in diameter and 8 meter in length. The mass of polyethylene radiation shielding required would be more than 17,500 kg. The same radiation study found that the required hydrogen shielding for the same allowable radiation dose is 40 kgm2, and the mass of hydrogen required would be 5, 000 kg. Cryogenic hydrogen has higher densities and can be stored in relatively small containment vessels. However, the CHRS system needs a sophisticated thermal system which prevents the cryogenic hydrogen from evaporating during the mission. This study designed a cryogenic thermal system that protects the CHRS from hydrogen evaporation for one to up to three year mission. The design also includes a ground based cooling system that can subcool and freeze liquid hydrogen. The final results show that the CHRS with its required thermal protection system is nearly half of the mass of polyethylene radiation shielding.

  13. Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Donald

    1999-01-01

    One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

  14. Robust Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Scholtens, B. F.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    New requirements for thermal insulation include robust Multilayer insulation (MU) systems that work for a range of environments from high vacuum to no vacuum. Improved MLI systems must be simple to install and maintain while meeting the life-cycle cost and thermal performance objectives. Performance of actual MLI systems has been previously shown to be much worse than ideal MLI. Spacecraft that must contain cryogens for both lunar service (high vacuum) and ground launch operations (no vacuum) are planned. Future cryogenic spacecraft for the soft vacuum environment of Mars are also envisioned. Industry products using robust MLI can benefit from improved cost-efficiency and system safety. Novel materials have been developed to operate as excellent thermal insulators at vacuum levels that are much less stringent than the absolute high vacuum requirement of current MLI systems. One such robust system, Layered Composite Insulation (LCI), has been developed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experimental testing and development of LCI is the focus of this paper. LCI thermal performance under cryogenic conditions is shown to be six times better than MLI at soft vacuum and similar to MLI at high vacuum. The experimental apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux data for LCI systems are compared with other MLI systems.

  15. Cost-Efficient Storage of Cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J. P.; Nagy, Z.; Sojoumer, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's cryogenic infrastructure that supports launch vehicle operations and propulsion testing is reaching an age where major refurbishment will soon be required. Key elements of this infrastructure are the large double-walled cryogenic storage tanks used for both space vehicle launch operations and rocket propulsion testing at the various NASA field centers. Perlite powder has historically been the insulation material of choice for these large storage tank applications. New bulk-fill insulation materials, including glass bubbles and aerogel beads, have been shown to provide improved thermal and mechanical performance. A research testing program was conducted to investigate the thermal performance benefits as well as to identify operational considerations and associated risks associated with the application of these new materials in large cryogenic storage tanks. The program was divided into three main areas: material testing (thermal conductivity and physical characterization), tank demonstration testing (liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen), and system studies (thermal modeling, economic analysis, and insulation changeout). The results of this research work show that more energy-efficient insulation solutions are possible for large-scale cryogenic storage tanks worldwide and summarize the operational requirements that should be considered for these applications.

  16. Cost-Efficient Storage of Cryogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J. P.; Nagy, Z.; Sojourner, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    NASA's cryogenic infrastructure, which supports launch vehicle operations and propulsion testing, is reaching an age when major refurbishment is required. Key elements of this infrastructure are the large double-walled cryogenic storage tanks used for both space vehicle launch operations and rocket propulsion testing at various NASA field centers. Perlite powder has historically been the insulation material of choice for these applications, but new bulk-fill insulation materials, including glass bubbles and aerogel beads, have been shown to provide improved thermal and mechanical performance. Research was conducted on thermal performance to identify operational considerations and risks associated with using these new materials in large cryogenic storage tanks. The program was divided into three main areas: material testing (thermal conductivity and physical characterization), tank demonstration testing (liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen), and system studies (thermal modeling, granular physics, and insulation changeout). This research showed that more energy-efficient insulation solutions are possible for large-scale cryogenic storage tanks worldwide and summarized the operational requirements that should be considered for these applications.

  17. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  18. Stabilizing stainless steel components for cryogenic service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, C. F.

    1967-01-01

    Warpage and creep in stainless steel valve components are decreased by a procedure in which components are machined to a semifinish and then cold soaked in a bath of cryogenic liquid. After the treatment they are returned to ambient temperature and machine finished to the final drawing dimensions.

  19. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  20. Energy Efficient Storage and Transfer of Cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenics is globally linked to energy generation, storage, and usage. Thermal insulation systems research and development is an enabling part of NASA's technology goals for Space Launch and Exploration. New thermal testing methodologies and materials are being transferred to industry for a wide range of commercial applications.

  1. Fiber optic level sensor for cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.

    1981-01-01

    Sensor is useful in cryogenic environments where liquids of very low index of refraction are encountered. It is "yes/no" indication of whether liquid is in contact with sensor. Sharp bends in fiber alter distribution of light among propagation modes. This amplifies change in light output observed when sensor contacts liquid, without requiring long fiber that would increse insertion loss.

  2. Robust Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Scholtens, B. E.

    2008-03-01

    New requirements for thermal insulation include robust Multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that work for a range of environments from high vacuum to no vacuum. Improved MLI systems must be simple to install and maintain while meeting the life-cycle cost and thermal performance objectives. Performance of actual MLI systems has been previously shown to be much worse than ideal MLI. Spacecraft that must contain cryogens for both lunar service (high vacuum) and ground launch operations (no vacuum) are planned. Future cryogenic spacecraft for the soft vacuum environment of Mars are also envisioned. Industry products using robust MLI can benefit from improved cost-efficiency and system safety. Novel materials have been developed to operate as excellent thermal insulators at vacuum levels that are much less stringent than the absolute high vacuum requirement of current MLI systems. One such robust system, Layered Composite Insulation (LCI), has been developed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experimental testing and development of LCI is the focus of this paper. LCI thermal performance under cryogenic conditions is shown to be six times better than MLI at soft vacuum and similar to MLI at high vacuum. The experimental apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux data for LCI systems are compared with other MLI systems.

  3. Cryogenic thermoelectric thermometer using a heat tube

    SciTech Connect

    Skripnik, Yu.A.; Khimicheva, A.I.

    1995-09-01

    An original application of heat tubes is proposed for increasing the accuracy of cryogenic temperature measurement. This is achieved by supplementary action on the working end of the thermocouple, based on the tube`s heat energy transmission, controlled by a magnetic field.

  4. Elastic vacuum seal for cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenko, E.A.

    1988-06-01

    Cold-hardened silicone rubber is proposed as a vacuum seal in units that contain materials with vastly different expansion coefficients and which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The cold vulcanization process and the polymerization catalyst used to accelerate and stabilize the process are described. Test results obtained for vacuum tightness in liquid nitrogen are assessed.

  5. The cryogenic wind tunnel for high Reynolds number testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of cryogenic wind tunnels is reviewed with reference to the theory and advantages of cryogenic tunnels, problems common to wind tunnels and their solution, and application of cryogenic wind tunnels to high Reynolds number testing. It is shown that cryogenic wind tunnels can achieve full-scale Reynolds number with reasonable tunnel size, dynamic pressure, and drive power; the use of such tunnels also makes it possible to separate the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and aeroelasticity. Application of the cryogenic tunnel concept is illustrated by three examples, namely an atmospheric low-speed cryogenic tunnel, a 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, and the National Transonic Facility now nearing completion.

  6. Cryogenic systems for the large deployable reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Peter V.

    1988-01-01

    There are five technologies which may have application for Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), one passive and four active. In order of maturity, they are passive stored cryogen systems, and mechanical, sorption, magnetic, and pulse-tube refrigerators. In addition, deep space radiators will be required to reject the heat of the active systems, and may be useful as auxiliary coolers for the stored cryogen systems. Hybrid combinations of these technologies may well be more efficient than any one alone, and extensive system studies will be required to determine the best trade-offs. Stored cryogen systems were flown on a number of missions. The systems are capable of meeting the temperature requirements of LDR. The size and weight of stored cryogen systems are proportional to heat load and, as a result, are applicable only if the low-temperature heat load can be kept small. Systems using chemisorption and physical adsorption for compressors and pumps have received considerable attention in the past few years. Systems based on adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts were used for refrigeration for many years. Pulse-tube refrigerators were recently proposed which show relatively high efficiency for temperatures in the 60 to 80 K range. The instrument heat loads and operating temperatures are critical to the selection and design of the cryogenic system. Every effort should be made to minimize heat loads, raise operating temperatures, and to define these precisely. No one technology is now ready for application to LDR. Substantial development efforts are underway in all of the technologies and should be monitored and advocated. Magnetic and pulse-tube refrigerators have high potential.

  7. Subcooling for Long Duration In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustafi, Shuvo; Johnson, Wesley; Kashani, Ali; Jurns, John; Kutter, Bernard; Kirk, Daniel; Shull, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as hydrogen and oxygen are crucial for exploration of the solar system because of their superior specific impulse capability. Future missions may require vehicles to remain in space for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogens. A Thermodynamic Cryogen Subcooler (TCS) can ease the challenge of cryogenic fluid storage by removing energy from the cryogenic propellant through isobaric subcooling of the cryogen below its normal boiling point prior to launch. The isobaric subcooling of the cryogenic propellant will be performed by using a cold pressurant to maintain the tank pressure while the cryogen's temperature is simultaneously reduced using the TCS. The TCS hardware will be integrated into the launch infrastructure and there will be no significant addition to the launched dry mass. Heat leaks into all cryogenic propellant tanks, despite the use of the best insulation systems. However, the large heat capacity available in the subcooled cryogenic propellants allows the energy that leaks into the tank to be absorbed until the cryogen reaches its operational thermodynamic condition. During this period of heating of the subcooled cryogen there will be minimal loss of the propellant due to venting for pressure control. This simple technique can extend the operational life of a spacecraft or an orbital cryogenic depot for months with minimal mass penalty. In fact isobaric subcooling can more than double the in-space hold time of liquid hydrogen compared to normal boiling point hydrogen. A TCS for cryogenic propellants would thus provide an enhanced level of mission flexibility. Advances in the important components of the TCS will be discussed in this paper.

  8. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars missions. The NCPS is being designed to readily integrate with the Space Launch System (SLS). A wide range of strategies for enabling affordable NCPS development, qualification, and utilization should be considered. These include multiple test and demonstration strategies (both ground and in-space), multiple potential test sites, and multiple engine designs. Two potential NCPS fuels are currently under consideration - coated graphite composite fuel and tungsten cermet fuel. During 2014 a representative, partial length (approximately 16") coated graphite composite fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, a representative, partial length (approximately 16") cermet fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the development process small samples (approximately 3" length) will be tested in the Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) in a hydrogen environment to help ensure that basic fuel design and manufacturing process are adequate and have been performed correctly. Once designs and processes have been developed, longer fuel element segments will be fabricated and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREE) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) and in flowing hydrogen.

  9. The cryogenic cooling program in high-heat-load optics at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.S.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes some of the aspects of the cryogenic optics program at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A liquid-nitrogen-cooled, high-vacuum, double crystal monochromator is being fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A pumping system capable of delivering a variable flow rate of up to 10 gallons per minute of pressurized liquid nitrogen and removing 5 kilowatts of x-ray power is also being constructed. This specialized pumping system and monochromator will be used to test the viability of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load synchrotron optics. It has been determined that heat transfer enhancement will be required for optics used with APS insertion devices. An analysis of a porous-matrix-enhanced monochromator crystal is presented. For the particular case investigated, a heat transfer enhancement factor of 5 to 6 was calculated.

  10. Adjustable mount for electro-optic transducers in an evacuated cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (inventor); Haynes, David P. (inventor); Jones, Howard C. (inventor); Jones, Irby W. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is an adjustable mount for positioning an electro-optic transducer in an evacuated cryogenic environment. Electro-optic transducers are used in this manner as high sensitivity detectors of gas emission lines of spectroscopic analysis. The mount is made up of an adjusting mechanism and a transducer mount. The adjusting mechanism provided five degrees of freedom, linear adjustments and angular adjustments. The mount allows the use of an internal lens to focus energy on the transducer element thereby improving the efficiency of the detection device. Further, the transducer mount, although attached to the adjusting mechanism, is isolated thermally such that a cryogenic environment can be maintained at the transducer while the adjusting mechanism remains at room temperature. Radiation shields also are incorporated to further reduce heat flow to the transducer location.

  11. CAMAC-based intelligent subsystem for ATLAS example application: cryogenic monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.; Kawarasaki, Y.; Wasniewski, K.

    1985-01-01

    A subunit of the CAMAC accelerator control system of ATLAS for monitoring and, eventually, controlling the cryogenic refrigeration and distribution facility is under development. This development is the first application of a philosophy of distributed intelligence which will be applied throughout the ATLAS control system. The control concept is that of an intelligent subunit of the existing ATLAS CAMAC control highway. A single board computer resides in an auxiliary crate controller which allows access to all devices within the crate. The local SBC can communicate to the host over the CAMAC highway via a protocol involving the use of memory in the SBC which can be accessed from the host in a DMA mode. This provides a mechanism for global communications, such as for alarm conditions, as well as allowing the cryogenic system to respond to the demands of the accelerator system.

  12. Design and Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Kroliczek, Edward J.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Ted; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the flight configuration and pre-flight performance test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5). This device will fly on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight represents the first in-space demonstration of a CCPL; a miniaturized two-phase fluid circulator for thermally linking cryogenic components. CCPL-5 utilizes N2 as the working fluid and has a practical operating range of 75-110 K. Test results indicate that CCPL-5, which weighs about 200 grams, can transport over 10 W of cooling a distance of 0.25 m (or more) with less than a 5 K temperature drop.

  13. Flow Visualization of Density in a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Planar Rayleigh and Raman Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.; Shirinzadeh, Behrooz

    2002-01-01

    Using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and a gated, intensified charge-coupled device, planar Rayleigh and Raman scattering techniques have been used to visualize the unseeded Mach 0.2 flow density in a 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Detection limits are determined for density measurements by using both unseeded Rayleigh and Raman (N2 vibrational) methods. Seeding with CO2 improved the Rayleigh flow visualization at temperatures below 150 K. The seeded Rayleigh version was used to demonstrate the observation of transient flow features in a separated boundary layer region, which was excited with an oscillatory jet. Finally, a significant degradation of the laser light sheet, in this cryogenic facility, is discussed.

  14. Test Results of Selected Commercial DC/DC Converters under Cryogenic Temperatures - A Digest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    DC/DC converters are widely used in space power systems in the areas of power management and distribution, signal conditioning, and motor control. Design of DC/DC converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance, simplify design, and reduce development and launch costs. In this work, the performance of nine COTS modular, low-tomedium power DC/DC converters was investigated under cryogenic temperatures. The converters were evaluated in terms of their output regulation, efficiency, and input and output currents. At a given temperature, these properties were obtained at various input voltages and at different load levels. A summary on the performance of the tested converters was given. More comprehensive testing and in-depth analysis of performance under long-term exposure to extreme temperatures are deemed necessary to establish the suitability of these and other devices for use in the harsh environment of space exploration missions.

  15. Progress on GaAs cryogenic readout circuits for SISCAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuo, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    2006-06-01

    We are developing cryogenic readout circuits for the array of superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs) at submillimeter wavelength SISCAM (Superconductive Imaging Submillimeter-wave CAMera). A current conceptual design of SISCAM will employ a direct hybrid array system just like CMOS image sensors widely used at optical and infrared wavelength. Because of relatively large impedance of the STJ fabricated by RIKEN (~10 MΩ in a dark condition), it requires readout preamplifier with low current noise. Therefore, it is not suitable for the STJ to use a readout system by Superconductive Quantum Interferences Devices as for Transition Edge Sensor. Instead, we selected capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) using a SONY n-type GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET). However, the CTIA has not been used as the readout of the STJ. Therefore, we measured the photocurrent of the STJ by the CTIA with Silicon JFETs and by transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which is a conventional readout for the STJ, in the same bias condition, and confirmed both results are in good agreement. Additionally, we report development of readout integrated circuits with GaAs JFETs. In order to design the CTIA circuit with the GaAs JFETs, we fabricated the independent GaAs JFETs and matched pairs of them. We measured electrical characteristics of these GaAs JFETs at the cryogenic temperatures less than 4.2 K. We demonstrated performance of an operational amplifier fabricated with the GaAs JFETs measuring a differential amplifier with the dual GaAs JFET, and additionally estimate amplifier gain, offset voltage, and power consumption of the CTIA by the circuit simulation using the PSPICE. In consequence, the expected performance fulfills the requirements for the readout amplifier of the STJs except for the noise performance.

  16. Ground-Based Investigations with the Cryogenic Hydrogen Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.; Mattison, Edward; Vessot, Robert F. C.

    2003-01-01

    The cryogenic hydrogen maser (CHM) developed at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) was designed to be functionally similar to SAO room temperature hydrogen masers with appropriate modifications made for operation at cryogenic temperatures. A schematic of the SAO CHM is shown in Figure 1, and a description of this device and its operation follows. A beam of molecular hydrogen is dissociated into atoms at room temperature. The resultant beam of atomic hydrogen is then cooled, magnetically state selected, and focused into a quartz storage bulb centered inside of a microwave cavity resonant with the hydrogen hyperfine transition at 1420 MHz. The quartz storage bulb is coated with a superfluid He-4 film, and both the bulb and cavity are maintained near 0.5 K. The maser signal is coupled out inductively and carried to room temperature via semi-rigid coaxial cable. After passing through a room temperature isolator and preamp, the maser signal is detected with a low-noise heterodyne receiver as used in the room temperature SAO hydrogen masers. The maser temperature is lowered to 0.5 K using a recirculating He-3 refrigerator. This refrigerator consists of several cooling stages: a liquid nitrogen stage at 77 K, a liquid 4He bath at 4.2 K, a pumped He-4 pot at approximately 1.7 K, and the pumped, recirculating He-3 stage at 0.5 K. The atomic hydrogen beam, state selector, storage bulb and cavity are all connected inside a single, maser vacuum chamber (MVC). This space is pumped out from below by a turbo pump. Above the MVC, an inlet to the space allows for the input of flowing superfluid 4He film. External to the MVC is a second, outer vacuum chamber (OVC), maintained for operation of the cryostat and also pumped by a turbo pump. Inside the OVC, there is radiation shielding at 77 K and 1.7 K.

  17. CALDER: Cryogenic light detectors for background-free searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardani, L.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Castellano, M. G.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2015-08-01

    The development of background-free detectors is essential for experiments searching for rare events. Bolometers, that are among the most competitive devices for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay (0?DBD) and Dark Matter interactions, suffer from the absence of techniques that allow to identify the nature of the interacting particles. This limit can be overcome by coupling the bolometer to an independent device for the measurement of the light emitted by interactions, as the combined read-out of the bolometric and light signals allows to identify and reject particles different from those of interest. CUORE, the most advanced bolometric experiment for 0?DBD searches, could disentangle the electrons produced by 0?DBD from the dangerous background due to ? particles, by measuring the (tiny) Cherenkov light emitted by electrons and not by ?'s. LUCIFER, a project based on ZnSe scintillating bolometers for the study of 82Se 0?DBD, would be competitive also in the search of Dark Matter interactions if equipped with light detectors that allow to distinguish and reject the background due to electrons and ?'s. These advances require cryogenic detectors characterized by noise lower than 20 eV, large active area, wide temperature range of operation, high radio-purity and ease in fabricating hundreds of channels. The CALDER collaboration aims to develop such detectors by exploiting the superb energy resolution and natural multiplexed read-out provided by Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  18. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Smith, Timothy D.; Wadel, Mary F.; Meyer, Michael L.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    Exploration Systems Architecture Study conducted by NASA in 2005 identified the liquid oxygen (LOx)/liquid methane (LCH4) propellant combination as a prime candidate for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module propulsion and for later use for ascent stage propulsion of the lunar lander. Both the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Lander were part the Constellation architecture, which had the objective to provide global sustained lunar human exploration capability. From late 2005 through the end of 2010, NASA and industry matured advanced development designs for many components that could be employed in relatively high thrust, high delta velocity, pressure fed propulsion systems for these two applications. The major investments were in main engines, reaction control engines, and the devices needed for cryogenic fluid management such as screens, propellant management devices, thermodynamic vents, and mass gauges. Engine and thruster developments also included advanced high reliability low mass igniters. Extensive tests were successfully conducted for all of these elements. For the thrusters and engines, testing included sea level and altitude conditions. This advanced development provides a mature technology base for future liquid oxygen/liquid methane pressure fed space propulsion systems. This paper documents the design and test efforts along with resulting hardware and test results.

  19. Cryogenic Optical Systems and Instrumentation IX (AM 116) Newly Modified Cryogenic Optical Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ronnie; Kegley, Jeff; Keidel, John

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has maintained and operated a world-class x-ray optics and detector testing facility known as the X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) since the mid 1970's. The ground test and calibration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory optics and detectors were successfully completed at the XRCF in 1997. The beginning of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) development programs (NMSD, SBMD, AMSD, etc.) and the establishment of the Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center at MSFC have led to an XRCF modification. In 1999 the facility was upgraded to perform cryogenic testing of lightweight visible optics (without compromising the existing x-ray testing capability). A thermal enclosure capable of 20 degrees Kelvin and vibration isolated instrumentation mount were added. A vacuum-compatible five-axis motion table was modified to operate under cryogenic conditions. Optics up to two meters in diameter with radii of curvature of up to twenty meters can be accommodated. Facility characterization tests and one NGST program mirror test have been completed to date. By July 2000, two other mirrors will be tested. Optical wavefront measurements were made at < 35 degrees Kelvin with several instruments located at the test mirror's radius of curvature. The current wavefront measuring instruments include a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, a point diffraction interferometer, a point spread function-measuring device, and a radius of curvature measuring instrument. A vibration insensitive phase shifting interferometer is planned for future optical testing. This paper will present a brief history of the facility, a discussion of its current x-ray optic testing capabilities, and a complete description of the new capabilities in the visible optical testing regime.

  20. Status of the Cryogen-Free Cryogenic System for the CUORE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, A.; Alessandria, F.; Ameri, M.; Bucci, C.; Bersani, A.; Canonica, L.; Cereseto, R.; Ceruti, G.; Cremonesi, O.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dossena, S.; Ejzak, L.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Franceschi, A.; Gregerson, G.; Heeger, K.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T.; Orlandi, D.; Sisti, M.; Taffarello, L.; Tatananni, L.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.

    2011-11-01

    The CUORE detector will be made of 988 TeO2 crystals and will need a base temperature lower than 10 mK in order to meet the performance specifications. To cool the CUORE detector a large cryogen-free cryostat with five pulse tubes and one specially designed high-power dilution refrigerator has been designed. The detector assembly has a total mass of about 1.5 ton and uses a vibration decoupling suspension system. Because of the stringent requirements regarding radioactivity, about 12 tons of lead shielding need to be cooled to 4 K and below, and only a limited number of construction materials are acceptable. The eight retractable radioactive sources for detector calibration and about 2600 signal wires add further complexity to the system. The many stringent and contrasting requirements together with the overall large size made the design of the CUORE cryogenic system a real mechanical and cryogenic engineering challenge. The cryogenic system is expected to be fully operational in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in July 2013. We report here about the current status of the cryogenic system construction, which has started about one year.

  1. Large scale cryogenic fluid systems testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Cryogenic Fluid Systems Branch (CFSB) within the Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) has the ultimate goal of enabling the long term storage and in-space fueling/resupply operations for spacecraft and reusable vehicles in support of space exploration. Using analytical modeling, ground based testing, and on-orbit experimentation, the CFSB is studying three primary categories of fluid technology: storage, supply, and transfer. The CFSB is also investigating fluid handling, advanced instrumentation, and tank structures and materials. Ground based testing of large-scale systems is done using liquid hydrogen as a test fluid at the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility (K-site) at Lewis' Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. A general overview of tests involving liquid transfer, thermal control, pressure control, and pressurization is given.

  2. Transition detection studies in the cryogenic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Johnson, William G., Jr.; Johnson, Charles B.; Carraway, Debra L.; Wright, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Boundary-layer transition detection studies were carried out in the 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a supercritical airfoil, using an infrared imaging system. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent of the temperature range in which commercially available IR systems can detect transition in cryogenic environment. The experiment was designed to take advantage of a combination of factors including the wind tunnel operation mode, the model construction materials and the IR system image processing options. During the initial phases of the study, the IR based findings were confirmed by measurements done with a micro-thin hot-film system. Ultimately, free and forced transition could be detected down to 170 K.

  3. Cryogenic fluid management (base R/T): Cryogenic fluid systems, Cryogenic Orbital Nitrogen Experiment (CONE), Cryogenic Orbital Hydrogen Experiment (COHE). (Transportation focused technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, Pat

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The concluded remarks are: (1) advanced cryogenic fluid systems technology is enhancing or enabling to all known transportation scenarios for space exploration; (2) an integrated/coordinated program involving LeRC/MSFC has been formulated to address all known CFM needs - new needs should they develop, can be accommodated within available skills/facilities; (3) all required/experienced personnel and facilities are finally in place - data from initial ground-based experiments is being collected and analyzed - small scale STS experiments are nearing flight - program is beginning to yield significant results; (4) future proposed funding to primarily come from two sources; and (5) cryogenic fluid experimentation is essential to provide required technology and assure implementation in future NASA missions.

  4. Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Y. N.; Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, P.; Wang, G. P.

    2014-01-29

    Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

  5. Cryogenic system operational experience at SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, M.; DeGraff, B.; Kim, S.-H.; Morris, B.; Neustadt, T.; Strong, H.

    2015-12-01

    The helium cryogenic system at Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) provides cooling to 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities. During the first ten years of operation, much operational experience and lessons learned have been gained. The lessons learned include integrated system issues as well as component failures in the areas of mechanical, electrical and controls. Past issues that have been corrected as well as current issues in the system will be detailed in this paper. In 2009, a Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) was completed as a way to identify high risk items and prioritize efforts. Since 2009, the progress on mitigating the identified high risk items has been tracked. The results of the PFMEA and the progress made in reducing risk to the cryogenic system operation will be detailed in this paper.

  6. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  7. Long term cryogenic storage facility systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study (LTCSFSS) is a Phase A study of a large capacity propellant depot for the space based, cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. The study is being performed for Marshall Space Flight Center by General Dynamics Space Systems Division and has five principal objectives: (1) Definition of preliminary concept designs for four storage facility concepts; (2) Selection of preferred concepts through the application of trade studies to candidate propellant management system components; (3) Preparation of a conceptual design for an orbital storage facility; (4) Development of supporting research and technology requirements; and (5) Development of a test program to demonstrate facility performance. The initial study has been completed, and continuation activities are just getting under way to provide greater detail in key areas and accommodate changes in study guidelines and assumptions.

  8. Cryogenic evaluation of epoxy bond strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, N.; Young, W.

    The purpose of the work presented here was to determine methods of optimizing the adhesion of a particular epoxy (CTD-101K, Composite Technology Development Inc.) to a particular nickel-based alloy substrate (Incoloy ® 908, Inco Alloys International) for cryogenic applications. Initial efforts were focused on surface preparation of the substrate material via various mechanical and chemical cleaning techniques. Test samples, fabricated to simulate the conduit-to-insulation interface, were put through a mock heat treat and vacuum/pressure impregnation process. Samples were compression/shear load tested to compare the bond strengths at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. The resulting data indicate that acid etching creates a higher bond strength than the other tested techniques and that the bond formed is stronger at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. A description of the experiment along with the resulting data is presented here.

  9. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  10. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds. (LCL)

  11. Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF) was designed and built to evaluate compact, lightweight magnetic bearings for use in the SSME's (space shuttle main engine) liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen turbopumps. State of the art and tradeoff studies were conducted which indicated that a hybrid permanent magnet bias homopolar magnetic bearing design would be smaller, lighter, and much more efficient than conventional industrial bearings. A test bearing of this type was designed for the test rig for use at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (-320 F). The bearing was fabricated from state-of-the-art materials and incorporated into the CMBTF. Testing at room temperature was accomplished at Avcon's facility. These preliminary tests indicated that this magnetic bearing is a feasible alternative to older bearing technologies. Analyses showed that the hybrid magnetic bearing is one-third the weight, considerably smaller, and uses less power than previous generations of magnetic bearings.

  12. Bonding and Sealing Evaluations for Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Several different cryogenic tank concepts are being considered for reusable launch vehicles (RLV'S) . Though different tank concepts are being considered, many will require that the cryogenic insulation be evacuated and be bonded to a structure. In this work, an attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of maintaining a vacuum on a specimen where foam or honeycomb core was encased within Gr/Ep. In addition to these tests, flatwise adhesion pull off tests were performed at room temperature with PR 1664, EA 9394, FM-300, Crest 3170, and HT 435 adhesives. The materials bonded included Gr/Ep, Gr/BMI, Al, and stainless steel facesheets, and Ti honeycomb, Hexcel honeycomb, and Rohacell foam core materials.

  13. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  14. Acoustic composition sensor for cryogenic gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Luchik, T. S.; Back, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic sensor useful for the determination of the composition of a gaseous binary mixture in cryogenic liquid spills has been characterized. One version of the instrument traps a known mixture of helium and nitrogen at ambient temperature in a tube which is interrogated by sonic pulses to determine the speed of sound and hence the composition. Experimental data shows that this sensor is quite accurate. The second version uses two unconfined microphones which sense sound pulses. Experimental data acquired during mixing when liquid nitrogen is poured into a vessel of gaseous helium is presented. Data during transient cooling of the tubular sensor containing nitrogen when the sensor is dipped into liquid nitrogen and during transient warm-up when the sensor is withdrawn are also presented. This sensor is being developed for use in the mixing of liquid cryogens with gas evolution in the simulation of liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen explosion hazards.

  15. Hybrid cryogenic cooler for space flight applications.

    PubMed

    Annable, R V

    1978-09-01

    The hybrid cryogenic cooler is an intermittent Joule-Thomson refrigerator with a precooler in the form of a passive radiator. The properties of the J-T expansion and the gas storage vessel are used to select fluids on the basis of available refrigeration per unit mass. Surface forces and container geometry are used to confine and control the liquid cryogen in a zero-gravity environment. The precooler and vaporized liquid are used to reduce parasitic thermal inputs to the point where most of the heat of vaporization is available for useful purposes. Modifications can be made to increase the efficiency or extend the temperature range. Ambient storage combined with efficient operation make the hybrid cooler attractive for space flight applications. PMID:20203860

  16. Tough strong iron alloys for cryogenic service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Series of alloys with minor additions of reactive metals possesses outstanding strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Effective metal additons include aluminum, niobium, titanium, and vanadium. Strengthening of series is achieved by thermomechanical processing and by precipitate strengthening while maintaining high level of toughness. Possible applications include liquefied natural-gas storage and transmission, structural members in superconducting machinery, and welding rod for other alloys such as nine nickel steels.

  17. Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Philip A. (Moore, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

  19. PRESSURE OSCILLATION IN RHIC CRYOGENIC SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.MONTAG,C.TALLERICO,T.HIRZEL,W.NICOLETTI,A.

    2003-09-22

    HORIZONTAL BEAM VIBRATION AROUND 10HZ IN THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC) HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AND THE POSSIBLE SOURCES TO CAUSE THIS VIBRATION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED. TO DETERMINE THE HETIUM PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS AS A POSSIBLE PRIMARY VIBRATION SOURCE, HELIUM PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS WERE CARRIED OUT IN THE FIVE CRYOGENIC TRANSFER LINES AT 2 VALVE BOXES AND 6 LEAD PORTS AT 2 TRIPLET CRYOSTAT FOR BOTH MAGNET RINGS. ADDITIONALLY, COLD MA...

  20. Dusty Plasma Structures in Cryogenic DC Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S.N.; Fortov, V.E.; Kirillin, A.V.; Petrov, O F.

    2005-10-31

    Experimental investigations of dust structures in dc low-pressure glow discharge at temperatures of liquid nitrogen (T = 77 K) and liquid helium (T = 4.2 K) are presented. Super dense dust structures with dust density np {approx} 108-109 cm-3 formed within striations of cryogenic discharges as well as boundary-free worm-like dust structure moved in discharge at 4.2 K were obtained.