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1

Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices  

SciTech Connect

Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

1996-04-01

2

Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Materials and Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energen has patented KelvinAll™, the first material, to exhibit magnetostrictive properties from elevated temperatures to near absolute zero, opening up a new range of applications for magnetostrictive devices. Magnetostrictive materials change their shape in the presence of a magnetic field. This elongation is precise, predictable, reversible and repeatable thereby enabling practical electromechanical devices. KelvinAll has magnetostriction comparable to Terfenol-D at room temperature and its magnetostriction increases at cryogenic temperatures. Energen has developed and prototyped practical electromechanical devices using KelvinAll. These devices include tuners for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, components for magnetic refrigerators, flow control valves and precision translation stages some of which will be discussed in greater detail. Energen's KelvinAll products enhance performance, increase reliability and reduce development costs.

Joshi, C. H.; Mavanur, A.; Tai, C.-Y.; Han, Z.-X.; Rodenbush, A. J.; Wong, Y.

2004-06-01

3

Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

Wu, Genfa (Yorktown, VA); Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Hayes, VA)

2008-12-30

4

21 CFR 882.4250 - Cryogenic surgical device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cryogenic surgical device. 882.4250 Section 882.4250...DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4250 Cryogenic surgical device. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

5

Advanced Devices for Cryogenic Thermal Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes six advanced cryogenic thermal management devices\\/subsystems developed by Swales Aerospace for ground\\/space-based applications of interest to NASA, DoD, and the commercial sector. The devices\\/subsystems described herein include the following: (a) a differential thermal expansion cryogenic thermal switch (DTE-CTSW) constructed with high purity aluminum end-pieces and an Ultem support rod for the 6 K Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on

D. Bugby; C. Stouffer; J. Garzon; M. Beres; A. Gilchrist

2006-01-01

6

Advanced Devices for Cryogenic Thermal Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes six advanced cryogenic thermal management devices/subsystems developed by Swales Aerospace for ground/space-based applications of interest to NASA, DoD, and the commercial sector. The devices/subsystems described herein include the following: (a) a differential thermal expansion cryogenic thermal switch (DTE-CTSW) constructed with high purity aluminum end-pieces and an Ultem support rod for the 6 K Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) (b) a quad-redundant DTE-CTSW assembly for the 35 K science instruments (NIRCam, NIRSpec, and FGS) mounted on the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) (c) a cryogenic diode heat pipe (CDHP) thermal switching system using methane as the working fluid for the 100 K CRISM hyperspectral mapping instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and (d) three additional devices/subsystems developed during the AFRL-sponsored CRYOTOOL program, which include a dual DTE-CTSW/dual cryocooler test bed, a miniaturized neon cryogenic loop heat pipe (mini-CLHP), and an across gimbal cryogenic thermal transport system (GCTTS). For the first three devices/subsystems mentioned above, this paper describes key aspects of the development efforts including concept definition, design, fabrication, and testing. For the latter three, this paper provides brief overview descriptions as key details are provided in a related paper.

Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.; Garzon, J.; Beres, M.; Gilchrist, A.

2006-04-01

7

Weak-source for cryogenic semiconductor device  

SciTech Connect

A two-gate field-effect transistor (FET) is designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (circa 1/sup 0/-20/sup 0/ K.). For an N channel FET, the low-concentration weak-P type material used for the channel region is built into an intrinsic (or near-intrinsic) layer which in turn is built on a P type substrate. The first gate corresponds to a conventional FET control gate. The second gate may be designated a weak-source gate and is directly above a corresponding weak-source region which is itself adjacent to the conventional (strong) source region. The weak-source gate is placed at a fixed positive potential with respect to the source region so that the electrons will collect in the conduction band within the weak-source region. Once the required fixed weak-source gate potential has been established, the control gate functions in a conventional manner even when the device is at a cryogenic temperature. Such a weak-source gate over a weak-source region may be utilized to inject carriers into a charge-coupled device, or any similar device, even at cryogenic temperatures. The device channel region can, alternatively, be made of the same non-conductive low concentration N type material as the weak-source region and can be the same as the material used for the absorption of infrared photons by the associated infrared detectors thus allowing the simultaneous epitaxial construction of both the FET/CCD electronics and the associated infrared detectors.

Levine, M.A.

1985-02-12

8

Device Modeling at Cryogenic Temperatures: Effects of Incomplete Ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a device performance modeling methodology that self-consistently resolves device operation at cryogenic temperatures (T > 30 K) in conjunction with incomplete ionization effects that take into account the change in dopant activation energies as a function of doping. Using this methodology, we developed a device simulator that predicts n-channel MOSFET (NMOSFET) device characteristics for a wide range of

Akin Akturk; Jeffrey Allnutt; Zeynep Dilli; Neil Goldsman; Martin Peckerar

2007-01-01

9

Development of cryotribological theories & application to cryogenic devices. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a research program on low-temperature friction and wear, primarily focused on development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices, particularly superconducting magnets.

Iwasa, Yukikazu

2001-03-12

10

Low Stress Semiconductor-Insulator Interface for Cryogenic Device Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of GaAs device degradation at cryogenic temperatures at the interface of a GaAs device layer and openings in an overlying SiO2 passivation layer is addressed. This problem is solved by providing a semi-insulating GaAs passivation layer epitaxi...

G. Sherrill R. J. Mattauch

1985-01-01

11

Cryogenic wafer prober for Josephson devices  

SciTech Connect

A wafer probing system has been built for the testing of Josephson junction devices at helium temperature. A mechanism moves a probe card from one position to another on a two inch wafer while immersed in liquid helium. The mechanism is actuated by shafts which connect to stepper motors positioned above the helium dewar. A positioning accuracy of + or - 50 ..mu..m at the probe tips is achieved. The replaceable probe card is all ceramic and carries 120 rigidly mounted palladium-alloy needles, arranged in signal-ground pairs and positioned in an array which matches the pad design of the particular device under test. Controlled impedance transmission lines are maintained all the way to the wafer's surface. A computer interface is included so that probing of a whole wafer can be conducted under software control. The system is intended for routine testing of Josephson devices in wafer form as well as for testing very large numbers of individual junctions.

Geary, J.; Vella-Coleiro, G.

1983-05-01

12

A Novel Sorbent Material Test Device at Variable Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of accurate performance data of porous materials is an essential need for investigation of new candidate sorbent materials for use in cryosorption devices. The temperature range between 5 K and 20 K is foreseen to be used in order to exploit the cryosorption mechanism in cryovacuum pump systems for nuclear fusion. But direct experimental data at cryogenic temperatures are very scarce in the open literature, especially at temperature levels other than LHe or LN.Thus, a novel device was developed to measure sorption characteristics of porous materials under variable temperature cryogenic conditions (3.5 K to 100 K). The COOLSORP facility is based on a commercially available pore-analyser, upgraded by a heatable, closed He cycle, two-stage Gifford McMahon refrigerator. This facility is characterised by its wide range of accessible pressures, from ambient down to 10-4 Pa.The paper describes the facility set-up and and presents typical examples of low temperature sorption data on different gases (helium, hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen) for activated carbon and getter materials. COOLSORP is demonstrated to be a versatile facility which cannot only be used for scientific purposes to investigate different materials, but also for quality assurance purposes.

Day, Chr.; Hauer, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, PO Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2004-06-28

13

Cryogenic engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments and trends in cryogenic engineering are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of cryogenics in power generation, machine building, chemistry, and metallurgy. Several cryogenic systems are described, including air-separation apparatus, cryogenic storage systems, cryothermovacuum devices, and the cryogenic systems of superconducting devices. The theoretical principles underlying the design of cryogenic systems are examined, along with the theory for the processes involved.

Beliakov, V. P.

14

Cryogenic magnetostrictive transducers and devices for commercial, military, and space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique attributes of magnetostrictive materials have been used to develop a wide variety of electromechanical transducers and devices. Most of these applications have been at or above room temperature. However, many applications at cryogenic temperatures also require high authority, high precision, efficient actuation. Other technologies, including all piezoelectric systems, tend to be inoperable or impractical and unreliable at cryogenic

G. N. Weisensel; O. D. McMasters; Robert G. Chave

1998-01-01

15

Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C. [National Biological Service, Lafayette, LA (United States); Knaus, R.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01

16

An Evaluation of Small Closed-Cycle Cryogenic Refrigerators as Cooling Devices for Infrared Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Miniature closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators are required to maintain photoconductive and photovoltaic infrared detectors used in airborne passive infrared surveillance devices at their proper operating temperatures in the range of 21 degrees to 90 degr...

E. A. Mebus N. S. Fitti

1969-01-01

17

Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JFET, GaAs MESFET and MOSFET devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFETs, rad-hard MOSFETs, GaAs MESFETs) have been irradiated and tested at

Mauro Citterio; Sergio Rescia; Veljko Radeka

1994-01-01

18

Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JFET, GaAs MESFET, and MOSFET devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFETs, rad-hard MOSFETs, and GaAs MESFETs) have been irradiated and tested

M. Citterio; S. Rescia; V. Radeka

1995-01-01

19

MEMS-based silicon nitride thin film materials and devices at cryogenic temperatures for space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microshutter arrays, scheduled to be launched in 2011 as part of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), will be the first micro-scale optical devices in outer space using MEMS technology. As the microshutter arrays consist of electrical and mechanical components and must operate in a cryogenic environment reliably over a 10 year mission lifetime, a fundamental challenge for the development

Wen-Hsien Chuang

2005-01-01

20

Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices  

SciTech Connect

High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials' low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Rabinowicz, E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.)

1992-09-15

21

Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JEFT, GaAs MESFET, and MOSFET devices  

SciTech Connect

Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFET`s, rad-hard MOSFET`s, and GaAs MESFET`s) have been irradiated and tested at a stable cryogenic temperature up to doses of 55 Mrad of ionizing radiation and up to neutron fluences of 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. Radiation effects on dc characteristics and on noise will be presented.

Citterio, M.; Rescia, S.; Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

22

Inexpensive two-dimensional measuring device for cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple device for measuring thermal deformations in two-dimensional samples cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures is described. The measurement consists of adding liquid nitrogen to a transparent quartz tray, and then scanning the sample from the bottom with a flatbed scanner. As a test of the device, the thermal contraction of aluminum from room temperature to 77 K is measured.

A. Grau Carles

2005-01-01

23

Cryogenic refrigeration requirements for superconducting insertion devices in a light source  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses cryogenic cooling superconducting insertion devices for modern light sources. The introductory part of the report discusses the difference between wiggler and undulators and how the bore temperature may affect the performance of the magnets. The steps one would take to reduce the gap between the cold magnet pole are discussed. One section of the report is devoted to showing how one would calculate the heat that enters the device. Source of heat include, heat entering through the vacuum chamber, heating due to stray electrons and synchrotron radiation, heating due to image current on the bore, heat flow by conduction and radiation, and heat transfer into the cryostat through the magnet leads. A section of the report is devoted to cooling options such as small cryo-cooler and larger conventional helium refrigerators. This section contains a discussion as to when it is appropriate to use small coolers that do not have J-T circuits. Candidate small cryo-coolers are discussed in this section of the report. Cooling circuits for cooling with a conventional refrigerator are also discussed. A section of the report is devoted to vibration isolation and how this may affect how the cooling is attached to the device. Vibration isolation using straps is compared to vibration isolation using helium heat pipes. The vibration isolation of a conventional refrigeration system is also discussed. Finally, the cool down of an insertion device is discussed. The device can either be cooled down using liquid cryogenic nitrogen and liquid helium or by using the cooler used to keep the devices cold over the long haul.

Green, Michael A.; Green, Michael A.; Green, Michael A.

2003-08-15

24

Micromachined cryogenic cooler for cooling electronic devices down to 30 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic temperatures are required for improving the performance of electronic devices and for operating superconducting sensors and circuits. The broad implementation of cooling these devices has long been constrained by the availability of reliable and low cost cryocoolers. After the successful development of single-stage micromachined coolers able to cool to 100 K, we now present a micromachined two-stage microcooler that cools down to 30 K from an ambient temperature of 295 K. The first stage of the microcooler operates at about 94 K with nitrogen gas and pre-cools the second stage operating with hydrogen gas. The microcooler is made from just three glass wafers and operates with modest high-pressure gases and without moving parts facilitating high yield fabrication of these microcoolers. We have successfully cooled a YBCO film through its superconducting transition state to demonstrate a load on the microcooler at cryogenic temperatures. This work could expedite the application of superconducting and electronic sensors and detectors among others in medical and space applications.

Cao, H. S.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; Vanapalli, S.; Lerou, P. P. P. M.; Blom, M.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

2013-02-01

25

Imaging of Active Microwave Devices at Cryogenic Temperatures using Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to image electric fields in operating microwave devices is interesting both from the fundamental point of view and for diagnostic purposes. To that end we have constructed a scanning near-field microwave microscope which uses an open-ended coaxial probe and operates at cryogenic temperatures.(For related publications see: C. P. Vlahacos, R. C. Black, S. M. Anlage, A. Amar and F. C. Wellstood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69), 3274 (1996) and S. M. Anlage, C. P. Vlahacos, Sudeep Dutta and F. C. Wellstood, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7, 3686 (1997). Using this system we have imaged electric fields generated by both normal metal and superconducting microstrip resonators at temperatures ranging from 77 K to 300 K. We will present images and discuss our results including observations of clear standing wave patterns at the fundamental resonant frequency and an increased quality factor of the resonators at low temperatures.

Thanawalla, Ashfaq S.; Dutta, S. K.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, D. E.; Feenstra, B. J.; Anlage, Steven M.; Wellstood, F. C.

1998-03-01

26

The Cryogenic DC Behavior of Cryo3/AZ1 InP 0.1-by-80-Micrometer-Gate High Electron Mobility Transistor Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the cryogenic DC behavior of 80-micrometer-gate-width devices from the "Cryo3/AZ1" wafer lot. Our measurements indicate that transistors from all five wafers have good "quality of pinch-off." The gate-source leakage current and excess gate current have been investigated. All measured devices exhibited memory in the bias behavior at cryogenic temperatures. Illumination of the devices tends to make them more well-behaved. The effect of voltage stress and light on the turn-on voltage of a device from the -041 wafer has been investigated. A weak persistence of the effect of bias stress is also observed.

Shell, J.

2007-05-01

27

Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e2/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a ``quantum yield'' is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

Al-Taie, H.; Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

2013-06-01

28

Cryogenic probe station for on-wafer characterization of electrical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probe station, suitable for the electrical characterization of integrated circuits at cryogenic temperatures is presented. The unique design incorporates all moving components inside the cryostat at room temperature, greatly simplifying the design and allowing automated step and repeat testing. The system can characterize wafers up to 100 mm in diameter, at temperatures <20 K. It is capable of highly repeatable measurements at millimeter-wave frequencies, even though it utilizes a Gifford McMahon cryocooler which typically imposes limits due to vibration. Its capabilities are illustrated by noise temperature and S-parameter measurements on low noise amplifiers for radio astronomy, operating at 75-116 GHz.

Russell, Damon; Cleary, Kieran; Reeves, Rodrigo

2012-04-01

29

Steps toward fabricating cryogenic CMOS compatible single electron devices for future qubits.  

SciTech Connect

We describe the development of a novel silicon quantum bit (qubit) device architecture that involves using materials that are compatible with a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 0.35 mum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process intended to operate at 100 mK. We describe how the qubit structure can be integrated with CMOS electronics, which is believed to have advantages for critical functions like fast single electron electrometry for readout compared to current approaches using radio frequency techniques. Critical materials properties are reviewed and preliminary characterization of the SNL CMOS devices at 4.2 K is presented.

Wendt, Joel Robert; Childs, Kenton David; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Tracy, Lisa A.; Eng, Kevin; Stevens, Jeffrey; Nordberg, Eric (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Carroll, Malcolm S.; Lilly, Michael Patrick

2008-08-01

30

Cryogenics safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety hazards associated with handling cryogenic fluids are discussed in detail. These hazards include pressure buildup when a cryogenic fluid is heated and becomes a gas, potential damage to body tissues due to surface contact, toxic risk from breathing air altered by cryogenic fluids, dangers of air solidification, and hazards of combustible cryogens such as liquified oxygen, hydrogen, or

Reider

1977-01-01

31

CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.  

SciTech Connect

THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

2002-07-22

32

Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit  

DOEpatents

A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

2013-08-20

33

Cryogenic exciter  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-03-13

34

Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices. Interim report, June 15, 1985--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials` low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabinowicz, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.

1992-09-15

35

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types

Michael A

2003-01-01

36

Flight Testing of a Cryogenically Cooled Hygrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cryogenically cooled, optical dew/frost point hygrometer was developed to provide a fast response aircraft instrument for the measurement of very low frost-point temperatures encountered at the higher altitudes. A detailed description of the device is...

J. F. Church R. M. Peirce

1973-01-01

37

Advances in Helium Cryogenics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review provides a survey of major advances that have occurred in recent years in the area of helium cryogenics. Helium-temperature cryogenics is the enabling technology for a substantial and growing number of low-temperature systems from superconducting magnets to space-based experimental facilities. In recent years there have been many advances in the technology of low-temperature helium, driven mostly by new applications. However, to keep the review from being too broad, this presentation focuses mainly on three of the most significant advances. These are: (1) the development of large-scale recuperative refrigeration systems mainly for superconducting magnet applications in accelerators and other research facilities; (2) the use of stored superfluid helium (He II) as a coolant for spacebased astrophysics experiments; and (3) the application of regenerative cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperatures primarily for cooling superconducting devices. In each case, the reader should observe that critical technologies were developed to facilitate these applications. In addition to these three primary advances, other significant helium cryogenic technologies are briefly reviewed at the end of this chapter, along with some vision for future developments in these areas.

Sciver, S. W. Van

38

Investigation of silicon field-effect transistors in cryogenic amplifiers for radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices  

SciTech Connect

We have prepared {ital n}-channel silicon field-effect transistors, which are capable of working at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K) and used them in cooled preamplifiers for rf superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout electronics. All metallizations of these transistors were made of niobium, to study the possibility of a further integration of a SQUID and FET on the same chip. Using the FETs in a cooled preamplifier together with a rf SQUID gradiometer, the flux noise of the system could be reduced by a factor of 3 compared to a room temperature low noise preamplifier. We have also performed calculations of a possible increase of the substrate temperature due to the power dissipation of the FET and have measured the cross talk between FET and SQUID. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Becker, T.; Mueck, M. [Institut fuer Schicht-und Ionentechnik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (KFA), 52425 Juelich (Germany); Heiden, C. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik der Justus Liebig Universitaet, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giebetaen (Germany)

1995-05-01

39

MEGARA Cryogenic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEGARA (Multi Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral field unit (IFU) and multi-object spectrograph (MOS) instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The selected cryogenic device to harbor the CCD detector for the MEGARA spectrograph is a liquid nitrogen open-cycle cryostat. The LN2 open-cycle cryostat is a custom made product which has been designed by the INAOE astronomical instrumentation group. The proposed cryostat offers modular stages for easy assembly and testing whilst also allowing future modifications to accommodate the required CCDs, electronics and optics.

Ferrusca, D.; Castillo, E.; Velázquez de la Rosa, M.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Zamorano, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. M.

2013-05-01

40

CRYOGENIC DEWAR  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to a dewar for storing cryogenic gase and is of the type having aii inner flask surrounded by a vacuum jacket and having a vent spout through which evaporating gas escapes. Heretofore substantial gas loss has resulted from the radiation of heat towards the flask from the warmer outer elements of the dewar. In this invention, the mask is surrounded by a thermally conducting shield which is disposed in the vacuum space between the flask and the outer elements of the dewar. The shield contacts only the vent spout, which is cooled by the evaporating gas, and thus is maintained at a temperature very close to that of the flask itself. Accordingly, heat radiated toward the flask is intercepted and conducted to the evaporating gas rather than being re-radiated towards the hask. In a liquid helium dewar of typical configniration the mention reduces the boil-off rate by approximately one-half.(AEC)

Chamberlain, W.H.; Maseck, H.E.

1964-01-28

41

The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems  

SciTech Connect

The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types will be compared for vibration, efficiency, and cost. Some solutions to specific problems of integrating cryocoolers to superconducting devices are presented.

Green, Michael A.

2003-07-01

42

Improving performance of cryogenic power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic Power Electronics (CPE) provides promising benefits for power conditioning system compared to their room-temperature counterparts in terms of reduced size and weight (increased power density), improved efficiency, improved switching speed, and improved reliability. Active devices such as semiconductor switches can exhibit performance improvements such as reduced conduction losses, higher switching speed, reduced diode reverse recovery, greater device gain, higher

Pradeep Haldar; Hua Ye; Harry Efstathiadis; James Raynolds; Mike J. Hennessy; Otward M. Mueller; Eduard K. Mueller

2005-01-01

43

Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the ...

M. G. Gasser

1983-01-01

44

Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

Gasser, M.G.

1983-12-01

45

History, status and future applications of spaceborne cryogenic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic cooling is employed for an increasing number of space instruments. Cryogenic cooling is needed to provide the required detector response, reduce preamplifier noise, and\\/or reduce background radiation. Cryogenic cooling is required by instruments employed for applications missions, gamma-ray and X-ray astronomy, cosmic ray measurements, space surveillance, IR astronomy, relativity measurements, superconductivity devices, and basic research experiments. The cooling is

A. Sherman

1982-01-01

46

Cryogenic properties of polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic properties of polymers are recently drawing attention with new developments in space, superconducting magnet and electronic technologies. Requirements for polymeric materials used in cryogenic environments are extremely severe and complicated. Research aimed at meeting these requirements is focused in two directions: one concerns the physical properties of polymers at cryogenic temperatures, while the other is concerned with the

Okimichi Yano; Hitoshi Yamaoka

1995-01-01

47

Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW) and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

2004-06-01

48

Application of particle image velocimetry under cryogenic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic investigations of the trailing vortices of large future transport aircrafts have been performed on an aircraft half-model with different wing tip devices. The model has been installed in the cryogenic wind tunnel (KKK) of the German-Dutch wind tunnels (DNW) in Cologne. During the tests, PIV flow field measurements have been performed in addition to conventional force, moment, and pressure

H. Richard; W. Becker; S. Loose; M. Thimm; J. Bosbach; M. Raffel

2003-01-01

49

The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers with superconducting electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of many of the superconducting circuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a serious disadvantage. This paper discusses the process of refrigerating superconducting devices with

Michael A Green

2003-01-01

50

Physical Sciences: Thermodynamics, Cryogenics, and Vacuum Technology: A Compilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technological developments which have potential application outside the aerospace community are reported. A variety of thermodynamic devices including heat pipes and cooling systems are described along with methods of handling cryogenic fluids. Vacuum dev...

1974-01-01

51

Cryogenic structural materials for superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews research in the United States and Japan on structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets are used for magnetic fusion energy devices and for accelerators that are used in particle-physics research. The cryogenic structural materials that we review are used for magnet cases and support structures. We expect increased materials requirements in the future.

Dalder, E.N.C.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

1985-02-22

52

Polyamide 66 as a cryogenic dielectric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, e.g., cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, it etc., with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ

Enis Tuncer; Georgios Polizos; Isidor Sauers; David Randy James; Alvin R. Ellis; Jamie M. Messman; Tolga Aytug

2009-01-01

53

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vols. 35A & 35B - Proceedings of the 1989 Cryogenic Engineering Conference, University of California, Los Angeles, July 24-28, 1989  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The book presents a review of literature on superfluid helium, together with papers under the topics on heat and mass transfer in He II; applications of He II for cooling superconducting devices in space; heat transfer to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen; multilayer insulation; applications of superconductivity, including topics on magnets and other devices, magnet stability and coil protection, and cryogenic techniques; and refrigeration for electronics. Other topics discussed include refrigeration of superconducting systems; the expanders, cold compressors, and pumps for liquid helium; dilution refrigerators; magnetic refrigerators; pulse tube refrigerators; cryocoolers for space applications; properties of cryogenic fluids; cryogenic instrumentation; hyperconducting devices (cryogenic magnets); cryogenic applications in space science and technology and in transportation; and miscellaneous cryogenic techniques and applications.

Fast, R. W.

54

Cryogenic Material Properties Database Cryogenic Material Properties Database Cryogenic Material Properties Database Cryogenic Material Properties Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIST has published at least two references compiling cryogenic material properties. These include the Handbook on Materials for Superconducting Machinery and the LNG Materials & Fluids. Neither has been updated since 1977 and are currently out of print. While there is a great deal of published data on cryogenic material properties, it is often difficult to find and not in

E. D. Marquardt; Ray Radebaugh

55

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer

P. D. Brindza; R. R. Wines; J. J. Takacs

1999-01-01

56

Cryogenic Gravity Meter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the progress made towards the design and fabrication of a cryogenic gravity meter intended to have a sensitivity of about 25 millimicrogal. The cryogenic gravity meter consists of two parts--a suspension unit and a detection module. T...

V. S. Tuman

1970-01-01

57

Cryogenic Gravity Meter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the progress made towards the design and fabrication of a cryogenic gravity meter intended to have a sensitivity of about 25 millimicrogal. The cryogenic gravity meter consists of two parts--a suspension unit and a detection module. T...

A. Waleh V. S. Tuman

1972-01-01

58

Cryogenic thermal diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space based cryogenic thermal management systems for advanced infrared sensor platforms are a critical failure mode to the spacecraft missions they are supporting. Recent advances in cryocooler technologies have increased the achievable cooling capacities and decreased the operating temperatures of these systems, but there is still a fundamental need for redundancy in these systems. Cryogenic thermal diodes act as thermal

Brandon R. Paulsen; J. C. Batty; John Agren

2000-01-01

59

A cryogenic set-up for accurate measurements of S-parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a set-up to perform measurements of S-parameters on devices operated at low temperature, using a Vector Network Analyzer in combination with a cryogenic chamber. High accuracy in the characterization of the devices is obtained using a set of TRL calibration standards operated at the same cryogenic temperature of the DUT. Measurements have been performed on Front-End-Modules of mm-wave receivers including cryogenic LNA developed within our collaboration.

Zannoni, M.; Baz, A.; Passerini, A.; Tartari, A.; Gervasi, M.; Valenziano, L.

2012-09-01

60

Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators  

SciTech Connect

For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kitegi, C. [Synchrotron SOLEIL-L'Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin-BP 48 91192 GIF-sur-YVETTE (France)

2010-06-23

61

Cryogenic Probe Station for Use in Automated Microwave and Noise Figure Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic measurement system capable of performing on-wafer RF testing of semiconductor devices and circuits has been developed. This ¿CryoProbe Station¿ can wafer probe devices and circuits at cryogenic temperatures, thus eliminating the need for wire bonds. The system operates under vacuum created by a sorption pump. It uses an open cycle cooling system that can be cooled with either

Susan R. Taub; Samuel A. Alterovitz; Paul G. Young; Ben T. Ebihara; Robert R. Romanofsky

1994-01-01

62

A new cryogenic diode thermometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the introduction of yet another cryogenic diode thermometer is not earth shattering, a new diode thermometer, the DT-600 series, recently introduced by Lake Shore Cryotronics, possesses three features that make it unique among commercial diode thermometers. First, these diodes have been probed at the chip level, allowing for the availability of a bare chip thermometer matching a standard curve-an important feature in situations where real estate is at a premium (IR detectors), or where in-situ calibration is difficult. Second, the thermometry industry has assumed that interchangeability should be best at low temperatures. Thus, good interchangeability at room temperatures implies a very good interchangeability at cryogenic temperature, resulting in a premium priced sensor. The DT-600 series diode thermometer is available in an interchangeability band comparable to platinum RTDs with the added advantage of interchangeability to 2 K. Third, and most important, the DT-600 series diode does not exhibit an instability in the I-V characteristic in the 8 K to 20 K temperature range that is observed in other commercial diode thermometer devices [1]. This paper presents performance characteristics for the DT-600 series diode thermometer along with a comparison of I-V curves for this device and other commercial diode thermometers exhibiting an I-V instability. .

Courts, S. S.; Swinehart, P. R.; Yeager, C. J.

2002-05-01

63

NBS Cryogenic Thermometry and the Proposed Cryogenic Extension of the IPTS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article outlines a comprehensive and long-term program being carried out by NBS scientists of the Cryogenic Physics and Temperature Sections. The goals of the program are the extension of IPTS 68 below 13.81 K and the development of devices which make...

G. Cataland R. P. Hudson B. W. Bangum H. Marshak H. H. Plumb

1974-01-01

64

Stirling Cycle Cryogenic Cooler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications comprised of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section and respectively including a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer...

A. Sherman M. G. Gasser P. A. Studer M. Goldowsky A. Daniels

1981-01-01

65

Recent Subjects in Cryogenics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several topics in the field of cryogenic engineering are described. Those are cryopumping and small refrigerators, Squid and its applications, large superconducting equipments such as a magnet for nuclear fusion, a magnet for NMR-CT, and magnetic refrigerators.

Nagano, Hiroshi

66

Cryogenics in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenics plays a key role on board space-science missions, with a range of applications, mainly in the domain of astrophysics. Indeed a tremendous progress has been achieved over the last 20 years in cryogenics, with enhanced reliability and simpler operations, thus matching the needs of advanced focal-plane detectors and complex science instrumentation. In this article we provide an overview of recent applications of cryogenics in space, with specific emphasis on science missions. The overview includes an analysis of the impact of cryogenics on the spacecraft system design and of the main technical solutions presently adopted. Critical technology developments and programmatic aspects are also addressed, including specific needs of future science missions and lessons learnt from recent programmes.

Rando, Nicola

67

Cryogenic Mass Flowmeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers work performed on a cryogenic linear momentum mass flowmeter. The meter consists, primarily, of an oscillating dragbody with signal conditioning electronics. The meter theory and design are covered in detail, with design and performance ...

E. R. Wuori J. J. Rusnak

1971-01-01

68

Advances in Cryogenic Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 50 years, the use of digital computers has significantly influenced the design and analysis of cryogenic systems. At the time when the first Cryogenic Engineering Conference was held, thermodynamic data were presented in graphical or tabular form (the "steam table" format), whereas thermodynamic data for cryogenic system design is computer generated today. The thermal analysis of cryogenic systems in the 1950s involved analytical solutions, graphical solutions, and relatively simple finite-difference approaches. These approaches have been supplanted by finite-element numerical programs which readily solve complicated thermal problems that could not be solved easily using the methods of the 1950s. In distillation column design, the use of the McCabe-Thiele graphical method for determination of the number of theoretical plates has been replaced by numerical methods that allow consideration of several different components in the feed and product streams.

Barron, R. F.

69

Advances in Helium Cryogenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides a survey of major advances that have occurred in recent years in the area of helium cryogenics. Helium-temperature\\u000a cryogenics is the enabling technology for a substantial and growing number of low-temperature systems from superconducting\\u000a magnets to space-based experimental facilities. In recent years there have been many advances in the technology of low-temperature\\u000a helium, driven mostly by new

S. W. Van Sciver

70

CRYOGENIC FACITLITY DESIGN IN BEPC II SUPERCONDUCTING UPGRADE.  

SciTech Connect

Three kinds of superconducting device are to be constructed at interaction regions in the upgrade of Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII). Two sets of refrigerators with each capacity of 500W at 4.5K are adopted to provide the refrigeration for them. The cryogenic systems to support the operation of the superconducting facilities are under design by Harbin Institute of Technology in China. This paper presents the current design of main cryogenic facilities.

JIA,L.X.; WANG,L.; YANG,G.D.; ET AL.

2004-05-11

71

Surface-Confined Molecular Coolers for Cryogenics.  

PubMed

An excellent molecule-based cryogenic magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium acetate tetrahydrate, is here used to decorate selected portions of silicon substrate. By quantitative magnetic force microscopy for a variable applied magnetic field near liquid-helium temperature, the molecules are demonstrated to hold their magnetic properties intact, and therefore their cooling functionality, after their deposition. These results represent a step forward towards the realization of a molecule-based microrefrigerating device at very low temperatures. PMID:23401287

Lorusso, Giulia; Jenkins, Mark; González-Monje, Pablo; Arauzo, Ana; Sesé, Javier; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Roubeau, Olivier; Evangelisti, Marco

2013-02-12

72

Cryogenic system of the MAX-Wiggler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel insertion device for electron storage rings called the MAX-Wiggler has been constructed and commissioned at MAX-lab. The MAX-Wiggler is a cold bore superconducting wiggler magnet with 47 3.5 T poles and a period length of 61 mm aimed for the production of X-rays at the 1.5 GeV electron storage ring MAX-II at MAX-lab. This note describes the cryogenic

Erik Wallén; Greg LeBlanc

2004-01-01

73

Evaluation of single versus multiple cryogen spray cooling spurts on in vitro model human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercially available dermatologic lasers utilize cryogen spray cooling for epidermal protection. A previous tissue culture study demonstrated that single cryogen spurts (SCS) of 80 ms or less were unlikely to cause cryo-injury in light-skinned individuals. More recently, multiple cryogen spurts (MCS) have been incorporated into commercial devices, but the effects of MCS have not been evaluated. The aim was to

Alia T. Tuqan; Kristen M. Kelly; Guillermo Aguilar; Chung-Ho Sun; David Cassarino; Damian Derienzo; Ronald J. Barr; J. Stuart. Nelson

2005-01-01

74

Cryogenics for Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to ``fusion for energy'' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

Dauguet, P.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Bonneton, M.; Boissin, J. C.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.

2008-03-01

75

Cryogenic engineering and fusion power  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the consumption of power for the magnets of a fusion power plant to acceptable proportions, it is necessary that fusion reactors must use either cryogenically cooled or superconducting coils. The cryogenic aspects of reactor design are discussed. It is found that the most difficult cryogenic engineering problems of fusion reactors are mainly those caused by the

C. E. Taylor

1974-01-01

76

Latest Developments in Cryogenic Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual...

T. J. Webster

1983-01-01

77

Safety and Cryogenic Wind Tunnels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) was placed in operation at NASA's Langley Research Center in 1973 as the world's first cryogenic pressure tunnel. The 0.3-m TCT can operate from ambient to cryogenic temperatures over an absolut...

E. J. Ray

1989-01-01

78

OGMS of cryogenically enhanced magnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic particles is enhanced by cryogenic treatment. The subsequent increased response to a magnetic force density is exploited to enhance particle deflection in open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS). Both grade and recovery values are considerably increased by the cryogenic treatment of the feed material. The cryogenic method is most useful if the response of the magnetic

P. Krist; J. Boehm; R. Gerber; D. R. Kelland

1992-01-01

79

Cryogenic support member  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic support member is described for restraining a cryogenic system comprising; a rod having a depression at a first end. The rod is made of non-metallic material. The non-metallic material has an effectively low thermal conductivity; a metallic plug; and a metallic sleeve. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod and assembled thereto such that the plug is disposed inside the depression of the rod. The sleeve is disposed over the depression in the rod and the rod is clamped therebetween. The shrink-fit clamping the rod is generated between the metallic plug and the metallic sleeve.

Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

1987-09-29

80

Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

Yushchenko, K. A.; Monko, G. G.

2004-06-01

81

Cryogenic transimpedance amplifier for micromechanical capacitive sensors.  

PubMed

We developed a cryogenic transimpedance amplifier that works at a broad range of temperatures, from room temperature down to 4 K. The device was realized with a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1.5 mum process. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics, open-loop gain, input referred noise current, and power consumption are presented as a function of temperature. The transimpedance amplifier has been successfully applied to sense the motion of a polysilicon micromechanical oscillator at low temperatures. The whole device is intended to serve as a magnetometer for microscopic superconducting samples. PMID:19044372

Antonio, D; Pastoriza, H; Julián, P; Mandolesi, P

2008-08-01

82

Cryogenic transimpedance amplifier for micromechanical capacitive sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a cryogenic transimpedance amplifier that works at a broad range of temperatures, from room temperature down to 4 K. The device was realized with a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1.5 ?m process. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics, open-loop gain, input referred noise current, and power consumption are presented as a function of temperature. The transimpedance amplifier has been successfully applied to sense the motion of a polysilicon micromechanical oscillator at low temperatures. The whole device is intended to serve as a magnetometer for microscopic superconducting samples.

Antonio, D.; Pastoriza, H.; Julián, P.; Mandolesi, P.

2008-08-01

83

Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators st...

E. F. Erickson M. R. Haas S. W. J. Colgan J. P. Simpson R. H. Rubin

1995-01-01

84

Compact cryogenic inductors  

SciTech Connect

Power systems requiring power levels as high as a few megawatts to a few gigawatts for periods of several microseconds to several milliseconds with repetitive frequencies of a few hertz to a few kilohertz are being considered for potential space applications. The impulsive nature of the power presents the opportunity to use inductive energy storage techniques for pulse duty to enhance economic and practical considerations. An inductors must be efficient, lightweight, and reliable, and it must have high energy density if it is to be used in space based power systems. Cryogenic inductors are best studied for such an application. Parametric analyses of the two potential types of cryogenic inductors (superconducting and hyperconducting reveal that the hyperconducting (high purity aluminum)) inductor would be significantly lighter and achieve higher energy densities without the added penalty of a helium refrigeration system, thus resulting in improved overall system reliability. The lightweight hyperconducting cryogenic inductor technology is, however, in its infancy. This paper describes the required technology base which would allow the eventual application of the lightweight cryogenic inductor in space power systems, and also conclusively demonstrates the underlying principles.

Singh, S.K.; Carr, W.J. Jr.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Hordubay, T.D.; Chuboy, H.L. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center)

1994-07-01

85

Cryogenic Gravity Meter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a cryogenic gravity meter which has a theoretical sensitivity of about 25 millimicrogal. The instrument consists of two parts--a suspension unit and a detection module. There are nine other units of power supplies, amplifiers, and oth...

A. Waleh V. S. Tuman

1971-01-01

86

Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground

Anthony G. Mann

2001-01-01

87

Cryogenic Implications for DT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cryogenic hydrogen data is being compiled for magnetic fusion engineering. Many physical properties of DT can be extrapolated from H sub 2 and D sub 2 values. The phase diagram properties of the D sub 2 -DT-T sub 2 mixture are being measured. Three proper...

P. C. Souers

1977-01-01

88

Cryogenic vacuum pump design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed.

A. J. Bartlett; P. A. Lessard

1984-01-01

89

Cryogenic structural support  

SciTech Connect

A tensile support member is provided for use in a cryogenic environment. The member is in the form of a link formed of an epoxy glass laminate with at least one ply of the laminate having its fibers aligned circumferentially about the link.

Gonczy, J.D.; Mataya, K.F.; Niemann, R.C.

1982-04-20

90

Across-Gimbal and Miniaturized Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development status of three advanced cryogenic loop heat pipes (CLHP) for solving important problems in cryogenic integration. The three devices described herein are: (1) an across-gimbal CLHP; (2) a short transport length miniaturized CLHP; and (3) a long transport length miniaturized CLHP. The across-gimbal CLHP, which is baselined for operation from 80-100 K with nitrogen, provides a low weight, low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to mount their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The short transport length miniaturized CLHP, which is baselined for operation near 35 K with neon, combines localized thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching into one device that can be directly mounted to a cryocooler cold head and a cryogenic component just a short distance (10-20 cm) away. The long transport length miniaturized CLHP, which is also baselined for operation near 35 K with neon, adds to the capabilities of the short transport length miniaturized CLHP by increasing the transport length to over 250 cm to meet cryogenic heat transport device requirements of future NASA and DoD spacecraft.

Bugby, D.; Marland, B.; Stouffer, C.; Kroliczek, E.

2003-01-01

91

Design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy has embarked on a campaign to conduct credible fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2010. The target assembly specified for this campaign requires the formation of a deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel ice layer in a 2 mm diameter capsule at the center of a 9 mm long by 5 mm diameter cylinder, called a hohlraum. The ice layer must be formed and maintained at temperatures below 20 K. At laser shot time, the target is positioned at the center of the NIF target chamber, aligned to the laser beams and held stable to less than 7 {micro}m rms. We have completed the final design of the Cryogenic Target System and are integrating the devices necessary to create, characterize and position the cryogenic target for ignition experiments. These designs, with supporting analysis and prototype test results, will be presented.

Gibson, C; Baltz, J; Malsbury, T; Atkinson, D; Brugmann, V; Coffield, F; Edwards, O; Haid, B; Locke, S; Shiromizu, S; Skulina, K

2008-06-10

92

Cryogenic flexure material fatigue test facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a facility for the liquid helium temperature fatigue testing and evaluation of candidate cryogenic flexure materials is described. The facility is optimized for the low stress levels and the high number of bending cycle applications needed by certain oscillating optomechanical devices. The test apparatus permits 4 K fatigue studies of a variety of materials at a selectable yet highly stable and precisely known strain level. The simple test flexure geometry accurately reflects 'real-world' mounting interfaces, yet permits straightforward analysis of the test results. The materials evaluation tradeoffs that led to the selection of several candidate cryogenic flexure materials are discussed. The apparatus is described and preliminary test results are reported.

Stier, Mark T.; Rockwell, Richard A.; Krim, Michael H.

93

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1988-01-01

94

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

SciTech Connect

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

Brindza, P.D.; Wines, R.R.; Takacs, J.J.

1999-12-21

95

Cryogenic thermal diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space based cryogenic thermal management systems for advanced infrared sensor platforms are a critical failure mode to the spacecraft missions they are supporting. Recent advances in cryocooler technologies have increased the achievable cooling capacities and decreased the operating temperatures of these systems, but there is still a fundamental need for redundancy in these systems. Cryogenic thermal diodes act as thermal switches, allowing heat to flow through them when in a conduction mode and restricting the flow of heat when in an isolation mode. These diodes will allow multiple cryocoolers to cool a single infrared focal plane array. The Space Dynamics Laboratory has undertaken an internal research and development effort to develop this innovative technology. This paper briefly describes the design parameters of several prototype thermal diodes that were developed and tested. .

Paulsen, Brandon R.; Batty, J. C.; Agren, John

2000-01-01

96

Cryogenic treatment of gas  

SciTech Connect

Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-04-03

97

Fractional Watt Vuillemier Cryogenic Refrigerator Program Engineering Notebook. Volume 1: Thermal Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cryogenic refrigerator thermal design calculations establish design approach and basic sizing of the machine's elements. After the basic design is defined, effort concentrates on matching the thermodynamic design with that of the heat transfer devices...

W. S. Miller

1974-01-01

98

Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators\\u000a have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10?14 to a few times 10?16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency\\u000a standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground

Anthony Mann

99

Cryogenic support member  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic support member is comprised of a nonmetallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

1986-05-15

100

Cryogenic infrared grating spectrometer.  

PubMed

A liquid-helium-cooled Ebert-Fastie grating spectrometer for use in a sounding rocket is described. Twelve detectors and associated filters separate the 5-70-microm spectral range into twelve intervals, each of which is scanned as the grating is rotated. The instrument was launched into an aurora from Fort Churchill, Canada, but a cryogenic failure occurred early in the flight, and only a small amount of data was obtained. PMID:20154781

McNutt, D P; Shivanandan, K; Daehler, M; Feldman, P D

1975-05-01

101

Cryogenic infrared grating spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid-helium-cooled Ebert-Fastie grating spectrometer for use in a sounding rocket is described. Twelve detectors and associated filters separate the 5-70-micrometer spectral range into twelve intervals, each of which is scanned as the grating is rotated. The instrument was launched into an aurora from Fort Churchill, Canada, but a cryogenic failure occurred early in the flight, and only a small

D. P. McNutt; K. Shivanandan; M. Daehler; P. D. Feldman

1975-01-01

102

Cryogenic technology for CMBPol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future space telescopes such as CMBPol, SAFIR, DARWIN, SPICA and XEUS will require cooling to very low temperatures. Staged cooling is the most efficient means of achieving low temperature in an observatory or instrument with the least cost and mass. The first stage is usually passive radiators taking advantage of views to deep space. In the past stored cryogen systems provided the next lower stagesof cooling. Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology, especially at the lower temperatures where the passive coolers' effectiveness is limited. These coolers are in general lighter, have more cooling capability, and more operationally flexible than stored cryogens. Sub Kelvin cooling is required for many of the most sensitive detectors. For fundamental reasons, microcalorimeters and bolometers must be cooled to extremely low temperature to achieve their ultimate resolution and, eventually, background-limited detection. The state of the art for these cryogenic cooling technologies are presented along with plans to advance the technology readiness level to enable these future missions.

Di Pirro, M.; Johnson, D. L.; Shirron, P.

2009-03-01

103

Cryogenic probe station for use in automated microwave and noise figure measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic measurement system capable of performing on-wafer RF testing of semiconductor devices and circuits has been developed. This 'CryoProbe Station' can wafer-probe devices and circuits at cryogenic temperatures, thus eliminating the need for wire bonds. The system operates under vacuum created by a sorption pump. It uses an open cycle cooling system that can be cooled with either liquid

Susan R. Taub; Samuel A. Alterovitz; Paul G. Young; Ben T. Ebihara; Robert R. Romanofsky

1994-01-01

104

A High-Speed Adder in Cryogenic NMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature MOS devices (77K) present significant gain in speed and density for a low technological cost. We report results concerning a three bits adder fabricated with an adapted cryogenic N-MOS process, using Argon-implanted polysilicon loads; the maximum measured frequency was 405 MHz for a 28 mW power consumption, with 2.4¿ design rules.

P. Glories; A. Boudou; Y. L'Ecuyer; P. Leclaire; P. Chantraine

1985-01-01

105

Cryogenic expansion joint for large superconducting magnet structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expansion joint is provided that accommodates dimensional changes occurring during the cooldown and warm-up of large cryogenic devices such as superconducting magnet coils. Flattened tubes containing a refrigerant such as gaseous nitrogen (Nâ) are inserted into expansion spaces in the structure. The gaseous Nâ is circulated under pressure and aids in the cooldown process while providing its primary function

1978-01-01

106

Refrigeration and Cryogenics Specialist. J3ABR54530  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document package contains an Air Force course used to train refrigeration and cryogenics specialists. The course is organized in six blocks designed for group instruction. The blocks cover the following topics: electrical principles; fundamentals of tubing and piping; metering devices, motor controls, domestic and commercial refrigeration;…

Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

107

Isolated ramping current sources for a cryogenic current comparator bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of a pair of highly isolated ramping and reversing direct-current sources for use with a cryogenic current comparator resistance bridge and dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detector are described. The current sources are floating and isolated from one another, and are internally programmed to reverse the output current while maintaining the SQUID feedback control system

Randolph E. Elmquist; Ronald F. Dziuba

1991-01-01

108

Cryogenic detection of particles: Development effort in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The development of cryogenic detectors of particles, with emphasis on large mass devices, has been reviewed. Most groups are still tooling up and exploring basic properties of sensors. The main discussion themes are summarized and some of the early experimental results are described.

Sadoulet, B.

1987-05-01

109

Cryogenic electronic memory infrastructure for physically related “continuity of care records” of frozen cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes low-temperature electronics for cryogenic applications, especially for a new technique for living-cell storage near liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Central is the reliable coupling of a sample carrier to cryo-tolerant electronics, particularly memory devices storing continuity of care records, lab workflows, and other useful documentation. We present (1) a two-year study of the performance and data retention of Flash-Memory devices in a controlled cryogenic environment, (2) a cryogenic multiplexer allowing multiple, cold Flash-Memories to share a communication channel, and (3) results for radio frequency identification tags immersed in liquid nitrogen.

Ihmig, Frank R.; Shirley, Stephen G.; Durst, Christopher H. P.; Zimmermann, Heiko

2006-04-01

110

Synchrotron monochromator heating problem, cryogenic cooling solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new prototype of a cryogenic cooling system which is running on the beamline BM30-A//FIP at the ESRF Grenoble. This system has been specially designed to cool the first crystal of a double crystal monochromator subject to the white beam delivered by a bending magnet X-ray source on a third generation synchrotron. The proposed cryogenic cooling loop represents an alternative solution between the usual water cooling method and the very efficient but expensive cryogenic system already existing for insertion devices. The new concept of this cooling loop, an open thermodynamic system, is ``optimal'' from the point of view of the economical versus performance ratio to dissipate a heat load up to 1 kW. For such a heat load range the efficiency of classical water cooling system begins to fail, and the thermal dilatation of silicon affects the monochromating process. Some details of the loop and the running principle are exposed in this paper. A particular attention has been paid to the conception of the crystal and the heat exchangers. The distortion of the crystal has been verified in practice from the measurements of the double crystal rocking curves under different experimental conditions and compared with the expected theory.

Carpentier, P.; Rossat, M.; Charrault, P.; Joly, J.; Pirocchi, M.; Ferrer, J.-L.; Kaïkati, O.; Roth, M.

2001-01-01

111

Cryogenic foam insulation: abstracted publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied

1977-01-01

112

Thermodynamic foundations of cryogenic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic systems and their elements are examined in terms of general principles underlying their operation and characteristics, as well as their basic structure and efficiency. Special consideration is given to the thermodynamic properties of substances used in cryogenic systems, methods of thermodynamic analysis, thermomechanical methods of refrigeration, and refrigeration techniques based on quantum, magnetic, and electrocaloric effects. Microcryogenic systems, gas

V. M. Brodianskii; A. M. Semenov

1980-01-01

113

Cryogenic forced convection refrigerating system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the method of refrigerating products by contact with a refrigerating gas which comprises introducing product into a refrigeration zone, contacting the product with the refrigerating gas for a sufficient time to refrigerate it to the appropriate extent and removing the refrigerated product. The improvement for producing the refrigeration gas from a liquid cryogen such that essentially all of the liquid cryogen is fully vaporized before contacting the product comprises: (a) introducing the liquid cryogen, selected from the group consisting of liquid air and liquid nitrogen, at elevated pressure into an ejector as the motive fluid to accelerate a portion of a warm refrigerating gas through the ejector while mixing the cryogen and gas to effect complete vaporization of the liquid cryogen and substantial cooling of the portion of the refrigerating gas resulting in a cold discharge gas which is above the liquefaction temperature of the cryogen; (b) introducing the cold discharge gas into a forced circulation pathway of refrigerating gas and producing a cold refrigerating gas which contacts and refrigerates product and is then at least partially recirculated; (c) sensing the temperature of the refrigerating gas in the forced circulation pathway and controlling the introduction of liquid cryogen with regard to the sensed temperature to maintain the temperature of the discharge gas above the liquefacton temperature of the cryogen utilized.

Klee, D.J.

1988-02-23

114

Temperature control of cryogenic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic refrigerator is described comprising: a refrigerator heat sink; a source of refrigerant gas under pressure; gas expansion means including a reciprocating piston in a cylinder for expanding the refrigerant gas in a gas expansion space within the cylinder to cool the gas and the refrigerator heat sink to cryogenic temperatures; means for selectively diverting refrigerant gas away from

P. A. Lessard; A. J. Bartlett; J. F. Peterson

1987-01-01

115

Verification of cryogenic blowout control technology for offshore wells. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the BDM laboratory test program which successfully demonstrated the functional principle of a cryogenic blowout control device for offshore oil wells. The device, which would first be placed downhole as part of the casing string while drilling and later be part of the production tubing, is referred to as a Downhole Shut-In Device (DSD). This report is

J. V. Powers; W. E. Kuchar; B. McClure; W. E. Schwinkendorf; J. Gregory

1982-01-01

116

Commissioning of the cryogenics of the LHC long straight sections  

SciTech Connect

The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; /CERN; Darve, C.; /Fermilab; Ferlin, G.; Millet, F.; Parente, C.; /CERN; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab; Soubiran, M.; van Weelderen, R.; Wagner, U.; /CERN

2010-01-01

117

Commissioning of the Cryogenics of the Lhc Long Straight Sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; Darve, C.; Ferlin, G.; Millet, F.; Parente, C.; Rabehl, R.; Soubiran, M.; van Weelderen, R.; Wagner, U.

2010-04-01

118

Built-in cryogenic control fixtures with electric drive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fixtures are designed for automatically controlling the flow rates of cryogens, including helium, and can be widely used in various equipment (air separation plants, cryogenic helium plants, etc.). A wide range of problems is dealt with in the paper. It discusses the design of a sealing couple made of insensitive materials as well as the development of the electric drive. Original solutions are presented that eliminate the bearings, reducing device and momentum coupling which are not practically operable at low temperatures. The paper discusses the realization of a linear transducer acting as a feedback element of automatic control systems.

Kaklyugin, B. A.; Davydenkov, I. A.

119

Velocity Vector Field Visualization of Flow in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants has been developed and tested in NASA Glenn Research Center to meet the requirements of transferring cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks to an engine in reduced gravity...

D. F. Chao J. B. McQuillen N. Zhang N. R. Hall

2012-01-01

120

Flexible cryogenic thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryocooler and pulse tubes have been increasingly used in small and large scale cryogenic systems including the superconducting magnet systems as heat sinks to attain and keep the required temperatures. Designing the thermal link between the mechanical refrigerator and the system may present a challenge due to the mechanical stresses developed during the cool-down of the assembled systems. Also, the cross section may be too bulky for metallic conductors for given thermal specifications. In this paper, a thermosysphon with a flexible fluid link between the evaporator and condenser is presented. The working fluid used in preliminary testing is nitrogen. The results of the initial testing of the flexible thermosyphon are presented.

Celik, Dogan; Painter, Thomas

2012-06-01

121

Cryogenic support member  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01

122

Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors  

SciTech Connect

High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

Friedrich, S

2003-12-03

123

Biological applications of cryogenic detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy resolution and broadband efficiency enable the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In TOF-MS cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above ~50kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

Friedrich, Stephan

2004-03-01

124

Mass spectrometry with cryogenic detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic detectors have recently been applied for the first time as ion detectors in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Because of their energy sensitivity cryogenic detectors are expected to have near 100% efficiency even for very large, slow-moving molecules, in contrast to microchannel plates whose efficiency drops considerably at large mass. Thus, cryogenic detectors could contribute to extending the mass range accessible by TOF-MS and help improving detection limits. In addition, the energy resolution provided by cryogenic detectors can be used for charge discrimination and studies of ion fragmentation, ion-detector interaction, and internal energies of large molecular ions. Cryogenic detectors could therefore prove to be a valuable diagnostic tool in TOF-MS. Here I summarize the results of recent demonstration experiments.

Frank, M.

2000-04-01

125

Design Parameters for Cryogenic Thermosyphons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic thermosyphons are the thermal conductors of choice for a variety of applications such as conduction-cooled superconducting devices. They exhibit a small effective thermal resistance at small cross-sections. A careful design, however, is crucial to ensure sufficient heat transport for all possible heatloads. The aim of this work is to obtain experimental results on critical limitations and the effective thermal conductivity dependent on the length, the cross-sectional area, and the working liquid fill level of a thermosyphon for different heatloads. For the experiments, a modular thermosyphon was designed with 5 different adiabatic tubes of length [cm]/cross-sectional diameter [cm] 10/1, 10/2, 30/0.5, 30/1, 30/2, which can be mounted between condenser and evaporator. The thermosyphon was operated with different fill levels of either nitrogen or neon and different heatloads. The effective thermal conductivity between condenser and evaporator was determined, dependent on the design parameters mentioned above. Additionally, the useful temperature range of operation was determined, and limitations were monitored and visualized using a built-in camera. The results can support the proper design of thermosyphons for dedicated applications by providing information about the heat transport capability for different thermosyphon design parameters.

Timinger, H.; David, B.; Eckart, R.; Overweg, J.

2008-03-01

126

Demonstration of noble gas collection using the cryogenic technique  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring devices used for detecting and measuring airborne radioactive noble gases in stack emissions have been limited in their precision and detection capability. Cryogenic sampling is one method used for sampling gamma emitting radioactive gases in stack emissions. A cryogenic air sampler, originally developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and further developed by the Systems Demonstration and Environmental Air Sampling Group (SDEASG) at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) is being tested. The cryogenic sampler will be used to study the off-gas from various emission points at ORNL after completion of the preliminary study by SDEASG. Work is currently under way to demonstrate the effectiveness of the sampler and the efficiency of the sampling method. Various tests have been and are being conducted to determine the sample collection techniques which will result in the greatest sample transfer efficiency, sampling precision, and gamma emission counting efficiencies. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Moser, L.V.; Delzer, D.B.

1988-09-01

127

Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment  

SciTech Connect

As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider, a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon stop prototype.

Michael Geynisman et al.

2003-09-15

128

The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in

Lee Thienel; Chuck Stouffer

1995-01-01

129

Development of a Multiplexer Module for Use in a Spaceborne Cryogenic Environment Based on GaAs Mesfet Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A transistor for use in a cryogenic multiplexer was chosen, and cryogenic multiplexing devices were manufactured and tested. An N-ON transistor with 1.5 micrometer gate length was chosen as the best compromise between performance and reliability. With a w...

A. Fitzgerald

1987-01-01

130

The Zimmerman-Stirling cryogenic cooler  

SciTech Connect

The development of low power, superconductive, electronic components has led to the requirement for compact, low input, refrigeration devices generally called cryogenic coolers. The use of a reversed Stirling cycle has been reported, using helium as the working fluid and a simple form of gap regeneration, to achieve temperatures of 9K at high efficiency. As an undergraduate student project, a test rig was developed at RNEC Manadon to investigate the construction of such a device with its associated drive mechanism, using the basic dimensions available from the literature. The extremely low temperatures have not been produced when the rig is started up from room temperature with no precooling but some success has been found in tests using air as the working fluid.

Clarke, M.A.; Amiri-Samokey, H.; Taylor, D.R.

1983-08-01

131

LUX Cryogenics and Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LUX is a new dark matter direct detection experiment being carried out at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the renewed Homestake mine in Lead, SD. The detector's large size supports effective internal shielding from natural radioactivity of the surrounding materials and environment. The LUX detector consists of a cylindrical vessel containing 350 kg of liquid xenon (LXe) cooled down and maintained at 175-K operating temperature using a novel cryogenic system. We report the efficiency of our thermosyphon-based cooling system, as well as the efficiency of a unique internal heat exchanger with standard gas phase purification using a heated getter, which allows for very high flow purification without requiring large cooling power. Such systems are required for multi-ton scale up.

Bradley, Adam

2012-10-01

132

Nanodielectrics for Cryogenic Applications  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report the recent advances in nanodielectrics that were developed and tested for cryogenic dielectric applications. The systems studied are composed of nanometer size particles. Particles were produced using either an ex-situ or in-situ technique. It is observed that there are clear differences in the structural properties of materials produced using these two approaches. Either no significant degradation or improvement in the electrical insulation properties were observed for ex-situ nano-particle samples processed with an ultrasonic processor and in-situ nano-particle samples. Nanodielectrics have the potential to be tailored with better thermal and mechanical properties without losing their electrical insulation characteristics.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL; More, Karren [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Woodward, Jonathan [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL

2009-01-01

133

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

134

Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

1980-09-30

135

SR&DB Cryogenic Research & Development for Space Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Special Research and Development Bureau (SR&DB) for Cryogenic Technology of the B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics & Engineering was founded in 1971 and is located in Kharkov, Ukraine. Its primary focus has been in the area of applied r&d in the field of cryogenic technology for space applications. Within this field SR&DB has had many successful accomplishments, especially in the development of satellite based cryogenic cooling systems, mass spectrometer measurement devices, resistence thermometers, and cryogenically cooled optical systems. We have developed very advanced technology in the fields of fluids, heat transfer and hydrodynamics under micro-gravity conditions. Many of the SR&DB cryogenic products have been successfully implemented for former Soviet space applications, both near-earth and deep space. The SR&DB unique experience in many R&D areas can be and are being used for a new generation of space applications which have a requirement for planetary and deep-space missions. Systems we have developed have been proven to have a 5-year life in orbit. Recently we have focused much of our attention, as well, to the requirement low-weight and low-power systems which are mandatory requirements for outerspace missions. The funtionality of the exterior surfaces of a spacecraft are mainly dependent on the composition of its internally generated local atmosphere. In order to continually assess the content and concentration of components of this atmosphere we have developed space based mass spectrometric measuring devices. Devices which require such continual measurement are optical devices, emission receivers, solar cells, etc. A significant technology advance in the field of cryogenics is the application of cryoagents in systems of life support and spacecraft engine operation. We have studied and have an in-depth comprehension of unique phase-transition for these cryoagents such as oxygen, hydrogen, et al. under microgravity conditions. Currently SR&DB under contract to the National Space Agency of Ukraine has been developing an experimental apparatus for studying the continuous boiling off of cryogenic fluids under micro-gravity conditions.

Bondarenko, S. I.; Arkhipov, V. T.; Logvinenko, S. P.; Solodovnik, L. L.; Rusanov, K. V.; Shcherbakova, N. S.

136

Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment: Results overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on the flight results of the Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment (CRYOTP), which was a Hitchhiker based experiment that flew on the space shuttle Columbia in March of 1994 (STS-62). CRYOTP tested two new technologies for advanced cryogenic thermal control; the Space Heat Pipe (SHP), which was a constant conductance cryogenic heat pipe, and the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU), which was a cryogenic phase-change thermal storage device. These two devices were tested independently during the mission. Analysis of the flight data indicated that the SHP was unable to start in either of two attempts, for reasons related to the fluid charge, parasitic heat leaks, and cryocooler capacity. The BETSU test article was successfully operated with more than 250 hours of on-orbit testing including several cooldown cycles and 56 freeze/thaw cycles. Some degradation was observed with the five tactical cryocoolers used as thermal sinks, and one of the cryocoolers failed completely after 331 hours of operation. Post-flight analysis indicated that this problem was most likely due to failure of an electrical controller internal to the unit.

Swanson, T.; Buchko, M.; Brennan, P.; Bello, M.; Stoyanof, M.

1995-09-01

137

Argon SDC detector cryogenic design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first cut at designing the cryogenic systems is resented. The point design or sample design presented includes flow-rate calculations, piping sizes, dewar elevations, etc. In summary, the analysis shows argon cooling is ample even with relatively small ...

D. S. Slack

1991-01-01

138

Cryogenic Foam Insulation: Abstracted Publications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and co...

F. R. Williamson

1977-01-01

139

Cryogenic Temperature Control and Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of some of the many control, measurement, and regulation techniques for cryogenic temperatures, applying liquid coolants (LN2, LHe) and the equipment developed for their realization, such as pressure, coolant level, and temperature contr...

H. J. Forth

1977-01-01

140

Latest developments in cryogenic safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

Webster, T. J.

1983-03-01

141

Nano-integrated adhesive for cryogenic packaging (4K) of harsh environment electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current research we have developed a thermally enhanced and electrically non-conductive nano-integrated adhesive for ultra-low temperature (4K) cryogenic microelectronic packaging. Ultra-low temperature niobium based (4K) superconductor microelectronics offer the unique combination of ultrafast switching speeds (up to 100GHz), high sensitivity and low power consumption. The commercialization of these cryogenic microelectronic devices in a complex multichip module architecture where

Ranjith Samuel E. John; Ajay P. Malshe; Vladimir Dotsenko; Jean Delmas; Robert Webber; Deepnarayan Gupta

2010-01-01

142

R&D ERL: Cryogenic System  

SciTech Connect

The ERL cryogenic system will supply cooling to a super-conducting RF (SCRF) gun and the 5-cell super-conducting RF cavity system that need to be held cold at 2K. The engineering of the cavity cryomodules were carried out by AES in collaboration with BNL. The 2K superfluid bath is produced by pumping on the bath using a sub-atmospheric warm compression system. The cryogenic system makes use of mainly existing equipment relocated from other facilities: a 300W 4.5K coldbox, an 45 g/s screw compressor, a 3800 liter liquid helium storage dewar, a 170 m{sup 3} warm gas storage tank, and a 40,000 liter vertical low pressure liquid nitrogen storage dewar. An existing wet expander obtained from another facility has been added to increase the plant capacity. In order to deliver the required 3 to 4 bar helium to the cryomodules while using up stored liquid capacity at low pressure, a new subcooler will be installed to function as the capacity transfer device. A 2K to 4K recovery heat exchanger is also implemented for each cryomodule to recover refrigeration below 4K, thus maximizing 2K cooling capacity with the given sub-atmospheric pump. No 4K-300K refrigeration recovery is implemented at this time of the returning sub-atmospheric cold vapor, hence the 2K load appears as a liquefaction1 load on the cryogenic plant. A separate LN2 cooling loop supplies liquid nitrogen to the superconducting gun's cathode tip.

Than, R.

2010-01-01

143

Calculation Procedure, Optimization and Cost Factors of Normal-Conductive, Cryogenic and Superconducting Magnets for Experimental Plasma Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of calculations and optimizing methods are presented for normally conductive, cryogenic, and superconducting magnets in linear (cylindrical) and toroidal devices. Relevant cost factors and functions are given as a basis for the comparison of cost...

B. Oswald

1972-01-01

144

The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems  

SciTech Connect

The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

Green, Michael A.

2003-07-09

145

Improved yields for the nano-technology era using cryogenic aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, cryogenic aerosol processing for enhancing final device yield in state-of-art 180 and 130 nm devices is demonstrated. Significant advantages of this particle removal technology is demonstrated and discussed: excellent particle removal efficiency on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, no watermarks, no feature damage, no charge induced damage and no film modification or loss.

Thomas J. Wagener; Kazushi Kawaguchi

2004-01-01

146

Cryogenic refrigeration. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and applications of cryogenic refrigeration technology. Citations discuss performance evaluations of specific systems, equipment descriptions, the cooling of instrumentation, superconducting devices, reactor devices, and applications in satellites and spaceborne vehicles. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

147

Cryogenic Neutron Spectrometer Development  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors operating at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K have been developed for the last two decades, driven mostly by the need for ultra-high energy resolution (<0.1%) in X-ray astrophysics and dark matter searches [1]. The Advanced Detector Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed different cryogenic detector technologies for applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to nuclear science and non-proliferation. In particular, we have adapted cryogenic detector technologies for ultra-high energy resolution gamma-spectroscopy [2] and, more recently, fast-neutron spectroscopy [3]. Microcalorimeters are essentially ultra-sensitive thermometers that measure the energy of the radiation from the increase in temperature upon absorption. They consist of a sensitive superconducting thermometer operated at the transition between its superconducting and its normal state, where its resistance changes very rapidly with temperature such that even the minute energies deposited by single radiation quanta are sufficient to be detectable with high precision. The energy resolution of microcalorimeters is fundamentally limited by thermal fluctuations to {Delta}E{sub FWHM} {approx} 2.355 (k{sub B}T{sup 2}C{sub abs}){sup 1/2}, and thus allows an energy below 1 keV for neutron spectrometers for an operating temperature of T {approx} 0.1 K . The {Delta}E{sub FWHM} does not depend on the energy of the incident photon or particle. This expression is equivalent to the familiar (F{var_epsilon}E{sub {gamma}}){sup 1/2} considering that an absorber at temperature T contains a total energy C{sub abs}T, and the associated fluctuation are due to variations in uncorrelated (F=1) phonons ({var_epsilon} = k{sub B}T) dominated by the background energy C{sub abs}T >> E{gamma}. The rationale behind developing a cryogenic neutron spectrometer is the very high energy resolution combined with the high efficiency. Additionally, the response function is simple and the instrument is transportable. We are currently developing a fast neutron spectrometer with 0.1% energy resolution at 1 MeV neutron energy with an efficiency of > 1%. Our fast-neutron spectrometers use boron-based and {sup 6}LiF absorber crystals with Mo/Cu thermistors readout. They have achieved an energy resolution of 5.5 keV FWHM for 2.79 MeV deposited in {sup 10}B by thermal neutron capture (fig. 1), and 46 keV FWHM for fast (MeV) neutrons absorbed in {sup 6}LiF (fig. 2). Since the energy resolution does not depend on the neutron energy, we expect a similar energy resolution for MeV neutron energies. The response function is given simply by the cross section of the capture reaction, offset from zero by the Q-value of the capture reaction. This allows straightforward discrimination against gamma-events, most of which deposit less that Q{sub 6Li} = 4.79 MeV in the {sup 6}LiF absorber, and easy deconvolution of the neutron spectrum, since there is only a single capture reaction in {sup 6}Li and the spectrum is not affected by edge effects or geometric broadening. The current challenge for microcalorimeters is their necessarily small effective pixel area, {approx}1cm{sup 3} for neutron spectrometer pixels, and their slow decay time, {approx}10ms for neutron spectrometers. The pixel size is limited by the requirement for low Cabs for high energy resolution; the decay time is set by the intrinsically weak thermal coupling between materials at low temperatures. Both issues can be addressed by fabricating large detector arrays. This will enable high-precision neutron spectrometry with high statistics, such as simulated for Pu analysis in fig 3.

Niedermayr, T; Hau, I D; Friedrich, S; Burger, A; Roy, U N; Bell, Z W

2006-03-08

148

Cryogenic focussing, ohmically heated on-column trap  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is described for depositing a conductive layer of gold on the exterior of a fused-silica capillary used in gas chromatography. By subjecting a section of the column near the inlet to a thermal cycle of cryogenic cooling and ohmic heating, volatile samples are concentrated and subsequently injected. The performance of this trap as a chromatographic injector is demonstrated. Several additional applications are suggested and the unique properties of this device are discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Springston, S.R.

1991-12-01

149

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM OF BEPCII  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic system of the upgrade project of Beijing Electron Position Collider (BEPCII) is being built at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The system has a total capacity of 1.0 kW at 4.5 K for cooling three kinds of superconducting devices, superconducting RF (SRF) cavities, superconducting quadrupole (SCQ) magnets and the superconducting solenoid magnet (SSM). Two sets of refrigerators,

Z. G. Zong; L. Q. Liu; L. Y. Xiong; L. Zhang

2008-01-01

150

Numerical Simulation of the Cryogenic System of Bepcii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic system of the upgrade project of Beijing Electron Position Collider (BEPCII) is being built at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The system has a total capacity of 1.0 kW at 4.5 K for cooling three kinds of superconducting devices, superconducting RF (SRF) cavities, superconducting quadrupole (SCQ) magnets and the superconducting solenoid magnet (SSM). Two sets of refrigerators,

Z. G. Zong; L. Q. Liu; L. Y. Xiong; L. Zhang

2008-01-01

151

Cryogenic expansion joint for large superconducting magnet structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expansion joint is provided that accommodates dimensional changes occurring during the cooldown and warm-up of large cryogenic devices such as superconducting magnet coils. Flattened tubes containing a refrigerant such as gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) are inserted into expansion spaces in the structure. The gaseous N.sub.2 is circulated under pressure and aids in the cooldown process while providing its primary function

Robert L

1978-01-01

152

Latest developments in cryogenic safety  

SciTech Connect

The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of crygenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

Webster, T.J.

1983-03-01

153

Elastomeric Seals and Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research deals with low temperature investigations of elastomeric polymers, with particular emphasis on their use as seals at cryogenic temperatures. The present report starts with a study of correlations between physical properties and cryogenic sea...

D. H. Weitzel R. F. Robbins P. R. Ludtke Y. Ohori

1964-01-01

154

The application of the cryogenic system on the HTS power cable circuit in actual grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 22.9 kV/50 MVA AC HTS power cable system consisted of power cable with 410 m length and cryogenic system has been manufactured by LS Cable & System and installed in Icheon substation of KEPCO grid in the end of 2010. High temperature superconductor only appears the superconductivity at the constant temperate range. So in order to maintain the superconductivity, the cryogenic system is needed. The cryogenic system, the open-loop type, is consisted of the Pressure Control System (PCS), Gas/liquid separator, Circulation Pump, Decompression unit, Filter and so on. Decompression unit is a device that keeps the sub-cooled nitrogen by way of the latent heat of evaporation and includes the heat exchanger. The effectiveness-NTU method is used for the design of the heat exchanger. After installation of the cryogenic system on the site, the test of the cooling capacity of the cryogenic system and commissioning tests were performed. During the grid operation of the HTS power cable system, no major problems have been encountered to this point. The cryogenic system has been operated sufficiently to maintain a stable of the HTS power cable system. This paper will summarize the design of the cryogenic system and the results of the grid operation.

Kim, Yang-Hun; Lee, Su-Kil; Jang, Hyun-Man; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Keun-Tae; Choi, Chang-Youl; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi; Kim, Han-Joong; Hwang, Si-Dole; Yang, Hyung-Suk; Sohn, Song-Ho; Lim, Ji-Hyun

2012-12-01

155

Latest developments in cryogenic safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Safety Manual, published under the auspices of the British Cryogenics Council, is summarized. Since an awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is considered important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise, the manual lists the more important properties, such as molecular weight, boiling point, and freezing point. Since hydrogen and helium are very light, the possibility arises of explosive mixtures being formed at high points in buildings. Since argon is unexpectedly heavy, its removal requires suction rather than blowing. It is also pointed out that the use of inert liquid nitrogen can lead to the creation of a noninert atmosphere which supports combustion because it contains oxygen. Attention is also given to the danger of asphyxiation posed by the growing use of inert gases.

Webster, T.

1982-05-01

156

Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

Buzulutskov, A.

2012-02-01

157

The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers with superconducting electronic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of many of the superconducting circuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a serious disadvantage. This paper discusses the process of refrigerating superconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers. Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency and reliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. A comparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load and using heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed for monitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

Green, Michael A.

2003-12-01

158

Cryogenic Faraday isolator  

SciTech Connect

A Faraday isolator is described in which thermal effects are suppressed by cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The principal scheme, main characteristics and modifications of the isolator are presented. The isolation degree is studied experimentally for the subkilowatt average laser radiation power. It is shown that the isolator can be used at radiation powers up to tens of kilowatts. (quantum electronic devices)

Zheleznov, D S; Zelenogorskii, V V; Katin, E V; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2010-05-26

159

Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

2008-03-01

160

Electrical insulation at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. In order to reduce the size and mass of portable, high power electrical systems cryogenic cooling is being studied. This allows an increase in efficiency in the generator, high current conductors, and power electronic switches, resulting in smaller conductors, lower resistive losses, and more efficient switching. However, the effects of the low temperatures (ranging

L. B. Gordon; T. Hardy; L. Origgi; P. Vu

1996-01-01

161

ILC cryogenic systems reference design  

SciTech Connect

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

2008-01-01

162

HF Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

AL\\/DTA and IN\\/SNEC had developed a demonstrator of an RF cryogenic LNA in order to improve the links budget of remote sensing earth station. Working in X band, the cooled LNA allows to reduce efficiently the size of the antennas. So, this solution offers a cheaper alternative to the actual technology used in this area. This demonstrator operates at 80

T. Trollier; A. Ravex; D. Butin

2004-01-01

163

CRYOGENIC MACHINING OF KEVLAR COMPOSITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous attempts to machine Kevlar aramid fibre reinforced plastics (KFRP) with conventional cutting tools have proven to be extremely difficult. This has somewhat restricted the material's usage, often negating the advantages of its high strength to weight ratio and fatigue tolerance. The present paper describes a novel technique of machining KFRP under cryogenic conditions with remarkable results compared to those

D. Bhattacharyya; M. N. Allen; S. J. Mander

1993-01-01

164

Cryogenic aerosol cleaning of photomasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the mechanism and cleaning results of a dry cleaning technology using CO2 cryogenic aerosols. The cleaning mechanism relies on momentum transfer from the aerosol particles to overcome the force of adhesion of the contaminant particles on the surface. Particle removal is possible without degradation or etching of underlying film or the need for drying with IPA as

S. Banerjee; C. C. Lin; S. Su; H. F. Chung; W. Brandt; K. Tang

2005-01-01

165

Flight data for the Cryogenic Heat Pipe (CRYOHP) Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the flight test results and data correlation for the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (CRYOHP). CRYOHP is a Hitchhiker Canister experiment that was flown aboard the shuttle Discovery (STS-53) in December of 1992. Two different axially grooved oxygen heat pipes were tested to determine their startup behavior and transport capability in micro-gravity. Three startup cycles were conducted with each heat pipe and transport data was obtained over the range of 60 K to 140 K. Startup in flight was repeatable but slower than observed in ground tests. The transport data shows good agreement with the theoretical model. The CRYOHP test bed, which incorporates five Stifling cycle refrigerators to provide the cryo-cooling, performed as predicted and offers a good micro-gravity test bed for cryogenic thermal devices.

Brennan, Patrick J.; Thienel, Lee; Swanson, Ted; Morgan, Michael

1993-07-01

166

Cryogenic X-band ferrite phase shifter/attenuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic ferrite phase shifter/attenuator (PSA) has been developed which is biased with persistent supercurrents to facilitate the precision adjustment of the amplitude and phase of X-band signals. The PSA is constructed in stripline and uses two slabs of TT2-113 ferrite (35x3x1.6 mm) slightly rounded at the ends. Quarter-wavelength matching transformers are used to broadband-match the ferrite loaded line over the range of bias fields of interest. Magnetic field bias is produced by a solenoid of a Nb/Ti superconductor carrying a persistent supercurrent and producing a field strength of about 800 Oe/A. The device allows the remote tuning of microwave circuits in cryogenic systems and can also be used as an AM or FM modulator by adding an AC field coil.

Mann, L. D.; Blair, D. G.

1983-02-01

167

Detecting MALDI ions with a cryogenic detector  

SciTech Connect

Progress in cryogenic detector technology has led to the development of new devices appropriate for use as ion detectors. We have recently begun to evaluate one type of cryogenic detector called a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector. Initial tests were conducted by replacing a microchannel plate ion detector in a matrix-assisted-laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) with a STJ detector. In those initial tests we showed that 1) the STJ detector produces pulses appropriate for timing large ions and 2) the height of the pulses is proportional to ion energy and thus useful for deducing ion charge. We now report additional STJ ion energy measurements that help to reveal some aspects of ion fragmentation in MALDI mass spectrometry. The height of the output pulse from a STJ detector is related approximately linearly to ion energy, thus doubly charged ions in a MALDI:TOF-MS produce pulses about twice as large as singly charged ions. Cryogenic detectors show excellent energy resolution for X rays, but poorer energy resolution is observed when MALDI ions are analyzed. The cause for the poor energy resolution of MALDI ions is not fully understood; nevertheless, it appears feasible to use STJ detectors to study the energy distribution of MALDI ions. The detectors appear to be sensitive enough to measure individual ion impacts and processes which influence ion energy such as in-source fragmentation and the deficit of ion energy caused by accelerating ions through a MALDI plume. In this study, we show how a STJ detector can be used to measure the time of flight of macroglobulin ions (725,000 Daltons), determine ion charge using detector pulse height and investigate in-source fragmentation patterns. It is found that the energy response of the STJ detector not only provides a way to assign charge to ions but also provides a way to examine fragmentation patterns for MALDI ions. The simple model described above appears to account for the flight times and expected energy of the ions that lead to clusters of crescent shaped data points. Work is under way to investigate the fragmentation of multiply charged ions.

Benner, W. Henry

1997-09-12

168

Neutron Detection with a Cryogenic Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic calorimeters are used for x-ray detection because of their exquisite energy resolution and have found application in x-ray astronomy, and the search for dark matter. These devices operate by detecting the heat pulse produced by ionization in an absorber cooled to temperatures below 1 K. Such temperatures are needed to lower the absorber's heat capacity to the point that the deposition of even a few eV results in a measurable temperature excursion. Typical absorbers for dark matter measurements are massive Si or Ge crystals, and, with Ge, have achieved a resolution of 650 eV at 10 keV. Chow, et al., report the measurement of the 60 keV emission from {sup 241}Am with 230 eV resolution using a superconducting tin absorber. Cunningham, et al., also using a superconducting tin absorber, have recently reported a four-fold improvement over Chow. With such results being reported from the x- and gamma-ray world it is natural to examine the possibilities for cryogenic neutron spectroscopy. Such a detector would operate by detecting the heat pulses caused by neutron capture and scattering. To date, {sup 6}LiF has been the absorber of choice because relatively large crystals can be grown, and it is an insulating material with low heat capacity. Silver reports the fabrication of a {sup 6}LiF spectrometer operating at 328 mK and achieving a resolution of 39 keV. De Marcillac reports the fabrication of a spectrometer operating at 80 mK and achieving 16 keV resolution when bombarded with 5 MeV alpha particles. In this paper, we report preliminary results with a TiB{sub 2} absorber exposed to thermal neutrons. In contrast to lithium, whose chemistry selects for LiF as the absorber, boron offers a rich chemistry from which to select materials with high boron content. We will discuss the considerations governing the choice of absorber material as well as the basic considerations needed to understand a cryogenic spectrometer. The capture and scattering reactions in boron and lithium were modeled with MCNP. The modeling results and methods of analysis applicable to lithium- and boron-based spectrometers will be given.

Bell, Z.W.; Lamberti, V.E.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.

2003-06-23

169

Cryogenic processes and equipment - 1984; Proceedings of the Fifth Intersociety Cryogenics Symposium, New Orleans, LA, December 9-14, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics of cryogenic processes for LNG and EOR, cryogenic refrigerators, components for cryogenic systems, liquid hydrogen as a fuel, cryogenic processes and equipment for large systems, and cryogenic thermodynamics and heat transfer are discussed. The papers include analysis of process efficiency for baseload LNG production, process efficiency considerations for nitrogen rejection units, design and performance analysis of gas sorption

P. J. Kerney; N. Chatterjee; D. B. Cranwford; M. El-Masri

1984-01-01

170

Proposal for a cryogenic magnetic field measurement system for SSC dipole magnets  

SciTech Connect

This proposal describes the research and development required, and the subsequent fabrication of, a system capable of making integrated magnetic multipole measurements of cryogenic 40-mm-bore SSC dipole magnets utilizing a cryogenic probe. Our experience and some preliminary studies indicate that it is highly unlikely that a 16-meter-long probe can be fabricated that will have a twist below several milliradians at cryogenic temperatures. We would anticipate a twist of several milliradians just as a result of cooldown stresses. Consequently, this proposal describes a segmented 16-meter-long probe, for which we intend to calibrate the phase of each segment to within 0.1 milliradians. The data for all segments will be acquired simultaneously, and integrated data will be generated from the vector sums of the individual segments. The calibration techniques and instrumentation required to implement this system will be described. The duration of an integral measurement at one current is expected to be under 10 seconds. The system is based on an extrapolation of the techniques used at LBL to measure cryogenic 1-meter models of SSC magnets with a cryogenic probe. It should be noted that the expansion of the dipole bore from 40 to 50 mm may make a warm-finger device practical at a cost of approximately one quarter of the cryogenic probe. A warm quadrupole measurement system can be based upon the same principles. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Green, M.I.; Hansen, L.

1991-03-01

171

Advanced cryogenic tank development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

1993-06-01

172

Relaxation phenomena in cryogenic electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed is a scenario for the development of observed relaxation phenomena in a cryogenic electrolyte with the structure of ``liquid hydrogen + injected ions.'' Ions of one sign are generated in the bulk of liquid hydrogen in the presence of external field E? by a stationary radioactive source of +/- ions at the bottom of a vessel. After accumulation near the free surface of the liquid with a finite density ns the ions can break its stability producing a pulse of ion current to the collector located above the liquid surface. The outlined process is periodically repeated. Its period contains information on the ion mobility and, which is most interesting, on dissociation (association) processes occurring in a system of charged particles placed in an external field. The cryogenic problem is a good model for dissociation in the presence of external field occurring in normal electrolytes without any external ion sources.

Shikin, V.; Chikina, I.; Nazin, S.

2013-06-01

173

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 29  

SciTech Connect

Applications of superconductivity are discussed, taking into account the thermal performance of the MFTF magnets, the design and testing of a large bore superconducting magnet test facility, the development of a 12-tesla multifilamentary Nb3Sn magnet, a superconducting magnet for solid NMR studies, advanced applications of superconductors, transition and recovery of a cryogenically stable superconductor, and finite-difference modeling of the cryostability of helium II cooled conductor packs. Other topics explored are related to resource availability, heat exchangers, heat transfer to He I, liquid nitrogen, heat transfer in He II, refrigeration for superconducting and cryopump systems, refrigeration of cryogenic systems, refrigeration and liquefaction, dilution and magnetic refrigeration, cryocoolers, refrigeration for space applications, cryogenic applications, cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition, and properties of fluids. Attention is given to biomedical applications of cryogenics in China, long-term cryogen storage in space, and a passive orbital disconnect strut.

Fast, R.W.

1984-01-01

174

Steels for cryogenic power engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The mechanical properties of the investigated steels at normal and cryogenic temperatures improve when their aluminum content increases to 10%. Further alloying with aluminum causes some impairement of the plastic and ductile properties; this is connected with the formation of a-phase in the structure of the steels.2.Magnetic permeability is practically independent of the temperature in the range 293–4°K because of

B. S. Ermakov; A. Ya. Nikolaich; V. A. Oparin

1986-01-01

175

Cryogenic moderator simulations : confronting reality.  

SciTech Connect

The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities.

Iverson, E. B.

1999-01-06

176

Cryomechanism: a cryogenic rotating actuator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen years ago, CEA started the development of cryogenic rotating actuators for the astrophysical infrared camera (VISIR) that is set on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). At the time of the VISIR first light in 2004, 10 cryogenic rotating actuators, also known as "CryoMechanisms" (CM), were present in the instrument. Today VISIR is still operating and the CM that are actuated several times a day, have no reported failure up to now. In continuation of the VISIR project, CEA undertook space qualification tests with the aim of making the CM compatible with space missions. Relying on this background, a smaller model of the mechanism has been built and tested at cryogenic temperatures. Today, the cryomechanisms are selected for the ESA/EUCLID [1] space mission. The qualification program will run throughout 2014. This paper first describes the VISIR's baseline specification, the CM design and its operation principle. Then, the upgrades for the space constrains are shown and the qualification plan with respect to vibrations, thermal cycling and life testing campaigns is given. Some results of the tests carried out on a qualification model are addressed. At end, the design improvements for the EUCLID project are presented and a summary of the CM capabilities is highlighted.

Barriere, J.-C.; Berthé, M.; Carty, M.; Duboué, B.; Fontignie, J.; Leboeuf, D.; Martignac, J.; Cara, C.; Charon, P.; Durand, G. A.; Bachet, D.

2013-09-01

177

Usaf Space Sensing Cryogenic Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared (IR) space sensing missions of the future depend upon low mass components and highly capable imaging technologies. Limitations in visible imaging due to the earth's shadow drive the use of IR surveillance methods for a wide variety of applications for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications, and almost certainly in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. Utilization of IR sensors greatly expands and improves mission capabilities including target and target behavioral discrimination. Background IR emissions and electronic noise that is inherently present in Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and surveillance optics bench designs prevents their use unless they are cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This paper describes the role of cryogenic coolers as an enabling technology for generic ISR and BMD missions and provides ISR and BMD mission and requirement planners with a brief glimpse of this critical technology implementation potential. The interaction between cryogenic refrigeration component performance and the IR sensor optics and FPA can be seen as not only mission enabling but also as mission performance enhancing when the refrigeration system is considered as part of an overall optimization problem.

Roush, F.

2010-04-01

178

The evolution of cryogenic safety at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Over the past twenty-five years, Fermilab has been involved in cryogenic technology as it relates to pursuing experimentation in high energy physics. The Laboratory has instituted a strong cryogenic safety program and has maintained a very positive safety record. The solid commitment of management and the cryogenic community to incorporating safety into the system life cycle has led to policies that set requirements and help establish consistency for the purchase and installation of equipment and the safety analysis and documentation.

Stanek, R.; Kilmer, J.

1992-12-01

179

Eddy Current Damper for Cryogenic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation considers the following topics: the need for cryogenic energy absorption, high speed damper characteristics, gearbox characteristics, composite assembly characteristics, performance tests, simulation models.

Starin, Scott; Crosno, Fred

2002-09-01

180

Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the basic elements of the NFI 1 detector array. With a DROID-based array of 48 times 10 elements covering the NFI 1 field of view of 0.5 arcmin, the number of signal wires would already be reduced by a factor 2.4 compared to a 48 times 48 array of single pixels. While the present prototype DROIDS are still covered with a 480 nm thick SiOx insulation layer, this layer could easily be reduced in thickness or omitted. The detection efficiency of such a device with a 500 nm thick Ta absorber would be >80% in the energy range of 100-3000eV, without any disturbing contributions from other layers as in single STJs. Further developments involve devices of lower Tc-superconductors for better energy resolution and faster diffusion (e.g. Mo). The narrow field imager 2 The NFI 2 will consist of an array of 32 times 32 detector pixels. Each detector is a microcalorimeter which consists of a a superconducting to normal phase transition edge thermometer (transition edge sensor, TES) with an operating temperature of 100 mK, and an absorber which allows a detection efficiency of >90% and a filling factor of the focal plane in excess of 90%. Single pixel microcalorimeters with a Ti/Au TES have already shown an energy resolution of 3.9 eV at 5.89 keV in combination with a thermal response time of 100 mus. These results imply that they the high-energy requirement for XEUS can be met, in terms of energy resolution and response time. It has been demonstrated that bismuth can be applied as absorber material without impeding on the detector performance. Bi increases the stopping power in excess of 90 % and allows for a high filling factor since the absorber is can be modeled in the shape of a mushroom, allowing that the wiring to the detector and the thermal support structure are placed under the hat of the mushroom. In order to realize the NFI 2 detector array, there are two major development areas. Firstly, there is the development of micromachined Si and SiN structures that will provide proper cooling for each of the pixels and the production of small membranes to support the

Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

181

A low-power cryogenic analog to digital converter in standard CMOS technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A MOS device model for circuit simulation at cryogenic temperatures is designed.The proposed ADC can function from room temperature down to 20 K.A integral-based comparator is used to eliminate the impact of freeze-out.The proposed circuit has the advantages of low power, high speed and resolution.

Zhao, Hongliang; Liu, Xinghui

2013-05-01

182

Liquid hydrogen mass flow through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid hydrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a number of multiple orifice Joule-Thomas devices known as visco jets. The present investigation continues a study to develop an equation for predicting two phase flow of cryogens through these devices. The test apparatus design allowed isenthalpic expansion of the cryogen through the visco jets. The

S. Stephen Papell; Ted W. Nyland; Naseem H. Saiyed

1992-01-01

183

A new capsule platinum resistance thermometer for cryogenic use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standards grade platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) obtain their high stability in part due to the strain-free mounting of the sensing wire. The space required for this strain-free mounting normally results in thermometers on the order of 6 mm diameter by 40 mm length in size. While these SPRTs are acceptable in many applications, it is desirable to reduce the size as much as possible for cryogenic use where space is of major concern. For over 40 years Minco Products, Inc. provided a smaller alternative with their model S1059, a high-stability cryogenic capsule platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) packaged in a copper canister sized only 3.2 mm diameter by 9.7 mm length. The packaging was compatible for use over the 13 K to 533 K temperature range. Unfortunately, this product was discontinued in 2009. In its absence, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., has worked with Advanced Sensing Products to develop a similarly sized replacement sensor for cryogenic use. The replacement capsule PRT is manufactured using the model S1059 design, but with modifications to reduce the chance of lead breakage at the epoxy-lead interface. Test devices have been fabricated and tested for temperature response and stability upon repeated calibration from 13 K to 330 K. The new sensor design features and performance data are presented in this work.

Courts, S. S.; Krause, J. K.

2013-09-01

184

Numerical Simulation of the Cryogenic System of Bepcii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cryogenic system of the upgrade project of Beijing Electron Position Collider (BEPCII) is being built at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The system has a total capacity of 1.0 kW at 4.5 K for cooling three kinds of superconducting devices, superconducting RF (SRF) cavities, superconducting quadrupole (SCQ) magnets and the superconducting solenoid magnet (SSM). Two sets of refrigerators, each with a capacity of 500 W at 4.5 K are adopted. In order to prepare for the commissioning of the cryogenic system, the refrigeration process was simulated and analyzed numerically. The simulation was conducted based on the latest engineering progresses and focusing on the steady state operation mode. The simulation results, such as the helium mass flow rates and pressure drops over the control valves of different cooling channels, thermodynamic parameters of each superconducting device, etc., are presented in this paper. When considering the heat loads, the powers of heaters of each device were figured out to realize the nominal operation modes.

Zong, Z. G.; Liu, L. Q.; Xiong, L. Y.; Zhang, L.

2008-03-01

185

Network analyzer calibration for cryogenic on-wafer measurements  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic probe station for on-wafer microwave measurements has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to explore the basic device physics and characterize advanced components for low-temperature applications. The station was designed to operate over a temperature range of 20 to 300 K with a frequency range of DC to 50 GHz. Due to the vacuum and the low temperature environment, the use of microwave probes and the calibration of network analyzer measurements are somewhat elaborate. This paper presents guidelines for probe use and calibration in this environment.

Hietala, V.M.; Housel, M.S.; Caldwell, R.B.

1994-04-01

186

Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

1980-05-02

187

Design and installation of extra high voltage cryogenic dielectric test facilities for the superconducting electric equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting electric equipments have a lot of advantages over the conventional devices such as improvements in overall efficiency, size reduction, high current carrying capability, and also environment-friendly products. Owing to these advantages, many research institutes have been tried to develop commercial superconducting devices, which could be applicable to the high voltage and high current electric networks. But up to now, most of the research works to develop commercial products were delayed because it was not easy to acquire reliable high voltage insulation properties and optimum insulation design skills considering extremely low temperature environments. Furthermore, it was difficult to determine optimum high voltage insulation level due to the lack of high voltage cryogenic dielectric test facilities. Thus, in order to establish the cryogenic dielectric technology regarding insulating design, cryogenic dielectric test skills, and to implement more reliable high voltage superconducting devices, high voltage cryogenic dielectric test facilities should be prepared for extra high voltage superconducting electric equipments. Recently, cryogenic dielectric test facilities were installed including 3 m long 2 m wide cryostat system with bushing, and 1.6 MVA lightening impulse generators, 400 kVA AC overvoltage test system in Korea. In this paper, design and installation of high voltage cryogenic dielectric test system including very big size FRP cryostat and high voltage bushing were minutely introduced. And some test results to develop high voltage bushings for liquid nitrogen cryostat in order to implement extra high voltage level bushings were illustrated. These test facilities will be fully utilized for the optimization of insulation design for extra high voltage superconducting electric equipments.

Lee, S. H.; Shin, W. J.; Khan, Umer A.; Oh, S. H.; Seong, J. K.; Lee, B. W.

2011-11-01

188

Setup of cryogenic front-end electronic systems for germanium detectors read-out  

Microsoft Academic Search

Front-end electronic devices for the read-out of ionizing radiation detectors must operate in many cases at cryogenic temperatures. In this work we focus in particular on front-end read-out systems for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which are usually operated at liquid nitrogen (LN) temperature. We analyze the strong effects that the changed characteristics of the electronic active and passive devices have

F. Zocca; A. Pullia; S. Riboldi; A. D'Andragora; C. Cattadori

2009-01-01

189

Cryogenic optical systems and instruments II  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of a conference of the Society for Optical Engineering. Topics covered are: Cryogenic optical systems considerations; Cryogrenic instruments and components; Design and performance of cryogenic dewars for space; and Supporting technology for crogenic systems and instruments.

Melugin, R.K.

1986-01-01

190

Cryogenic Electrical Insulation and its Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the cryogenic electrical insulation with polymers and its interesting features. At cryogenic temperature, polymers show high electric strength, extremely higher ac treeing inception voltage, low tandelta, no thermal and chemical degradation, no water tree degradation, very limited space charge injection and resulting high short-circuit treeing inception voltage, etc. Based on these features, we can call polymer at

Masayuki Nagao

2004-01-01

191

D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of

D. Markely

1992-01-01

192

Designs of pulsed power cryogenic transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has completed designs of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These transformers will be configured to transfer their stored energy sequentially to an electro-magnetic launcher and form a three-stage power supply. The pulse transformers will act as two winding energy storage solenoids which provide a

S. K. Singh; C. J. Heyne; D. T. Hackowrth; E. J. Shestak; P. W. Eckels; J. D. Rogers

1988-01-01

193

Cryogenic spin testing of NASA's shuttle engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin testing of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high-pressure turbopump rotors is described focusing on the SSME cryogenic spin test facility. Testing at full operating speed is predicated on achieving and maintaining a cryogenic rotor temperature. Rotors are driven to operational speeds after being chilled to - 195 C.

Maillar, Kenneth M.; Enos, Anthony; Gauthier, Robert

1992-12-01

194

D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 b...

D. Markely

1992-01-01

195

Advances in cryogenic engineering: Vol. 31  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume comprises the proceedings of the 1985 Cryogenic Engineering Conference held August 12-16, 1985, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The 151 included papers begin by discussing the applications of superconductivity in the following fields: the Superconducting Super Collider; superconducting magnetic energy storage; magnets for fusion and physics research; test facilities; cryogenic techniques; acoustic emission testing; and magnet stability. From there, the

1986-01-01

196

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vol. 29  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains 116 of the papers presented at the 1983 Cryogenic Engineering Conference held in Colorado. The latest work of the most advanced researchers in low-temperature technology is reviewed. Topics considered include resource availability (helium, LNG), applications of superconductivity (magnets for fusion and physics research, test facilities, components of electric power systems, electronics and RF structures, cryogenic techniques, magnet

1984-01-01

197

Space cryogenic system for SPICA mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes that the feasibility of the next Japanese infrared astronomical SPICA mission is verified in thermal design by numerical analyses and developed technologies. In this advanced cryogenic mission, in order to cool the large primary mirror and focal plane instruments down to 4.5 K for 5 years or longer without cryogen, the mechanical cooling is employed with effective

Hiroyuki Sugita; Hiroki Nagai; Takao Nakagawa; Hiroshi Murakami; Toshio Matsumoto; Masahide Murakami; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Masayuki Hirabayashi

2004-01-01

198

Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil

M. A. Green; S. Castles

1988-01-01

199

Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil

M. A. Green; S. Castles

1987-01-01

200

Cryogenic detectors below 100 mK for X-ray measurements in metrology  

PubMed

Due to the intrinsic performances of cryogenic detectors such as energy resolution, LPRI has decided to use these devices to improve the quality of the radioactive measurements usually obtained with classical semiconductor detectors. A bolometer with a 10 microg tin absorber has been developed at IAS (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale) and has been tested in the cryogenic installation of LPRI; an energy resolution (full width half maximum, FWHM) of 39 eV has been obtained on the Kalpha line of Mn. Besides these good spectrometry results, an absolute activity measurement using bolometers is proposed by adapting an absorber geometry for 4 pi counting. PMID:10724382

Bobin; Leblanc; Bouchard; Coron; Cassette; Leblanc; de Marcillac P; Plagnard

2000-03-01

201

Nanoinclusions in cryogenically quenched nanoemulsions.  

PubMed

Nanodroplets containing mixtures of silicone oil and squalene are dispersed in a simple aqueous surfactant solution, quenched in liquid ethane, and examined using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (CTEM). Depending on the phase of ice that forms around the nanodroplets and on the composition of the oil mixture, nanoinclusions can be observed inside oil nanodroplets, independent of surfactant type. Our observations suggest that these nanoinclusions arise from nucleation of vapor cavities as the water freezes and expands while the oil remains liquid during the quench. PMID:22881456

Fryd, Michael M; Mason, Thomas G

2012-08-10

202

Development of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is presented in the paper. As the wick is required only in the evaporator section, very small pore size wicks can be used in applications with high thermal transport requirements and/or where the heat must be transported over a long distance against gravity. A FORTRAN program to solve the mathematical model and to determine the parameters for various boundary conditions has been developed. The CLHP is designed to transfer 5W heat at 70K using nitrogen or oxygen as working fluid. It will be a self priming type device which can operate against gravity with evaporator above the condenser as well as under microgravity condition. A G-M type single stage double inlet pulse tube refrigerator is coupled to the CLHP to test its performance. The mathematical model, design, fabrication integration of the heat pipe with the pulse tube system and testing with stainless steel wick at the evaporator will be described in the paper.

Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, Subhash; Narasimham, G. S. V. L.; Nadig, D. S.; Behera, Upendra; Kumar, Dinesh

2008-03-01

203

Cryogenic machining of Kevlar composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous attempts to machine Kevlar aramid fibre reinforced plastics (KFRP) with coventional cutting tools have proven to be extremely difficult. This has somewhat restricted the material's usage, often negating the advantages of its high strength-to-weight ratio and fatigue tolerance. The present paper describes a novel technique of machining KFRP under cryogenic conditions with remarkable results compared to those obtained at ambient temperatures. The investigation carried out with turning operation shows dramatic improvement of the tool performance and surface quality. The effects of various machining parameters such as workpiece temperature, cutting speed, and tool geometry on the machinability of KFRP are presented and analyzed. It appears that care is necessary to judge the tool life as the typical tool wear growth and surface finish or cutting force may produce contradictory results. It is also suggested that, for KFRP, surface finish of the machined workpiece is a very good criterion to determine the tool life. To aid the understanding of the machining mechanics, a microscopic investigation of the cutting zone while actually machining a testpiece at ambient and cryogenic temperatures is also reported.

Bhattacharyya, D.; Allen, M. N.; Mander, S. J.

204

Superconducting RF Systems and Cryogenics  

SciTech Connect

The subgroup on Supercondcuting RF Systems and Cryogenics was assigned the following tasks: (1) provide acceptable design recommendations for the accelerating structures and related RF and Cryogenics systems based on the parameters established by High Energy and Nuclear Physics needs (namely a final energy of 2.5 and 8 GeV at the end of the first and second stage, respectively, and the ability of accelerating simultaneously the 200{micro}A Nuclear Physics beam and the three bunches for High Energy Physics). (2) estimate the cost of such systems based on realistic, present day technology, with some assessment of future costs as technology and cavity manufacturing processes will improve. These tasks were carried out for the case of the original design which includes two racetracks of similar structure and with different energies, as well as for the more recent design of Amaldi and Coignet which is capable of reaching a center of mass energy of 15 GeV (alternate design). Design and cost estimates were done for a few cases of possible achievable gradients.

C. Benvenuti; P. Bernard; E. Chiaveri; E. Haebel; H. Lengeler; M. Minestrini; Joseph Bisognano; Isidoro Campisi; Christoph Leemann; R. Boni; U. Gambardella; G. Modestino; B Spataro; F. Tazzioli; H. Piel

1987-12-01

205

Challenges for Cryogenics at Iter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion of light nuclei is a promising option to provide clean, safe and cost competitive energy in the future. The ITER experimental reactor being designed by seven partners representing more than half of the world population will be assembled at Cadarache, South of France in the next decade. It is a thermonuclear fusion Tokamak that requires high magnetic fields to confine and stabilize the plasma. Cryogenic technology is extensively employed to achieve low-temperature conditions for the magnet and vacuum pumping systems. Efficient and reliable continuous operation shall be achieved despite unprecedented dynamic heat loads due to magnetic field variations and neutron production from the fusion reaction. Constraints and requirements of the largest superconducting Tokamak machine have been analyzed. Safety and technical risks have been initially assessed and proposals to mitigate the consequences analyzed. Industrial standards and components are being investigated to anticipate the requirements of reliable and efficient large scale energy production. After describing the basic features of ITER and its cryogenic system, we shall present the key design requirements, improvements, optimizations and challenges.

Serio, L.

2010-04-01

206

Computer-controlled cryogenic-temperature controller. Final report, September 1982-January 1984  

SciTech Connect

In laboratories which do materials characterization it is necessary to have a temperature controller which can be computer controlled, is accurate to within .1-.2K, can control temperature from 15-350K with a drift of no more than .1, and is relatively unaffected by the presence of a magnetic field on the sample container. The subject controller uses two thermometers to meet these requirements. One is a commercially available calibrated silicon diode manufactured expressly for this type of application. The second thermometer is used for control. Once the sample has reached the setpoint according to the calibrated thermometer the control thermometer's value is sampled and used as the new setpoint. Since the control thermometer should be insensitive to a mag field the sample will remain at the desired temperature when the magnetic field is applied. Cryogenic, Computer control, Magnetic field, Cryogenics, Cryogenic storage devices.

Perrin, R.E.

1990-01-10

207

CRYOPUMPING IN CRYOGENIC INSULATIONS FOR A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing at cryogenic temperatures was performed to verify the material characteristics and manufacturing processes of reusable propellant tank cryogenic insulations for a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The unique test apparatus and test methods developed for the investigation of cryopumping in cryogenic insulations are described. Panel level test specimens with various types of cryogenic insulations were subjected to a specific thermal

Theodore F. Johnson; Erik S. Weiser; Brian W. Grimsley; Brian J. Jensen

208

A cryogenic waveplate rotator for polarimetry at mm and submm wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Polarimetry at mm and submm wavelengths is the new frontier of research in cosmic microwave background and interstellar dust studies. Polarimeters working in the IR to MM range need to be operated at cryogenic temperatures to limit the systematic effects related to the emission of the polarization analyzer. Aims: We study the effect of the temperature of the different components of a waveplate polarimeter and describe a system able to rotate a birefringent crystal at 4 K in a completely automated way. Methods: We simulate the main systematic effects related to the temperature and non-ideality of the optical components in a Stokes polarimeter. To limit these effects, a cryogenic implementation of the polarimeter is mandatory. In our system, the rotation produced by a step motor running at room temperature is transmitted down to cryogenic temperatures by means of a long shaft and gears running on custom cryogenic bearings. Results: Our system is able to rotate a birefringent crystal at 4 K in a completely automated way and dissipates only a few mW in the cold environment. A readout system based on optical fibers allows us to control the rotation of the crystal to better than 0.1°. Conclusions: This device fulfills the stringent requirements for operations in cryogenic space experiments, such as the forthcoming PILOT, BOOMERanG and LSPE.

Salatino, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

2011-04-01

209

Methane cryogenic heat pipe for space use with a liquid trap for on-off switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methane cryogenic heat pipe with a liquid trap for on-off actuation was developed by ATK for use on Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Space Interferometer Mission Lite (SIM Lite) pre-Phase A hardware technology demonstration tests. The cryogenic heat pipe coupled to a cold radiator at 160K provides cooling to the Charged Coupled Device camera focal planes. The heat pipe was designed for a transport capacity of 15 W across a 1.5 m span through a near room-temperature spacecraft environment. A key and driving requirement for the heat pipe was the need for switching the heat pipe on and off needed to support low power decontamination cycles to near room temperature of the cryogenic focal planes. The cryogenic heat pipe is turned off by removing the methane working fluid from the heat pipe and storing in the liquid trap. The heat pipe is turned-on by simply reintroducing the working fluid from the liquid trap. This on-off switching capability is a key requirement for cryogenic heat pipes used with passive or active cryocoolers for cooling focal planes or optics. This switching capability provides a means to decouple a cold focal plane or optics from a redundant stand-by cryocooler or a passive cooler when in need for a decontamination cycle.

Cepeda-Rizo, Juan; Rodriguez, Jose Israel; Bugby, David

2012-06-01

210

Versatile cryogenic rotary positioning systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems for scan mirror positioning and filter wheel grating and indexing used in the Infrared Background Signature Survey sensor are described. A control loop which incorporates a cryogenic brushless torquer, an ironless inductive position sensor, and associated control electronics is used to achieve precise angular positioning with the angular range of +/- 7.5 deg. The motion programs include step, sawtooth, and staircase operations. A positioning accuracy of greater than 0.03 deg and a position resolution of greater than 0.001 deg have been achieved. Fixation of grating and mirror mechanism during launch is accomplished using short circuiting of motor windings for providing high braking torques. For a filter wheel indexing, the inductive position sensor is replaced by Hall probes, and the torque motor commutation uses Hall sensor signals. The same signals are applied to control the required 12 positions. A Hall sensor located at the filter wheel marks a reference position.

Birner, Robert; Sodeikat, Dieter W.; Ruppert, U.

1990-11-01

211

Cryogenic precooler for superconductive magnets  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a precooler for initial cooldown of superconductive magnets using a two stage cryocooler and having a two stage interface. It comprises: a mounting flange for securing the precooler to the two stage interface, the flange having an inlet and outlet port; a heat exchanger having passageways for carrying a cryogenic fluid; thermal insulating means for mechanically coupling the heat exchanger and the flange; a first and second stage heat stations coupled to the heat exchanger to provide heat flow between the first and second stage heat stations and the heat exchanger; the first and second stage heat stations spaced apart from one another and the flange to contact the heat stations of the two stage interface when inserted therein; a first thermally insulated pipe connected between one end of the heat exchanger passageway and the inlet port in flow communication; and a second thermally insulated pipe connected between the other end of the heat exchanger passageway and the outlet port.

Dorri, B.; Brzozowski, S.J.

1990-05-22

212

TIMO-2-A cryogenic test bed for the ITER cryosorption pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been carrying out research and development in the field of vacuum cryopumps for nuclear fusion devices over the last decade. Together with the development activities also experience in the operation of the needed cryogenic systems necessary for such type of large scale cryopumps was collected. Due to the specific requirements of a large fusion device, such as ITER, the cryogenic distribution is based on gaseous helium at the needed temperature levels rather than liquid nitrogen or liquid helium. KIT has set up a large scale research facility, called TIMO-2, fully equipped with supercritical helium supply at large flow rates to be able to perform cryogenic tests of components under ITER-relevant conditions. During first test campaigns at TIMO-2 with a large scale model cryopump the ITER cryosorption vacuum pumping concept was successfully validated. After major refurbishments and upgrades, the TIMO-2 facility is now ready for the acceptance tests of the ITER torus cryopump. This paper describes the modified test facility TIMO-2 with particular attention to the available cryogenic supply at different temperature levels. The new 100 K helium supply facility will be described in detail.

Haas, Horst; Day, Christian; Herzog, Friedhelm

2012-06-01

213

OASIS: cryogenically-optimized resistive arrays and IRSP subsystems for space-background IR simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SBIR has completed design and development of prototype emitter arrays and is completing custom cryogenic vacuum device packaging and support electronics for the Optimized Arrays for Space-background Infrared Simulation (OASIS) program. The OASIS array is a 512 x 512 device featuring high output dynamic range, a selectable analog/digital scene data interface, and the capability to operate from cryogenic to ambient substrate temperatures - thereby providing an enabling technology for projection of simulated radiance of space-background scenes. Prototype emitter production has been completed at RTI International in support of initial deliveries. The OASIS array package incorporates novel electrical bussing schemes optimized for the OASIS RIIC and a modular architecture to allow user re-configuration of both window and emitter shield. The OASIS package leverages LFRA operation features, and supports both ambient and cryogenic chamber-based operation with a minimum of mechanical and electrical re-configuration. The OASIS close support electronics (CSE) supports both analog and digital input data modes, while providing easy electronic connection between arrays installed in the cryogenic chamber and the external control and scene-generation systems. We present a technical overview of the OASIS array/package and CSE designs, and will report on measured radiometric performance from prototype OASIS arrays.

James, Jay; Bryant, Paul; Solomon, Steve; LaVeigne, Joe; Matis, Greg; Oleson, Jim; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott; Huffman, Alan

2006-06-01

214

Summary of test results for the cryogenic two-phase flight experiment  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief summary of the flight results for the Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment (CRYOTP). This experiment was a Hitchhiker-based payload that flew on the space shuttle Columbia in March of 1994 (STS-62). CRYOTP tested two new technologies for advanced cryogenic thermal control; the Space Heat Pipe (SHP), which was a constant conductance cryogenic heat pipe, and the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU), which was a cryogenic phase-change thermal storage device. Both devices were tested independently during the mission. Analysis of the flight data indicated that the SHP was unable to start in either of two attempts, due to a supercritical startup limit related to the wall material thermal conductivity, parasitic heat leaks, and cryocooler capacity. The BETSU test article was successfully operated with more than 250 hours of on-orbit testing including several cooldown cycles and 56 freeze/thaw cycles. Some degradation was observed with the five tactical cryocoolers used as thermal sinks, and one of the cryocoolers failed completely after 331 hours of operation. Post-flight analysis indicated that this problem was most likely due to failure of an electrical controller internal to the unit. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Swanson, T.D. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 724.2, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Buchko, M.T. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 724.2, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Bello, M. [The Aerospace Corporation, P.O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009 (United States); Brennan, P. [Swales & Associates, Inc., 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Stoyanof, M.M. [Phillips Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

1996-03-01

215

A brief overview of cryogenics in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper general aspects of cryogenics in China are introduced, and applications of cryogenics in the space programme are described briefly, such as its application to the Long March 3 rocket vehicles with LH2/LO2 engines, the development of a 750 dm 3 hr -1 liquid hydrogen plant and railway tank cars with 60 and 70 m 3 capacities. In addition, the progress of various cryogenic techniques in China is presented, such as the FY-1 radiation refrigerator loaded on a meteorology satellite, regenerative cryocoolers of the Gifford-McMahon, Solvay, Vuilleumier, Stirling and pulse tube types, and the KM-3 and KM-4 space simulation facilities. Finally, the paper discusses current education about refrigeration and cryogenics for undergraduates and graduates.

Li, S.-M.

216

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

Hendricks, C.D.

1980-02-26

217

Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electroni...

D. J. Benford E. D. Buchanan E. J. Wollack J. B. Forgione S. H. Moseley

2012-01-01

218

Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum ...

R. A. Rucinski K. D. Dixon R. Krasa K. J. Krempetz G. T. Mulholland

1993-01-01

219

Surface Tension Confined Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain...

S. H. Castles M. E. Schein

1988-01-01

220

Cryogenic Engineering for Superconducting Power Transmission Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful introduction of helium-cooled (superconducting) transmission systems into electric utility networks will open a vast market for cryogenic engineering components and services. If only 10 percent of the anticipated investment in transmission ...

E. B. Forsyth

1976-01-01

221

Hermeticity of Three Cryogenic Calorimeter Geometries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We calculate the effect of cracks and dead material on resolution in three simplified cryogenic calorimeter geometries, using a crude approximation that neglects transverse shower spreading and considers only a small set of incident angles. For each dead ...

M. Strovink W. J. Wormersley G. E. Forden

1989-01-01

222

Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors and Electronic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the meeting was to discuss progress in the development of refrigeration systems which have been specialized for use with cryogenic sensors and electronic systems. The meeting focused primarily on the temperature range below 20 K and cooling...

D. B. Sullivan J. E. Zimmerman S. E. McCarthy

1981-01-01

223

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

224

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01

225

Cryogenic Hydrogen-Induced Air Liquefaction Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a pro...

W. J. D. Escher

1990-01-01

226

Design Concepts for the ASTROMAG Cryogenic System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper p...

M. A. Green S. Castles

1987-01-01

227

Cryogenic engineering for superconducting power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful introduction of helium-cooled (superconducting) transmission systems into electric utility networks will open a vast market for cryogenic engineering components and services. If only 10 percent of the anticipated investment in transmission facilities in the U.S. after 1990 is made in helium-cooled systems this will represent a potential annual market of over $120,000,000 for the manufacturers of cryogenic components.

Forsyth

1976-01-01

228

A brief overview of cryogenics in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper general aspects of cryogenics in China are introduced, and applications of cryogenics in the space programme are described briefly, such as its application to the Long March 3 rocket vehicles with LH2LO2 engines, the development of a 750 dm3 hr?1 liquid hydrogen plant and railway tank cars with 60 and 70 m3 capacities. In addition, the progress

S.-M. Li

1995-01-01

229

Development of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joint technology development, at Rockwell International Space Division, is presented. Starting with the flight qualified radiative joint on the RM-20B IR sensor of the early 70's, leading to rotatable heat pipe joint, gas conductive joints, rolling-contact-conductance joints, and the more recent work on development and evaluation of cryogenic rotatable seals and mechanical interfaces.

J. A. Sadunas; Z. F. Backovsky; D. E. Wilson

1992-01-01

230

Flight Performance of the AKARI Cryogenic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the flight performance of the cryogenic system of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, which was successfully launched on 2006 February 21 (UT). AKARI carries a 68.5 cm telescope together with two focal-plane instruments, Infrared Cameras and Far Infrared Surveyor, all of which are cooled down to cryogenic temperature to achieve superior sensitivity. AKARI has a unique cryogenic system, which consists of cryogen (liquid helium) and mechanical coolers (2-stage Stirling coolers). With the help of mechanical coolers, 179 L (26.0 kg) of super-fluid liquid helium can keep the instruments cryogenically cooled for more than 500 days. The on-orbit performance of the AKARI cryogenics is consistent with the design and a pre-flight test, and the boil-off gas flow rate is as small as 0.32 mg s^{-1}. We observed an increase in the major axis of the AKARI orbit, which can be explained by thrust due to the thermal pressure of vented helium gas.

Nakagawa, T.; Enya, K.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kaneda, H.; Kii, T.; Kimura, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Murakami, H.; Murakami, M.; Narasaki, K.; Narita, M.; Ohnishi, A.; Tsunematsu, S.; Yoshida, S.

2007-10-01

231

D0 Cryogenic System Operator Training  

SciTech Connect

D0 is a collider detector. It will be operating and doing physics at the same time as CDP, therefore it has been decided to train CDP operators to operate and respond to the D0 cryogenic control system. A cryogenic operator will be required to be in residence at D0, during the cooldown and liquid Argon fill of any of the calorimeters. The cryogenic system at D0 is designed to be unmanned during steady state operation. CDP operations has 2 man cryogenic shifts 24 hours a day. It is intended that CDP operators monitor the D0 cryogenic systems, evaluate and respond to alarms, and notify a D0 cryo expert in the event of an unusual problem. A D0 cryogenic system view node has been installed at CDP to help facilitate these goals. It should be noted that even though the CDP view node is a fully operational node it is intended that it be more of an information node and is therefore password protected. The D0 cryo experts may reassess the use of the CDP node at a later date based on experience and operating needs. This engineering note outlines the format of the training and testing given to the CDP operators to make them qualified D0 operators.

Markley, D.; /Fermilab

1991-11-30

232

Thin semi-rigid coaxial cables for cryogenics applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed cryogenic coaxial cables for low temperature signal readout from sensitive devices, such as transition edge sensors, superconducting tunnel junctions, and kinetic inductance detectors. In order to reduce heat penetration into cryogenic stages, low thermal conductivity metals were chosen for both center and outer electrical conductors. Various types of coaxial cables, employing stainless-steel, cupro-nickel, brass, beryllium-copper, phosphor-bronze, niobium, and niobium-titanium, were manufactured using drawing dies. Thermal and electrical properties were investigated between 1 and 8 K. Coaxial cables made of copper alloys showed thermal conductance roughly consistent with literature, meanwhile Nb coaxial cable must be affected by the drawing process and thermal conductance was lowered. Attenuation of superconducting Nb and NbTi coaxial cables were observed to be adequately small up to above 10 GHz compared to those of normal conducting coaxial cables, which are subject to the Wiedemann-Franz law. We also measured normal conducting coaxial cables with silver-plated center conductors to improve high frequency performance.

Kushino, Akihiro; Kasai, Soichi

2013-03-01

233

Carbon nanotube electrical-substitution cryogenic radiometer: initial results.  

PubMed

A carbon nanotube cryogenic radiometer (CNCR) has been fabricated for electrical-substitution optical power measurements. The CNCR employs vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube arrays (VANTAs) as the absorber, heater, and thermistor, with a micromachined silicon substrate as the weak thermal link. Compared to conventional cryogenic radiometers, the CNCR is simpler, more easily reproduced and disseminated, orders of magnitude faster, and can operate over a wide range of wavelengths without the need for a receiver cavity. We describe initial characterization results of the radiometer at 3.9 K, comparing electrical measurements and fiber-coupled optical measurements from 50 ?W to 1.5 mW at the wavelength of 1550 nm. We find the response to input electrical and optical power is equivalent to within our measurement uncertainty, which is currently limited by the experimental setup (large temperature fluctuations of the cold stage) rather than the device itself. With improvements in the temperature stability, the performance of the CNCR should be limited only by our ability to measure the reflectance of the optical absorber VANTA. PMID:23454953

Tomlin, N A; Lehman, J H

2013-01-15

234

Cryogenic helium gas convection research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so.

Behringer, Robert P.; Donnelly, Russell J.; McAshan, Michael; Maddocks, James; Sreenivasan, Katepalli; Swanson, Chris; Wu, Xaio-Zhong

1994-10-01

235

Cryogenic pulsed inductive microwave magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic pulsed inductive microwave magnetometer is used to characterize the switching dynamics in thin-film magnetic materials at low temperatures and microwave frequencies. The system is contained inside a 20-cm-diam ultrahigh vacuum chamber and cooled by a cryopump that allows measurements between 20 and 350 K. A temperature controller regulates the sample temperature using two silicon diodes as sensors. Applied magnetic fields of up to 36 kA/m (450 Oe) are generated by a four-pole, water-cooled electromagnet with independent control of each axis. Magnetic switching in the sample is driven by high-speed current step pulses in a coplanar waveguide structure with the sample placed in a flip-chip configuration. A 20 GHz sampling oscilloscope is used to record the dynamics of the magnetic reorientation. The switching dynamics are given for a 10-nm-thick Ni-Fe film at 30 K in response to a 1 kA/m field step.

Kos, A. B.; Nibarger, J. P.; Lopusnik, R.; Silva, T. J.; Celinski, Z.

2003-05-01

236

Cryogenic SiGe HeteroJunction Bipolar Transistors From Standard Technologies For Low Noise FLL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic range of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) can be considerably increased by using a flux-locked-loop (FLL). The FLL noise is mainly determined by the amplifier noise used in the feedback loop. The use of a very low noise amplifier working at cryogenic temperature can lead to reach the limit of SQUID intrinsic noise (typically few 10-6 Phi0\\/radicHz). To realise

D. Prele; G. Sou; G. Klisnick; M. Redon; E. Breelle; M. Piat; F. Voisin

2006-01-01

237

Radiation tolerant D\\/A converters for the LHC cryogenic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electronic instrumentation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cryogenic system is expected to receive a large radiation dose (41013 nc m? 2 and 1-2 kGy (Si)) within 10 years of activity so all the electronic devices should tolerate this radiation level without a significant degradation. This paper focuses on the selection of a radiation tolerant 12-bit parallel input D\\/A

Francisco J. Franco; Yi Zonga; Juan A. de Agapito; Ana C. Fernandes; Juan Casas-Cubillos; Miguel A. Rodriguez-Ruiz

238

Dynamics of cryogenic hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model is used to characterize cryogenic H2 storage in an insulated pressure vessel that can flexibly hold liquid H2 and compressed H2 at 350bar. A double-flow refueling device is needed to ensure that the tank can be consistently refueled to its theoretical capacity regardless of the initial conditions. Liquid H2 charged into the tank is stored as supercritical

R. K. Ahluwalia; J. K. Peng

2008-01-01

239

Mechanical response of nonwoven polyester fabric/epoxy composites at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we characterize the cryogenic mechanical response of nonwoven polyester/epoxy composites for high temperature superconducting devices. The test specimens were produced from the composite cylindrical components, and tension, compression and flexure tests were performed at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) to evaluate the elastic and strength properties of the composites. The failure characteristics of the composites were examined by microscopic observations of failed specimens. The temperature dependence and anisotropy of the composite properties were discussed.

Shindo, Yasuhide; Takeda, Tomo; Narita, Fumio

2012-10-01

240

Performance of the SBRC 190: a cryogenic multiplexer for photoconductor arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SBRC 190 cryogenic readouts were developed for use in far-infrared arrays of Ge:Sb and Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors. The SBRC 190 provides an AC-coupled CTIA (capacitive trans-impedance amplifier) unit cell for each detector and multiplexes up to 32 detectors. This paper presents our test results characterizing and optimizing the performance of these novel devices. We discuss their basic behavior and

Jessie L. Dotson; Christopher T. Koerber; Christopher G. Mason; Janet P. Simpson; Elizabeth M. Moore; Fred C. Witteborn; Jam Farhoomand; Edwin F. Erickson

2003-01-01

241

Performance of the SBRC 190: a cryogenic multiplexer for photoconductor arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SBRC 190 cryogenic readouts were developed for use in far-infrared arrays of Ge:Sb and Ge:Ga photoconductor detectors. The SBRC 190 provides an AC-coupled CTIA (capacitive trans-impedance amplifier) unit cell for each detector and multiplexes up to 32 detectors. This paper presents our test results characterizing and optimizing the performance of these novel devices. We discuss their basic behavior and investigate their performance in different clocking schemes.

Dotson, Jessie L.; Koerber, Christopher T.; Mason, Christopher G.; Simpson, Janet P.; Moore, Elizabeth M.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Farhoomand, Jam; Erickson, Edwin F.

2003-02-01

242

Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

Lazarus, L.J.

1996-10-01

243

Cryogenic refrigeration, volume 2. A bibliography with abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic cooling of electronic equipment, infrared equipment, infrared equipment, cryogenic storage vessels, magnetohydrodynamic generators, and superconducting magnets, coils, rotating machinery, and transmission lines is reported. Marine refrigeration of liquefied natural gas, cryogenic heat pipes, cryogenic heat transfer, and space applications are studied. Methods investigated include adiabatic demagnetization, electrocaloric effect, Joule-Thompson effect, thermoelectric cooling, and Crayton, Claude, Gifford-McMahon, Sterling, and Vuilleumier

W. E. Reed

1978-01-01

244

Cryogenic refrigeration, volume 3. A bibliography with abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic cooling of electronic equipment, infrared equipment, cryogenic storage vessels, magnetohydrodynamic generators, and superconducting magnets, coils, rotating machinery, and transmission lines is reported. Marine refrigeration of liquefied natural gas, cryogenic heat pipes, cryogenic heat transfer, and space applications are studied. Methods investigated include adiabatic demagnetization, electrocaloric effect, Joule-Thomson effect, thermoelectric cooling, and Crayton, Claude, Gifford-McMahon, Sterling, and Vuilleumier cycles. This

W. E. Reed

1978-01-01

245

Cryogenic refrigeration, volume 3. A bibliography with abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics in the cited reports include cryogenic cooling of electronic equipment, infrared equipment, cryogenic storage vessels, magnetohydrodynamic generators, and superconducting magnets, coils, rotating machinery, and transmission lines. Marine refrigeration of liquefied natural gas, cryogenic heat pipes, cryogenic heat transfer, and space applications are studied. Methods investigated include adiabatic demagnetization, electrocaloric effect, Joule-Thomson effect, thermoelectric cooling, and Crayton, Claude, Gifford-McMahon, Sterling,

W. E. Reed

1979-01-01

246

Ultra-low vibration linear stirling cryogenic refrigerator for sub-nano resolution microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide use of so called "dry-cooling" technology, eventually replacing the LN2 cooling approach in high-resolution instrumentation, such as Scanning Electronic Microscopes, Helium Ion Microscopes, Superconductive Quantum Interference Devices, etc., motivates further quieting of appropriate cryogenic refrigerators. Linear Stirling cryogenic refrigerators are known to be a major source of harmful vibration export compromising the overall performance of vibration-sensitive equipment. The dual-piston approach to a design of a linear compressor yields inherently low vibration export and, therefore, is widely accepted across the industry. However, the residual vibration disturbance originated even from the technological tolerances, natural wear and contamination cannot be completely eliminated. Moreover, a vibration disturbance produced by a pneumatically driven cold head is much more powerful as compared to this of a compressor. The authors successfully redesigned the existing Ricor model K535 Stirling cryogenic refrigerator for use in vibration-sensitive electronic microscopy, where the image resolution is specified in angstroms. The objective was achieved by passive mechanical counterbalancing of the expander portion of the refrigerator, in a combination with an active two-axis control of residual vibrations, relying on National Instruments CompactRIO hardware, incorporating a real-time processor and reconfigurable FPGA for reliable stand-alone embedded application, developed using LabVIEW graphical programming tools. The attainable performance of the Ultra-Low Vibration linear Stirling cryogenic refrigerator RICOR model K535-ULV was evaluated through the full-scale experimentation.

Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.

2008-05-01

247

Tests of VPHGs in the NIR for use at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the performances measured at room temperature, before and after a cryogenic cooling cycle, of a set of NIR Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHGs) manufactured at the Miguel Hernández University (UMH, Elche, Spain) aimed at their use in astronomical instrumentations. VPHGs are novel optical components which can replace standard ruled transmission gratings, offering some advantages. Instead of a surface modulation, a diffraction index modulation printed in a volume of material generates the diffraction according to the required specifications. While VPHGs are becoming an option for instruments working in the optical regime at room temperature, their use is still minimal in the NIR wavebands due to the stringent requirements impose by the cryogenic environment. But their good properties in terms of high transmission and compact mechanical design are kept even in cryogenic, so efforts to develop such devices functional at cryogenic temperatures are underway in several institutions. We report results on transmission of newly manufactured VPHGs. These results were achieved through a collaborative effort within the European network OPTICON WP6, “New Materials and Processes in Astronomical Instrumentation”, and whose participating institutions are Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Universidad Miguel Hernández, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (INAF) and Politecnico di Milano.

Insausti, Maider; Garzón, Francisco; Madrigal, Roque; Fimia, Antonio

2012-09-01

248

An exploration of focused electron beam-induced-deposition at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified version of electron beam-induced-deposition (EBID) has been studied, where cryogenic substrates were employed to alter the growth environment. Cryogenic substrates enabled multi-layer condensed phase films, which, upon electron exposure and reheating to room temperature, exhibited several unique surface morphologies not present in traditional EBID deposits. By analyzing the composition and structure of the cryogenic deposits, along with simulation of energy deposition from exposure, a diffusion based growth mechanism has been proposed. To test the validity of the proposed model, several process variables were investigated including electron flux, electron fluence, condensate thickness and precursor type. Using the knowledge garnered through testing of process variables, a large volume 3D deposition process was developed, along with a method to deposit multiple materials within a single exposure. The development of these advanced deposition methods, and analysis of the structures produced, were consistent with the proposed diffusion based growth model. The results contained in this work illustrate that cryogenically enhanced EBID can be used to increase the utility of traditional EBID, for potential applications in catalysis, biosystems, and in-situ device fabrication.

Bresin, Matthew D.

249

NMR imaging system with reduced cryogenic losses and reduced acoustic noise  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A magnetic resonance imaging system having an exterior cryogenic enclosure containing a device for creating an intense main magnetic field in a usable interior tunnel space an RF exciter, a set of solenoid gradient windings in a cylindrical space around the interior tunnel space and electronic control circuits. The cryogenic enclosure includes an interior cylindrical space vacuum at room temperature having the set of windings therein, at least one thermal screen in a temperature range of 20.degree. K to 80.degree. K, a cold box below 5.degree. K, and a former supporting the exciter for creating an intense main magnetic field. To reduce acoustic noise and cryogenic losses, an additional envelope is between the set of windings and the vacuum enclosure, the additional envelope being of a conductive material having electrical resistivity at least 7.times.10.sup.-8 .OMEGA.m and having a characteristic frequency no more than the characteristic frequencies of each of the other components of the exterior cryogenic enclosure.

Aubert; Guy (Poitiers, FR)

2013-04-02

250

Advanced cryogenic propellant tank development status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and development of cryogenic propellant tanks with reduced weight and production costs is described with reference to applications for the National Launch System. The development program focused on the use of an aluminum-lithium alloy to demonstrate the production capability, manufacturability, and strength inherent in the novel material. Other key parameters for the alloy include fracture toughness, stress-corrosion resistance, and conformance to NASA specifications for cryogenic propellant tanks. The commercially produced aluminum-lithium alloy product forms are shown to operate acceptably in the temperature range for cryogenic propellant tanks. The alloy under consideration and the tank design are important advances in the development of ultralightweight launch-vehicle structures.

Scholz, E. F.; Loechel, L. W.; Roberts, M. O.

1992-07-01

251

49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. 173.318 Section...and Packaging § 173.318 Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. (a) General requirements...tank may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design service...

2012-10-01

252

49 CFR 173.316 - Cryogenic liquids in cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cylinders. 173.316 Section 173...and Packaging § 173.316 Cryogenic liquids in cylinders. (a) General requirements...cylinder may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design service...

2012-10-01

253

49 CFR 173.316 - Cryogenic liquids in cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cylinders. 173.316 Section 173...and Packaging § 173.316 Cryogenic liquids in cylinders. (a) General requirements...cylinder may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design service...

2011-10-01

254

49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. 173.318 Section...and Packaging § 173.318 Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. (a) General requirements...tank may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design service...

2011-10-01

255

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173...and Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements...tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be shipped unless it was...

2012-10-01

256

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173...and Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements...tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be shipped unless it was...

2011-10-01

257

Distinctive Features of Construction of Large Cryogenic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinctive features of construction of cryogenic systems depend on such specific properties of cryogenic fluids as low temperature, narrow range of occurrence in a fluid state, possibility of phase transition, etc. In this regard, processes in cryogenic systems encompass an extraordinarily wide range of phenomena and are associated with variation in the properties of the working medium, when, subject

N. V. Filin; N. N. Filina

2003-01-01

258

Cryogenic Pressure Calibration Facility Using a Cold Force Reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently various commercial cryogenic pressure sensors are being investigated for installation in the LHC collider, they will eventually be used to assess that the magnets are fully immersed in liquid and to monitor fast pressure transients. In the framework of this selection procedure a cryogenic pressue calibration facility has been designed and built; it is based on a cryogenic primary

T Bager; J Casas-Cubillos; L Métral

1999-01-01

259

Cryogenic storage tank with built-in pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic storage tank with a built-in pump for pumping cryogen directly from the primary storage container consistent with low boil-off losses of cryogen has an outer vessel, an inner vessel and an evacuated insulation space therebetween. A pump mounting tube assembly extends into the interior of the inner vessel and includes an inner pump mounting tube and an outer

Zwick

1984-01-01

260

Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment: Results overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the flight results of the Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment (CRYOTP), which was a Hitchhiker based experiment that flew on the space shuttle Columbia in March of 1994 (STS-62). CRYOTP tested two new technologies for advanced cryogenic thermal control; the Space Heat Pipe (SHP), which was a constant conductance cryogenic heat pipe, and the Brilliant Eyes Thermal

T. Swanson; M. Buchko; P. Brennan; M. Bello; M. Stoyanof

1995-01-01

261

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 41, Part A & B  

Microsoft Academic Search

This proceedings is of the 1995 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. It consists of 252 published papers covering the latest developments in all aspects of cryogenic engineering research. Contributions touch on fields including: cryobiology; heat and mass transfer (including data on boiling and superfluid helium); magnet technology; large-scale cryogenic systems, such as the large hadron collider and the TeV Electron Superconducting Linear

Kittel

1996-01-01

262

Saturn S-IV Cryogenic Weigh System Part IV: Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

During cryogenic weigh system operation, hydrogen when combined with oxygen can create an unsafe condition. Therefore the concentration of the residual oxygen and hydrogen from leaks in the cryogenic weigh environmental bags must be known at all times during the cryogenic weigh. Hydrogen and oxygen detectors will provide the optimum method for maintaining safe conditions. Hydrogen properties and safe mixtures

Edward G. Corcoran

1965-01-01

263

49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. 173.318...Preparation and Packaging § 173.318 Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. (a) General...A cargo tank may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design...

2009-10-01

264

49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. 173.318...Preparation and Packaging § 173.318 Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. (a) General...A cargo tank may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design...

2010-10-01

265

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General...1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be shipped unless...

2009-10-01

266

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 ...Preparation and Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General...1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be shipped unless...

2010-10-01

267

Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed,

L. C. Cadwallader

1992-01-01

268

Cryogenics for ground based and space-borne instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many space sciences project cryogenic detectors are essential for the accomplishment of the scientific objectives, offering unique advantages and unmatched performance. In addition several other components such as the optics can benefit from a cryogenic cooling which reduces the radiative loading. The Service des Basses Températ- ures (SBT) of CEA Grenoble has been involved in space cryogenics for over

L. Duband

2009-01-01

269

Modular Dissected Cryogenic Solid-Rocket Propellant Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the concept of cryogenic solid-rocket propellant grains where the definition of solid propellants is not restricted to ambient temperature. Special cryogenic high-energy propellants, boundary layer combustion in solid propulsion and performance of cryogenic solid rockets are considered in turn.

Roger E Lo

2002-01-01

270

Composite support structures for cryogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

SCI`s advanced composite support structures are currently being utilized in numerous cryogenic systems. Advantages include low thermal conductivity, high strength and stiffness, lightweight, low outgassing, and integral fittings. Several types of fibers and resins are available to meet extreme structural and thermal requirements. Typical configurations including racetrack-shaped suspension bands, or straps, and tubular support posts with integral fittings, or struts. Design considerations for composite support straps for cryogenic systems are discussed. Common applications for composite support structures are dewar mounts for spacecraft, coolers for satellite instruments, and cryostat support such as superconducting magnets for medical imaging.

Giesy, R.K. [Structural Composites Industries (SCI), Pomona, CA (United States)

1997-06-01

271

A low-power-dissipation broadband cryogenic preamplifier utilizing GaAs MESFETs in parallel  

SciTech Connect

A voltage sensitive preamplifier design is presented for operation at 1.6 K. The active device is a Sony 3SK164 dual-gate GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET), which was chosen for its low-frequency noise performance, stability against oscillations, and the inclusion of a gate protection diode. Active devices made from GaAs operate at cryogenic temperatures without carrier freeze out.'' The main design goal was to keep the power dissipation in the cryostat minimal, while maintaining high bandwidth and low noise. This was achieved by operating four parallel MESFETs at cryogenic temperatures in cascode with a room-temperature Si JFET. Parallel operation gives a higher transconductance-to-power dissipation ratio than with a single device. The input cascode is followed by high-speed, low-noise operational amplifiers. The low-frequency noise corner occurs at 100 kHz. The white voltage noise of the preamplifier referred to the input is [lt]0.9 nV/Hz[sup 1/2] at 1 MHz with 2 mW dissipated in the cryogenic stage. The power dissipation can be reduced to 1 mW with a moderate increase in noise. The preamplifier noise was found to be dominated by the cryogenic stage. There are two 50-[Omega] outputs with gains of 39 dB and 59 dB, and the [minus]3 dB points occur at 500 Hz and 10 MHz. The design of the preamplifier is discussed in detail. Noise measurements under a variety of bias conditions are presented along with an analysis of the different noise sources.

Lee, A.T. (Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States))

1993-08-01

272

Overview of Air Force Research Laboratory cryogenic technology development programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the pace community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. The primary customers for the AFRL cryogenic technology development programs are Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, the Air Force Space Based IR System Low program office, and other DoD space surveillance programs.

Davis, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, B. J.

1998-08-01

273

Development of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is presented in the paper. As the wick is required only in the evaporator section, very small pore size wicks can be used in applications with high thermal transport requirements and\\/or where the heat must be transported over a long distance against gravity. A FORTRAN program to solve the mathematical model

R. Karunanithi; Subhash Jacob; G. S. V. L. Narasimham; D. S. Nadig; Upendra Behera; Dinesh Kumar

2008-01-01

274

Aerodynamics of a Cryogenic Semi-Tanker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a modern cryogenic semi-tanker is based primarily upon functionality with little consideration given to aerodynamic drag. As a result, these tankers have maintained the appearance of a wheeled cylinder for several decades. To reduce the fuel usage of these vehicles, this study investigates their aerodynamics. A detailed understanding of the flow field about the vehicle and its

Jason Ortega; Kambiz Salari

2009-01-01

275

Cryogenic properties of engineering plastic films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical and dielectric properties of several engineering plastic films were measured at cryogenic temperatures. The tensile strength and elongation of polyethylene-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate at 77 K were found to decrease with an increase in the degree of crystallinity. The peak height of dielectric loss around 230 K of this polymer also decreased with increasing degree of crystallinity, indicating that this peak

H. Yamaoka; K. Miyata; O. Yano

1995-01-01

276

Bonded mounts for small cryogenic optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesive bonded mounting of small optics for use at cryogenic temperatures provides improved heat transfer, low optical surface distortion, and reduced cost in comparison with conventional flexural mounts. A design methodology based on the thermo-elastic properties of the adhesive and its interaction with the mounted optic is presented. Key factors in the selection of the appropriate adhesive are high thermal

Daniel Vukobratovich; Ken A. Fetterhoff; James R. Myers; Paul D. Wheelwright; George R. Cunnington

2000-01-01

277

Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results…

Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

2012-01-01

278

Cryogenic Tensile Properties of AA 2090 Weldments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of base metal temper and filter metal additions on the cryogenic properties Al-Li 2090 weldments are studied. The results show that as the strength of the base metal increases, strength mismatch increases and the joint efficiency decreases. ...

A. J. Sunwoo J. W. Morris

1989-01-01

279

Cryogenic thermoelectric thermometer using a heat tube  

SciTech Connect

An original application of heat tubes is proposed for increasing the accuracy of cryogenic temperature measurement. This is achieved by supplementary action on the working end of the thermocouple, based on the tube`s heat energy transmission, controlled by a magnetic field.

Skripnik, Yu.A.; Khimicheva, A.I.

1995-09-01

280

Robust Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New requirements for thermal insulation include robust Multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that work for a range of environments from high vacuum to no vacuum. Improved MLI systems must be simple to install and maintain while meeting the life-cycle cost and thermal performance objectives. Performance of actual MLI systems has been previously shown to be much worse than ideal MLI. Spacecraft that must contain cryogens for both lunar service (high vacuum) and ground launch operations (no vacuum) are planned. Future cryogenic spacecraft for the soft vacuum environment of Mars are also envisioned. Industry products using robust MLI can benefit from improved cost-efficiency and system safety. Novel materials have been developed to operate as excellent thermal insulators at vacuum levels that are much less stringent than the absolute high vacuum requirement of current MLI systems. One such robust system, Layered Composite Insulation (LCI), has been developed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experimental testing and development of LCI is the focus of this paper. LCI thermal performance under cryogenic conditions is shown to be six times better than MLI at soft vacuum and similar to MLI at high vacuum. The experimental apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux data for LCI systems are compared with other MLI systems.

Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Scholtens, B. E.

2008-03-01

281

Cryogenic Microwave Cavity for Semiconductor Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A replaceable wall microwave cavity for semiconductor diagnostics is described for operation at cryogenic temperatures. A method of temperature compensation of resonant frequency is developed to minimize the frequency deviation due to thermal contraction of the cavity body. The anomalous skin effect at low temperatures is observed and taken into consideration.

Morris E. Brodwin; Pao-Sun Lu

1969-01-01

282

Temperature compensation for cryogenic cavity stabilized lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a cryogenic Fabry-Perot cavity in which a frequency-temperature turning point at 43 K is created by differential thermal contraction between the mirrors and the spacer. The cavity uses a sapphire spacer and fused silica mirrors. The expansion coefficient of the spacer is balanced by a negative term arising from the outward flexing of the mirrors caused by differential

M. Notcutt; C. T. Taylor; A. G. Mann; D. G. Blair

1995-01-01

283

Silicon carbide mirror cryogenic distortion testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silicon carbide mirror has been holographically tested at cryogenic temperatures in an attempt to determine the level of surface distortion as a function of temperature. The test was conducted using the 1M thermal vacuum holographic test chamber, located at the Hughes El Segundo facility. The mirror was initially tested in February 1993, using full thermal strapping of the mirror

David G. Michel

1994-01-01

284

Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation

R. A. Rucinski; K. D. Dixon; R. Krasa; K. J. Krempetz; G. T. Mulholland; G. R. Trotter; J. B. Urbin

1993-01-01

285

Centaur Standard Shroud (Css) Cryogenic Unlatch Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cryogenic tanking and partial jettison (unlatch) tests were performed on a full scale Centaur vehicle and Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) to develop and qualify the CSS insulation system, the CSS and Centaur ground-hold purge systems, and the Centaur hydrog...

1973-01-01

286

The DIII-D cryogenic system upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced divertor cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum

K. M. Schaubel; G. J. Laughon; G. L. Campbell; A. R. Langhorn; N. C. Stevens; M. L. Tupper

1993-01-01

287

The DIII-D cryogenic system upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced diverter cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum

K. M. Schaubel; G. J. Laughon; G. L. Campbell; A. R. Langhorn; N. C. Stevens; M. L. Tupper

1993-01-01

288

Finite element analysis enhancement of cryogenic testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite element analysis (FEA) of large space optics enhances cryogenic testing by providing an analytical method by which to ensure that a test article survives proposed testing. The analyses presented in this paper were concerned with determining the reliability of a half meter mirror in an environment where the exact environmental profile was unknown. FEA allows the interaction between the

Clare D. Thiem; Douglas A. Norton

1991-01-01

289

Thermal valves for cryogenic temperature control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soft vacuum technique is recognized as an effective way of transferring heat between cryogenic surfaces. It is particularly helpful in cooling down the internal mass of a cryostat from a shielded liquid reservoir. The downside of this application is that pumping out the transfer gas to subsequently achieve a good insulating vacuum may be time consuming. A solution to

G. E. McIntosh; G. D. Mordhorst

2002-01-01

290

Cryogenic Testing of the TPC Superconducting Solenoid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Li...

M. A. Green R. G. Smits J. D. Taylor V. van Slyke F. Barrera

1983-01-01

291

Cryogenic Propellant Boil-Off Reduction System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar missions under consideration would benefit from incorporation of high specific impulse propellants such as LH2 and LO2, even with their accompanying boil-off losses necessary to maintain a steady tank pressure. This paper addresses a cryogenic propellant boil-off reduction system to minimize or eliminate boil-off. Concepts to do so were considered under the In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Project. Specific to that was an investigation of cryocooler integration concepts for relatively large depot sized propellant tanks. One concept proved promising-it served to efficiently move heat to the cryocooler even over long distances via a compressed helium loop. The analyses and designs for this were incorporated into NASA Glenn Research Center's Cryogenic Analysis Tool. That design approach is explained and shown herein. Analysis shows that, when compared to passive only cryogenic storage, the boil-off reduction system begins to reduce system mass if durations are as low as 40 days for LH2, and 14 days for LO2. In addition, a method of cooling LH2 tanks is presented that precludes development issues associated with LH2 temperature cryocoolers.

Plachta, D. W.; Christie, R. J.; Carlberg, E.; Feller, J. R.

2008-03-01

292

Coriolis mass flow measurement at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the energy market, Coriolis mass flowmeters have been applied to many applications in the distribution of LNG. Since Coriolis flowmeters are normally calibrated at around room temperatures, measurements for LNG at cryogenic temperatures present a challenging condition. Firstly, a theoretical analysis for Coriolis mass flow sensors is provided considering the

Tao Wang; Yousif Hussain

2009-01-01

293

Development of a cryogenic heat pipe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat pipe operating characteristics can be used to advantage in cryogenic systems. Diode operation of the heat pipe, the ability to conduct heat in one direction only, is useful in protecting the heat load if the heat sink temperature rises above the load...

F. C. Prenger W. F. Stewart J. E. Runyan

1993-01-01

294

Cryogenic upper stage propulsion systems evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of cryogenic propulsion system evolution features that offer significant stage benefits for improving Atlas ELV international posture is discussed. Incorporation of a single RL10C engine is considered to offer the greatest cumulative benefits. Particular attention is given to a Centaur upper stage incorporating structure and avionics evolution features, as well as propulsion and fluids.

Eidson, Robert L.

1992-07-01

295

Lifting Ball Valve for Cryogenic Fluid Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. has designed a Lifting Ball Valve (LBV) capable of both flow modulation and tight shutoff for cryogenic and other applications. The LBV features a thin-walled visor valving element that lifts off the seal with near axial ...

J. M. Cardin R. H. Reinicke S. D. Bruneau

1993-01-01

296

Cryogenic system for KSTAR Tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) Project has been in progress since 1996. Major parameters of the KSTAR tokamak are: major radius 1.8 m, minor radius 0.5 m, toroidal field 3.5 Tesla. The KSTAR device has a fully CICC type superconducting coil system. Cooling of the superconducting coil is forced cooling by supercritical helium using a low temperature SHE

D. L. Kirn; Y. K. Oh; Y. S. Jung; C. H. Choi; J. M. Lee; Y. S. Kirn; Y. M. Park; G. S. Lee

2002-01-01

297

Microstructural Stability of 316 Stainless Steel During Long Term Exposure to High Magnetic Fields at Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The effect of long term exposure to high magnetic fields at cryogenic temperatures on the microstructural stability of austenitic stainless steel was investigated. Three samples of SUS316 were prepared. One was as-machined, the second was solution heat-treated, and the last was solution heat-treated followed by a sensitization heat treatment. The samples were attached to the helical coil cover of the Large Helical Device, which is a large plasma experimental device operating with a superconducting magnet system. The maximum magnetic field the samples experienced was about 2.56 T for over 100 cycles during which time the temperature was kept at about 4.5 K for approximately 300 days. Before and after the exposure, the susceptibility was measured by a superconducting quantum interference device and it was confirmed that the austenitic phase was stable and did not produce any additional martensite by the long term exposure to the high magnetic fields at cryogenic temperatures.

Nishimura, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Kakeshita, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

2004-06-28

298

Conceptual design of a centrifugal COâ cleaning device. Final report\\/project accomplishments summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division designs and manufactures cryogenic cleaning devices in their Wichita, Kansas, facility. The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division identified a market need for a new cryogenic cleaning device that would generate a high level of kinetic energy at a lower operating pressure and noise level. This market need is being generated because the existing products

1997-01-01

299

Cryogenic and Electrical Test Results of 30 M Hts Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Russian R&D Program for HTS power devices, 3×30 m cable with operating current of ~1.5-2 kA and operating voltage of 20 kV was delivered by Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute as the first stage of the HTS power cables project. Different basic HTS materials, cryostats and current leads were used for the cable design in this essentially research part of the project. The cable is being tested at special test facility for superconducting power devices developed at the R&D Center for Power Engineering. The cryogenic system for the test facility was provided by Stirling. The basic cryogenic system was equipped with a specially developed flow distribution unit. This unit permits variation and control of liquid nitrogen flows, pressures and temperatures in all three cable phases. Dependencies on temperature of critical currents of each phase were measured during cable tests. The results of the project]s first stage were used to develop and produce a 3×200 m cable system for Moscow distribution grid. In the paper results of cryogenic system tests and cable electrical tests are presented.

Sytnikov, V. E.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Kochkin, V. I.; Kiselev, A. N.; Terentyev, Yu. A.; Patrikeev, V. M.; Zubko, V. V.

2010-04-01

300

DIII-D cryogenics control system status  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D cryogenics system provides liquid helium for various auxiliary systems at the DIII-D tokamak facility. The system described here executes control and supervision of the cryogenics plant and associated load systems which include four neutral beam injectors, superconducting magnets, and an in-vessel tokamak cryocondensation pump. The recent addition of this divertor cryopump represented a major increase in the scope of the control system and greater need for reliable and automatic operation. The pump must be precooled, cooled and regenerated in a relatively short period of time under automatic control. Since the pump is located in the tokamak primary vacuum, coordination with the machine vacuum control system and consideration for the requirements of physics operations and vessel wall conditioning are required. A programmable logic controller is the central element in the cryogenics control system and exercises direct or supervisory control over the liquefier, gas management and loads. In the time since the control system was built during 1989, additions and improvements have been made to simplify operation and support upgrades. Cryogenics system capacity has been upgraded by the purchase of a new 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, a second 400 hp helium compressor and additional gas storage. The new liquefier incorporates a controller of its own which exchanges information with the cryogenics control system. This independent controller relieved the main system of liquefier process control tasks but necessitates much finer control of the system high and low pressures. The control system upgrades and automation are discussed with emphasis on the divertor cryocondensation pump control.

Campbell, G.L.; Harris, J.J.; Schaubel, K.M.

1993-09-01

301

Progress on GaAs cryogenic readout circuits for SISCAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing cryogenic readout circuits for the array of superconducting tunneling junctions (STJs) at submillimeter wavelength SISCAM (Superconductive Imaging Submillimeter-wave CAMera). A current conceptual design of SISCAM will employ a direct hybrid array system just like CMOS image sensors widely used at optical and infrared wavelength. Because of relatively large impedance of the STJ fabricated by RIKEN (~10 M? in a dark condition), it requires readout preamplifier with low current noise. Therefore, it is not suitable for the STJ to use a readout system by Superconductive Quantum Interferences Devices as for Transition Edge Sensor. Instead, we selected capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) using a SONY n-type GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET). However, the CTIA has not been used as the readout of the STJ. Therefore, we measured the photocurrent of the STJ by the CTIA with Silicon JFETs and by transimpedance amplifier (TIA), which is a conventional readout for the STJ, in the same bias condition, and confirmed both results are in good agreement. Additionally, we report development of readout integrated circuits with GaAs JFETs. In order to design the CTIA circuit with the GaAs JFETs, we fabricated the independent GaAs JFETs and matched pairs of them. We measured electrical characteristics of these GaAs JFETs at the cryogenic temperatures less than 4.2 K. We demonstrated performance of an operational amplifier fabricated with the GaAs JFETs measuring a differential amplifier with the dual GaAs JFET, and additionally estimate amplifier gain, offset voltage, and power consumption of the CTIA by the circuit simulation using the PSPICE. In consequence, the expected performance fulfills the requirements for the readout amplifier of the STJs except for the noise performance.

Nagata, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuo, H.; Fujiwara, M.

2006-07-01

302

Analysis of the Thermal Loads on the KSTAR Cryogenic System  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale helium refrigeration system is one of the key components for the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device. In the design of the refrigeration system, an estimation of the thermal loads on the cold mass is an important issue according to the operation scenario. The cold mass of the KSTAR device is about 250 tons including 30 superconducting (SC) coils and the magnet structure. In addition to the static thermal loads, pulsed thermal loads to the refrigeration system have been considered in the operation stage. The main pulsed thermal loads on magnet system are AC losses in the SC coils and eddy current losses in the magnet structure that depend on the magnetic field variation rate. The nuclear radiation loss due to plasma pulse operation is also considered. The designed cooling capacity of the refrigeration system is estimated to be about 9 kW at 4.5 K isothermal. In this paper, calculation of the various kinds of thermal loads on KSTAR cryogenic system and design of the large-scale helium refrigeration system are presented.

Kim, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.; Kim, W.C.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, S.B.; Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H.; Cho, K.W.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Yusung-Ku, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-06-23

303

The Cryogenic Pressure Loader: a testbed for cryogenic ICF ignition targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cryogenic Pressure Loader (CPL) has been developed to be a flexible testbed for developing cryogenic Inertial Confinement Fusion ignition targets. Target designs for use at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and the National Ignition Facility call for spherical layers of solid DT held below 20 K. The cryogenic solid layers are about 100 microns thick and are held in 1-2 mm diameter plastic shells. The inner DT surfaces must be smooth on a micron scale, and outer surface requirements prohibit the use of fill tubes, so the shells will be diffusion filled with DT. The CPL cryostat, housed within a tritium glovebox, is designed to fill plastic shells without fill tubes to 1000 atm DT and form cryogenic layers. The CPL shares elements with the Cryogenic Target Handling System at UR/LLE to allow advance testing of tritium issues. The CPL is able to test the beta-layering and thermal properties of a range of target and mount designs. The cryostat has been tested, system integration is being completed during summer 2000 and project status will be reported. This work is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number W7405-ENG36. LA-UR-00-3113.

Ebey, P. S.; Hoffer, J. K.; Nasise Nobile, J. E., Jr.; Nolen, R. L.; Sheliak, J. D.

2000-10-01

304

Test of a cryogenic helium pump  

SciTech Connect

The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds. (LCL)

Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

1981-01-01

305

D0 Cryogenic In-Line Filters  

SciTech Connect

The DO cryogenic system utilizes liquid argon (serving as the detector ionizing medium) and liquid nitrogen (refrigerant for the argon). In order to keep these fluids pure and minimize the likelihood of plugged instrumentation due to contamination, in-line filters will be installed on the following lines (see Cryogenic Flow Diagram, drawing 3740-ME-222394): 445LN, 412LN, 447LA, 427LA. and 422GA. The lines referred to by these labels are argon dewar LN2 supply, cryostat LN2 supply, LAr dewar fill/drain line, cryostat LAr fill/drain line, and dewar-to-cryostat argon gas line, respectively. Five filters are required. As of this writing, one has been built and tested. The others are to be identical in concept and construction.

Fuerst, J.D.; /Fermilab

1988-10-04

306

Hybrid cryogenic cooler for space flight applications.  

PubMed

The hybrid cryogenic cooler is an intermittent Joule-Thomson refrigerator with a precooler in the form of a passive radiator. The properties of the J-T expansion and the gas storage vessel are used to select fluids on the basis of available refrigeration per unit mass. Surface forces and container geometry are used to confine and control the liquid cryogen in a zero-gravity environment. The precooler and vaporized liquid are used to reduce parasitic thermal inputs to the point where most of the heat of vaporization is available for useful purposes. Modifications can be made to increase the efficiency or extend the temperature range. Ambient storage combined with efficient operation make the hybrid cooler attractive for space flight applications. PMID:20203860

Annable, R V

1978-09-01

307

ODH, oxygen deficiency hazard cryogenic analysis  

SciTech Connect

An oxygen deficiency exists when the concentration of oxygen, by volume, drops to a level at which atmosphere supplying respiratory protection must be provided. Since liquid cryogens can expand by factors of 700 (LN{sub 2}) to 850 (LH{sub e}), the uncontrolled release into an enclosed space can easily cause an oxygen-deficient condition. An oxygen deficiency hazard (ODH) fatality rate per hour ({O}) is defined as: {O} = {Sigma} N{sub i}P{sub i}F{sub i}, where N{sub i} = number of components, P{sub i} =probability of failure or operator error, and F{sub i} - fatality factor. ODHs range from ``unclassified`` ({O}<10{sup {minus}9} 1/h) to class 4, which is the most hazardous ({O}>10{sup {minus}1} 1/h). For Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) buildings where cryogenic systems exist, failure rate, fatality factor, reduced oxygen ratio, and fresh air circulation are examined.

Augustynowicz, S.D.

1993-07-01

308

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01

309

Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

Green, M.A.; Castles, S.

1987-06-01

310

A cryogenic valve for spacecraft applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-compatible cryogenic valves are now required to operate between room and liquid helium temperatures. A remotely controllable cryogenic valve is described, which is made of bellows-type stainless steel and is operated by a miniature dc motor with integral gearset (485:1) at a nominal voltage of 28 Vdc. The power transmission provides a further reduction of 7.2:1 to give an overall gear ratio of nearly 3500:1, assuring reliability of operation at low temperatures. Valve performance (leak rate) data are presented at LN2, LHe, and SfHe temperatures at delivered torques of 18, 27, 31, and 35 N-m. At a closing torque of 31 N-m, a leak rate of 0.028 scc/sec was achieved at 2 K, while at a torque of 18 N-m the leak rate at 300 K was less than 3 x 10 to the -9th scc/sec.

Salerno, L. J.; Spivak, A. L.

1982-01-01

311

Cryogen free sample environment for neutron scattering experiments at ISIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most neutron facilities have a fleet of cryostats providing low temperature and high magnetic fields for sample environment. This large scale usage of cryogenic equipment requires significant resources and can create a number of problems including health and safety issues and the considerable cost of the required cryogens. The last problem has become more significant due to the increasing costs of liquid helium caused by global helium supply problems. The ISIS facility has an internal development programme intended to gradually substitute all conventional cryogenic systems with cryogen free systems preferably based on the pulse tube refrigerator. The programme includes a number of development projects which are aiming to deliver a range of cryogen free equipment including a top-loading 1.5 K cryostat, superconducting magnets in re-condensing cryostats and cryogen free dilution refrigerators. Here we are going to describe the design of these systems and discuss the results of prototype testing.

Kirichek, O.; Down, R. B. E.; Keeping, J.; Evans, B.; Bowden, Z. A.

2012-02-01

312

Impact of the Cryogen Free Revolution on Neutron Scattering Laboratories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global shortage of helium gas can seriously jeopardise the scientific programmes of neutron scattering laboratories due to the use of cryogenic sample environment in the majority of the neutron scattering experiments. Recently developed cryogen-free technology allows a significant reduction or even a complete elimination of liquid helium consumption. Here we review the impact of the cryogen-free revolution on cryogenic equipment used at large neutron facilities, such as cryostats, dilution refrigerators, superconducting magnets and other cryogenic systems. Particular attention is given to the newly developed superconducting magnets for neutron diffraction and spectroscopy experiments. Use of the cryogen-free approach, as well as cutting-edge superconducting magnet technology and advanced neutron optics allows researcher to achieve extraordinary performance in their experiments, opening up new opportunities in neutron scattering research.

Kirichek, Oleg

313

Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from

P. Lebrun

2000-01-01

314

Applications of cryogenic technology. Volume 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented on the applications of cryogenic technology of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Attention is given to liquefaction facilities for the Trans-Alaska Gas Project, the liquefaction of natural gas with auto-refrigerated cascade cycle, an LNG containment system for marine transport of LNG, an undersea pipeline for off-shore terminals, LNG safety in United States ports, and the volume of flammable

S. H. Booth; R. W. Vance

1976-01-01

315

Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.  

PubMed

Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p < 0.05). Cryogen cooling of the tissue surface during laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing. PMID:10730969

Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

2000-03-01

316

Materials for cryogenically cooled infrared telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials with satisfactory performance between 300 and 4 K are studied in order to implement ISO satellite cryogenic equipment. The definitions of the anticorrosion treatment that meet both on ground and in orbit life requirements are also studied. The families of materials considered include optical application materials and structural/mechanical application materials with emphasis on dimensional stability and microyield strength. The test programs are described.

Patin, J. F.; Cecconi, J. L.

1988-11-01

317

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CRYOGENIC COMPENSATED SAPPHIRE OSCILLATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic microwave oscillators offer the highest short term stability of any fre- quency sources1,2,3. This stability and accompanying ultra-low close-in phase noise are made possible by the high quality factors (Q's) available with cooled sapphire or superconducting resonators, and by advantageous thermal properties (low ex- pansion coefficients and small time constants) for solid materials at low temper- atures. The capability

G. JOHN DICK; RABI T. WANG

2002-01-01

318

Recent Developments in Cryogenic Compensated Sapphire Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic microwave oscillators offer the highest short term stability of any frequency sources1,2,3. This stability and accompanying ultra-low close-in phase noise are made possible by the high quality factors (Q's) available with cooled sapphire or superconducting resonators, and by advantageous thermal properties (low expansion coefficients and small time constants) for solid materials at low temperatures. The capability offered by these

G. John Dick; Rabi T. Wang

2002-01-01

319

Cryogenic Treatment of Tool Materials: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic treatment (CT) of materials has shown significant improvement in their properties. Various advantages like increase in wear resistance, reduced residual stresses, increase in hardness, fatigue resistance, toughness imparted by transformation of retained austenite to martensite, precipitation of carbides, eta-carbide formation, perfect distributed\\/homogenous crystal structure, better thermal conductivity, and reduced chemical degradation. Moreover, this technology is an eco-friendly, nontoxic, and

Nirmal S. Kalsi; Rakesh Sehgal; Vishal S. Sharma

2010-01-01

320

Cryogenic infrared optics for the SPICA coronagraph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPICA is a cooled, single large-mirror space-telescope, which is under discussion as an succsesor of the ASTRO-F mission. One of the most ambitious challenges of the SPICA mission is the direct observations of exoplanets with a coronagraph instrument. We report cryogenic infrared optics to realize high quality wavefronts for the SPICA coronagraph.The SPICA satellite will be launched by an H-IIA rocket to Sun-Earth L2 Halo orbit early in the 2010s. The SPICA telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien optics with 3.5m diameter primary mirror, and cooled down to 4.5 K in orbit by radiation cooling and mechanical cryo-coolers. Main working wavelengths are 5-200 micron. Advantages of the SPICA coronagraph are the infrared wavelenths where the contrast between planets and central stars are smaller than the optical wavelengths, and that the cooled space telescope consists of monolithic mirrors.Development of light-weight cooled telescope is one of the most important tasks to realize SPICA. At the present, sintered SiC and carbon fiber reinforced SiC (C/SiC) composite are candidate materials for the mirrors, truss, and optical bench. For these materials, estimations and improvements of basic property and surface roughness in cryogenic temperatures have been carried out. Deformation of trial product mirrors by cooling is also examined.We are developing cryogenic deformable mirrors (DMs) because wave front accuracy of the SPICA telescope is 0.35 micron RMS, which is not enough for our coronagraphic instrument. For MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) DM and some others, measurements of thermal deformation by cooling, electrical response, and heat generation are undergoing. Developments of a tip-tilt system for cryogenic usage started to cancel vibration caused by the cryo-coolers and other components and to realize a diffraction limit resolution. The first result of our binary mask coronagraph experiment is also shown.

Enya, Keigo; Nakagawa, Takao; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Yui, Yukari Yamashita; Tamura, Motohide; Abe, Lyu; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Onaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Hidenori

321

Development of a Prototype Cryogenic Interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have completed a cryostat system using two stages 4K Gifford-MacMahon cryocoolers for a prototype of cryogenic laser interferometer settled in ICRR. The first cooling down and vibration measurement on a mirror chamber of the cryostat system have been done. Results shows that temperature in the mirror chamber of 9K and 10-5Pa vacuum pressure achieved after four days cooling down. No excess vibration peak under 10 Hz due to the cryocooler was found.

Uchiyama, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Shintomi, T.; Miyoki, S.; Taylor, C. T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Shimonosono, T.

2002-12-01

322

CRYOGENIC FLUIDS IN NUCLEAR PROPULSION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear rocket engines employ hydrogen, a cryogenic liquid, as a ;\\u000a propellant in order to obtain a system with a high specific impulse. Since ;\\u000a hydrogen is also an excellent moderator of neutrons, it provides a reactivity ;\\u000a contribution which must be taken into consideration in the design of a reactor ;\\u000a and in its programmed operation. The reactivity worth

R. S. Thurston; J. D. Balcomb; G. P. Watts; R. S. Pollock; A. R. Lyle

1963-01-01

323

Dusty Plasma Structures in Cryogenic DC Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental investigations of dust structures in dc low-pressure glow discharge at temperatures of liquid nitrogen (T = 77 K) and liquid helium (T = 4.2 K) are presented. Super dense dust structures with dust density np ~ 108-109 cm-3 formed within striations of cryogenic discharges as well as boundary-free worm-like dust structure moved in discharge at 4.2 K were obtained.

Antipov, S. N.; Asinovskii, E. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Kirillin, A. V.; Markovets, V. V.; Petrov, O. F.

2005-10-01

324

Cryogenic Heat Engines Made Using Electrocaloric Capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to operate a heat engine using a cold substance, such as liquid nitrogen, as a heat sink and the atmosphere as a heat source.(C. A. Ordonez, American Journal of Physics 64), (1996) 479-481. With sufficient work produced per unit mass of liquid nitrogen, such a cryogenic heat engine may be suitable for powering short range, non-polluting automobiles.(C.

Justin Franz; Carlos A. Ordonez

2001-01-01

325

USAF cryogenic technology and future direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate pursues cryogenic refrigeration system and system integration technology research and development in support of the needs of the Air Force (USAF), Missile Defense Agency (MDA), and Department of Defense (DoD). State-of-the-art of U.S. space cryocooler systems and system integration, the research performed to improve efficiency (particle image velocimetry, computational fluid dynamics),

Erin Pettyjohn; Frank Roush

2008-01-01

326

Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid  

DOEpatents

A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

Knapp, Philip A. (Moore, ID)

1996-01-01

327

Cryogenic properties of aluminum alloys and composites  

SciTech Connect

Several aluminum-based materials have been evaluated for possible application at cryogenic temperatures. These included the Al-Li alloy 2090, a high purity mechanically alloyed Al, SiC whisker reinforced Al 2124, and SiC particulate reinforced Al 6061. Mechanical properties, thermal properties and electrical properties were measured for these materials. Their performance in a radio frequency cavity was also determined. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Jacobson, L.A.; Borch, N.R.; Gibbs, W.S.; Patterson, R.A.; Carter, D.H.

1989-01-01

328

A compact, high-performance cryogenic stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design concept and performance for a compact, high performance cryogenic upper stage. The design concept, developed during the Compact LOX Feed System Study, involves a toroidal liquid oxygen tank for both high-thrust and low-thrust STS launched OTV's. Study results show that a 17,000 lbm payload having a 38.5 ft maximum length can be delivered by the

D. A. Fester; J. W. Robinson; B. A. Bicknell

1986-01-01

329

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 29  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of superconductivity are discussed, taking into account the thermal performance of the MFTF magnets, the design and testing of a large bore superconducting magnet test facility, the development of a 12-tesla multifilamentary Nb3Sn magnet, a superconducting magnet for solid NMR studies, advanced applications of superconductors, transition and recovery of a cryogenically stable superconductor, and finite-difference modeling of the cryostability

1984-01-01

330

Space cryogenics from 1970 to 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

While space-related cryogenic engineering in the 1950s and 1960s was primarily concerned with liquid fueled rocket fuel supply systems, the leading edge of technology development moved in the 1970s to the supply of 1.4-70 K cooling facilities for IR and gamma-ray astronomy instruments. Attention is presently given to the development history, current status, and future prospects for superfluid He cryocooling

P. Mason

1990-01-01

331

The CMD2 cryogenic magnetic detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CMD-2 cryogenic magnetic detector used in a set of experiments on the VEPP-2M electron-positron collider at energies as\\u000a great as 1.4 GeV is described. The design of the detector subsystems and the algorithms for reconstructing tracks in the drift\\u000a chamber and the CsI and BGO calorimeters are presented. The spatial and energy resolutions of the detector systems have been

E. V. Anashkin; V. M. Aul’chenko; R. R. Akhmetshin; V. Sh. Banzarov; L. M. Barkov; S. E. Baru; N. S. Bashtovoi; D. V. Bondarev; A. E. Bondar’; A. V. Bragin; N. I. Gabyshev; D. A. Gorbachev; A. A. Grebenyuk; D. N. Grigor’ev; D. A. Epifanov; I. V. Zhuravkov; V. G. Zavarzin; A. S. Zaitsev; S. G. Zverev; F. V. Ignatov; V. F. Kazanin; S. V. Karpov; G. M. Kolachev; P. P. Krokovnyi; A. S. Kuz’min; I. B. Logashenko; P. A. Lukin; K. Yu. Mikhailov; V. A. Monich; M. A. Nikulin; A. B. Nomerotskii; V. S. Okhapkin; S. G. Pivovarov; A. S. Popov; T. A. Purlats; S. I. Redin; N. M. Ryskulov; A. A. Ruban; A. L. Sibidanov; V. P. Smakhtin; A. N. Skrinskii; I. G. Snopkov; E. P. Solodov; P. Yu. Stepanov; A. I. Sukhanov; V. M. Titov; V. E. Fedorenko; G. V. Fedotovich; B. I. Khazin; A. G. Shamov; Yu. M. Shatunov; B. A. Shvarts; B. N. Shuvalov; D. V. Chernyak; S. I. Eidel’man; Yu. V. Yudin

2006-01-01

332

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOEpatents

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers. 6 figs.

Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

1984-08-07

333

The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets is investigated. Ten Vincent Bach Stradivarious B? trumpets are studied, half of which have been cryogenically treated. The trumpets were played by six players of varying proficiency, with sound samples being recorded directly to disk at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Both the steady-state and initial transient portions of the audio samples are analyzed. When comparing the average power spectra of the treated trumpets to the untreated set, no repeatable, statistically independent differences are observed in the data. Differences observed in player-to-player and trumpet-to-trumpet comparisons overshadow any differences that may have been brought on due to the cryogenic treatment. Qualitatively, players established no clear preference between the treated and untreated trumpets regarding tone and playability, and could not differentiate between the two sets of instruments. All data was collected in a double blind fashion. The treatment itself is a three step process, involving an 8 hour linear cool down period, a 10 hour period of sustained exposure to -195°C (-300°F), and a 20-25 hour period of warming back to room temperature. [Work was completed with the support of Steinway & Sons Pianos and Selmer Musical Instruments.

Jones, Jesse; Rogers, Chris

2003-10-01

334

Demonstration of Microsphere Insulation in Cryogenic Vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual use in full-scale cryogenic storage tanks has not been demonstrated until now. The performance and life-cycle-cost advantages previously predicted have now been proven. Most bulk cryogenic storage tanks are insulated with either multilayer insulation (MLI) or perlite. Microsphere insulation, consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. These properties were proven during recent field testing of two 22,700-L (6,000-gallon) liquid nitrogen tanks, one insulated with microsphere insulation and the other with perlite. Normal evaporation rates (NER) for both tanks were monitored with precision test equipment and insulation levels within the tanks were observed through view ports as an indication of insulation compaction. Specific industrial applications were evaluated based on the test results and beneficial properties of microsphere insulation. Over-the-road trailers previously insulated with perlite will benefit not only from the reduced heat leak, but also the reduced mass of microsphere insulation. Economic assessments for microsphere-insulated cryogenic vessels including life-cycle cost are also presented.

Baumgartner, R. G.; Myers, E. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Morris, D. L.; Sokalski, E. R.

2006-04-01

335

Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems  

SciTech Connect

Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

2008-01-01

336

Liquid Cryogenic Target Development for Fast Ignition*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an alternative to foam-stabilized cryogenic solid D-T fuel layers for indirect-drive fast ignitor targets, which will tend to ?-layer to a nonuniform distribution in a reentrant cone geometry [1], we are investigating hemispherical cryogenic fast ignition capsules with a liquid fuel layer confined between a thick outer ablator shell and a thin inner shell [2]. The shape and surface quality of the fuel layer is determined entirely by the characteristics of the bounding shells. In the present design, structural support for the thin (4.5 um) hemispherical GDP inner shell is provided by a mounting ring. Fabrication of stronger thin Be hemi-shells is also being investigated. Technology issues for liquid cryogenic fuel capsule development and progress toward demonstration of a working target will be presented. [1] J.K. Hoffer et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 50, 15 (2006). [2] D.L. Hanson et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 49, 500 (2006). *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Hanson, D. L.; Russell, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Schroen, D. G.; Taylor, J. L.; Back, C. A.; Steinman, D.; Nikroo, A.; Kaae, J. L.; Giraldez, E.; Johnston, R. R.; Youngman, K.

2007-11-01

337

High-aperture cryogenic light microscopy  

PubMed Central

Summary We report here the development of instruments and protocols for carrying out high numerical aperture immersion light microscopy on cryogenic specimens. Imaging by this modality greatly increases the lifetimes of fluorescence probes, including those commonly used for protein localization studies, while retaining the ability to image the specimen with high fidelity and spatial resolution. The novel use of a cryogenic immersion fluid also minimizes the refractive index mismatch between the sample and lens, leading to a more efficient coupling of the light from the sample to the image forming system. This enhancement is applicable to both fluorescence and transmitted light microscopy techniques. The design concepts used for the cryogenic microscope can be applied to virtually any existing light-based microscopy technique. This prospect is particularly exciting in the context of ‘super-resolution’ techniques, where enhanced fluorescence lifetime probes are especially useful. Thus, using this new modality it is now possible to observe dynamic events in a live cell, and then rapidly vitrify the specimen at a specific time point prior to carrying out high-resolution imaging. The techniques described can be used in conjunction with other imaging modalities in correlated studies. We have also developed instrumentation to perform cryo-light imaging together with soft X-ray tomography on the same cryo-fixed specimen as a means of carrying out high content, quantifiable correlated imaging analyses. These methods are equally applicable to correlated light and electron microscopy of frozen biological objects.

LE GROS, M.A.; McDERMOTT, G.; UCHIDA, M.; KNOECHEL, C.G.; LARABELL, C.A.

2012-01-01

338

Historical Summary of Cryogenic Activity Prior to 1950  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenics is the science and technology dealing with temperatures less than about 120 K, although this historical summary\\u000a does not adhere to a strict 120 K definition. The techniques used to produce cryogenic temperatures differ in severalways\\u000a from those dealing with conventional refrigeration. In practice, these two areas often overlap and the boundary between conventional\\u000a and cryogenic refrigeration is often

R. Radebaugh

339

Cryogenic Technology Development For The MEG Liquid Xenon Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic key technologies have been developed for the muon rare decay experiment (MEG) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. These technologies are the high power pulse tube cryocooler for precise temperature and pressure control of liquid xenon in the calorimeter, a purification system with a cryogenic liquid pump and a cryogenic dewar with 1000 L storage capacity. The paper describes the general concepts and the first test results of each technology. All the results imply a promising performance for the coming MEG experiment.

Haruyama, Tomiyoshi [KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2008-02-21

340

Cryogenic infrared mission “JAXA\\/SPICA” with advanced cryocoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the next cryogenic infrared mission “JAXA\\/SPICA” employs advanced mechanical cryocoolers with effective radiant cooling in place of cryogen, the primary mirror, 3.5m in diameter, and the optical bench can be maintained at 4.5K for at least 5 years. First, the feasibility of the thermal design of the cryogenic system is presented. A 20K-class Stirling cryocooler was then improved in

Hiroyuki Sugita; Takao Nakagawa; Hiroshi Murakami; Atsushi Okamoto; Hiroki Nagai; Masahide Murakami; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Masayuki Hirabayashi

2006-01-01

341

49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section...TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks...General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car...

2012-10-01

342

49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section...TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks...General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car...

2011-10-01

343

49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.400...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel... General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car...

2010-10-01

344

49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.400...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel... General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car...

2009-10-01

345

Commissioning the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector  

SciTech Connect

The LHC machine, composed of eight sectors with superconducting magnets and accelerating cavities, requires a complex cryogenic system providing high cooling capacities (18 kW equivalent at 4.5 K and 2.4 W at 1.8 K per sector produced in large cold boxes and distributed via 3.3-km cryogenic transfer lines). After individual reception tests of the cryogenic subsystems (cryogen storages, refrigerators, cryogenic transfer lines and distribution boxes) performed since 2000, the commissioning of the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector has been under way since November 2006. After a brief introduction to the LHC cryogenic system and its specificities, the commissioning is reported detailing the preparation phase (pressure and leak tests, circuit conditioning and flushing), the cool-down sequences including the handling of cryogenic fluids, the magnet powering phase and finally the warm-up. Preliminary conclusions on the commissioning of the first LHC sector will be drawn with the review of the critical points already solved or still pending. The last part of the paper reports on the first operational experience of the LHC cryogenic system in the perspective of the commissioning of the remaining LHC sectors and the beam injection test.

Millet, F.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Perin, A.; Riddone, G.; Serio, L.; Soubiran, M.; Tavian, L.; /CERN; Ronayette, L.; /GHMFL, Grenoble; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab

2007-12-01

346

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 41, Part A & B  

SciTech Connect

This proceedings is of the 1995 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. It consists of 252 published papers covering the latest developments in all aspects of cryogenic engineering research. Contributions touch on fields including: cryobiology; heat and mass transfer (including data on boiling and superfluid helium); magnet technology; large-scale cryogenic systems, such as the large hadron collider and the TeV Electron Superconducting Linear Accelerator; cryofuels; minesweeping applications; space cryocooler applications; research on miscellaneous cryogenic machinery, techniques, and safety concerns. Separate abstracts have been submitted for contributions from this proceedings.

Kittel, P. [ed.

1996-12-31

347

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 29 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Colorado Springs, CO, August 15-17, 1983  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of superconductivity are discussed, taking into account the thermal performance of the MFTF magnets, the design and testing of a large bore superconducting magnet test facility, the development of a 12-tesla multifilamentary Nb3Sn magnet, a superconducting magnet for solid NMR studies, advanced applications of superconductors, transition and recovery of a cryogenically stable superconductor, and finite-difference modeling of the cryostability of helium II cooled conductor packs. Other topics explored are related to resource availability, heat exchangers, heat transfer to He I, liquid nitrogen, heat transfer in He II, refrigeration for superconducting and cryopump systems, refrigeration of cryogenic systems, refrigeration and liquefaction, dilution and magnetic refrigeration, cryocoolers, refrigeration for space applications, cryogenic applications, cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition, and properties of fluids. Attention is given to biomedical applications of cryogenics in China, long-term cryogen storage in space, and a passive orbital disconnect strut.

Fast, R. W.

348

Fully differential cryogenic transistor amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating in the 4.2 K-300 K temperature range. The amplifier can be operated at high-bias setting, where it dissipates 5 mW, has noise temperature TN ? 0.7 K at RS ? 5 k? and >40 MHz bandwidth at 4.2 K bath temperature. The bias setting can be adjusted: at our lowest tested setting the amplifier dissipates <100 ?W, has noise temperature TN ? 2 K at RS ? 25 k? and >2 MHz bandwidth. The 1/f noise corner frequency is a few times 10 kHz. We foresee the amplifier to have an application in the readout of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detectors (STJs) and Transition Edge Sensors (TESes). We have verified the practical use of the amplifier by reading out a 4.2 K 480-SQUID array with 40 MHz bandwidth and <8 × 10-8 ?0/Hz1/2 flux noise.

Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

2013-10-01

349

Cryogenic high-heat-load optics at the advanced photon source  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators have found wide application at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and other third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities. Currently, 17 insertion device beamlines at the APS are implementing cryogenic, silicon double-crystal monochromators (DCM) at the first optical element. Recently, several silicon crystal monochromators internally cooled with liquid nitrogen have been tested on the sector 1-ID undulator beamline at the APS. Rocking curves at various energies were measured simultaneously in first and third order from a Si(111) DCM in the Bragg reflection geometry at a fixed undulator gap of 11.1 mm. The crystal exhibited a sub-arc second thermal broadening of the rocking curve over a first order energy range from 6.0 to 17.0 keV up to a maximum incident power of 561 W in a 2.5 V x 2.0 H mm{sup 2} beam. It has been demonstrated that cryogenic silicon monochromators can handle the highest power beams from hard x-ray undulators at the APS without significant thermo-mechanical distortion.

Rogers, C.S.

1997-06-01

350

KOTOBUKI-1 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging.  

PubMed

We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. For cryogenic specimen stage with small positional fluctuation for a long exposure time of more than several minutes, we here use a cryogenic pot cooled by the evaporation cooling effect for liquid nitrogen. In addition, a loading device is developed to bring specimens stored in liquid nitrogen to the specimen stage in vacuum. The apparatus allows diffraction data collection for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K with a positional fluctuation of less than 0.4 ?m and provides an experimental environment to easily exchange specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage. The apparatus was developed and utilized in diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of ?m from material and biological sciences, such as metal colloid particles and chloroplast, at BL29XU of SPring-8. Recently, it has been applied for single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of sub-?m using X-ray free electron laser at BL3 of SACLA. PMID:24089834

Nakasako, Masayoshi; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Shirahama, Keiya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hikima, Takaaki; Yonekura, Koji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Inui, Yayoi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Hoshi, Takahiko

2013-09-01

351

KOTOBUKI-1 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. For cryogenic specimen stage with small positional fluctuation for a long exposure time of more than several minutes, we here use a cryogenic pot cooled by the evaporation cooling effect for liquid nitrogen. In addition, a loading device is developed to bring specimens stored in liquid nitrogen to the specimen stage in vacuum. The apparatus allows diffraction data collection for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K with a positional fluctuation of less than 0.4 ?m and provides an experimental environment to easily exchange specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage. The apparatus was developed and utilized in diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of ?m from material and biological sciences, such as metal colloid particles and chloroplast, at BL29XU of SPring-8. Recently, it has been applied for single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of sub-?m using X-ray free electron laser at BL3 of SACLA.

Nakasako, Masayoshi; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Shirahama, Keiya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hikima, Takaaki; Yonekura, Koji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Inui, Yayoi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Hoshi, Takahiko

2013-09-01

352

A cryogenic electrostatic trap for long-time storage of keV ion beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the realization and operation of a fast ion beam trap of the linear electrostatic type employing liquid helium cooling to reach extremely low blackbody radiation temperature and residual gas density and, hence, long storage times of more than 5 min which are unprecedented for keV ion beams. Inside a beam pipe that can be cooled to temperatures <15 K, with 1.8 K reached in some locations, an ion beam pulse can be stored at kinetic energies of 2-20 keV between two electrostatic mirrors. Along with an overview of the cryogenic trap design, we present a measurement of the residual gas density inside the trap resulting in only 2×103 cm-3, which for a room temperature environment corresponds to a pressure in the 10-14 mbar range. The device, called the cryogenic trap for fast ion beams, is now being used to investigate molecules and clusters at low temperatures, but has also served as a design prototype for the cryogenic heavy-ion storage ring currently under construction at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics.

Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Menk, S.; Varju, J.; Bastert, R.; Blaum, K.; López-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Fellenberger, F.; Grieser, M.; von Hahn, R.; Heber, O.; Kühnel, K.-U.; Laux, F.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Shornikov, A.; Sieber, T.; Toker, Y.; Ullrich, J.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

2010-05-01

353

Experimental study of a nitrogen-charged cryogenic loop heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic loop heat pipes (CLHPs) are effective and efficient cryogenic heat transport devices suitable for many space applications. In this work, a miniature cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) with nitrogen as the working fluid was designed and experimentally investigated. An auxiliary loop was employed to assist the supercritical startup of the primary evaporator. The operational characteristics of the CLHP and the matching characteristics of heat loads applied to the primary and secondary evaporators were investigated experimentally. The results show that the CLHP can achieve reliably the supercritical startup when the heat load applied to the secondary evaporator is no less than 3 W; when the heat load applied to the primary evaporator is no less than 2.5 W, the primary evaporator can operate independently, otherwise a proper selection of the heat load applied to the secondary evaporator should be considered to overcome the parasitic heat load from the ambient. The CLHP is working at the variable conductance mode and can achieve smooth operational transition subject to a large step change of the heat load applied to the primary evaporator.

Bai, Lizhan; Lin, Guiping; Zhang, Hongxing; Miao, Jianyin; Wen, Dongsheng

2012-10-01

354

Development of a cryogenic GaAs AC-coupled CTIA readout for far-infrared and submillimeter detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing cryogenic readout integrated circuits (ROICs) for sensitive detectors at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths: The ROICs are constructed from SONY GaAs-JFETs, which have excellent performance even at less than 1 K. In addition, it is suitable device for ultra low background applications because of the extremely low gate leakage current. In the spring of 2008, we have

Hirohisa Nagata; Jun Kobayashi; Hiroshi Matsuo; Yasunori Hibi; Misato Nakahashi; Hirokazu Ikeda; Mikio Fujiwara

2008-01-01

355

Cryogenic Test of a Coaxial Coupling Scheme for Fundamental and Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Cavities  

SciTech Connect

A coaxial coupling device located in the beam pipe of the TESLA type superconducting cavities provides for better propagation of Higher Order Modes (HOMs) and their strong damping in appropriate HOM couplers. Additionally, it also provides efficient coupling for fundamental mode RF power into the superconducting cavity. The whole coupling device can be designed as a detachable system. If appropriately dimensioned, the magnetic field can be minimized to a negligible level at the flange position. This scheme, presented previously*, provides for several advantages: strong HOM damping, flangeable solution, exchangeability of the HOM damping device on a cavity, less complexity of the superconducting cavity, possible cost advantages. This contribution will describe the results of the first cryogenic test.

J.K. Sekutowicz, P. Kneisel

2009-05-01

356

Verification of cryogenic blowout control technology for offshore wells. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the BDM laboratory test program which successfully demonstrated the functional principle of a cryogenic blowout control device for offshore oil wells. The device, which would first be placed downhole as part of the casing string while drilling and later be part of the production tubing, is referred to as a Downhole Shut-In Device (DSD). This report is divided into six sections. Section B presents background material on blown-out oil wells and a description of the full scale DSD, section C summarizes the test program giving major results and conclusions, section D presents the detailed technical approach, section E gives test results, and F gives conclusions and recommendations.

Powers, J.V.; Kuchar, W.E.; McClure, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Gregory, J.

1982-06-02

357

The effects of ionizing radiation on commercial power MOSFETs operated at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

This is the first report of commercial n- and p-channel power MOSFETs exposed to ionizing radiation while operating in a cryogenic environment. The transistors were exposed to low energy x-rays while placed in a liquid nitrogen-cooled dewar. Results demonstrate significant performance and survivability advantages for space-borne power MOSFETs operated at cryogenic temperatures. The key advantages for low-temperature operation of power MOSFET`s in an ionizing radiation environment are: (1) steeper subthreshold current slope before and after irradiation; (2) lower off-state leakage currents before and after irradiation; and (3) larger prerad threshold voltage for n-channel devices. The first two points are also beneficial for devices that are not irradiated, but the advantages are more significant in radiation environments. The third point is only an advantage for commercial devices operated in radiation environments. Results also demonstrate that commercial off-the-shelf power MOSFETs can be used for low-temperature operations in a limited total dose environment (i.e., many space applications).

Johnson, G.H.; Kemp, W.T.; Ackermann, M.R.; Pugh, R.D. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States). Microelectronics and Photonics Group; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.

1994-12-01

358

Cryogenic probe station for use in automated microwave and noise figure measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic measurement system capable of performing on-wafer RF testing of semiconductor devices and circuits has been developed. This 'CryoProbe Station' can wafer-probe devices and circuits at cryogenic temperatures, thus eliminating the need for wire bonds. The system operates under vacuum created by a sorption pump. It uses an open cycle cooling system that can be cooled with either liquid nitrogen or liquid helium. Presently, it can reach temperatures, as low as 80 K and 37 K for each of the coolants, respectively. The temperature can be raised using a heater and it is stabilized to within 0.2 K by use of a temperature controller. The CryoProbe Station features a 1 by 2 inch stage that can hold large circuits and calibration standards simultaneously. The system is used with a Hewlett Packard 8510C Automatic Network Analyzer (ANA) to obtain S-parameter data over the frequency range 0.045-26.5 GHz. S-parameter data on HEMT (high electron mobility transistors) devices has been obtained with this station. With the use of DEEMBED software from NIST, detailed transmission line studies have been performed. Although the CryoProbe Station is designed for frequencies up to 26.5 GHz, useful transmission line data has been obtained for frequencies as high as 40 GHz. The CryoProbe station has also been used with the ATN noise figure measurement system to perform automatic, temperature dependent noise figure measurements.

Taub, Susan R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Young, Paul G.; Ebihara, Ben T.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

1994-03-01

359

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample.

Gonczy, John D. (Oaklawn, IL); Markley, Finley W. (St. Charles, IL); McCaw, William R. (Burr Ridge, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01

360

Cryogenic high-frequency readout and control platform for spin qubits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a cryogenic platform for the control and readout of spin qubits that comprises a high density of dc and radio frequency sample interconnects based on a set of coupled printed circuit boards. The modular setup incorporates 24 filtered dc lines, 14 control and readout lines with bandwidth from dc to above 6 GHz, and 2 microwave connections for excitation to 40 GHz. We report the performance of this platform, including signal integrity and crosstalk measurements and discuss design criteria for constructing sample interconnect technology needed for multi-qubit devices.

Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

2012-02-01

361

Driving perpendicular heat flow: (p×n)-type transverse thermoelectrics for microscale and cryogenic Peltier cooling.  

PubMed

Whereas thermoelectric performance is normally limited by the figure of merit ZT, transverse thermoelectrics can achieve arbitrarily large temperature differences in a single leg even with inferior ZT by being geometrically tapered. We introduce a band-engineered transverse thermoelectric with p-type Seebeck in one direction and n-type orthogonal, resulting in off-diagonal terms that drive heat flow transverse to electrical current. Such materials are advantageous for microscale devices and cryogenic temperatures--exactly the regimes where standard longitudinal thermoelectrics fail. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices are shown to have the appropriate band structure for use as a transverse thermoelectric. PMID:23767747

Zhou, Chuanle; Birner, S; Tang, Yang; Heinselman, K; Grayson, M

2013-05-31

362

Driving Perpendicular Heat Flow: (p×n)-Type Transverse Thermoelectrics for Microscale and Cryogenic Peltier Cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas thermoelectric performance is normally limited by the figure of merit ZT, transverse thermoelectrics can achieve arbitrarily large temperature differences in a single leg even with inferior ZT by being geometrically tapered. We introduce a band-engineered transverse thermoelectric with p-type Seebeck in one direction and n-type orthogonal, resulting in off-diagonal terms that drive heat flow transverse to electrical current. Such materials are advantageous for microscale devices and cryogenic temperatures—exactly the regimes where standard longitudinal thermoelectrics fail. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices are shown to have the appropriate band structure for use as a transverse thermoelectric.

Zhou, Chuanle; Birner, S.; Tang, Yang; Heinselman, K.; Grayson, M.

2013-05-01

363

Cryogenic high-frequency readout and control platform for spin qubits.  

PubMed

We have developed a cryogenic platform for the control and readout of spin qubits that comprises a high density of dc and radio frequency sample interconnects based on a set of coupled printed circuit boards. The modular setup incorporates 24 filtered dc lines, 14 control and readout lines with bandwidth from dc to above 6 GHz, and 2 microwave connections for excitation to 40 GHz. We report the performance of this platform, including signal integrity and crosstalk measurements and discuss design criteria for constructing sample interconnect technology needed for multi-qubit devices. PMID:22380102

Colless, J I; Reilly, D J

2012-02-01

364

Design of the cryogenic systems for the 20 MWh SMES-ETM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Engineering Test Model (ETM) is a facility storing 20 MWh and serving as technology demonstration for Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The coil, 96 meters in diameter, operates in superfluid helium at 1.8 K, and is based on a 200 kA cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). Despite the size of the device, the refrigeration system for the ETM is well within the state-of-the-art, yet certain specific requirements affected the design and optimization of the refrigerator and cryogenic systems.

Parsons, B. K.; Luongo, C. A.; Cooke, K. M.; Kreinbrink, K.; Hood, C.; Barnes, C.

365

Large Cryogenic Infrastructure for LHC Superconducting Magnet and Cryogenic Component Tests: Layout, Commissioning and Operational Experience  

SciTech Connect

The largest cryogenic test facility at CERN, located at Zone 18, is used to validate and to test all main components working at cryogenic temperature in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) before final installation in the machine tunnel. In total about 1300 main dipoles, 400 main quadrupoles, 5 RF-modules, eight 1.8 K refrigeration units will be tested in the coming years.The test facility has been improved and upgraded over the last few years and the first 18 kW refrigerator for the LHC machine has been added to boost the cryogenic capacity for the area via a 25,000 liter liquid helium dewar. The existing 6 kW refrigerator, used for the LHC Test String experiments, will also be employed to commission LHC cryogenic components.We report on the design and layout of the test facility as well as the commissioning and the first 10,000 hours operational experience of the test facility and the 18 kW LHC refrigerator.

Calzas, C.; Chanat, D.; Knoops, S.; Sanmarti, M.; Serio, L. [Accelerator Technology Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2004-06-23

366

Advanced cryogenic technology for space based infrared surveillance and stored cryogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current space cryocooler developments have achieved performance and capability that have made the use of active refrigeration in space missions feasible. Space flight demonstrations baselined and implemented active refrigeration to achieve mission goals. These applications of cryocooler technology validate the improved mission capabilities and reliability and lifetime confidence in active refrigeration in space. Current cryogenic integration and cryocooler development programs

Benny Joe Tomlinson

2001-01-01

367

Electrical breakdown of vacuum insulation at cryogenic temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment on the breakdown of vacuum insulation was performed for the development of cryocables and other cryogenic electrical apparatus. The influence of conditioning, pressure, gap spacing, electrode material and voltage waveshape on the breakdown voltage of vacuum insulation was measured at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature respectively. The results indicate that cooling the high-voltage sphere electrode enhances the

Hao Fengnian; W. Hu

1990-01-01

368

Electrical breakdown of vacuum insulation at cryogenic temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakdown experiment on vacuum insulation for the development of cryocable and other cryogenic electrical apparatus was performed. The influence of conditioning, pressure, gap spacing, electrode material, and voltage waveform on the breakdown voltage of vacuum insulation was measured at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. The results indicate that cooling the high-voltage sphere electrode enhances the breakdown strength of

Fengnian Hao; Weihan Wu

1988-01-01

369

Thermal Performance of Urethane Foam Pipe Insulation At Cryogenic Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical and experimental investigation of a two layer urethane foam cryogenic piping insulation system was conducted to deter mine the system's thermal performance. Significant natural convection was found to occur at the urethane foam seams and between the layers. Also, analytical techniques to model cryogenic piping insulation systems were developed. These results led to the development of a thermally

Dwight S. Musgrave

1979-01-01

370

Cryogenic Fluids Density Reference System: Provisional Accuracy Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The density reference system of the Cryogenics Division of the National Bureau of Standards is described. This system is used in making density measurements of cryogenic liquids. The methods of computation and the accuracy to which the density of the liqu...

J. D. Siegwarth B. A. Younglove J. F. LaBrecque

1977-01-01

371

Cryogenic fluids density reference system: Provisional accuracy statement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The density reference system of the cryogenics division of the National Bureau of Standards is described. The system was used in making density measurements of cryogenic liquids. The methods of computation and the accuracy to which the density of the liquid can be measured are discussed in detail. The estimate of sample standard deviation for a single density measurement made

J. D. Siegwarth; B. A. Younglove; J. F. Labrecque

1977-01-01

372

Welding consumable development for a cryogenic (4 K) application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the development and qualification of an appropriate welding consumable for a demanding cryogenic magnet application. It begins with a review of the research conducted on cryogenic fracture toughness of wrought and welded austenitic stainless steels. This research shows that certain elements of the composition have a powerful effect upon the steel's fracture toughness at 4 K. In

S. F. Kane; A. L. Farland; T. A. Siewert; C. N. McCowan

1999-01-01

373

Advances in cryogenic engineering, Volume 39, Part B  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a review of the latest work in cryogenic engineering and technology as related to a number of differing disciplines. It should serve as a valuable reference to researchers and engineers in cryogenics, materials science, low-temperature physics, polymer science, and solid-state physics. This volume contains articles under the following general areas: instrumentation and control; cryocoolers; heat exchangers and

Kittel

1994-01-01

374

Design concept of cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design concept is developed for a cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator by clarifying the differences between this process and a cryogenic distillation column. The process characteristics are greatly improved by the idea of adding an Hâ gas flow to a point near the upper end of the packed section. The flow rate of tritium lost from the top

M. Kinoshita; T. Yamanishi; J. R. Bartlit; R. H. Sherman

1986-01-01

375

Magnetically suspended Stirling cryogenic space refrigerator Status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 1979 Cryogenic Engineering Conference, attention was given to conceptual designs of spaceborne cryogenic refrigeration systems which can provide long-term, unattended operation. Since that time, efforts have continued to translate one of those concepts into an engineering model. The present investigation is concerned with a refrigerator which was designed to generate 5 W of cooling power at a temperature

A. Daniels; M. Gasser; A. Sherman

1982-01-01

376

Recent investigations with the Harvard-Smithsonian cryogenic hydrogen maser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen maser that operates near 0.5 K using a high-cooling-power 3He refrigerator is discussed. This cryogenic hydrogen maser is used to study low temperature atomic hydrogen spin-exchange collisions and hydrogen-helium interactions, and to investigate the performance of cryogenic hydrogen masers as possibly improved frequency standards. Recent measurements on these topics are reported

R. L. Walsworth; E. M. Mattison; R. F. C. Vessot; I. F. Silvera

1993-01-01

377

Thermal properties of epoxy resins at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish the design technique of epoxy resin at cryogenic temperature, its thermal contraction coefficients and dynamic Young's modulus were measured from room to cryogenic temperatures when plasticizer was both present and absent. The disappearance of the effects of the plasticizer were confirmed by measuring its thermal expansion coefficient. The process in which the addition of plasticizer reduces

H. Nakane; S. Nishijima; H. Fujishiro; T. Yamaguchi; S. Yoshizawa; S. Yamazaki

2002-01-01

378

Nd2Fe14B and Pr2Fe14B magnets characterisation and modelling for cryogenic permanent magnet undulator applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators take benefit from improved magnetic properties of RE2Fe14B (Rare Earth based magnets) at cryogenic temperatures for achieving short period high magnetic field. In particular, using Praseodymium instead of Neodymium generally employed for insertion devices avoids limitation due to Spin Reorientation Transition phenomenon. Magnetic properties of magnet samples (Nd2Fe14B and Pr2Fe14B) versus temperature have been investigated and applied to a 20 mm period Nd2Fe14B (BH50) and to a 18 mm period Pr2Fe14B (CR53) systems. Four period undulators have been built, characterised and compared to the models.

Benabderrahmane, C.; Berteaud, P.; Valléau, M.; Kitegi, C.; Tavakoli, K.; Béchu, N.; Mary, A.; Filhol, J. M.; Couprie, M. E.

2012-03-01

379

Forced-convective vitrification with liquid cryogens.  

PubMed

Cell cryopreservation by vitrification generally requires using vitrification solutions with high concentrations of cryoprotectants (CPAs), which are toxic and induce osmotic stresses associated with the addition and removal of CPAs. To increase the cooling rate and reduce the CPA concentration required for vitrification, this study proposed an innovative approach, named forced-convective vitrification with liquid cryogens, in which liquid oxygen at a temperature below its boiling point (LOX(bbp)) was used as the cryogen to reduce the generation of insulating bubbles of gaseous oxygen and the sample was subjected to a constant velocity to remove insulation bubbles from the sample. Results show that changing the cryogen from liquid nitrogen at its boiling temperature (LN(abp)) to LOX(bbp), increasing the sample velocity and reducing the test solution volume increased the cooling rate and thereby decreased the CPA concentration required for vitrification. Using the same velocity (1.2 m/s), the cooling rate achieved with LOX(bbp) was 2.3-fold greater than that achieved with LN(abp). With LOX(bbp), the increase in the sample velocity from 0.2 to 1.2 m/s enhanced the cooling rate by 1.9 times. With LOX(bbp), a velocity of 1.2m/s and a test solution volume of 1.73 ?l, the CPA concentration required for vitrification decreased to 25%. These results indicate that the new approach described here can reduce the CPA concentration required for vitrification, and thus decreases the toxicity and osmotic stresses associated with adding and removing the CPA. PMID:23545291

Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Huang, Jen-Hung; Shih, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yung-Jiun; Hsieh, Wen-Hsin

2013-03-29

380

Test of a cryogenic helium pump  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic helium pump is described with detailed schematic drawings. The test setup and results are given and the pump characteristics charted. The calculations for the thermal efficiency are presented with mass flow rate as a function of pump speed shown on a chart. Conclusions include the fact that a helium pump of this type would be suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through ICS magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm.

Lue, J.W.; Herz, W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.

1982-01-01

381

Stability limit of the cryogenic hydrogen maser  

SciTech Connect

It is pointed out that the usual oscillation condition of the H maser is only a necessary condition for steady operation. Reducing the coupled field-matter dynamics to the complex Lorenz equations we derive a second requirement which together with the first forms a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the steady operation to be stable. The instability of the steady state predicted by the equations should be easily accessible experimentally for the cryogenic H maser. It will be characterized by a pulsed output power which, depending on the detuning, is either periodic or chaotic.

Maan, A.C.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J. (Department of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, (Netherlands)); Mandel, P. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Code Postal 231, 1050 Bruxelles, (Belgium))

1990-05-28

382

Efficiencies of trays in cryogenic distillation columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Paper considers the behaviour of the distillation trays in conventional use in cryogenic air separation plants. An earlier study showed that the trays should operate at higher efficiencies than plant experience would indicate. This conclusion was based on the assumption of uniform liquid flow across the trays. In practice, stagnant zones can occur which reduce the efficiency. A study of a small hole-size tray, rectangular in shape, providing uniform flow has confirmed the predictions of the theoretical model by producing high efficiencies. These results, together with those from the earlier study, provide an indication of the benefits of improving the flow behaviour of air separation distillation trays.

Biddulph, M. W.

1986-01-01

383

Cryogenic recovery of high purity hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for cryogenic purification of two or more industrial by-product gas streams containing impure hydrogen in recoverable amounts, at least one of the by-product gas streams being substantially free of non-readily condensible impurities having boiling points below that of methane and containing only hydrocarbons, including methane, as impurities, and at least one of the by-product gas streams containing significant amounts of non-readily condensible impurities having boiling points below that of methane.

Stupin, W.J.

1988-07-12

384

Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd [Applied Materials-Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

2012-03-12

385

Introduction to Quantum Sensors in Cryogenic Particle Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic detectors have been important tools in many aspects of science because their sensitivities can provide more than extreme limits of conventional semiconductor based detectors. The sensor developments in cryogenic particle detection are based on the precise measurement of noble properties of condensed matter in low temperatures. The major measurement technologies originate from quantum measurements, phase transitions and superconducting electronics. Although the early developments of cryogenic detectors were initiated by applications to elementary particle physics, they have been adopted in biology, forensics, and security as well as astronomy and nuclear science. Various types of cryogenic detectors cover a wide energy range from THz radiations to hundreds MeV particles. We review the recent development of sensor technologies in cryogenic particle detection. The measurement principles are covered together with applications to elementary particle physics and THz measurement.

Kim, Yong-Hamb; Kim, Sun Kee

386

Evacuation time of cryogenic pipes for superconducting power transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vacuum insulation has been used for the thermal insulation of cryogenic pipes for the superconducting power transmission to reduce the heat leak from the environment at the room temperature to the low temperature parts. Since the cryogenic pipes, in particular, those for long distance power transmission, are considered to be thin long pipes, it might take a long time for evacuation. To estimate the evacuation time of the long cryogenic pipes, model calculations have been performed. According to the calculations, it is found that there is an optimum condition between the pumping speed, the diameter of the outer pipe and the length of the cryogenic pipe for efficient evacuation. It is also found that, if the outgassing is suppressed enough, the evacuation can be possible within 1 week even for the long cryogenic pipe with the length of 10 km. The reduction of outgassing is particularly important for the efficient evacuation.

Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sun, Jian; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Hamabe, Makoto; Kawahara, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Satarou

2013-11-01

387

Design, construction, and performance of a post type cryogenic support  

SciTech Connect

A support member for superconducting magnets and other cryogenic devices has been designed, fabricated and structurally and thermally evaluated. The member is a cylindrical post constructed with fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) tubing and having metallic heat intercepts and end connections. All FRP to metal connections are made by mechanical shrink fitting and do not employ adhesives or fasteners. The post can operate in tension, compression and flexure or in combinations of these loads. The details of the design and construction are enumerated. Structural performance has been measured in tension and compression at 80 and 300 K and in flexure at 300 K. Creep effects on the shrink fit joint reliability are being evaluated. Thermal performance has been measured for a post with ends at 4.5 and 300 K and with heat intercepts at 10 and 80 K. The measured performance has been compared with the analytical predictions. Full scale, working, prototype posts have been successfully utilized in several model cryostats for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet development program.

Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, J.D.; Otavka, J.G.; Roman, M.W.

1985-09-01

388

Conceptual design of a centrifugal CO{sub 2} cleaning device. Final report/project accomplishments summary  

SciTech Connect

The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division designs and manufactures cryogenic cleaning devices in their Wichita, Kansas, facility. The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division identified a market need for a new cryogenic cleaning device that would generate a high level of kinetic energy at a lower operating pressure and noise level. This market need is being generated because the existing products when operated at high kinetic energy levels create an excessive amount of noise and consume a very high level of compressed gases. The intention of this CRADA effort was to join AlliedSignal`s expertise in knowledge of manufacturing processes, design, and capabilities in performing solid modeling together with The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division`s knowledge of cryogenic cleaning design and manufacturing into a design team to create a prototype of a high-energy centrifugal cryogenic cleaning device.

Harrington, J.N.

1997-12-01

389

VISCOUS ENERGY DISSIPATION IN FROZEN CRYOGENS  

SciTech Connect

ITER is an international research and development project with the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of fusion power. The fuel for the ITER plasma is injected in the form of frozen deuterium pellets; the current injector design includes a batch extruder, cooled by liquid helium. A more advanced fuel system will produce deuterium pellets continuously using a twin-screw extruder, cooled by a cryocooler. One of the critical design parameters for the advanced system is the friction associated with the shearing planes of the frozen deuterium in the extruder; the friction determines the required screw torque as well as the cryocooler heat load.An experiment has been designed to measure the energy dissipation associated with shearing frozen deuterium. Deuterium gas is cooled to its freezing point in the gap between a stationary outer canister and a rotating inner cylinder. The dissipation is measured mechanically and through calorimetric means. The experiment has also been used to measure dissipation in other cryogens, such as neon, as a function of rotational velocity and temperature. This paper describes the design and construction of the experiment and presents measurements over a range of cryogens and test conditions.

Meitner, S. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Andraschko, M. R. [Cryogenics Engineering Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2008-03-16

390

Fielding the NIF Cryogenic Ignition Target  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy has embarked on a campaign to conduct credible fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2010. The target assembly specified for this campaign requires the formation of a deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel ice layer on the inside of a 2 millimeter diameter capsule positioned at the center of a 9 millimeter long by 5 millimeter diameter cylinder, called a hohlraum. The ice layer requires micrometer level accuracy and must be formed and maintained at temperatures below 19 K. At NIF shot time, the target must be positioned at the center of the NIF 10 meter diameter target chamber, aligned to the laser beam lines and held stable to less than 7 micrometers rms. We have completed the final design and are integrating the systems necessary to create, characterize and field the cryogenic target for ignition experiments. These designs, with emphasis on the challenges of fielding a precision cryogenic positioning system will be presented.

Malsbury, T; Haid, B; Gibson, C; Atkinson, D; Skulina, K; Klingmann, J; Atherton, J; Mapoles, E; Kozioziemski, B; Dzenitis, E

2008-02-28

391

D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

Markely, D.; /Fermilab

1992-08-03

392

Dynamic Stabilization of Imploding Cryogenic Capsules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic stabilization(R. Betti et al.),* Phys. Rev. Lett. 71*, 3131 (1993).* of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical implosions of cryogenic shells is investigated by using a linear sharp boundary model including time-dependent acceleration, ablation velocity, and shell compressibility. In the limit of large l-mode numbers, the model reproduces the planar-foil growth rates derived with asymptotic matching techniques in Ref. [2].(V.N. Goncharov et al.)*, Phys. Plasmas 3*, 1402 (1996).* The model consists of two integro-differential equations describing the evolution of the outer- and inner-surface distortion based on the time-dependent acceleration, density, and ablation velocity determined using the 1-D hydrocode LILAC. The dynamic stabilization is induced by modulating the laser intensity with a properly selected temporal frequency and amplitude in order to maximize the acceleration oscillations and minimize the implosion isentrope. Studies of the dynamic stabilization for OMEGA cryogenic capsules reveal that the ablation-front distortion can be significantly reduced by using a modulation period of 200 to 300 ps. Applications of the dynamic stabilization for NIF targets are investigated and compared with two-dimensional simulations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.

Lobatchev, V.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; McCrory, R. L.; Verdon, C. P.

1997-11-01

393

Cryogenic Heat Engines Made Using Electrocaloric Capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible to operate a heat engine using a cold substance, such as liquid nitrogen, as a heat sink and the atmosphere as a heat source.(C. A. Ordonez, American Journal of Physics 64), (1996) 479-481. With sufficient work produced per unit mass of liquid nitrogen, such a cryogenic heat engine may be suitable for powering short range, non-polluting automobiles.(C. A. Ordonez, Energy Conversion and Management 41) (2000) 331-341. Using existing liquid nitrogen plants to produce liquid nitrogen at about 50% of Carnot efficiency, and using renewable energy to power the liquid nitrogen plants, the cost to use liquid nitrogen to power an automobile per mile driven would be a few times the cost of using gasoline in the U.S. The increased ``fuel" cost may be acceptable for short range vehicles provided such vehicles have an acceptable price. We report on thermal-to-electrical energy conversion systems being studied for use as cryogenic heat engines. Specifically, capacitors made using paraelectric materials can provide energy conversion based on the electrocaloric effect. The electrocaloric effect is a change in electric field across a material that results from a change in temperature of the material.

Franz, Justin; Ordonez, Carlos A.

2001-10-01

394

A Cryogenic Gas Target for Nuclear Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many reactions of interest to nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure are initiated by gaseous elements such as hydrogen and helium. To study these reactions using radioactive ion beams, the target itself must be comprised of the gas, typically housed in a gas cell. A cryogenic gas target has been developed to be used in such measurements at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The target system consists of 4 separate cells within the same vacuum enclosure that can be interchanged easily. The windows are Havar foils of 3 cm^2 area and 2 mg/cm^2 thickness. Tests have shown these windows to withstand pressures up to 1100 Torr. The flexible design of the target allows cells of any length to be used. Shorter cells ( ˜ 1cm, 0.4 mg/cm^2 of H2 and 0.8 mg/cm^2 for ^4He at 77 K) will be utilized for measurements of transfer reactions, and longer cells ( ˜ 8 cm) will be used for in-flight production of radioactive ion beams (3 mg/cm^2 for H2 and 7 mg/cm^2 for ^4He at 77 K). The development and design of the cryogenic gas target will be presented.

Moazen, Brian; Kozub, R. L.; Blackmon, J. C.; Pierce, D. E.

2002-10-01

395

Aerogel beads as cryogenic thermal insulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the use of aerogel beads as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel beads in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel beads produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10-5 torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel beads was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel beads performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress. .

Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.

2002-05-01

396

Space cryogenic system for SPICA mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes that the feasibility of the next Japanese infrared astronomical SPICA mission is verified in thermal design by numerical analyses and developed technologies. In this advanced cryogenic mission, in order to cool the large primary mirror and focal plane instruments down to 4.5 K for 5 years or longer without cryogen, the mechanical cooling is employed with effective radiant cooling, which compensates the limited cooling capacity of the JT cryocooler for 4.5 K upgraded from that developed for the "JEM/SMILES" mission on the International Space Station. First, thermal design of the telescope is numerically discussed with thermal mathematical models. Some configurations of radiators, shields and solar-array paddles are investigated and compared in technical and mission feasibilities. Next, the development status of the 3He-JT circuit with the Stirling cryocooler for one detector operated at the lowest temperature of 1.7 K is reported. The recent results of experiments give that the breadboard model of the 1.7 K cryocooler successfully exceeds the required cooling capacity of 10mW at 1.7K with small power consumption. Finally, the heat rejection system from those cryocoolers is discussed. As a promising candidate, the loop heat pipe is chosen and suitably designed.

Sugita, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Masahide; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Hirabayashi, Masayuki

2004-10-01

397

Recent Developments in Cryogenic Compensated Sapphire Oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic microwave oscillators offer the highest short term stability of any frequency sources1,2,3. This stability and accompanying ultra-low close-in phase noise are made possible by the high quality factors (Q's) available with cooled sapphire or superconducting resonators, and by advantageous thermal properties (low expansion coefficients and small time constants) for solid materials at low temperatures. The capability offered by these oscillators is crucial to several advanced technology areas; notable among these being NASA radio science applications and local oscillator (L.O.) requirements for a new generation of laser-cooled frequency standards. However, until recently cryogenic oscillators were restricted to research laboratories due to the requirements of liquid-helium cooling. A new generation of sapphire resonators is changing that by offering a much broader range of operating parameters than before. With the addition of external compensation, the new resonators make possible ultra-high frequency stability at higher (and much more easily reached) temperatures than previously required. Today, cryocooled compensated sapphire oscillators (CSO's) are being installed in NASA's Deep Space Network4 (10K CSO) and work is going on many laboratories around the world to develop an even higher temperature version, one that can be cooled by a single stage cryocooler. This would meet L.O. requirements for the new laser-cooled frequency standards in a small and economical package. We describe these developments and analyze some of their technical aspects in the sections that follow.

Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.

2002-04-01

398

Risk analysis of the ITER cryogenic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reliability of the ITER tokamak will strongly depend on the safe operation of the cryogenic system. The objective of the performed risk analysis is to identify all the possible risks to personnel, equipment and environment resulting from cryogenic system failures that might accidentally occur within any phases of the machine operation, and that could not be eliminated by design. The applied methodology of the presented risk analysis is based on the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. All the potential failure modes were analyzed to identify their possible effects and then to classify them according to their severity and probability of occurrence. The Pareto-Lorentz analysis has been used for ranking all the identified failures and determining the most credible incidents and scenarios. For the most credible scenarios numerical simulations of the helium outflows from the system have been performed, including analysis of the helium flow impact on the neighboring confinements. Conclusions concerning the system safe operation, remedial actions and mitigations of the most credible incidents have been formulated.

Chorowski, Maciej; Fydrych, Jaroslaw; Grabowski, Maciej; Serio, Luigi

2012-06-01

399

Experimental investigation of cryogenic oscillating heat pipes.  

PubMed

A novel cryogenic heat pipe, oscillating heat pipe (OHP), which consists of an 4 × 18.5 cm evaporator, a 6 × 18.5 cm condenser, and 10 cm length of adiabatic section, has been developed and experimental characterization conducted. Experimental results show that the maximum heat transport capability of the OHP reached 380W with average temperature difference of 49 °C between the evaporator and condenser when the cryogenic OHP was charged with liquid nitrogen at 48% (v/v) and operated in a horizontal direction. The thermal resistance decreased from 0.256 to 0.112 while the heat load increased from 22.5 to 321.8 W. When the OHP was operated at a steady state and an incremental heat load was added to it, the OHP operation changed from a steady state to an unsteady state until a new steady state was reached. This process can be divided into three regions: (I) unsteady state; (II) transient state; and (III) new steady state. In the steady state, the amplitude of temperature change in the evaporator is smaller than that of the condenser while the temperature response keeps the same frequency both in the evaporator and the condenser. The experimental results also showed that the amplitude of temperature difference between the evaporator and the condenser decreased when the heat load increased. PMID:20585410

Jiao, A J; Ma, H B; Critser, J K

2009-07-01

400

Clogging of Joule-Thomson Devices in Liquid Hydrogen-Lunar Lander Descent Stage Operating Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joule-Thomson (J-T) devices have been identified as critical components for future space exploration missions. The NASA Constellation Program lunar architecture considers LOX\\/LH2 propulsion for the lunar lander descent stage main engine an enabling technology, ensuring the cryogenic propellants are available at the correct conditions for engine operation. This cryogenic storage system may utilize a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) that includes

J. M. Jurns

2010-01-01

401

CLOGGING OF JOULE-THOMSON DEVICES IN LIQUID HYDROGEN—LUNAR LANDER DESCENT STAGE OPERATING REGIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joule-Thomson (J-T) devices have been identified as critical components for future space exploration missions. The NASA Constellation Program lunar architecture considers LOX\\/LH2 propulsion for the lunar lander descent stage main engine an enabling technology, ensuring the cryogenic propellants are available at the correct conditions for engine operation. This cryogenic storage system may utilize a Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) that includes

J. M. Jurns

2010-01-01

402

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vols. 37A & 37B - Proceedings of the 1991 Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, June 11-14, 1991  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present volume on advances in cryogenic engineering discusses heat and mass transfer in helium, heat transfer in cryogenic fluids, thermoacoustic oscillations, and insulation. Attention is given to applications of superconductivity with reference to magnetic stability and coil protection, cryogenic techniques, and refrigeration for electronics and superconducting systems. Topics addressed include compressors, expanders, and pumps for liquid helium, magnetic refrigerators, pulse tube refrigerators, and cryocoolers. Also examined are properties of cryogenic fluids, cryogenic applications in transportion and space science and technology, and cryogenic instrumentation.

Fast, Ronald W.

403

The sorption heat pipe-a new device for thermal control and active cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sorption heat pipe (SHP) is a new heat transfer device, which can be used as a sorption cooler or as a heat pipe. The SHP has a sorbent bed (adsorber/desorber and evaporator) at one end and a condenser+evaporator at the other end. This device is insensitive to some ``g'' acceleration and could be suggested for space and ground application. The most crucial feature of this device is that in different cases it can be used, for example, as a loop heat pipe, because they have the same evaporator and condenser, or as a SHP. The SHP can be used also as a cryogenic cooler. The SHP is convenient for cryogenic fluid storage, when the system does not work at low pressure and room temperature, and for use in the active cryogenic thermal control systems of spacecraft in orbit (cold plates for infrared observation of the Earth or space), or as an efficient electronic component cooling device.

Vasiliev, L. L.; Vasiliev, L. L.

2004-03-01

404

European low-noise MMIC technologies for cryogenic millimetre wave radio astronomical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Noise technology has a paramount relevance on radiotelescopes and radiometers performances. Its influence on sensitivity and temporal stability has a deep impact on obtainable scientific results. As well known, front end active part of scientific instruments are cryocooled in order to drastically reduce the intrinsic thermal noise generated by its electronic parts and consequently increase the sensitivity. In this paper we will describe the obtained results by an Italian Space Agency funded activity. The aim is to validate European MMIC Low Noise technologies and designs for cryogenic environments in the range of millimetre wave. As active device, HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) are considered the best device for high frequency and low noise cryo applications. But not all the semiconductor foundry process are suitable for applications in such environment. Two European Foundries has been selected and two different HEMT based Low Noise Amplifiers have been designed and produced. The main goal of this activity is identify an European technology basement for space and ground based low noise cryogenic applications. Designs, layout, architectures, foundry processes and results will be compared.

Cremonini, Andrea; Mariotti, Sergio; Valenziano, Luca

2012-09-01

405

Harmonic phase detector for phase locking of cryogenic terahertz oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple and effective way to phase lock terahertz cryogenic oscillators. Extreme nonlinearity of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction allows its implementation as a cryogenic high-harmonic phase detector (HPD), which is used both for mixing a terahertz oscillator signal with a microwave reference and for generating a phase error feedback signal that is directly applied to the oscillator for its phase locking. An integration of the HPD with a cryogenic flux-flow oscillator results in synchronization bandwidth as wide as 70 MHz (significantly exceeding conventional room-temperature system bandwidth), providing phase locking of 84% emitted power for 15 MHz oscillator linewidth.

Kalashnikov, Konstantin V.; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Koshelets, Valery P.

2013-09-01

406

Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

Cadwallader, L.C.

1992-01-01

407

Status of the Cryogenic System Commissioning at SNS  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 Watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning strategy and status will be presented.

F. Casagrande; I.E. Campisi; P.A. Gurd; D.R. Hatfield; M.P. Howell; D. Stout; W.H. Strong; D. Arenius; J.C. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; P.K. Knudsen

2005-05-16

408

Cryogenic grinding: an efficient method for recycling scrap rubber  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic grinding represents an opportunity for expanding recycling capabilities to a broad range of compounds. Many materials that can be reduced to a powder by conventional coarse grinding can be reduced more efficiently by using a super-cold agent such as liquid nitrogen at -320/sup 0/F to embrittle plastic or rubber polymers before grinding. In addition, cryogenic grinding makes possible the size reduction of many materials that cannot be ground by conventional ambient grinding methods. Some experiences of cryogenic grinding in practice at United Tire and Rubber company, Limited, headquartered in Rexdale, Ontario, are noted. A schematic of such a system is shown.

Not Available

1980-06-01

409

Development of Cryogenically Microwave Lossy Ceramics with Adjustable Properties  

SciTech Connect

At cryogenic temperatures (below 20 K), most of the existing lossy materials become non-lossy, requiring the development of a new materials effective in these conditions. Results of an effort to develop a cryogenically lossy materials based on the AlN matrix are presented in the paper. Hot pressing with a wide range of possible lossy second phases was tried, followed by complex permitivity measurements. A promising second phase was selected, produced and evaluated under cryogenic conditions at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The developed material system allows the dielectric permitivity to be varied depending on the application requirements.

Biljana Mikijeli; Isidoro Campisi

2002-07-01

410

Cryogenic wavefront correction using membrane deformable mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-machined membrane deformable mirrors (MMDMs) are being evaluated for their suitability as wavefront correctors at cryogenic temperatures. Presented here are experimental results for the change in the initial mirror figure of 37-channel MMDMs from OKO Technologies upon cooling to T=78K. The changes in the influence functions are also explored. Of the sample of 3 mirrors tested, one was found to have sufficiently small initial static aberrations to be useful as a wavefront corrector at this temperature. The influence functions at T=78K were found to be similar in shape to both those at room temperature and theoretical predictions of the MMDMs surface shape. The magnitude of the surface deflection at T=78K was reduced by around 20% compared with room temperature values.

Dyson, Harold; Sharples, Ray M.; Dipper, N. A.; Vdovin, Gleb

2001-01-01

411

Innovative technology summary report: Cryogenic drilling  

SciTech Connect

Environmental drilling is used to conduct site investigations and to install monitoring and remediation wells. Employing conventional drilling techniques to conduct environmental investigations in unconsolidated soils can result in borehole collapse and may also lead to cross-contamination of aquifers and soil formations. For investigations in certain geologic conditions, there are currently no viable conventional drilling techniques available. Cryogenic drilling improves upon conventional air rotary drilling by replacing ambient air with cold nitrogen (either liquid or gas) as the circulating medium. The cold nitrogen gas stream freezes moisture in the ground surrounding the hole. The frozen zone prevents the collapse of the hole and prevents the movement of groundwater or contaminants through and along the hole. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed.

NONE

1998-10-01

412

Cryogenic calorimeters for dark matter and neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of massive cryogenic calorimeters for the detection of scattering events with small deposited energies (less than 1 keV) is considered. Tests of a 19 g silicon crystal with an iridium thermometer operated near 225 mK and irradiated with 5 MeV alpha particles are reported. The detected temperature pulse has two parts: a fast component with a decay time of 0.5 ms, and a slow one of 250 ms. The amplitude of the slow component agrees well with a decay time value. The fast one is a factor of 10 to 20 larger; the origin of this component is not yet understood. The energy resolution (FWHM) is 1 when the full pulse height is used, and 4 percent using only the amplitude of the slow component, which is believed to be the true thermal pulse.

Cooper, Susan

1991-11-01

413

Dissipative Cryogenic Filters with Zero DC Resistance  

SciTech Connect

The authors designed, implemented and tested cryogenic RF filters with zero DC resistance, based on wires with a superconducting core inside a resistive sheath. The superconducting core allows low frequency currents to pass with negligible dissipation. Signals above the cutoff frequency are dissipated in the resistive part due to their small skin depth. The filters consist of twisted wire pairs shielded with copper tape. Above approximately 1 GHz, the attenuation is exponential in {radical}{omega}, as typical for skin depth based RF filters. By using additional capacitors of 10 nF per line, an attenuation of at least 45 dB above 10 MHz can be obtained. Thus, one single filter stage kept at mixing chamber temperature in a dilution refrigerator is sufficient to attenuate room temperature black body radiation to levels corresponding to 10 mK above about 10 MHz.

Bluhm, Hendrik; Moler, Kathryn A.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept

2008-04-22

414

The LINC-NIRVANA cryogenic interferometric camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LINC-NIRVANA instrument is a 1-2.5 micron Fizeau interferometric imager, which combines the light of the two 8.4 m mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope on Mt. Graham in Arizona. The cryogenic camera forms the heart of the science channel of this instrument, delivering a 1 arcmin diameter field of view with 5 mas spatial resolution. The center 10x10 arcseconds, initially limited by the size of the 2048x2048 Hawaii-2 detector, are used for science observations. For simplicity, the camera has a fixed, F/32 optical path of the combined beams, leading to wavelength-dependent sampling. We describe the main components of the camera, as well as present the calculations of interferometric performance and the required opto-mechanical tolerances. We demonstrate that specially designed components can reach these specifications.

Bizenberger, Peter; Andersen, Dave; Baumeister, Harald; Beckmann, Udo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Herbst, Tom M.; Laun, Werner; Mohr, Lars; Naranjo, Vianak; Straubmeier, Christian

2004-09-01

415

Initial performance of upgraded Tevatron cryogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab began operating a re-designed satellite refrigerator systems in November 1993. Upgrades were installed to operate the Tevatron at a magnet temperature of 3.5 K, approximately 1K lower than the original design. Refrigerator upgrades included new valve boxes, larger reciprocating expanders, the installation of cold vapor compressors, new sub-atmospheric instrumentation and an entirely new distributed controls system. Cryogenic system reliability data for Colliding Physics Run 1B is presented emphasizing a failure analysis for each aspect of the upgrade. Comparison to data for Colliding Physics Run 1A (previous to upgrade) is presented to show the impact of a major system overhaul. New operational problems and their solutions are presented in detail.

Norris, B.L.

1996-09-01

416

Hermeticity of three cryogenic calorimeter geometries  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the effect of cracks and dead material on resolution in three simplified cryogenic calorimeter geometries, using a crude approximation that neglects transverse shower spreading and considers only a small set of incident angles. For each dead region, we estimate the average unseen energy using a shower parametrization, and relate it to resolution broadening using a simple approximation that agrees with experimental data. Making reasonable and consistent assumptions on cryostat wall thicknesses, we find that the effects of cracks and dead material dominate the expected resolution in the region where separate ''barrel'' and ''end'' cryostats meet. This is particularly true for one geometry in which the end calorimeter caps the barrel and also protrudes into the hole within it. We also find that carefully designed auxiliary ''crack filler'' detectors can substantially reduce the loss of resolution in these areas. 6 figs.

Strovink, M.; Wormersley, W.J.; Forden, G.E.

1989-04-01

417

Micro cryogenic coolers for IR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joule-Thomson micro cryogenic coolers (MCCs) are a preferred approach for small and low power cryocoolers. With the same heat lift, MCC's power input can be only 1/10 of a thermoelectric cooler's input, and MCC's size can be only 1/10 of a Stirling cooler's size. With futuristic planar MCC and with high frequency MEMS compressors to be developed, its size can be reduced another order of magnitude. Such "invisible" cryocoolers may revolutionize future IR imaging systems. We will review our studies on the feasibility of MCC with an emphasis on: 1) high thermal isolation levels reaching 89,000 K/W; 2) custom-designed gas mixtures with refrigeration capabilities increased by 10X and pressure ratio reduced to only 4:1; 3) compressors with low pressure ratios; and 4) excellent scalability for further size reduction.

Lewis, Ryan; Wang, Yunda; Cooper, Jill; Lin, Martin M.; Bright, Victor M.; Lee, Y. C.; Bradley, Peter E.; Radebaugh, Ray; Huber, Marcia L.

2011-05-01

418

Space cryogenics from 1970 to 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While space-related cryogenic engineering in the 1950s and 1960s was primarily concerned with liquid fueled rocket fuel supply systems, the leading edge of technology development moved in the 1970s to the supply of 1.4-70 K cooling facilities for IR and gamma-ray astronomy instruments. Attention is presently given to the development history, current status, and future prospects for superfluid He cryocooling systems, in view of prospective requirements for micro-K cooling capacities over astronomical instrument service lives of the order of 10 years. The spacecraft in question will be launched in the mid-to-late 1990s and encompass the Advanced X-ray Astronomy facility, the Gyro Test of General Relativity, the Space IR Telescope Facility, Astromag, and the Submillimeter Explorer.

Mason, P.

1990-09-01

419

The DIII-D cryogenic system upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced diverter cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum vessel. The original cryosystem could not meet these demands. Consequently, the cryosystem was upgraded in several phases to increase capacity, improve reliability, and reduce maintenance. The majority of the original system has been replaced with superior equipment. The capacity now exists to support present as well as future demands for liquid helium at DIII-D including a hydrogen pellet injector, which is being constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Upgrades to the cryosystem include: a recently commissioned 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, two 55 g/sec helium screw compressors, a fully automated 20-valve cryogen distribution box, a high efficiency helium wet expander, and the conversion of equipment from manual or pneumatic to programmable logic controller (PLC) control. The distribution box was designed and constructed for compactness due to limited space availability. Overall system efficiency was significantly improved by replacing the existing neutral beam reliquefier Joule-Thomson valve with a reciprocating wet expander. The implementation of a PLC-based automatic control system has resulted in increased efficiency and reliability. This paper will describe the cryosystem design with emphasis on newly added equipment. In addition, performance and operational experience will be discussed.

Schaubel, K.M.; Laughon, G.J.; Campbell, G.L.; Langhorn, A.R.; Stevens, N.C.; Tupper, M.L.

1993-10-01

420

Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft[sup 3] of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a cold test pit'' that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 [times] 9 [times] 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub's proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

1992-09-01

421

Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft{sup 3} of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a ``cold test pit`` that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 {times} 9 {times} 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub`s proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

1992-09-01

422

Fluid Distribution for In-space Cryogenic Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ultimate goal of this task is to enable the use of a single supply of cryogenic propellants for three distinct spacecraft propulsion missions: main propulsion, orbital maneuvering, and attitude control. A fluid distribution system is sought which allo...

W. Lear

2005-01-01

423

Synchronous Chopper Mechanism for Use at Cryogenic Temperature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mechanically resonant synchronous chopper mechanism is described for use at cryogenic temperatures. The mechanism is a critical optical component of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) and has been operating on orbit without incident sinc...

C. Hakun A. Tyler C. Dekramer

1991-01-01

424

Cryogenic Fluids Density Reference System: Provisional Accuracy Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The measurement capability of the density reference system (DRS) of the National Bureau of Standards, Cryogenics Division, is described. This system measures density, pressure, and temperature of LNG mixtures for the purpose of testing densimeters which a...

B. A. Younglove J. D. Siegwarth

1977-01-01

425

Materials for cold neutron sources: Cryogenic and irradiation effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Materials for the construction of cold neutron sources must satisfy a range of demands. The cryogenic temperature and irradiation create a severe environment. Candidate materials are identified and existing cold sources are briefly surveyed to determine w...

D. J. Alexander

1990-01-01

426

Behaviour of {sup 222}Rn at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The behaviour of radon in a cryogenic environment is still not well known. Therefore, measured radon emanation rates at room temperature cannot be translated directly to cryogenic conditions. In this work we present a table-top experiment that provides a direct way of determining the behaviour of {sup 222}Rn in cryogenic argon and helium at liquid argon temperature. We observe an increased emanation rate of {sup 222}Rn atoms to liquid argon compared to the rate observed to helium at room temperature. We also find that {sup 222}Rn atoms stick to cold metal surfaces when emanated to helium at liquid argon temperature but partly distribute in the liquid when emanated to cryogenic argon. Concluding, we give possible interpretations of the observations.

Lindemann, Sebastian; Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Zuzel, Grzegorz [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

2011-04-27

427

Thermal properties of epoxy resins at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish the design technique of epoxy resin at cryogenic temperature, its thermal contraction coefficients and dynamic Young's modulus were measured from room to cryogenic temperatures when plasticizer was both present and absent. The disappearance of the effects of the plasticizer were confirmed by measuring its thermal expansion coefficient. The process in which the addition of plasticizer reduces the glass transition temperature was clarified by measuring its dynamic Young's modulus. It was also discovered that blunt peak is caused by addition of plasticizer. The data obtained by measuring the dynamic Young's modulus clearly indicate that this peak disappears at cryogenic temperature resulting in the disappearance of the effects of the plastizer. The conclusion is that when epoxy resin is to be used at cryogenic temperature it is desirable that the addition of plastizer is kept at the minimum level. .

Nakane, H.; Nishijima, S.; Fujishiro, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshizawa, S.; Yamazaki, S.

2002-05-01

428

Cryogenic systems for large superconducting accelerators/storage rings  

SciTech Connect

Particle accelerators and storage rings which utilize superconducting magnets have presented cryogenic system designers, as well as magnet designers, with many new challenges. When such accelerators were first proposed, little operational experience existed to guide the design. Two superconducting accelerators, complete with cryogenic systems, have been designed and are now under construction. These are the Fermilab Doubler Project and the Brookhaven National Laboratory ISABELLE Project. The cryogenic systems which developed at these two laboratories share many common characteristics, especially as compared to earlier cryogenic systems. Because of this commonality, these characteristics can be reasonably taken as also being representative of future systems. There are other areas in which the two systems are dissimilar. In those areas, it is not possible to state which, if either, will be chosen by future designers. Some of the design parameters for the two systems are given.

Brown, D P

1981-01-01

429

Cryogenic Processing: A Study of Materials at Low Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenics is an exciting, important and inexpensive technique that already has led to main discoveries and holds much future assurance. Cryogenic processing is the treatment of the materials at very low temperature around 77 K. This technique has been proven to be efficient in improving the physical and mechanical properties of the materials such as metals, alloys, plastics and composites. It improves the wear, abrasion, erosion and corrosion resistivity, durability and stabilizes the strength characteristics of various materials. Cryogenic refines and stabilizes the crystal lattice structure and distribute carbon particles throughout the material resulting a stronger and hence more durable material. In present paper, we have reviewed the effect of cryogenic treatment on some metals, alloys, plastics and composites.

Kalia, Susheel

2010-03-01

430

Elastomeric Seals and Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures. Part II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research deals with low temperature investigations of elastomeric polymers, with particular emphasis on their use as seals at cryogenic temperatures. The present report starts with a brief review of elastomeric O-rings used as crush gaskets, followed...

D. H. Weitzel R. F. Robbins P. R. Ludtke

1965-01-01

431

National Ignition Facility Cryogenic Target Systems Interim Management Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Cryogenic Target Handling Systems (NCTS) Program, on the planning and initiation of these effo...

B. Warner

2002-01-01

432

Cryogenic Hydrogen-Induced Air-Liquefaction Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospec...

W. J. D. Escher

1990-01-01

433

Radiation Requirements and Testing of Cryogenic Thermometers for the ILC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large quantity of cryogenic temperature sensors will be used for operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Most of them will be subject to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. Understanding of particle energy spectra, accumula...

A. L. Klebaner N. Nakao N. V. Mokhov S. A. Korenev T. Barnett Y. P. Filippov

2007-01-01

434

Mechanical behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic mechanical properties of aluminum-lithium alloys are of interest because these alloys are attractive candidate materials for cryogenic tankage. Previous work indicates that the strength-toughness relationship for alloy 2090-T81 (Al-2.7Cu-2.2Li-0.12Zr by weight) improves significantly as temperature decreases. The subject of this investigation is the mechanism of this improvement. Deformation behavior was studied since the fracture morphology did not change

J. Glazer; S. L. Verzasconi; R. R. Sawtell; J. W. Morris

1987-01-01

435

Self-heated fiber Bragg grating sensors for cryogenic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic fuels are often considered as major energy alternatives to coal and petroleum based fuels. Safe and reliable sensor networks are required for on-demand, real-time fuel management in cryogenic environments. In this paper, a new sensor design is described that enhances the low-temperature performance of fiber sensors. FBGs inscribed in high attenuation fiber (HAF) are used to absorb in-fiber power

Tong Chen; Philip R. Swinehart; Mokhtar S. Maklad; Michael P. Buric; Kevin P. Chen

2010-01-01

436

Long-term creep of copper at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents preliminary data on the long-term creep behavior of oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper at 77K through a facility especially designed for long-term stability at cryogenic temperatures of both temperature and strain measurement. Uses a constant load lever arm creep machine, a vacuum thermally isolated cryostat that is cooled by a low rate of cryogen flow, and a tensile testing insert

C. T. Yen; L. D. Roth; J. K. Tien; J. M. Wells

1982-01-01

437

Investigation of polyimide–mica hybrid films for cryogenic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of polyimide–mica hybrid films that consist of PMDA-ODA and mica were prepared by the solution ultrasonic dispersion technique, and characterized by XRD, UV–Vis transmission, cryogenic mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and SEM. The effects of mica content and temperature on the cryogenic mechanical properties, dynamic mechanical properties, glass transition temperatures (Tg) and morphologies of fracture surface were

Yi-He Zhang; Shao-Yun Fu; Robert K.-Y. Li; Jun-Tao Wu; Lai-Feng Li; Jun-Hui Ji; Shi-Yong Yang

2005-01-01

438

Cryogenic low noise 2.2-3 GHz amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple design of one stage, low power cryogenic amplifier at 2.2-3 GHz range is presented. The design was numerically simulated by freely available microwave library SuperMix. The amplifier constructed according to the numerically optimized design was measured in cryogen-free refrigerator. The measured noise temperature TN ? 6 K and gain G ? 15.5 dB are in good agreement with numerical simulations.

Neilinger, P.; Trgala, M.; Grajcar, M.

2012-07-01

439

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOEpatents

A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

Lokhandwala, K.

1997-07-15

440

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOEpatents

A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01

441

A technique for dynamically calibrating pressure transducers at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique was developed for the calibration of dynamic pressure transducers at cryogenic temperatures. The calibration system utilizes an 8.9 Newton peak thrust shaker which oscillates a helium-filled bellows to generate a sinusoidal dynamic pressure to calibrate transducers immersed in a cryogenic environment. The system has a dynamic pressure measurement uncertainty of approximately 11% and is capable of producing peak-to-peak

B. V. Gibbens

1983-01-01

442

Power calculations for isentropic compressions of cryogenic nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis has been made of the power required for isentropic compressions of cryogenic nitrogen in order to determine the extent that the drive power for cryogenic tunnels might be affected by real gas effects. The analysis covers temperatures from 80 to 310K, pressures from 1.0 to 8.8 atm and fan pressure ratios from 1.025 to 1.200. The power

J. B. Adock; M. E. Ogburn

1976-01-01

443

Power calculations for isentropic compressions of cryogenic nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis was made of the power required for isentropic compressions of cryogenic nitrogen in order to determine the extent to which the drive power for cryogenic tunnels might be affected by real-gas effects. The analysis covers temperatures from 80 to 310 K, pressures from 1.0 to 8.8 atm, and fan pressure ratios from 1.025 to 1.200. The power

J. B. Adcock; M. E. Ogburn

1977-01-01

444

Cryogenic storage technology readiness for First Lunar Outpost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: an assessment of cryogenic storage technology; cryogenic boiloff predictions; Space Shuttle\\/Centaur thermodynamic vent system; zero-g thermodynamic vent system; heat exchanger\\/mixer pump module; the thick multilayer insulation (MLI) development program; blanket geometry concept evaluations; four-inch thick MLI system on 1\\/4-scale test tank; combined environments of vibration, acceleration, and temperature testing

John R. Schuster

1992-01-01

445

Development and testing of advanced cryogenic thermal switch concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and testing of two advanced cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW) options for use in long-life cryogenic space systems. The principal application for these two CTSW options in such systems is in implementing cryocooler redundancy with a minimum parasitic heating penalty. The two CTSW configurations covered in the paper are a hydrogen gas-gap (H2-GG) design, flown on

B. Marland; D. Bugby; C. Stouffer

2000-01-01

446

Cryogenics for ground based and space-borne instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many space sciences project cryogenic detectors are essential for the accomplishment of the scientific objectives, offering unique advantages and unmatched performance. In addition several other components such as the optics can benefit from a cryogenic cooling which reduces the radiative loading. The Service des Basses Températ- ures (SBT) of CEA Grenoble has been involved in space cryogenics for over 20 years now and features a dedicated laboratory, the Cryocoolers and Space Cryogenics group. Various cryocoolers have been developed in the past and our fields of activity focus now on four main technologies: sorption coolers, multistage pulse tubes, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), and cryogenic loop heat pipes. In addition work on two new concepts for ground based dilution refrigerators is also ongoing. Finally developments on various key technologies such as the heat switches, the suspension or structural systems are also carried out. These developments are mainly funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) or by the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES). In this paper we mostly give an overview of the developments carried out at SBT along with several examples of other relevant systems. We use space cryogenics as a thread. However these coolers or techniques can be used on ground, particularly on remote locations where liquid cryogen are unavailable and/or where maintenance must be limited to a strict minimum. In this case they can be simplified and take advantage of on ground resources, and their cost can be significantly reduced. For most of these systems the common feature is the absence of any moving parts or any friction, which guarantees a very good reliability and make them very good candidates for space borne instruments requiring cryogenic temperatures.

Duband, L.

447

Cryogenic Reactant Storage for Lunar Base Regenerative Fuel Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are major advantages to be gained by integrating a cryogenic reactant storage system with a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC) to provide on-site electrical power during the lunar night. Although applicable to any power system using hydrogen-oxygen RFC's for energy storage, cryogenic reactant storage offers a significant benefit whenever the sun\\/shade cycle and energy storage period approach hundreds of

L. L. Kohout

1989-01-01

448

Development of Cryogenic Bolometer for 0??? in 124Sn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic bolometer detectors, with their high resolution spectroscopy capability, are ideal for neutrino mass experiments as well as for search of rare processes like neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) and dark matter. A feasibility study for investigation of 0??? in 124Sn at the upcoming underground facility of India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) has been initiated. This paper describes endeavors towards cryogenic tin bolometer development.

Singh, Vivek; Yashwant, G.; Mathimalar, S.; Dokania, Neha; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Datar, V. M.

2011-11-01

449

Experience on a cryogenic linear mechanism based on superconducting levitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instrumentation of many space missions requires operation in cryogenic temperatures. In all the cases, the use of mechanisms in this environment is a matter of concern, especially when long lifetime is required. With the aim of removing lifetime concerns and to benefit from the cryogenic environment, a cryogenic contactless linear mechanism has been developed. It is based on the levitation of a permanent magnet over superconductor disks. The mechanism has been designed, built, and tested to assess the performances of such technology. The levitation system solves the mechanical contact problems due to cold-welding effects, material degradation by fatigue, wearing, backlash, lubrication...etc, at cryogenic temperatures. In fact, the lower is the temperature the better the superconductor levitation systems work. The mechanism provides a wide stroke (18mm) and high resolution motion (1?m), where position is controlled by changing the magnetic field of its environment using electric-magnets. During the motion, the moving part of the mechanism levitates supported by the magnetic interaction with the high temperature type II superconductors after reaching the superconductor state down to 90K. This paper describes the results of the complete levitation system development, including extensive cryogenic testing to measure optically the motion range, resolution, run-outs and rotations in order to characterize the levitation mechanism and to verify its performance in a cryogenic environment.

Serrano-Tellez, Javier; Romera-Juarez, Fernando; González-de-María, David; Lamensans, Mikel; Argelaguet-Vilaseca, Heribert; Pérez-Díaz, José-Luis; Sánchez-Casarrubios, Juan; Díez-Jiménez, Efrén.; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

2012-09-01

450

Friction Stir Welded Thin Wall Cryogenic Tank Skins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic propellant tank is the common element of trans-planetary transportation systems, in-space storage depots, lunar landers, in-space habitats/laboratories, ascent/descent, and launch vehicles. Lockheed Martin's (LM) cryogenic tank approach integrates Friction Stir Welding (FSW) with thin-gage aluminum monocoque structural design, common spin formed FSW domes and variable tank lengths to tailor the cryogenic tank from smaller stages, such as landers or ascent/descent stages, to very large on-orbit or In Space Resource Utilization (ISRU) storage systems. Thin gage corrosion resistant steel (CRES) construction combined with normal fusion welding as used on LM's Centaur has already been demonstrated to provide the highest cryogenic tank mass fraction (~.90) for large scale, cryogenic propellant storage. However, current fusion welding technology is limited by the alloys that are considered weldable and typically achieves only 50% of the parent material ultimate strength at the weld joint. Preliminary LM technology development indicates that in certain aluminum alloys, the FSW joint retains up to 100% of the parent material ultimate strength at LH2 temperatures. Combining FSW and aluminum monocoque tank design would create a large scale cryogenic tank with a mass fraction in excess of the current industry standard and therefore is ideal for affordable, reliable, high capacity propellant storage required for all facets of space exploration.

Potter, David M.; Takeshita, Jennifer A.; Holguin, Michael J.

2007-01-01

451

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 31; Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, MIT, Cambridge, MA, Aug. 12-16, 1985  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present conference on the applications of state-of-the-art cryogenic engineering technologies considers topics associated with the development status of the 'Superconducting SuperCollider', superconducting magnetic energy storage methods, large magnets for fusion and other physics researches, cryogenic hardware improvements, and phenomena and applications of superconducting magnet-employing acoustic emission test equipment. Also discussed are design criteria for superconducting magnet stability, heat exchangers and heat transfer to liquid He and N, heat and mass transfer characteristics of He II, refrigeration techniques for magnetic resonance imaging and other small systems, refrigeration for liquefaction and for superconducting fusion as well as for accelerator and generator systems, magnetic refrigeration, cryocooling and refrigeration for space applications, the storage and transfer of cryogenic fluids, the properties of cryogenic liquids, and air liquefaction equipment.

Fast, R. W.

452

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 31; Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, MIT, Cambridge, MA, Aug. 12-16, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present conference on the applications of state-of-the-art cryogenic engineering technologies considers topics associated with the development status of the 'Superconducting SuperCollider', superconducting magnetic energy storage methods, large magnets for fusion and other physics researches, cryogenic hardware improvements, and phenomena and applications of superconducting magnet-employing acoustic emission test equipment. Also discussed are design criteria for superconducting magnet stability, heat exchangers

R. W. Fast

1986-01-01

453

49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section...TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks...applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car...

2011-10-01

454

49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section...TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks...applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car...

2012-10-01

455

49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel...requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car...

2009-10-01

456

49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel...requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car...

2010-10-01

457

Effect of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the effects of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. The null hypothesis was that cryogenic treatment would result in no changes in composition, microhardness or cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium instruments. Methodology Microhardness was measured on 30 nickel-titanium K-files (ISO size 25) using a Vicker’s indenter. Elemental composition was measured on two instruments using X-ray spectroscopy. A nickel-titanium bulk specimen was analysed for crystalline phase composition using X-ray diffraction. Half of the specimens to be used for each analysis were subjected to a cryogenic treatment in liquid nitrogen (?196 °C) for either 3 s (microhardness specimens) or 10 min (other specimens). Cutting efficiency was assessed by recording operator choice using 80 nickel-titanium rotary instruments (ProFile® 20, .06) half of which had been cryogenically treated and had been distributed amongst 14 clinicians. After conditioning by preparing four corresponding canals, each pair of instruments were evaluated for cutting efficiency by a clinician during preparation of one canal system in vitro. A Student’s t-test was used to analyse the microhardness data, and a binomial test was used to analyse the observer choice data. Composition data were analysed qualitatively. Results Cryogenically treated specimens had a significantly higher microhardness than the controls (P < 0.001; ? > 0.999). Observers showed a preference for cryogenically treated instruments (61%), but this was not significant (P = 0.21). Both treated and control specimens were composed of 56% Ni, 44% Ti, 0% N (by weight) with a majority in the austenite phase. Conclusions Cryogenic treatment resulted in increased microhardness, but this increase was not detected clinically. There was no measurable change in elemental or crystalline phase composition.

Kim, J. W.; Griggs, J. A.; Regan, J. D.; Ellis, R. A.; Cai, Z.

2005-01-01

458

X-ray diffraction of polymer under load at cryogenic temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An x-ray diffraction apparatus, consisting of a load cell, a stretching device, and a cryogenic cell, has been constructed to observe the mechanical deformation of the crystal lattice of polymers at cryogenic temperature. The polymer specimen could be cooled down to 18 K using this apparatus. The equatorial diffraction profiles of polymer specimens were observed under various temperatures and loads with 18 K minimum temperature. The equatorial lattice spacings of polyethylene (PE) decreased at 18 K compared with those at 300 K; however, they were elongated by a constant applied tensile stress. The elastic modulus Et of the crystalline regions of PE in the direction perpendicular to the chain axis was evaluated. The Et value for the (200) plane of PE increased to 11 GPa at 18 K from 3.2 GPa at 300 K. This is considered to be due to the increase of the van der Waals interactions between the chains in the crystal lattice at very low temperature, where the incoherent thermal vibrations of the atoms can be ignored.

Nishino, Takashi; Miyazaki, Hideyuki; Nakamae, Katsuhiko

2002-04-01

459

Filter radiometer based realization of photometric scale traceable to cryogenic radiometer at UME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the progress made in primary level photometric measurements at the National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME). A Cryogenic Radiometer (Oxford Instruments Radiox) was employed in the optics laboratory as an absolute primary standard. Temperature-controlled filter radiometer constructed from three-element silicon trap detector, band-pass filters and precision aperture. Filter radiometers were calibrated using the cryogenic radiometer at discrete laser wavelengths of vertically polarized tuneable Ar+, fixed He-Ne and Nd: YAG (with second harmonic) laser sources. Luminous intensity unit of candela was realized with an expanded uncertainty of 2.88x10-3 and photometric scale was re-established depending on this detector-based realization. Candela realization was performed on optical bench using traditional Osram Wi41/G type incandescent light source and an absolute filter radiometer. Other derived units of photometry that are luminous flux, illuminance, color temperature and luminance are derived from candela through various photometric measurements including some homemade devices of laboratory.

Durak, Murat; Samedov, Farhad

2005-06-01

460

Large micromirror array for multi-object spectroscopy in a cryogenic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next-generation infra-red astronomical instrumentation for space and ground-based telescopes requires MOEMS-based programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) which has to work in cryogenic environment. A first prototype of micromirror arrays (MMA) of 5×5 single-crystal silicon micromirrors was successfully designed, fabricated and tested. 100×200 ?m2 micromirrors can be tilted by electrostatic actuation yielding 20° mechanical tiltangle. The MMA were successfully actuated before, during and after cryogenic cooling, below 100 K. A MMA is composed of two different chips fabricated on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers: the mirror chip and the electrode chip. The array was obtained by assembling these two chips. For the assembly step of large array (100×200 micromirrors) we needed high precision alignment as well as the suppression of manual handling. Therefore we developed a technique of assembly for such devices and we designed and fabricated a dedicated XYZ tip/tilt stage. This stage allows aligning the electrodes towards the micromirrors with a micrometer precision. Large MMA of 100×200 micromirrors, measuring 22 mm×25 mm, for large field of view were microfabricated and assembled using the above setup. No additional deformations were observed due to the assembly step. The peak to valley (PTV) deformation of the micromirrors was found to be 14 nm PTV. The first actuation tests were carried out.

Canonica, Michael; Waldis, Severin; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Clerc, Pierre-Andre; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

2009-02-01

461

Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions  

SciTech Connect

Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

2005-05-01

462

A Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Spectrometer without Liquid Cryogens  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are being developed as X-ray detectors because they combine the high energy resolution of cryogenic detector technologies with the high count rate capabilities of athermal devices. We have built STJ spectrometers for chemical analysis of dilute samples by high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the synchrotron. The instruments use 36 pixels of 200 {micro}m x 200 {micro}m Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb STJs with 165 nm thick Nb absorber films. They have achieved an energy resolution of {approx}10-20 eV FWHM for X-ray energies below 1 keV, and can be operated at a total count rate of {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a liquid-cryogen-free refrigerator based on a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler in combination with a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization stage. It holds the STJ detector at the end of a 40-cm-long cold finger, and attains the required operating temperature of {approx}0.3 K at the push of a button. We describe the instrument performance and present speciation measurements on Eu dopant activators in the novel scintillator material SrI{sub 2} to illustrate the potential for STJ spectrometers at the synchrotron.

Friedrich, S; Hertrich, T; Drury, O B; Cherepy, N J; Hohne, J

2008-06-15

463

Cryogenic Undulator for a Table Top FEL  

SciTech Connect

A laser plasma accelerator is under development at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik in Garching. This accelerator will be part of an X-ray table top FEL in the future. The FEL radiation will be produced with a small period in-vacuum undulator. The coercivity of the magnetic material has to be sufficiently high in order to avoid demagnetization due to electron losses. The best performance can be achieved with a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator design. (Nd{sub 0.2}Pr{sub 0.8}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnets are suited for low temperatures since they do not suffer from a spin reorientation. A new (Nd{sub 0.2}Pr{sub 0.8}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B material has been characterized at various temperatures and the results are presented. Based on this material a 20 period prototype with a period length of 9 mm and a magnetic gap of 2.5 mm is currently under construction.

Bahrdt, J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M. [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Weingartner, R.; Gruener, F. [Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Physics, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); O'Shea, F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, Ca 90095 (United States)

2010-06-23

464

Silicon carbide mirror cryogenic distortion testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon carbide mirror has been holographically tested at cryogenic temperatures in an attempt to determine the level of surface distortion as a function of temperature. The test was conducted using the 1M thermal vacuum holographic test chamber, located at the Hughes El Segundo facility. The mirror was initially tested in February 1993, using full thermal strapping of the mirror blank, this allowed the mirror to reach a temperature of 48 Kelvin (K). Digitization of the holograms showed a distinct parallel pattern on the surface which corresponded to the webs located on the back of the mirror. A second test was conducted in June 1993, using only the thermal shrouds to cool the mirror. Without the thermal straps attached the mirror exhibited significantly different performance. With thermal strapping the mirror figure distortion was 2.15 waves peak-to-valley (P-V), 0.5 waves rms at a temperature of 184 K, when the test was repeated without straps the mirror figure distortion averaged 0.69 waves P-V, 0.15 waves rms at a temperature of 181 K and a measurement wavelength of 0.514 micrometers.

Michel, David G.

1994-06-01

465

Cryogenics for the Rare Isotope Accelerator project  

SciTech Connect

With 600 meters of superconducting accelerator, the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility will have an extensive cryogenic system operating at both 2.0 K and 4.4 K. Approximately 250 4.4 K resonators, 200 2.0 K resonators, 160 4.4 K magnets, and several 4.4 K bunchers will be used in a 1.4-GV superconducting CW driver linac. Ion beams ranging from protons (up to 900 MeV) to uranium (up to 400 MeV per nucleon) at beam powers up to 400 kW will be produced. The facility will also have a superconducting linac to accelerate short-lived rare isotopes produced by the driver. This post accelerator is composed of another 100 superconducting resonators and associated superconducting focusing magnets. Liquid helium will also be provided to a variety of experimental instruments including, for example, large superconducting magnetic spectrographs. Overall, the liquid helium refrigerator will need to provide approximately 8.6 kW of cooling at 2.0 K, 4.8 kW at 4.4 K, and 15.3 kW at 35 K for shield cooling. A review of the various loads, cryostats, distribution system, and refrigeration schemes will be presented along with some special needs for reliable operation.

J. R. Specht; W. C. Chronis

2002-05-10

466

Performance of a cryogenic Michelson interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Cryo-FTS) was developed for the Low Background Infrared (LBIR) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This spectrometer was developed for the Missile Defense Agency Transfer Radiometer (MDXR) that will be used to calibrate infrared sources that cannot be transported to NIST for calibration. When used inside the MDXR, the Cryo-FTS provides relative spectral measurements with a repeatability better than 1 % over the spectral range from 3 ?m to 15 ?m and at a spectral resolution of 0.6 cm-1. This level of performance is enabled by the use of an advancec real-time resampling method. The compact interferometer uses a compensated Michelson configuration and has an operating temperature range between 10 K and 340 K with very low static beam redirection (< 215 ?rad). The interferometer uses flat mirrors and a KBr beamsplitter and compensator. This optics maintains low wavefront distortion for infrared beams of up to 2 cm diameter and 5 mrad divergence. It integrates a digitally servo-controlled porchswing mechanism to provide an accurate and repeatable optical path difference and is supported by a Wavefront Alignment (WA) system to correct for wavefront residual tilt in real time using a fibre optic coupled metrology system. The interferometer provides modulation efficiency of better than 44% with limited power dissipation (< 2.8 W) during operation.

Lagueux, Philippe; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick; Villemaire, André J.; Duval, Marc; Genest, Jérôme; Carter, Adriaan C.

2008-08-01

467

Performance of a cryogenic Michelson interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Cryo-FTS) was developed for the Low Background Infrared (LBIR) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This spectrometer was developed for the Missile Defense Agency Transfer Radiometer (MDXR) that will be used to calibrate infrared sources that cannot be transported to NIST for calibration. When used inside the MDXR, the Cryo-FTS provides relative spectral measurements with a repeatability better than 1 % over the spectral range from 3 ?m to 15 ?m and at a spectral resolution of 0.6 cm-1. This level of performance is enabled by the use of an advancec real-time resampling method. The compact interferometer uses a compensated Michelson configuration and has an operating temperature range between 10 K and 340 K with very low static beam redirection (< 215 ?rad). The interferometer uses flat mirrors and a KBr beamsplitter and compensator. This optics maintains low wavefront distortion for infrared beams of up to 2 cm diameter and 5 mrad divergence. It integrates a digitally servo-controlled porchswing mechanism to provide an accurate and repeatable optical path difference and is supported by a Wavefront Alignment (WA) system to correct for wavefront residual tilt in real time using a fibre optic coupled metrology system. The interferometer provides modulation efficiency of better than 44% with limited power dissipation (< 2.8 W) during operation.

Lagueux, Philippe; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick; Villemaire, André; Duval, Marc; Genest, Jérôme; Carter, Adriaan

2008-07-01

468

Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.

Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); RIKEN Harima Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikaduki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-05-15

469

Lifetime studies of 130nm nMOS transistors intended for long-duration, cryogenic high-energy physics experiments.  

SciTech Connect

Future neutrino physics experiments intend to use unprecedented volumes of liquid argon to fill a time projection chamber in an underground facility. To increase performance, integrated readout electronics should work inside the cryostat. Due to the scale and cost associated with evacuating and filling the cryostat, the electronics will be unserviceable for the duration of the experiment. Therefore, the lifetimes of these circuits must be well in excess of 20 years. The principle mechanism for lifetime degradation of MOSFET devices and circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures is via hot carrier degradation. Choosing a process technology that is, as much as possible, immune to such degradation and developing design techniques to avoid exposure to such damage are the goals. This requires careful investigation and a basic understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hot carrier degradation and the secondary effects they cause in circuits. In this work, commercially available 130nm nMOS transistors operating at cryogenic temperatures are investigated. The results show that the difference in lifetime for room temperature operation and cryogenic operation for this process are not great and the lifetimes at both 300K and at 77K can be projected to more than 20 years at the nominal voltage (1.5V) for this technology.

Hoff, J.R.; /Fermilab; Arora, R.; Cressler, J.D.; /Georgia Tech; Deptuch, G.W.; /Fermilab; Gui, P.; /Southern Methodist U.; Lourenco, N.E.; /Georgia Tech; Wu, G.; /Southern Methodist U.; Yarema, R.J.; /Fermilab

2011-12-01

470

Use of segmented sensible heat thermal storage devices for near isothermal operation  

SciTech Connect

A study has been performed to assess the capability of sensible heat thermal storage devices (TSDs) for cryogenic applications requiring close temperature control. The advantages obtained by segmentation have been quantified for TSDs used for fluid thermal tempering for periodic flow devices. Such devices offer an attractive alternative to TSDs employing phase change materials (PCMs). Finally, the use of segmented TSDs is applied to a Periodic 10 K Sorption Cryocooler. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Barr, K.P. [AlliedSignal, Aerospace Equipment Systems, 2525 W. 190th St., M/S TOR-36-1-93140, Torrance, California 90504-6099 (United States)

1996-03-01

471

Cryogenic Infrastructure for Fermilab's Ilc Vertical Cavity Test Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.

2008-03-01

472

Production and Innovative Applications of Cryogenic Solid Pellets  

SciTech Connect

For over two decades Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing cryogenic pellet injectors for fueling hot, magnetic fusion plasmas. Cryogenic solid pellets of all three hydrogen isotopes have been produced in a size range of 1- to 10-mm diameter and accelerated to speeds from <100 to {approx}3000 m/s. The pellets have been formed discretely by cryocondensation in gun barrels and also by extrusion of cryogenic solids at mass flow rates up to {approx}0.26 g/s and production rates up to ten pellets per second. The pellets traverse the hot plasma in a fraction of a millisecond and continuously ablate, providing fresh hydrogenic fuel to the interior of the plasma. From this initial application, uses of this technology have expanded to include (1) cryogenic xenon drops or solids for use as a debris-less target in a laser plasma source of X-rays for advanced lithography systems, (2) solid argon and carbon dioxide pellets for surface cleaning or decontamination, and (3) methane pellets in a liquid hydrogen bath for use as an innovative moderator of cold neutrons. Methods of production and acceleration/transport of these cryogenic solids will be described, and examples will be given of their use in prototype systems.

Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

1999-07-12

473

Radiation requirements and testing of cryogenic thermometers for the ILC  

SciTech Connect

Large quantity of cryogenic temperature sensors will be used for operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Most of them will be subject to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. Understanding of particle energy spectra, accumulated radiation dose in thermometers and its impact on performance are vital in establishing technical specification of cryogenic thermometry for the ILC. Realistic MARS15 computer simulations were performed to understand the ILC radiation environment. Simulation results were used to establish radiation dose requirements for commercially available cryogenic thermometers. Two types of thermometers, Cernox{reg_sign} and TVO, were calibrated prior to irradiation using different technique. The sensors were subjected then to up to 200 kGy electron beam irradiation with kinetic energy of 5 MeV, a representative of the situation at the ILC operation. A post-irradiation behavior of the sensors was studied. The paper describes the MARS15 model, simulation results, cryogenic test set-up, irradiation tests, and cryogenic test results.

Barnett, T.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Filippov, Yu.P.; /Dubna, JINR; Mokhov, N.V.; Nakao, N.; Klebaner, A.L.; /Fermilab; Korenev, S.A.; Theilacker, J.C. /; /Fermilab; Trenikhina, J.; /Saratov State U.; Vaziri, K.; /Fermilab

2007-07-01

474

Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; /Fermilab

2006-06-01

475

Process Flow and Functional Analysis of the Iter Cryogenic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ITER cryogenic system is presently under design by a large international collaboration. It will start commissioning at Cadarache, south of France in 2015. The system is designed to provide an equivalent refrigeration capacity of 65 kW at 4.5 K for the superconducting magnet and 1300 kW at 80 K for the cryoplant pre-cooling stages and the Cryostat Thermal Shields (CTS). The cryoplant consists of three 4.5 K refrigerators and two 80 K helium loops coupled with two LN2 modules. Two 4.5 K modules are dedicated to the magnet system and a small one is devoted to the cryopumps and Pellet Injection System. One Interconnection box interfaces the cryoplant and a complex cryodistribution system which includes 5 Auxiliary Cold Boxes dedicated to each cryogenic subsystem. The ITER cryogenic system will have to cope with various normal and abnormal operational modes including superconducting magnets quench recovery and fast energy discharge. We will present the general Process Flow Diagram of the cryoplant and cryodistribution system and the operation requirements. The functional analysis of the cryogenic system will be performed leading to a proposal of the cryogenic control system architecture. The instrumentation and control requirements will also be outlined.

Henry, D.; Chalifour, M.; Forgeas, A.; Kalinin, V.; Monneret, E.; Serio, L.; Vincent, G.; Voigt, T.

2010-04-01

476

Laboratory facility for production of cryogenic targets for hot plasma experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of preliminary operational tests of the cryogenic stand designed for the production of small droplets of liquid hydrogen or deuterium are presented. Such cryogenic micro-targets are needed for nuclear and thermonuclear experiments. (author). (Atom...

M. Sadowski A. Szydlowski L. Jakubowski E. Cwiek

1990-01-01

477

Brookhaven National Laboratory Selected Cryogenic Data Notebook: Volume 1, Sections 1-9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Selected Cryogenic Data Notebook has been designed to meet the general needs of the engineers and scientists working with cryogenic systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The objective in the preparation of this collection of data tables and chart...

A. G. Prodell H. Brechna J. E. Jensen R. B. Stewart W. A. Tuttle

1980-01-01

478

Brookhaven National Laboratory Selected Cryogenic Data Notebook. Volume 2. Sections 10-18.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Selected Cryogenic Data Notebook has been designed to meet the general needs of the engineers and scientists working with cryogenic systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The objective in the preparation of this collection of data tables and chart...

A. G. Prodell H. Brechna J. E. Jensen R. B. Stewart W. A. Tuttle

1980-01-01

479

Two-phase cryogenic flow meters. Part II - How to realize the two-phase pressure drop method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pressure drop method to find the mass flow rate of the two-phase helium and hydrogen flows is discussed in this paper. This method is based on a combination of the narrowing device and the RF void fraction sensor described earlier. Advantages of this approach with respect to the calorimetric one are demonstrated and its metrological characteristics for different flow patterns are estimated. The discussed cryogenic technologies and methods may be used for others applications, for example, to solve some tasks in oil-producing industry.

Filippov, Yu. P.; Panferov, K. S.

2011-11-01

480

Cryogenic refrigeration. Volume 2. 1973October, 1977 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1973October 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics in the cited reports include cryogenic cooling of electronic equipment, infrared equipment, cryogenic storage vessels, magnetohydrodynamic generators, and superconducting magnets, coils, rotating machinery, and transmission lines. Marine refrigeration of liquefied natural gas, cryogenic heat pipes, cryogenic heat transfer, and space applications are studied. Methods investigated include adiabatic demagnetization, electrocaloric effect, Joule-Thompson effect, thermoelectric cooling, and Crayton, Claude, Gifford-McMahon, Sterling,

Reed

1978-01-01

481

Cryogenic refrigeration. Volume 1. 1964--1972 (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964--1972  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics in the cited reports include cryogenic cooling of electronic equipment infrared equipment, cryogenic storage vessels, magnetohydrodynamic generators, and superconducting magnets, coils, rotating machinery, and transmission lines. Marine refrigeration of liquified natural gas, cryogenic heat pipes, cryogenic heat transfer, and space applications are studied. Methods investigated include adiabatic demagnetization, electrocaloric effect, Joule-Thomson effect, thermoelectric cooling, and Brayton, Claude, Gifford-McMahon, Sterling,

Reed

1975-01-01

482

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample. 7 figs.

Gonczy, J.D.; Markley, F.W.; McCaw, W.R.; Niemann, R.C.

1992-04-21

483

Effect of shroud temperature on performance of a cryogenic loop heat pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is considered as highly efficient two-phase thermal control device in satellites, spacecrafts, electronics and structures. The initial thermal capacitance of the CLHP components has an important effect on the startup and operation of the CLHP, especially in case of a low heat load. It is difficult for the CLHP to start up with a warm shroud. This paper presents a CLHP operated in the liquid-nitrogen temperature range with nitrogen as the working fluid. Thermal conductance of the CLHP is tested at different shroud temperatures, and the measured temperatures with the heat load on the primary evaporator ranging from 0 W to 19 W are shown and discussed.

Zhao, Ya'nan; Yan, Tao; Liang, Jingtao

2012-06-01

484

Design alternatives for cryogenic beryllium windows in an ICF cryostat  

SciTech Connect

We propose three backup design options for the cryogenic beryllium windows in a cryostat. The first, a beryllium flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/3 of that in the original design. The second, a fiberglass flange option, reduces peak tensile stresses to 1/2 of that in the original design and is also low cost. A third option, replacing the beryllium windows with spherical Mylar caps, would require a development program. Even though Mylar has been used previously at cryogenic temperature, this option is still considered unreliable. The near-zero ductility of beryllium at cryogenic temperature makes the reduction of peak tensile stresses particularly desirable. The orginal window design did function satisfactorily and the backup options were not needed. However, these options remain open for possible incorporation in future cryostat designs.

Pitts, J.H.; Landon, P.R.; Gerhard, M.A.

1984-11-01

485

Cryogenic actuators in ground-based astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, astronomical instruments with infrared detectors have become increasingly important. These detectors as well as the mechanical mechanisms inside the instruments are operated in high vacuum at cryogenic temperature. Since ready-for-use cryogenic actuators are often not available from stock, the Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (MPIA) in Heidelberg has developed actuators for both linear and circular movement. Information about the use of materials, dry film lubricants, and components like motors, micro switches and resolvers for this temperature region is hard to find in literature. Thus, large-scale experiments and tests were made to gain experience and to qualify the actuators for their use at