Sample records for cryogenic devices

  1. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  2. Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Genfa (Yorktown, VA); Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Hayes, VA)

    2008-12-30

    A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

  3. Advanced Devices for Cryogenic Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.; Garzon, J.; Beres, M.; Gilchrist, A.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes six advanced cryogenic thermal management devices/subsystems developed by Swales Aerospace for ground/space-based applications of interest to NASA, DoD, and the commercial sector. The devices/subsystems described herein include the following: (a) a differential thermal expansion cryogenic thermal switch (DTE-CTSW) constructed with high purity aluminum end-pieces and an Ultem support rod for the 6 K Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) (b) a quad-redundant DTE-CTSW assembly for the 35 K science instruments (NIRCam, NIRSpec, and FGS) mounted on the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) (c) a cryogenic diode heat pipe (CDHP) thermal switching system using methane as the working fluid for the 100 K CRISM hyperspectral mapping instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and (d) three additional devices/subsystems developed during the AFRL-sponsored CRYOTOOL program, which include a dual DTE-CTSW/dual cryocooler test bed, a miniaturized neon cryogenic loop heat pipe (mini-CLHP), and an across gimbal cryogenic thermal transport system (GCTTS). For the first three devices/subsystems mentioned above, this paper describes key aspects of the development efforts including concept definition, design, fabrication, and testing. For the latter three, this paper provides brief overview descriptions as key details are provided in a related paper.

  4. Device applications of cryogenic optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Seletskiy, Denis V.; Epstein, Richard I.; Alden, Jay V.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2014-02-01

    With the coldest solid-state temperatures (?T <185K from 300K) achievable by optical refrigeration, it is now timely to apply this technology to cryogenic devices. Along with thermal management and pump absorption, this work addresses the most key engineering challenge of transferring cooling power to the payload while efficiently rejecting optical waste-heat fluorescence. We discuss our optimized design of such a thermal link, which shows excellent performance in optical rejection and thermal properties.

  5. Development of cryotribological theories & application to cryogenic devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2001-03-12

    This is the final report of a research program on low-temperature friction and wear, primarily focused on development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices, particularly superconducting magnets.

  6. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  7. Novel SiGe Semiconductor Devices for Cryogenic Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, R. R.; Dawson, W. J.; Zhu, L.; Kirschman, R. K.; Niu, G.; Nelms, R. M.; Mueller, O.; Hennessy, M. J.; Mueller, E. K.

    2006-03-01

    It is predicted that systems for electrical power generation, conversion and distribution on ships and aerospace vehicles could be made smaller, lighter, more efficient, more versatile, and lower maintenance by operating these systems—partly or entirely—at cryogenic temperatures. In view of this, we have taken initial steps in the investigation and development of SiGe semiconductor devices for cryogenic power applications. We have (1) simulated, designed, fabricated and characterized SiGe power diodes, and (2) evaluated these SiGe diodes in cryogenic power converters. Our target low-end temperature is 55 K, although we characterize devices and circuits down to approximately 30 K. We have demonstrated, experimentally, favorable characteristics for SiGe power diodes and have shown higher conversion efficiency compared to equivalent Si power diodes in a 100-W boost switching DC-DC power converter, over an ambient temperature range of 300 K down to approximately 30 K.

  8. Cryogenic Probe Station for On-Wafer Characterization of Electrical Devices Damon Russell,1, a)

    E-print Network

    Weinreb, Sander

    Cryogenic Probe Station for On-Wafer Characterization of Electrical Devices Damon Russell,1, a mobility transistors (HEMTs) remain the lowest noise temperature devices for use in cryogenic microwave such as silicon, and as a result the yield of low noise InP devices, especially at cryogenic tempera- tures

  9. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Devices for Cryogenic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Kudlac, Maureen T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an on-going project to study the application screen channel liquid acquisition devices to cryogenic propellant systems. The literature of screen liquid acquisition devices is reviewed for prior cryogenic experience. Test programs and apparatus are presented to study these devices. Preliminary results are shown demonstrating bubble points for 200 x 1400 wires per inch and 325 x 2300 wires per inch Dutch twill screens. The 200 x 1400 screen has a bubble point of 15.8 inches of water in isopropyl alcohol and 6.6 inches of water in liquid nitrogen. The 325 x 2300 screen has a bubble point of 24.5 inches of water in isopropyl alcohol, 10.7 inches of water in liquid nitrogen, and 1.83 inches of water in liquid hydrogen. These values are found to be in good agreement with the results reported in the literature.

  10. Inverted Outflow Ground Testing of Cryogenic Propellant Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Hartwig, Jason W.; Rame, Enrique; McQuillen, John B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing propulsion system concepts for human exploration. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free acquisition and delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks during periods of microgravity to the exploration vehicles engines. Propellant management devices (PMD's), such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD's), vanes and sponges have been used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and other spacecraft propulsion systems, but only very limited propellant management capability currently exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA is developing PMD technology as a part of their cryogenic fluid management (CFM) project. System concept studies have looked at the key factors that dictate the size and shape of PMD devices and established screen channel LADs as an important component of PMD design. Modeling validated by normal gravity experiments is examining the behavior of the flow in the LAD channel assemblies (as opposed to only prior testing of screen samples) at the flow rates representative of actual engine service (similar in size to current launch vehicle upper stage engines). Recently testing of rectangular LAD channels has included inverted outflow in liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper will report the results of liquid oxygen testing compare and contrast them with the recently published hydrogen results; and identify the sensitivity of these results to flow rate and tank internal pressure.

  11. Inverted Outflow Ground Testing of Cryogenic Propellant Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Hartwig, Jason W.; Rame, Enrique; McQuillen, John B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing propulsion system concepts for human exploration. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free acquisition and delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks during periods of microgravity to the exploration vehicles engines. Propellant management devices (PMDs), such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LADs), vanes and sponges have been used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and other spacecraft propulsion systems, but only very limited propellant management capability currently exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA is developing PMD technology as a part of their cryogenic fluid management (CFM) project. System concept studies have looked at the key factors that dictate the size and shape of PMD devices and established screen channel LADs as an important component of PMD design. Modeling validated by normal gravity experiments is examining the behavior of the flow in the LAD channel assemblies (as opposed to only prior testing of screen samples) at the flow rates representative of actual engine service (similar in size to current launch vehicle upper stage engines). Recently testing of rectangular LAD channels has included inverted outflow in liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper will report the results of liquid oxygen testing compare and contrast them with the recently published hydrogen results; and identify the sensitivity these results to flow rate and tank internal pressure.

  12. A New Device for Mechanical Testing of Blood Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Rabin, Yoed

    modulus of a specimen with no cryoprotectant, at about -140°C (8.6 and 15.5°C below the glass transitionA New Device for Mechanical Testing of Blood Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures J.L. Jimenez Rios study focuses on the development of a new device for mechanical testing of blood vessels at cryogenic

  13. On-wafer, cryogenic characterization of ultra-low noise HEMT devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Laskar, J.; Szydlik, P.

    1995-01-01

    Significant advances in the development of high electron-mobility field-effect transistors (HEMT's) have resulted in cryogenic, low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) whose noise temperatures are within an order of magnitude of the quantum noise limit (hf/k). Further advances in HEMT technology at cryogenic temperatures may eventually lead to the replacement of maser and superconducting insulator superconducting front ends in the 1- to 100-GHz frequency band. Key to identification of the best HEMT's and optimization of cryogenic LNA's are accurate and repeatable device measurements at cryogenic temperatures. This article describes the design and operation of a cryogenic coplanar waveguide probe system for the characterization and modeling of advanced semiconductor transistors at cryogenic temperatures. Results on advanced HEMT devices are presented to illustrate the utility of the measurement system.

  14. Improved cryogenic coring device for sampling wetland soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C. [National Biological Service, Lafayette, LA (United States); Knaus, R.M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper is the third in a series on the design and construction (Knaus 1986) and improvements (Knaus and Cahoon 1990) of a cryogenic soil-coring device (cryocorer). Freezing wetland soils in place during sampling eliminates compaction, dewatering, and loss of flocculent material at the water-sediment interface. The cryocorer is suitable for sampling soils of emergent marsh and mangrove forests as well as shallow water bottoms, although it has been used primarily for the former. A small-diameter frozen soil core minimizes disruption of the surface, can be evaluated immediately for overall quality, and can be used to measure soil profiles and subsample for further analysis. The cryocorer continues to be used in studies of wetland accretion and soil bulk density throughout the US. Concomitant with the increased use of the device, improvements in cryocorer design and application have occurred. Reported here are improvements in design that have been made since 1992 with references to wetland research in which the cryocorer has been used extensively.

  15. Interferometric characterization of MOEMS devices in cryogenic environment for astronomical instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Zamkotsian; Emmanuel Grassi; Severin Waldis; Rudy Barette; Patrick Lanzoni; Christophe Fabron; Wilfried Noell; Nico de Rooij

    2008-01-01

    Next generation of infra-red astronomical instrumentation for space telescopes as well as ground-based extremely large telescopes requires MOEMS devices with remote control capability and cryogenic operation, including programmable multi-slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy (MOS). For the complete testing of these devices, we have developed in parallel and coupled a high-resolution Twyman-Green interferometer and a cryogenic-chamber for full surface and operation

  16. A cryogenic device for reversibly blocking transmission through small regions of the spinal cord white matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vania Apkarian; C HODGEJR; Robert J. Martin; Richard T. Stevens

    1989-01-01

    A simple cryogenic device is described. This device is capable of cooling neural tissue in contact with the probe and maintaining the tissue at the desired temperature for extended periods of time. The cold probe can thereby reversibly block neural transmission through small portions of the spinal cord white matter. Interruption of axonal transmission is achieved by placing the tip

  17. Power electronics performance in cryogenic environment: evaluation for use in HTS power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Valtchev, S.; Pina, J.; Gonçalves, A.; Ventim Neves, M.; Rodrigues, A. L.

    2008-02-01

    Power electronics (PE) plays a major role in electrical devices and systems, namely in electromechanical drives, in motor and generator controllers, and in power grids, including high-voltage DC (HVDC) power transmission. PE is also used in devices for the protection against grid disturbances, like voltage sags or power breakdowns. To cope with these disturbances, back-up energy storage devices are used, like uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and flywheels. Some of these devices may use superconductivity. Commercial PE semiconductor devices (power diodes, power MOSFETs, IGBTs, power Darlington transistors and others) are rarely (or never) experimented for cryogenic temperatures, even when designed for military applications. This means that its integration with HTS power devices is usually done in the hot environment, raising several implementation restrictions. These reasons led to the natural desire of characterising PE under extreme conditions, e. g. at liquid nitrogen temperatures, for use in HTS devices. Some researchers expect that cryogenic temperatures may increase power electronics' performance when compared with room-temperature operation, namely reducing conduction losses and switching time. Also the overall system efficiency may increase due to improved properties of semiconductor materials at low temperatures, reduced losses, and removal of dissipation elements. In this work, steady state operation of commercial PE semiconductors and devices were investigated at liquid nitrogen and room temperatures. Performances in cryogenic and room temperatures are compared. Results help to decide which environment is to be used for different power HTS applications.

  18. Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Rabinowicz, E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.)

    1992-09-15

    High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials' low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

  19. Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P.; Rabinowicz, E.

    1992-09-01

    High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5 to approx. 10 micron conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials' low temperature strength properties, it was found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs were examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

  20. Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JEFT, GaAs MESFET, and MOSFET devices

    SciTech Connect

    Citterio, M.; Rescia, S.; Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFET`s, rad-hard MOSFET`s, and GaAs MESFET`s) have been irradiated and tested at a stable cryogenic temperature up to doses of 55 Mrad of ionizing radiation and up to neutron fluences of 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. Radiation effects on dc characteristics and on noise will be presented.

  1. Ultra-Low Noise HEMT Device Models: Application of On-Wafer Cryogenic Noise Analysis and Improved Parameter Extraction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Hamai, M.; Nishimoto, M.; Laskar, J.; Szydlik, P.; Lai, R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant advances in the development of HEMT technology have resulted in high performance cryogenic low noise amplifiers whose noise temperatures are within an order of magnitude of the quantum noise limit. Key to the identification of optimum HEMT structures at cryogenic temperatures is the development of on-wafer noise and device parameter extraction techniques. Techniques and results are described.

  2. Spin-transfer switching of orthogonal spin-valve devices at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L., E-mail: ly17@nyu.edu; Gopman, D. B.; Rehm, L.; Backes, D.; Wolf, G.; Kent, A. D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Ohki, T. [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Kirichenko, A. F.; Vernik, I. V.; Mukhanov, O. A. [HYPRES, 175 Clearbrook Road, Elmsford, New York 10523 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We present the quasi-static and dynamic switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 12?K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for slowly varied current as well as for current pulses with durations as short as 200 ps. We demonstrate 100% switching probability with current pulses 0.6?ns in duration. We also present a switching probability diagram that summarizes device switching operation under a variety of pulse durations, amplitudes, and polarities.

  3. Cryogenic direct current superconducting quantum interference device readout circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Mück; Matthias Korn; C. G. A. Mugford; J. B. Kycia

    2005-01-01

    We have designed and tested a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout circuit, which can be operated at liquid helium temperatures. Although room-temperature SQUID electronics perform well, it is sometimes desirable to keep the wires between SQUID, readout electronics, and feedback coil as short as possible to minimize phase shifts and time delays. Cooling the readout circuit to low temperatures

  4. A cryogenic device for reversibly blocking transmission through small regions of the spinal cord white matter.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, A V; Hodge, C J; Martin, R J; Stevens, R T

    1989-08-01

    A simple cryogenic device is described. This device is capable of cooling neural tissue in contact with the probe and maintaining the tissue at the desired temperature for extended periods of time. The cold probe can thereby reversibly block neural transmission through small portions of the spinal cord white matter. Interruption of axonal transmission is achieved by placing the tip of the device in contact with the exposed surface of the spinal cord and cooling the tip of the probe to -1 to +2 degrees C. The investigator monitors the tip temperature and adjusts the pump rate to maintain a constant tip temperature. The cross-sectional area under the probe where effective transmission block is achieved is about 1.5 mm2 which approximates the size of a single funiculus in the cat thoracic spinal cord. The cryogenic device was constructed for less than $700. The properties of this device were studied in physiologic experiments in cats. This device reversibly, selectively and repeatedly blocked the ascending mass action potential in the dorsolateral funiculus, transmission through ascending spinal axons in the dorsal columns, transmission through axons of spinal dorsal horn cells, the descending inhibitory input to the dorsal horn and the activity of thalamic nociceptive neurons. The reversible cold block effects on single units were observed for the duration of the experiments (up to 18 h) with no detectable damage to the underlying tissue. The physiologic effects of the cold block were usually reversed a few minutes after rewarming, although in some cases it took up to 40 min for the complete reversal of the cold block. This cryogenic device is useful for studying spinal cord pathways. PMID:2549308

  5. BO12-xx header for SPIE use BiOS 2003, San Jose, CA, January Design and Construction of Experimental Device to Study Cryogen Droplet

    E-print Network

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    of Experimental Device to Study Cryogen Droplet Deposition and Heat Transfer Matthew D. Keller1,2 , Guillermo, Irvine, CA 92612 ABSTRACT Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to pre-cool the epidermis during laser, essential to understand the mechanical and thermal interactions of cryogen droplets with the sprayed surface

  6. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems. PMID:25273745

  7. Design and demonstrate the performance of cryogenic components representative of space vehicles: Start basket liquid acquisition device performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to design, fabricate and test an integrated cryogenic test article incorporating both fluid and thermal propellant management subsystems. A 2.2 m (87 in) diameter aluminum test tank was outfitted with multilayer insulation, helium purge system, low-conductive tank supports, thermodynamic vent system, liquid acquisition device and immersed outflow pump. Tests and analysis performed on the start basket liquid acquisition device and studies of the liquid retention characteristics of fine mesh screens are discussed.

  8. A New Device for Mechanical Testing of Blood Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L; Rabin, Yoed

    2007-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to study the thermo-mechanical effects associated with cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous in Latin means glassy), the current study focuses on the development of a new device for mechanical testing of blood vessels at cryogenic temperatures. This device is demonstrated on a bovine carotid artery model, permeated with the cryoprotectant cocktail VS55 and a reference solution of 7.05M DMSO, below glass transition. Results are also presented for crystallized specimens, in the absence of cryoprotectants. Results indicate that the elastic modulus of a specimen with no cryoprotectant, at about -140°C (8.6°C and 15.5°C below the glass transition temperature of 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively), is 1038.8 ± 25.2 MPa, which is 8% and 3% higher than that of a vitrified specimen permeated with 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively. The elastic modulus of a crystallized material at -50°C is lower by ~20% lower from that at -140°C. PMID:18958183

  9. Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

  10. Precision Control of Thermal Transport in Cryogenic Single-Crystal Silicon Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 510 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 microns. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of +/-8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  11. Exploring cryogenic focused ion beam milling as a Group III-V device fabrication tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Melissa Commisso; Santeufemio, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we compare the features observed on a Group III-V strained layer superlattice (SLS) materials system as a result of room temperature Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) milling to the features observed as a result of cryogenic FIB (cryo-FIB) milling at -135 °C under the same beam conditions (30 kV:1 nA). The features on the cryo-FIB milled material were observed both when the material was still cold and after it returned to room temperature. Although cryo-FIB milling yielded patterned features that were initially cleaner than comparable features defined by FIB milling at room temperature, we found that both room temperature FIB milling and cryo-FIB milling with subsequent sample warm-up resulted in the formation of Group III enriched features. These findings suggest that the structural and chemical properties of features fabricated by cryo-FIB milling are temperature-dependent, which is an important consideration when it comes to device fabrication. These dependencies will need to be better understood and controlled if cryo-FIB milling is to have future applications in this area.

  12. 0.1 ?m InP HEMT devices and MMICs for cryogenic low noise amplifiers from X-band to W-band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Grundbacher; R. Lai; M. Barsky; R. Tsai; T. Gaier; S. Weinreb; D. Dawson; J. J. Bautista; J. F. Davis; N. Erickson; T. Block; A. Oki

    2002-01-01

    We present the TRW 0.1 ?m InP HEMT MMIC production technology that has been developed and used for state-of-the-art cryogenic LNA applications. The 0.1 ?m InP HEMT devices typically show cutoff frequency above 200 GHz and transconductance above 1000 mS\\/mm. Aspects of device design and fabrication are presented which impact important parameters including the InP HEMT device gain, gate leakage

  13. Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taie, H., E-mail: ha322@cam.ac.uk; Kelly, M. J. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom) [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); See, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-17

    We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a “quantum yield” is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

  14. Cryogenic probe station for on-wafer characterization of electrical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Damon; Cleary, Kieran; Reeves, Rodrigo

    2012-04-01

    A probe station, suitable for the electrical characterization of integrated circuits at cryogenic temperatures is presented. The unique design incorporates all moving components inside the cryostat at room temperature, greatly simplifying the design and allowing automated step and repeat testing. The system can characterize wafers up to 100 mm in diameter, at temperatures <20 K. It is capable of highly repeatable measurements at millimeter-wave frequencies, even though it utilizes a Gifford McMahon cryocooler which typically imposes limits due to vibration. Its capabilities are illustrated by noise temperature and S-parameter measurements on low noise amplifiers for radio astronomy, operating at 75-116 GHz.

  15. Room Temperature Bubble Point Tests on Porous Screens: Implications for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Mann, J. Adin, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for room temperature bubble point tests conducted at the Cedar Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Cell 7 (CCL-7) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the performance of three different fine mesh screens in room temperature liquids to provide pretest predictions in cryogenic liquid nitrogen (LN2) and hydrogen (LH2) as part of NASA's microgravity LAD technology development program. Bench type tests based on the maximum bubble point method were conducted for a 325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, and 510 x 3600 mesh sample in pure room temperature liquid methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, water, and mixtures of methanol and water to cover the intermediate to upper surface tension range. A theoretical model for the bubble point pressure is derived from the Young-LaPlace equation for the pressure drop across a curved interface. Governing equations are reduced in complexity through a set of simplifying assumptions to permit direct comparison with the experimental data. Screen pore sizes are estimated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to make pretest predictions. Pore sizes based on SEM analysis are compared with historical data available in the literature for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 screens as well with data obtained from bubble point tests conducted in this work. Experimental results show that bubble point pressure is proportional to the surface tension of the liquid. We show that there is excellent agreement between data and model for pure fluids when the data is corrected for non-zero contact angle measured on the screens using a modified Sessile Drop technique. SEM image analysis of the three meshes indicated that bubble point pressure would be a maximum for the finest mesh screen. The pore diameters based on SEM analysis and experimental data obtained here are in excellent agreement for the 325 x 2300 and 450 x 2750 meshes, but not for the finest 510 x 3600 mesh. Therefore the simplified model can be used to interpolate predictions for low surface tension cryogenic liquids only when pore diameters are based on room temperature bubble point tests and not SEM analysis as presently implemented.

  16. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  17. Room temperature cryogenic test interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Faris; A. Davidson; P. A. Moskowitz; G. A. Sai-Halasz

    1985-01-01

    This interface permits the testing of high speed semiconductor devices (room-temperature chips) by a Josephson junction sampling device (cryogenic chip) without intolerable loss of resolution. The interface comprises a quartz pass-through plug which includes a planar transmission line interconnecting a first chip station, where the cryogenic chip is mounted, and a second chip station, where the semiconductor chip to be

  18. Capillary acquisition devices for high-performance vehicles: Executive summary. [evaluation of cryogenic propellant management techniques using the centaur launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatt, M. H.; Bradshaw, R. D.; Risberg, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Technology areas critical to the development of cryogenic capillary devices were studied. Passive cooling of capillary devices was investigated with an analytical and experimental study of wicking flow. Capillary device refilling with settled fluid was studied using an analytical and experimental program that resulted in successful correlation of a versatile computer program with test data. The program was used to predict Centaur D-1S LO2 and LH2 start basket refilling. Comparisons were made between the baseline Centaur D-1S propellant feed system and feed system alternatives including systems using capillary devices. The preferred concepts from the Centaur D-1S study were examined for APOTV and POTV vehicles for delivery and round trip transfer of payloads between LEO and GEO. Mission profiles were determined to provide propellant usage timelines and the payload partials were defined.

  19. An RF Sensor for Gauging Screen-Channel Liquid Acquisition Devices for Cryogenic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Metzger, Scott; Asipauskas, Marius

    2014-01-01

    A key requirement of a low-gravity screen-channel liquid acquisition device (LAD) is the need to retain 100% liquid in the channel in response to propellant outflow and spacecraft maneuvers. The point at which a screen-channel LAD ingests vapor is known as breakdown, and can be measured several different ways such as: visual observation of bubbles in the LAD channel outflow; a sudden change in pressure drop between the propellant tank and LAD sump outlet; or, an indication by wet-dry sensors placed in the LAD channel or outflow stream. Here we describe a new type of sensor for gauging a screen-channel LAD, the Radio Frequency Mass Gauge (RFMG). The RFMG measures the natural electromagnetic modes of the screen-channel LAD, which is very similar to an RF waveguide, to determine the amount of propellant in the channel. By monitoring several of the RF modes, we show that the RFMG acts as a global sensor of the LAD channel propellant fill level, and enables detection of LAD breakdown even in the absence of outflow. This paper presents the theory behind the RFMG-LAD sensor, measurements and simulations of the RF modes of a LAD channel, and RFMG detection of LAD breakdown in a channel using a simulant fluid during inverted outflow and long-term stability tests.

  20. CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

    2002-07-22

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

  1. Cooling of superconducting devices by liquid storage and refrigeration unit

    DOEpatents

    Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Urbahn, John Arthur; Steinbach, Albert Eugene

    2013-08-20

    A system is disclosed for cooling superconducting devices. The system includes a cryogen cooling system configured to be coupled to the superconducting device and to supply cryogen to the device. The system also includes a cryogen storage system configured to supply cryogen to the device. The system further includes flow control valving configured to selectively isolate the cryogen cooling system from the device, thereby directing a flow of cryogen to the device from the cryogen storage system.

  2. Cryogenic ion implantation near amorphization threshold dose for halo/extension junction improvement in sub-30 nm device technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hugh; Todorov, Stan; Colombeau, Benjamin; Rodier, Dennis; Kouzminov, Dimitry; Zou Wei; Guo Baonian; Khasgiwale, Niranjan; Decker-Lucke, Kurt [Applied Materials, Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2012-11-06

    We report on junction advantages of cryogenic ion implantation with medium current implanters. We propose a methodical approach on maximizing cryogenic effects on junction characteristics near the amorphization threshold doses that are typically used for halo implants for sub-30 nm technologies. BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant at a dose of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13}cm{sup -2} does not amorphize silicon at room temperature. When implanted at -100 Degree-Sign C, it forms a 30 - 35 nm thick amorphous layer. The cryogenic BF{sub 2}{sup +} implant significantly reduces the depth of the boron distribution, both as-implanted and after anneals, which improves short channel rolloff characteristics. It also creates a shallower n{sup +}-p junction by steepening profiles of arsenic that is subsequently implanted in the surface region. We demonstrate effects of implant sequences, germanium preamorphization, indium and carbon co-implants for extension/halo process integration. When applied to sequences such as Ge+As+C+In+BF{sub 2}{sup +}, the cryogenic implants at -100 Degree-Sign C enable removal of Ge preamorphization, and form more active n{sup +}-p junctions and steeper B and In halo profiles than sequences at room temperature.

  3. A thermally conductive and vibration protective interface for linear cryogenic cooler in application for gimbaled infrared device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Veprik; V. I. Babitsky; S. V. Riabzev; N. Pundak

    Modern electro-optic applications often contain a cryogenically cooled infrared imager placed upon a stabilized platform which is further connected to an outer housing by low-friction gimbals. Since the active system of gimbal stabilization is dedicated primarily to maintaining the steady line-of-sight control by eliminating the relatively slow effects of yaw, pitch or roll, it may have insufficient resources to suppress

  4. Cryogenic characterization of Josephson junctions

    E-print Network

    Brown, Keith Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic characterization is a crucial part of understanding the behavior of low-temperature quantum electronics. Reliable device testing provides the feedback to fabrication process development, facilitating the rapid ...

  5. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  6. Cryotribology: Development of cryotribological theories and application to cryogenic devices. Interim report, June 15, 1985--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasa, Y.; Michael, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabinowicz, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.

    1992-09-15

    High-performance superconducting solenoids are susceptible to premature quenches, or superconducting to normal state transitions, due to abrupt conductor movements within the winding. Abrupt motions involving 5{approximately}10{mu}m conductor displacements dissipate sufficient energy to trigger a quench. Sliding and mechanical behaviors of materials at cryogenic temperatures have been experimentally examined. After accounting for changes in the sliding materials` low-temperature strength properties, we have found that the adhesion theory of friction and wear remains applicable at cryogenic temperatures. The adhesion friction theory suggests two methods for controlling unsteady sliding motions. The first involves the selection of sliding materials whose friction coefficients increase with increasing sliding speed. A number of material pairs have been examined for positive friction-velocity characteristics. This materials-based approach to frictional stabilization does not seem a viable option at 4.2 K. The second altemative is to preprogram the force conditions within high-risk regions of the winding to regulate the occurrence of unsteady sliding motions. Structural models are proposed to account for unsteady conductor motions on a variety of dimensional scales. The models are used to design a small superconducting solenoid. Performance of this solenoid suggests that force-based motion control is a potentially viable design approach for achieving successful dry-wound magnets.

  7. Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

    2006-01-01

    Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

  8. Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China. PMID:24517821

  9. Care with Cryogenics. 02 Care with Cryogenics

    E-print Network

    Bearhop, Stuart

    Care with Cryogenics. #12;02 Care with Cryogenics This document is designed to be used.eiga.org. Care with Cryogenics. #12;03Care with Cryogenics There are a number of potential hazards when using gases that are liquefied by cooling them to low temperatures. These may be referred to as "CRYOGENIC

  10. Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

  11. Development and testing of an advanced cryogenic thermal switch and cryogenic thermal switch test bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Marland; D. Bugby; C. Stouffer

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development details and performance results of a high performance, highly reliable cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW), US Patent Number 6,276,144 B1, and cryogenic thermal switch test bed. The principle application for this device is to couple redundant cryocoolers to a cryogenic component with minimal parasitic heat leak from the non-operating cryocooler. Additional applications for the CTSW are also

  12. LDR cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nast, T.

    1988-01-01

    A brief summary from the 1985 Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Asilomar 2 workshop of the requirements for LDR cryogenic cooling is presented. The heat rates are simply the sum of the individual heat rates from the instruments. Consideration of duty cycle will have a dramatic effect on cooling requirements. There are many possible combinations of cooling techniques for each of the three temperatures zones. It is clear that much further system study is needed to determine what type of cooling system is required (He-2, hybrid or mechanical) and what size and power is required. As the instruments, along with their duty cycles and heat rates, become better defined it will be possible to better determine the optimum cooling systems.

  13. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  14. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  15. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gasser, M.G.

    1983-12-01

    Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

  16. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, M. G. (editor)

    1983-01-01

    Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

  17. Advances in Cryogenic Principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Barron

    During the past 50 years, the use of digital computers has significantly influenced the design and analysis of cryogenic systems.\\u000a At the time when the first Cryogenic Engineering Conference was held, thermodynamic data were presented in graphical or tabular\\u000a form (the “steam table” format), whereas thermodynamic data for cryogenic system design is computer generated today. The thermal\\u000a analysis of cryogenic

  18. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  19. Integrating Htsc Thin Films in an Optical-Cryogenic Gravimeter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vassiloyannis; P. Pardalos; V. Yatsenko

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing and developing optical-cryogenic devices using new materials. We have shown how to produce reliable YBCO thin films with controllable surfaces and physical properties and how to integrate them in a ring form into the optical-cryogenic gravimeter so as to reduce its size and render it convenient for future space applications. Its function is

  20. Cryogenic Phase-Locking Loop System Based on SIS Tunnel Junction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Khudchenko; V. P. Koshelets; K. V. Kalashnikov

    \\u000a An ultra-wideband cryogenic phase-locking loop (CPLL) system is a new cryogenic device. The CPLL is intended for phase-locking\\u000a of a Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) in a Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) but can be used for any cryogenic terahertz\\u000a oscillator. The key element of the CPLL is Cryogenic Phase Detector (CPD), a recently proposed new superconducting element.\\u000a The CPD is an innovative

  1. Cryogenic System Revised June 1994

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

    Chapter 9. Cryogenic System Revised June 1994 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Heat Loads and Refrigeration Duties -- 175 -- #12; 176 Cryogenic System #12; Cryogenic System 177 9.3. Two Phase Helium Cooling 9.4. The Refrigerator and Control #12; 178 Cryogenic System 9.5. Cryogen Delivery and Control 9.6. Three Cooling

  2. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vols. 35A & 35B - Proceedings of the 1989 Cryogenic Engineering Conference, University of California, Los Angeles, July 24-28, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    The book presents a review of literature on superfluid helium, together with papers under the topics on heat and mass transfer in He II; applications of He II for cooling superconducting devices in space; heat transfer to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen; multilayer insulation; applications of superconductivity, including topics on magnets and other devices, magnet stability and coil protection, and cryogenic techniques; and refrigeration for electronics. Other topics discussed include refrigeration of superconducting systems; the expanders, cold compressors, and pumps for liquid helium; dilution refrigerators; magnetic refrigerators; pulse tube refrigerators; cryocoolers for space applications; properties of cryogenic fluids; cryogenic instrumentation; hyperconducting devices (cryogenic magnets); cryogenic applications in space science and technology and in transportation; and miscellaneous cryogenic techniques and applications.

  3. Cryogenics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the cryogenics program of the Goddard Space Flight Center is given in viewgraph form. Goddard's role and the flight programs requiring cryogenics are outlined. Diagrams are given of the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, a liquid cryogenic cooler for the Shuttle Glow Experiment, a liquid helium dewar, and the X-ray spectrometer on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  4. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-print Network

    are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different oxygen could produce an oxygen-rich atmosphere which could accelerate combustion of other materials cryogenic liquid. But materials such as carbon steel, plastic and rubber become brittle and may fracture

  5. Sealing Mechanical Cryogenic Coolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1985-01-01

    Metal bellows used to seal Vuilleumier and Stirling-cycle cryogenic coolers, replacing sliding seals that failed after only 3,000 hours of service. Metal bellows, incorporated in displacer design provide nonrubbing dynamic seal. Lifetime of cryogenic cooler no longer limited by loss of sealing material and by deterioration of regenerators due to clogging by seal debris.

  6. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Symons, E. P.; Kroeger, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility (CFMF) is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried into space in the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate systems and technologies required to efficiently and effectively manage cryogens in space. The facility hardware is configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage, transfer concepts and processes. Significant design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer systems will be obtained. Future applications include space-based and ground-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV), space station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, space-based weapon systems and space-based orbit maneuvering vehicles (OMV). This paper describes the facility and discusses the cryogenic fluid management technology to be investigated. A brief discussion of the integration issues involved in loading and transporting liquid hydrogen within the Shuttle cargo bay is also included.

  7. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  8. Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least 25 C colder than the coldest expected operating temperature. This quenching process is the opposite of the standard burn-in procedure. Normal burn-in raises the temperature (and voltage) to activate quickly any possible manufacturing defects remaining in the device that were not already rejected at a functional test step. The proposed inverse burn-in or quenching process is custom-tailored to the electronic device being used. The doping profiles, materials, minimum dimensions, interfaces, and thermal expansion coefficients are all taken into account in determining the ramp rate, dwell time, and temperature.

  9. MEMS: fabrication of cryogenic bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, J.; Anders, S.; May, T.; Zakosarenko, V.; Zieger, G.; Kreysa, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2012-02-01

    Cryogenic bolometers are among the most sensitive devices for the detection of electromagnetic radiation in the submillimeter wavelength range. Such radiation is of interest for astronomical observations as well as for security checks. We describe how we fabricate an array of these bolometers. Standard contact lithography is sufficient for these relatively coarse features. To increase the sensitivity, it is imperative to weaken the thermal link between the thermistors (the sensing devices) and the temperature bath. This is achieved by placing them on a silicon nitride membrane that is structured so that the thermistors are placed on a platform which is held only by a few beams. The fabrication process does not require sophisticated lithographic techniques, but special care to achieve the desired yield of 100 % intact bolometers in one array. We discuss bolometer basics and requirements for our applications, critical fabrication issues, and show results of complete systems built for a radio telescope and for security cameras.

  10. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  11. CRYOGENIC FACITLITY DESIGN IN BEPC II SUPERCONDUCTING UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.X.; WANG,L.; YANG,G.D.; ET AL.

    2004-05-11

    Three kinds of superconducting device are to be constructed at interaction regions in the upgrade of Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII). Two sets of refrigerators with each capacity of 500W at 4.5K are adopted to provide the refrigeration for them. The cryogenic systems to support the operation of the superconducting facilities are under design by Harbin Institute of Technology in China. This paper presents the current design of main cryogenic facilities.

  12. Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

  13. Physical sciences: Thermodynamics, cryogenics, and vacuum technology: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technological developments which have potential application outside the aerospace community are reported. A variety of thermodynamic devices including heat pipes and cooling systems are described along with methods of handling cryogenic fluids. Vacuum devices are also described. Pata et information is included.

  14. APT Cryogenic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Laughon; C. H. Rode; R. Ganni; W. C. Chronis; D. M. Arenius; B. S. Bevins

    1999-01-01

    In the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, a one-kilometer-long linear accelerator (linac) is used as part of a plant that will provide tritium for national defense purposes. The accelerator consists of a low-energy (LE) normally conductive, radiofrequency (rf) linac and a high-energy (HE) superconducting rf linac. The APT cryogenic system will supply cryogenic helium fluids to maintain the HE

  15. Cryogenic Feedthrough Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, Antony

    2009-01-01

    The cryogenic feedthrough test rig (CFTR) allows testing of instrumentation feedthroughs at liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen temperature and pressure extremes (dangerous process fluid) without actually exposing the feedthrough to a combustible or explosive process fluid. In addition, the helium used (inert gas), with cryogenic heat exchangers, exposes the feedthrough to that environment that allows definitive leak rates of feedthrough by typical industry-standard helium mass spectrometers.

  16. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  17. Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Smith, Trent; Breakfield, Robert; Baughner, Kevin; Heckle, Kenneth; Meneghelli, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus (CMA) is designed for quantifying the amount of moisture from the surrounding air that is taken up by cryogenic-tank-insulating material specimens while under typical conditions of use. More specifically, the CMA holds one face of the specimen at a desired low temperature (e.g., the typical liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77 K) while the opposite face remains exposed to humid air at ambient or near-ambient temperature. The specimen is weighed before and after exposure in the CMA. The difference between the "after" and "before" weights is determined to be the weight of moisture absorbed by the specimen. Notwithstanding the term "cryogenic," the CMA is not limited to cryogenic applications: the low test temperature can be any temperature below ambient, and the specimen can be made of any material affected by moisture in air. The CMA is especially well suited for testing a variety of foam insulating materials, including those on the space-shuttle external cryogenic tanks, on other cryogenic vessels, and in refrigerators used for transporting foods, medicines, and other perishables. Testing is important because absorbed moisture not only adds weight but also, in combination with thermal cycling, can contribute to damage that degrades insulating performance. Materials are changed internally when subjected to large sub-ambient temperature gradients.

  18. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  19. Surface-confined molecular coolers for cryogenics.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Giulia; Jenkins, Mark; González-Monje, Pablo; Arauzo, Ana; Sesé, Javier; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Roubeau, Olivier; Evangelisti, Marco

    2013-06-01

    An excellent molecule-based cryogenic magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium acetate tetrahydrate, is here used to decorate selected portions of silicon substrate. By quantitative magnetic force microscopy for a variable applied magnetic field near liquid-helium temperature, the molecules are demonstrated to hold their magnetic properties intact, and therefore their cooling functionality, after their deposition. These results represent a step forward towards the realization of a molecule-based micro-refrigerating device at very low temperatures. PMID:23401287

  20. Cryogenic capillary screen heat entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hastings, L. J.; Statham, G.

    2008-05-01

    Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of subcooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs?" Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by liquid nitrogen (LN 2) tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, 200 × 1400 and 325 × 2300, both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN 2 data, it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

  1. Development of a cryogenic capillary pumped loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroliczek, Edward J.; Cullimore, Brent

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a promising new cryogenic technology. Room temperature capillary pumped loops (CPLs), a derivative of heat pipe technology, have been under development for almost two decades and are emerging as a design solution for many spacecraft thermal control problems. While cryogenic capillary pumped loops have application to passive spacecraft radiators and to long term storage of cryogenic propellants and open-cycle coolants, their application to the integration of spacecraft cryocoolers has generated the most excitement. Without moving parts or complex controls, they are able to thermally connect redundant cryocoolers to a single remote load, eliminating thermal switches and providing mechanical isolation at the same time. Development of a cryogenic CPL (CCPL) presented some unique challenges including start-up from a super-critical state, the management of parasitic heat leaks and pressure containment at ambient temperatures. These challenges have been overcome with a novel design that requires no additional devices or preconditioning for start-up. This paper describes the design concept and development and results conducted under SBIR Phase I and Phase II.

  2. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  3. Cryogenic applications for environment simulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardgrove, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the applications of cryogenics for simulating space environmental conditions are reviewed, and typical existing space simulation facilities are described. The techniques of adapting cryogenics to environmental simulation are discussed. Special attention is given to cryosorption pumps designed to accelerate cryogenic cooling of the adsorbent material.

  4. Ball Aerospace Actuator Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Lana; Lightsey, Paul; Quigley, Phil; Rutkowski, Joel; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ambient testing characterizing step size and repeatability for the Ball Aerospace Cryogenic Nano-Positioner actuators for the AMSD (Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator) program has been completed and are presented. Current cryogenic testing is underway. Earlier cryogenic test results for a pre-cursor engineering model are presented.

  5. Cryogenic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, J.; Johnson, S.

    1994-01-01

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems.

  6. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F. [Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division BP15, ZI Les Engenieres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C. [Consultants, Grenoble (France)

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  7. CEBAF cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The CEBAF cryogenic system consists of 3 refrigeration systems: Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), and End Station Refrigerator (ESR). CHL is the main cryogenic system for CEBAF, consisting of a 4.8 kW, 2.0 K refrigerator and transfer line system to supply 2.0 K and 12 kW of 50 K shield refrigeration for the Linac cavity cryostats and 10 g/s of liquid for the end stations. This paper describes the 9-year effort to commission these systems, concentrating on CHL with the cold compressors. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of 3 K which use magnetic bearings, thereby eliminating the possibility of air leaks into the subatmospheric He.

  8. International Cryogenic Engineering Conference, 5th, Kyoto, Japan, May 7-10, 1974, Proceedings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mendelssohn

    1974-01-01

    Papers are presented relating to advances in magnetic levitation, superconductivity, cryogenic engineering, and superconducting machines and devices. Some of the topics covered include an onboard cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains, development of superconducting magnets for magnetically levitated trains, a high-speed superconducting generator, helium refrigerator-liquifier system for MHD generator, design and construction of a superconducting quadrupole magnet for KEK

  9. Cryogenic detectors below 100 mK for X-ray measurements in metrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bobin; E. Leblanc; J. Bouchard; N. Coron; P. Cassette; J. Leblanc; P. de Marcillac; J. Plagnard

    2000-01-01

    Due to the intrinsic performances of cryogenic detectors such as energy resolution, LPRI has decided to use these devices to improve the quality of the radioactive measurements usually obtained with classical semiconductor detectors. A bolometer with a 10 ?g tin absorber has been developed at IAS (Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale) and has been tested in the cryogenic installation of LPRI; an energy

  10. Current measurement system utilizing cryogenic techniques for the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Endo; Y. Murayama; Y. Sakamoto; T. Sakuraba; F. Shiota

    1989-01-01

    A series of systems composed of cryogenic devices such as a Josephson potentiometer and a cryogenic current comparator has been proposed and developed to precisely measure a current with any value up to 1 A. These systems will be used to measure the injected electrical energy with an uncertainty of the order of 0.01 ppm or less in the absolute

  11. Vapor cooled current lead for cryogenic electrical equipment

    DOEpatents

    Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method are provided for conducting electric current to cryogenic electrical equipment devices. A combination of inner and outer tubes together form a plurality of hollow composite tubes housed in a sheath. Top and bottom block mounting means are fitted to hold the composite tubes and are affixed to the ends of the sheath. This combination forms a current lead. The current lead is attached to a cryogenic device housing a fluid coolant which moves through the current lead, cooling the current lead as the fluid travels.

  12. Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yushchenko, K.A.; Monko, G.G. [E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

    2004-06-28

    For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

  13. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  14. Cryogenics Research and Engineering Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space have a direct impact on NASA, government and commercial programs. Research and development on thermal insulation, propellant servicing, cryogenic components, material properties and sensing technologies provides industry, government and research institutions with the cross-cutting technologies to manage low-temperature applications. Under the direction of the Cryogenic Testing Lab at Kennedy Space Center, the work experience acquired allowed me to perform research, testing, design and analysis of current and future cryogenic technologies to be applied in several projects.

  15. Insulation design of cryogenic bushing for superconducting electric power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Shin, W. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J. T.; Lee, B. W.; Lee, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the superconductivity projects to develop commercial superconducting devices for extra high voltage transmission lines have been undergoing in many countries. One of the critical components to be developed for high voltage superconducting devices, including superconducting transformers, cables, and fault current limiters, is a high voltage bushing, to supply high current to devices without insulating difficulties, that is designed for cryogenic environments. Unfortunately, suitable bushings for HTS equipment were not fully developed for some cryogenic insulation issues. Such high voltage bushings would need to provide electrical insulation capabilities from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. First, the dielectric strength of three kinds of metals has been measured with uniform and non-uniform electrodes by withstand voltage of impulse and AC breakdown test in LN2. Second, puncture breakdown voltage of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) plates has been analyzed with non-uniform electrodes. Finally, creepage discharge voltages were measured according to the configuration of non-uniform and uniform electrode on the FRP plate. From the test results, we obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic environment.

  16. ADVANCES IN CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timmerhaus; K. D. ed

    1962-01-01

    Seventy-one papers and two summaries of papers are given, The papers are ; grouped under the following headings: invited papers; space simulation; physical ; equilibria; equipment; fluid transfer phenomena; cryogenic properties; heat ; transfer phenomena; mechanical properties and test procedures; selected short ; papers. Fifteen papers are covered by separate abstracts. (A.G.W.);

  17. Compact cryogenic inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Carr, W.J. Jr.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Hordubay, T.D.; Chuboy, H.L. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center)

    1994-07-01

    Power systems requiring power levels as high as a few megawatts to a few gigawatts for periods of several microseconds to several milliseconds with repetitive frequencies of a few hertz to a few kilohertz are being considered for potential space applications. The impulsive nature of the power presents the opportunity to use inductive energy storage techniques for pulse duty to enhance economic and practical considerations. An inductors must be efficient, lightweight, and reliable, and it must have high energy density if it is to be used in space based power systems. Cryogenic inductors are best studied for such an application. Parametric analyses of the two potential types of cryogenic inductors (superconducting and hyperconducting reveal that the hyperconducting (high purity aluminum)) inductor would be significantly lighter and achieve higher energy densities without the added penalty of a helium refrigeration system, thus resulting in improved overall system reliability. The lightweight hyperconducting cryogenic inductor technology is, however, in its infancy. This paper describes the required technology base which would allow the eventual application of the lightweight cryogenic inductor in space power systems, and also conclusively demonstrates the underlying principles.

  18. Cryogenics for lunar exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talso Chui; Burt Zhang; M. Barmatz; Inseob Hahn; Konstantin Penanen; Charles Hays; Donald Strayer; Yuanming Liu; Fang Zhong; Joseph Young; Tom Radey; Jack Jones; Nicholas Galitzki; Nixon Li; Leyan Lo; Steven Horikoshi; Shawna Hollen; Ho Jung Paik

    2006-01-01

    As part of the refocusing of NASA from Space Station research to exploration research, we are pursuing a number of proposed and funded projects for lunar exploration using cryogenic techniques. This paper gives a summary of these projects which include: (1) Using passive radiative cooling for separation and storage of volatiles from lunar regolith; (2) Studies of boiling and two-phase

  19. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  20. Closed-cycle cryogenic pump suitable for sounding rockets use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, P. W.; Zipf, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    We have successfully used a closed-cycle cryogenic cooling system as a high-speed UHV pump for instruments carried into the upper atmosphere on board sounding rockets. The device utilizes a commercially available, Sterling-cycle refrigerator that has proven to be rugged and simple to use under field conditions.

  1. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  2. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  3. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  4. Calibrating Pressure Transducers at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbens, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    To calibrate transducers immersed in cryogenic environment, sealed reciprocating bellows generates sinusoidal dynamic pressure. Transducer manifold assembly and bellows immersed in cryogenic environment to minimize gradients in controllable cryogenic temperature.

  5. Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Frank Trang

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Zoya

    Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials by Frank Trang B.S., University of California entitled: Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials written by Frank Trang has been approved.D., Electrical Engineering) Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials Thesis directed by Professor

  6. Experiments on Cryogenic Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, O.; Sekine, W.; Kubota, J.; Uotani, N.; Chikasue, M.; Shindo, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan)

    2009-11-10

    Experiments on a cryogenic complex plasma have been performed. Preliminary experiments include production of a plasma in a liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by a pulsed discharge. The extended production of a plasma has been realized in a vapor of liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by rf discharge. The charge of dust particles injected in such a plasma has been studied in detail.

  7. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  8. Cryogenic high current discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Meierovich, B.E. [P.L. Kapitza Inst. of Physics Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges.

  9. Precision Cryogenic Dilatometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudik, Matthew; Halverson, Peter; Levine-West, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    A dilatometer based on a laser interferometer is being developed to measure mechanical creep and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of materials at temperatures ranging from ambient down to 15 K. This cryogenic dilatometer has been designed to minimize systematic errors that limit the best previously available dilatometers. At its prototype stage of development, this cryogenic dilatometer yields a strain measurement error of 35 ppb or 1.7 ppb/K CTE measurement error for a 20-K thermal load, for low-expansion materials in the temperature range from 310 down to 30 K. Planned further design refinements that include a provision for stabilization of the laser and addition of a high-precision sample-holding jig are expected to reduce the measurement error to 5-ppb strain error or 0.3-ppb/K CTE error for a 20-K thermal load. The dilatometer (see figure) includes a common-path, differential, heterodyne interferometer; a dual-frequency, stabilized source bench that serves as the light source for the interferometer; a cryogenic chamber in which one places the material sample to be studied; a cryogenic system for cooling the interior of the chamber to the measurement temperature; an ultra-stable alignment stage for positioning the chamber so that the sample is properly positioned with respect to the interferometer; and a data-acquisition and control system. The cryogenic chamber and the interferometer portion of the dilatometer are housed in a vacuum chamber on top of a vibration isolating optical table in a cleanroom. The sample consists of two pieces a pillar on a base both made of the same material. Using reflections of the interferometer beams from the base and the top of the pillar, what is measured is the change in length of the pillar as the temperature in the chamber is changed. In their fundamental optical and electronic principles of operation, the laser light source and the interferometer are similar to those described in Common-Path Heterodyne Interferometers (NPO-20786), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 12a, and Interferometer for Measuring Displacement to Within 20 pm (NPO- 21221), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 7 (July 2003), page 8a. However, the present designs incorporate a number of special geometric, optical, and mechanical features to minimize optical and thermal-expansion effects that contribute to measurement errors. These features include the use of low-thermal expansion materials for structural components, kinematic mounting and symmetrical placement of optical components, and several measures taken to minimize spurious reflections of laser beams.

  10. Commissioning of the cryogenics of the LHC long straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; /CERN; Darve, C.; /Fermilab; Ferlin, G.; Millet, F.; Parente, C.; /CERN; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab; Soubiran, M.; van Weelderen, R.; Wagner, U.; /CERN

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

  11. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  12. Spacelab cryogenic propellant management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Spacelab cryogen management experiment was performed to demonstrate toe desirability and feasibility of subcritical cryogenic fluid orbital storage and supply. A description of the experimental apparatus, definition of supporting requirements, procedures, data analysis, and a cost estimate are included.

  13. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  14. Cryogenic Propellant Scavenging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, B.; Kemp, N. J.; Daney, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer model that has been developed for assessing the feasibility of low g cryogen propellant scavenging from the space shuttle External Tank (ET) is given. Either pump-assisted or pressure-induced propellant transfer may be selected. The program will accept a wide range of input variables, including the fuel to be transferred (LOX or LH2), heat leaks, tank temperatures, and piping and equipment specifications. The model has been parametrically analyzed to determine initial design specification for the system.

  15. Cryogenic Tritium Target

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimchuk, A.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Tumkin, D.P. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Boitsov, I.Ye. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    2005-07-15

    To measure muon catalyzed fusion (MC) parameters in liquid tritium with the accuracy better than 10% in the reaction tt{mu} {yields} {sup 4}He + n +n+ {mu}, a cryogenic tritium target (CTT) of a 8.1 cm{sup 3} volume was created. The CTT is a radiation-safe complex containing chemically bound tritium in the form of uranium tritide in a special source.In 2003, using the CTT, two runs of measurements with liquid tritium MC parameters were made on the synchrocyclotron muon channel in the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (DLNP JINR)

  16. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D.; Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  17. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  18. Cryogenic insulation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhard, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Multilayer insulations for long term cryogenic storage are described. The development effort resulted in an insulation concept using lightweight radiation shields, separated by low conductive Dacron fiber tufts. The insulation is usually referred to as Superfloc. The fiber tufts are arranged in a triangular pattern and stand about .040 in. above the radiation shield base. Thermal and structural evaluation of Superfloc indicated that this material is a strong candidate for the development of high performance thermal protection systems because of its high strength, purge gas evacuation capability during boost, its density control and easy application to a tank.

  19. Flexible cryogenic thermosyphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Dogan; Painter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Cryocooler and pulse tubes have been increasingly used in small and large scale cryogenic systems including the superconducting magnet systems as heat sinks to attain and keep the required temperatures. Designing the thermal link between the mechanical refrigerator and the system may present a challenge due to the mechanical stresses developed during the cool-down of the assembled systems. Also, the cross section may be too bulky for metallic conductors for given thermal specifications. In this paper, a thermosysphon with a flexible fluid link between the evaporator and condenser is presented. The working fluid used in preliminary testing is nitrogen. The results of the initial testing of the flexible thermosyphon are presented.

  20. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  1. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Geynisman et al.

    2003-09-15

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider, a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon stop prototype.

  2. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  3. Cryogenic optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Das, Manoj; Ohkubo, Takuya; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of atomic clocks relies on the superb reproducibility of atomic spectroscopy, which is accomplished by careful control and the elimination of environmental perturbations on atoms. To date, individual atomic clocks have achieved a 10?18 level of total uncertainties, but a two-clock comparison at the 10?18 level has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate optical lattice clocks with 87Sr atoms interrogated in a cryogenic environment to address the blackbody radiation-induced frequency shift, which remains the primary source of systematic uncertainty and has initiated vigorous theoretical and experimental investigations. The systematic uncertainty for the cryogenic clock is evaluated to be 7.2?×?10?18, which is expedited by operating two such cryo-clocks synchronously. After 11 measurements performed over a month, statistical agreement between the two cryo-clocks reached 2.0?×?10?18. Such clocks' reproducibility is a major step towards developing accurate clocks at the low 10?18 level, and is directly applicable as a means for relativistic geodesy.

  4. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 26 - Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Clark; R. P. Reed

    1980-01-01

    Materials resource considerations for cryogenic engineering are discussed along with Nb-Ti alloy superconductors, the magnetic character of austenitic stainless steels, the alteration of the superconducting properties of A15 compounds and elementary composite superconductors by nonhydrostatic elastic strain, cryogenic processing, and international standards for cryogenic polymers and composites. A review is presented of antifriction materials and design for cryogenic environments. Other

  5. Final version, May 2002 Cryogenics Assessment Report

    E-print Network

    Final version, May 2002 1 Cryogenics Assessment Report M. J. Gouge, J. A. Demko and B. W. Mc (HTS) have long recognized the importance of cryogenics as an enabling technology. Cryogenic workshops-of-the-art in cryogenic components and estimated performance requirements when used with HTS electric power systems

  6. On a cryogenic noble gas ion catcher

    E-print Network

    P. Dendooven; S. Purushothaman; K. Gloos

    2005-12-20

    In-situ purification of the gas used as stopping medium in a noble gas ion catcher by operating the device at low temperatures of 60 to 150 K was investigated. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a 223Ra source served as energetic probes. The combined ion survival and transport efficiencies for 219Rn ions saturated below about 90 K, reaching 28.7(17) % in helium, 22.1(13) % in neon, and 17.0(10) % in argon. These values may well reflect the charge exchange and stripping cross sections during the slowing down of the ions, and thus represent a fundamental upper limit for the efficiency of noble gas ion catcher devices. We suggest the cryogenic noble gas ion catcher as a technically simpler alternative to the ultra-high purity noble gas ion catcher operating at room temperature.

  7. SR&DB Cryogenic Research & Development for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, S. I.; Arkhipov, V. T.; Logvinenko, S. P.; Solodovnik, L. L.; Rusanov, K. V.; Shcherbakova, N. S.

    The Special Research and Development Bureau (SR&DB) for Cryogenic Technology of the B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics & Engineering was founded in 1971 and is located in Kharkov, Ukraine. Its primary focus has been in the area of applied r&d in the field of cryogenic technology for space applications. Within this field SR&DB has had many successful accomplishments, especially in the development of satellite based cryogenic cooling systems, mass spectrometer measurement devices, resistence thermometers, and cryogenically cooled optical systems. We have developed very advanced technology in the fields of fluids, heat transfer and hydrodynamics under micro-gravity conditions. Many of the SR&DB cryogenic products have been successfully implemented for former Soviet space applications, both near-earth and deep space. The SR&DB unique experience in many R&D areas can be and are being used for a new generation of space applications which have a requirement for planetary and deep-space missions. Systems we have developed have been proven to have a 5-year life in orbit. Recently we have focused much of our attention, as well, to the requirement low-weight and low-power systems which are mandatory requirements for outerspace missions. The funtionality of the exterior surfaces of a spacecraft are mainly dependent on the composition of its internally generated local atmosphere. In order to continually assess the content and concentration of components of this atmosphere we have developed space based mass spectrometric measuring devices. Devices which require such continual measurement are optical devices, emission receivers, solar cells, etc. A significant technology advance in the field of cryogenics is the application of cryoagents in systems of life support and spacecraft engine operation. We have studied and have an in-depth comprehension of unique phase-transition for these cryoagents such as oxygen, hydrogen, et al. under microgravity conditions. Currently SR&DB under contract to the National Space Agency of Ukraine has been developing an experimental apparatus for studying the continuous boiling off of cryogenic fluids under micro-gravity conditions.

  8. Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment: Results overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, T.; Buchko, M.; Brennan, P.; Bello, M.; Stoyanof, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the flight results of the Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment (CRYOTP), which was a Hitchhiker based experiment that flew on the space shuttle Columbia in March of 1994 (STS-62). CRYOTP tested two new technologies for advanced cryogenic thermal control; the Space Heat Pipe (SHP), which was a constant conductance cryogenic heat pipe, and the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU), which was a cryogenic phase-change thermal storage device. These two devices were tested independently during the mission. Analysis of the flight data indicated that the SHP was unable to start in either of two attempts, for reasons related to the fluid charge, parasitic heat leaks, and cryocooler capacity. The BETSU test article was successfully operated with more than 250 hours of on-orbit testing including several cooldown cycles and 56 freeze/thaw cycles. Some degradation was observed with the five tactical cryocoolers used as thermal sinks, and one of the cryocoolers failed completely after 331 hours of operation. Post-flight analysis indicated that this problem was most likely due to failure of an electrical controller internal to the unit.

  9. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  10. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  11. Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Anthony G.

    Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /? where ? is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency stabilities in the range of a few times 10-15 to a few times 10-16. In this contribution we review only liquid-helium-cooled secondary frequency standards, such as those just mentioned, which have attained frequency stabilities of 10-14 or better.

  12. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  13. Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

    1980-09-30

    A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

  14. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  15. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-09

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  16. Current measurement system utilizing cryogenic techniques for the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Murayama, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sakuraba, T. (Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (JP)); Shiota, F. (National Research Lab. of Metrology, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305 (JP))

    1989-04-01

    A series of systems composed of cryogenic devices such as a Josephson potentiometer and a cryogenic current comparator has been proposed and developed to precisely measure a current with any value up to 1 A. These systems will be used to measure the injected electrical energy with an uncertainty of the order of 0.01 ppm or less in the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum by superconducting magnetic levitation. Some preliminary experiments are described.

  17. Cryogenics for Pulsed Solenoid Magnet

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Committee September 6, 2002 G. T Mulholland ACT World Headquarters Applied Cryogenics Technology PO Box 2158, Peter Titus Magnet Design: Bob Weggel Cryo-Design Issues: ACT, G. T. Mulholland Components 1). Pulsed

  18. Adhesive for cryogenic temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    Adhesive, which bonds a metal liner to a filament wound composite structure used for cryogenic pressure vessels, prevents the metal liner from buckling under depressurization. The adhesive consists of adducts of urethane and epoxy resins.

  19. Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

  20. Improved yields for the nano-technology era using cryogenic aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Wagener; Kazushi Kawaguchi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, cryogenic aerosol processing for enhancing final device yield in state-of-art 180 and 130 nm devices is demonstrated. Significant advantages of this particle removal technology is demonstrated and discussed: excellent particle removal efficiency on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, no watermarks, no feature damage, no charge induced damage and no film modification or loss.

  1. Cryogenics in the food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, H.

    Application of cryogenics in the Food Industry has grown from its inception twelve years ago to nearly 100 000 tons per annum; most of this involves liquid nitrogen. History of this growth is described, together with the technical developments necessary in equipment and control systems which were needed to ensure economic success of the processes. Methods used to distribute the liquid nitrogen are explained and the current theories of freezing principles outlined. Trends for the future in this use of cryogenics are discussed.

  2. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  3. R&D ERL: Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL cryogenic system will supply cooling to a super-conducting RF (SCRF) gun and the 5-cell super-conducting RF cavity system that need to be held cold at 2K. The engineering of the cavity cryomodules were carried out by AES in collaboration with BNL. The 2K superfluid bath is produced by pumping on the bath using a sub-atmospheric warm compression system. The cryogenic system makes use of mainly existing equipment relocated from other facilities: a 300W 4.5K coldbox, an 45 g/s screw compressor, a 3800 liter liquid helium storage dewar, a 170 m{sup 3} warm gas storage tank, and a 40,000 liter vertical low pressure liquid nitrogen storage dewar. An existing wet expander obtained from another facility has been added to increase the plant capacity. In order to deliver the required 3 to 4 bar helium to the cryomodules while using up stored liquid capacity at low pressure, a new subcooler will be installed to function as the capacity transfer device. A 2K to 4K recovery heat exchanger is also implemented for each cryomodule to recover refrigeration below 4K, thus maximizing 2K cooling capacity with the given sub-atmospheric pump. No 4K-300K refrigeration recovery is implemented at this time of the returning sub-atmospheric cold vapor, hence the 2K load appears as a liquefaction1 load on the cryogenic plant. A separate LN2 cooling loop supplies liquid nitrogen to the superconducting gun's cathode tip.

  4. Design and Fabrication of Integrated Cryogenic Current Comparators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Maezawa; Chiharu Urano; Michitaka Maruyama; Takahiro Yamada; Takehiko Oe; Mutsuo Hidaka; Tetsuro Satoh; Shuichi Nagasawa; Kenji Hinode; Shogo Kiryu; Nobu-Hisa Kaneko

    2011-01-01

    A cryogenic current comparator (CCC) is an instru- ment of great importance in electrical metrology, which provides a ratio of two currents with ultimate accuracy based on supercon- ductivity. It is used for dc resistance calibration in many national metrologyinstitutes.ConventionalCCCsconsistofmulti-turncoils ofwirewindings,amulti-layeredshieldofsuperconductorfoilsand a separate SQUID sensor. This implementation results in a bulky device too massive to cool with a mechanical cryocooler,

  5. Cryogenic focussing, ohmically heated on-column trap

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, S.R.

    1991-12-01

    A procedure is described for depositing a conductive layer of gold on the exterior of a fused-silica capillary used in gas chromatography. By subjecting a section of the column near the inlet to a thermal cycle of cryogenic cooling and ohmic heating, volatile samples are concentrated and subsequently injected. The performance of this trap as a chromatographic injector is demonstrated. Several additional applications are suggested and the unique properties of this device are discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  7. Neutron optics in cryogenic sample environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowiak, Marek; Filges, Uwe; Panzner, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Neutron focusing devices can be used to enhance neutron instruments when measuring small samples. However, for an optimum performance they need to be as close as possible to the sample which, in most situations, conflicts with the need for sample environment such as pressure cells, cryostats or magnets. In this paper we explore the potential and feasibility to incorporate a neutron lens based on supermirror technology into a cryostat containing a Paris-Edinburgh pressure cell. We present experimental results on the performance of super-mirrors between 5 and 300 K. Based on the experimental results we estimate the expected gain factors for a setup with a parabolic lens and a pressure cell in a cryogenic environment using Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  9. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  10. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  11. Developments and Cryogenic Measurements of an Optical

    E-print Network

    Developments and Cryogenic Measurements of an Optical Transducer for the Gravitational Wave. Photograph by European Southern Observatory, 17 November 1999. #12;Developments and Cryogenic Measurements....................................... 4.7 Measurements of the resonator mechanical Q........................ 4.7.1 Cryogenic Run 1

  12. Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors

    E-print Network

    A. Buzulutskov

    2015-03-29

    Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

  13. A new high-background-rejection dark matter Ge cryogenic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EDELWEISS Collaboration; Broniatowski, A.; Defay, X.; Armengaud, E.; Bergé, L.; Benoit, A.; Besida, O.; Blümer, J.; Chantelauze, A.; Chapellier, M.; Chardin, G.; Charlieux, F.; Collin, S.; Crauste, O.; de Jesus, M.; di Stefano, P.; Dolgorouki, Y.; Domange, J.; Dumoulin, L.; Eitel, K.; Gascon, J.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Hannawald, M.; Hervé, S.; Juillard, A.; Kluck, H.; Kozlov, V.; Lemrani, R.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Marrache, C.; Marnieros, S.; Navick, X.-F.; Nones, C.; Olivieri, E.; Pari, P.; Paul, B.; Rozov, S.; Sanglard, V.; Scorza, S.; Semikh, S.; Verdier, M.-A.; Vagneron, L.; Yakushev, E.

    2009-11-01

    A new design of a cryogenic germanium detector for dark matter search is presented, taking advantage of the coplanar grid technique of event localisation for improved background discrimination. Experiments performed with prototype devices in the EDELWEISS II setup at the Modane underground facility demonstrate the remarkably high efficiency of these devices for the rejection of low-energy ?, approaching 105. This opens the road to investigate the range beyond 10-8 pb in the WIMP-nucleon collision cross-sections, as proposed in the EURECA project of a one-ton cryogenic detector mass.

  14. A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

    2014-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

  15. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  16. Fastener load tests and retention systems tests for cryogenic wind-tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A-286 stainless steel screws were tested to determine the tensile load capability and failure mode of various screw sizes and types at both cryogenic and room temperature. Additionally, five fastener retention systems were tested by using A-286 screws with specimens made from the primary metallic alloys that are currently used for cryogenic models. The locking system effectiveness was examined by simple no-load cycling to cryogenic temperatures (-275 F) as well as by dynamic and static loading at cryogenic temperatures. In general, most systems were found to be effective retention devices. There are some differences between the various devices with respect to ease of application, cleanup, and reuse. Results of tests at -275 F imply that the cold temperatures act to improve screw retention. The improved retention is probably the result of differential thermal contraction and/or increased friction (thread-binding effects). The data provided are useful in selecting screw sizes, types, and locking devices for model systems to be tested in cryogenic wind tunnels.

  17. Sources of Cryogenic Data and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohling, R. A.; Hufferd, W. L.; Marquardt, E. D.

    It is commonly known that cryogenic data, technology, and information are applied across many military, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and civilian product lines. Before 1950, however, there was no centralized US source of cryogenic technology data. The Cryogenic Data Center of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) maintained a database of cryogenic technical documents that served the national need well from the mid 1950s to the early 1980s. The database, maintained on a mainframe computer, was a highly specific bibliography of cryogenic literature and thermophysical properties that covered over 100 years of data. In 1983, however, the Cryogenic Data Center was discontinued when NBS's mission and scope were redefined. In 1998, NASA contracted with the Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) and Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) to reconstitute and update Cryogenic Data Center information and establish a self-sufficient entity to provide technical services for the cryogenic community. The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) provided this service until 2004, when it was discontinued due to a lack of market interest. The CIC technical assets were distributed to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Plans are under way in 2006 for CPIA to launch an e-commerce cryogenic website to offer bibliography data with capability to download cryogenic documents.

  18. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  19. CRYOGENIC MACHINING OF KEVLAR COMPOSITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bhattacharyya; M. N. Allen; S. J. Mander

    1993-01-01

    Previous attempts to machine Kevlar aramid fibre reinforced plastics (KFRP) with conventional cutting tools have proven to be extremely difficult. This has somewhat restricted the material's usage, often negating the advantages of its high strength to weight ratio and fatigue tolerance. The present paper describes a novel technique of machining KFRP under cryogenic conditions with remarkable results compared to those

  20. Ames Research Center cryogenics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs describe the Ames Research Center's cryogenics program. Diagrams are given of a fluid management system, a centrifugal pump, a flow meter, a liquid helium test facility, an extra-vehicular activity coupler concept, a dewar support with passive orbital disconnect, a pulse tube refrigerator, a dilution refrigerator, and an adiabatic demagnetization cooler.

  1. Cryogenics Testbed Technology Focus Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Our mission is to bring together the mutual elements of research, industry, and training in the field of cryogenics to advance technology development for the spaceports of the future. Successful technology and productive collaboration comes from these three ingredients working together in a triangle of interaction.

  2. Cryogenic technology for tracking detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Granata; C. da Viá; S. Watts; K. Borer; S. Janos; K. Pretzl; B. Dezillie; Z. Li; L. Casagrande; P. Collins; S. Grohmann; E. Heijne; C. Lourenço; T. O. Niinikoski; V. G. Palmieri; P. Sonderegger; E. Borchi; M. Bruzzi; S. Pirollo; S. Chapuy; Z. Dimcovski; E. Grigoriev; W. Bell; S. R. H. Devine; V. O’Shea; G. Ruggiero; K. Smith; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; F. Hauler; S. Heising; L. Jungermann; M. Abreu; P. Rato Mendes; P. Sousa; V. Cindro; M. Mikuz; M. Zavrtanik; A. Esposito; I. Konorov; S. Paul; S. Buontempo; N. D’Ambrosio; S. Pagano; V. Eremin; E. Verbitskaya

    2001-01-01

    A low-mass cryogenic cooling technique for silicon sensor modules has been developed in the framework of the RD39 Collaboration at CERN. A prototype low-mass beam tracker cryostat has been designed, constructed and tested for applications in fixed target experiments. We shall report here briefly the main features and results of the system.

  3. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Casagrande; M. C. Abreu; W. H. Bell; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; E. Borchi; K. Borer; M. Bruzzi; S. Buontempo; S. Chapuy; V. Cindro; P. Collins; N. D'Ambrosio; C. Da Viá; S. Devine; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; F. Hauler; E. Heijne; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; I. Konorov; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; T. O. Niinikoski; V. O'Shea; S. Pagano; V. G. Palmieuri; S. Paul; S. Pirollo; K. Pretzl; P. Rato; G. Ruggiero; K. Smith; P. Sonderegger; P. Sousa; E. Verbitskaya; S. Watts; M. Zavrtanik

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, “resuscitate” when operated at temperatures below 130K. This is often referred to as the “Lazarus effect”. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors.

  4. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  5. Alternate approaches to cryogenic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W.; Devilliers, A.; Kappesser, R.

    1983-07-01

    Cryogenic cooling techniques for spaceborne infrared detectors are surveyed, and reason found to explore alternatives. An alternative class of cooling cycles is defined, and four practical cycles described. A general overview of operating efficiency for the whole class is developed. One of these cycles, the isobaric absorption cycle (Servel cycle), is explored in some detail.

  6. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  7. Flight Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Kobel, Mark; Bugby, David; Kroliczek, Edward; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the flight test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5) which flew on the Space Shuttle STS-95 in October of 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight was the first in-space demonstration of the CCPL, a lightweight heat transport and thermal switching device for future integrated cryogenic bus systems. The CCPL-5 utilized nitrogen as the working fluid and operated between 80K and 110K. Flight results indicated excellent performance of the CCPL-5 under zero-G environment. The CCPL could start from a supercritical condition in all tests, and the loop operating temperature could be tightly controlled regardless of changes in the heat load and/or the sink temperature. In addition, the loop demonstrated successful operation with a heat load of 0.5 W as well as with parasitic heat loads alone.

  8. Flight data for the Cryogenic Heat Pipe (CRYOHP) Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.J.; Thienel, L.; Swanson, T.; Morgan, M. (OAO Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States) Jackson and Tull, Greenbelt, MD (United States) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) USAF, Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the flight test results and data correlation for the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (CRYOHP). CRYOHP is a Hitchhiker Canister experiment that was flown aboard the shuttle Discovery (STS-53) in December of 1992. Two different axially grooved oxygen heat pipes were tested to determine their startup behavior and transport capability in micro-gravity. Three startup cycles were conducted with each heat pipe and transport data was obtained over the range of 60 K to 140 K. Startup in flight was repeatable but slower than observed in ground tests. The transport data shows good agreement with the theoretical model. The CRYOHP test bed, which incorporates five Stifling cycle refrigerators to provide the cryo-cooling, performed as predicted and offers a good micro-gravity test bed for cryogenic thermal devices. 6 refs.

  9. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into the pump, and the pump was successfully operated meeting all expected operating parameters. Unique pump sub-assembly parts were designed and manufactured by the CTL using specialized materials determined to be superior for cryogenic thermal applications under the pump design conditions. This work is a proof-of-concept/proof-of-operation of the pump only. Other known internal design modifications to the pump should be accomplished for the long-term use of the pump. An upscaled version of this pump, which is under development and testing at the CTL, can be used either for current or future vehicle loading or for vehicle replenishment. Scaling of this pump can be easily accomplished.

  10. Detecting MALDI ions with a cryogenic detector

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, W. Henry

    1997-09-12

    Progress in cryogenic detector technology has led to the development of new devices appropriate for use as ion detectors. We have recently begun to evaluate one type of cryogenic detector called a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector. Initial tests were conducted by replacing a microchannel plate ion detector in a matrix-assisted-laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) with a STJ detector. In those initial tests we showed that 1) the STJ detector produces pulses appropriate for timing large ions and 2) the height of the pulses is proportional to ion energy and thus useful for deducing ion charge. We now report additional STJ ion energy measurements that help to reveal some aspects of ion fragmentation in MALDI mass spectrometry. The height of the output pulse from a STJ detector is related approximately linearly to ion energy, thus doubly charged ions in a MALDI:TOF-MS produce pulses about twice as large as singly charged ions. Cryogenic detectors show excellent energy resolution for X rays, but poorer energy resolution is observed when MALDI ions are analyzed. The cause for the poor energy resolution of MALDI ions is not fully understood; nevertheless, it appears feasible to use STJ detectors to study the energy distribution of MALDI ions. The detectors appear to be sensitive enough to measure individual ion impacts and processes which influence ion energy such as in-source fragmentation and the deficit of ion energy caused by accelerating ions through a MALDI plume. In this study, we show how a STJ detector can be used to measure the time of flight of macroglobulin ions (725,000 Daltons), determine ion charge using detector pulse height and investigate in-source fragmentation patterns. It is found that the energy response of the STJ detector not only provides a way to assign charge to ions but also provides a way to examine fragmentation patterns for MALDI ions. The simple model described above appears to account for the flight times and expected energy of the ions that lead to clusters of crescent shaped data points. Work is under way to investigate the fragmentation of multiply charged ions.

  11. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management technology as it applies to the current human Mars mission scenarios.

  12. Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    E-print Network

    of perforated multilayer insulation blankets, Fesmire, Augustynowicz, Darve Thermal performance of cryogenic Source: NASA. Performance characterization of perforated multilayer insulation blankets, Fesmire: electricity, phone line, concrete pad, foundation #12;Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February

  13. Characterization of ETL 9357FLA photomultiplier tubes for cryogenic temperature applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ankowski; M. Antonello; P. Aprili; F. Arneodo; A. Badertscher; B. Baiboussinov; M. Baldo Ceolin; G. Battistoni; P. Benetti; M. Bischofberger; A. Borio di Tigliole; R. Brunetti; G. Bucciarelli; A. Bueno; E. Calligarich; F. Carbonara; M. C. Carmona; F. Cavanna; P. Cennini; S. Centro; A. Cesana; D. B. Cline; K. Cieslik; A. G. Cocco; Z. Dai; C. De Vecchi; A. Di Cicco; R. Dolfini; A. Ereditato; A. Ferella; A. Ferrari; G. Fiorillo; D. García-Gamez; Y. Ge; D. Gibin; A. Gigli Berzolari; I. Gil-Botella; K. Graczyk; L. Grandi; A. Guglielmi; J. Holeczek; C. Juszczak; D. Kielczewska; J. Kisiel; T. Kozlowski; M. Laffranchi; J. ?agoda; B. Lisowski; J. Lozano; M. Markiewicz; A. Martínez de la Ossa; C. Matthey; F. Mauri; A. J. Melgarejo; A. Menegolli; G. Meng; M. Messina; C. Montanari; S. Muraro; S. Navas-Concha; J. Nowak; S. Otwinowski; O. Palamara; L. Periale; G. Piano Mortari; A. Piazzoli; P. Picchi; F. Pietropaolo; W. Pólchlopek; M. Prata; P. Przewlocki; A. Rappoldi; G. L. Raselli; E. Rondio; M. Rossella; A. Rubbia; C. Rubbia; P. R. Sala; R. Santorelli; D. Scannicchio; E. Segreto; Y. Seo; F. Sergiampietri; J. Sobczyk; S. Stach; J. Stepaniak; R. Sulej; M. Szeptycka; M. Szarska; A. Szelc; M. Terrani; F. Varanini; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli; H. Wang; X. Yang; A. Zalewska

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a careful evaluation of the performance of the large cathode area ETL 9357FLA photomultiplier tube operating at cryogenic temperature. The measurements were focused on evaluating the parameters which mainly characterize the operating performances of the device down to 77K and the spread of the distinctive features over 54 samples assembled in the ICARUS apparatus. The results that

  14. A single chip broadband noise source for noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bruch; F. Schafer; M. Seelmann-Eggebert; B. Aja; I. Kallfass; A. Leuther; M. Schlechtweg; O. Ambacher

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a single chip broadband noise source dedicated for on-chip measurements in a cryogenic environment. The noise source is used to generate the two input noise powers Pc and Ph which are required by the commonly used Y-factor method. High accuracy in temperature control and impedance presented to the device under test is

  15. Applications of the second law of thermodynamics to cryogenics - A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Ahern

    1980-01-01

    Benefits derived from application of the second law of thermodynamics to cryogenics are reviewed. Early applications of second law analysis resulted in using staged or cascaded systems and work recovery devices to reduce the power requirements for air and helium liquefaction systems. More recent second law studies, based on minimization of irreversible entropy production and exergy losses, are providing a

  16. Environmental testing of high Tc superconductive thermal isolators for space-borne cryogenic detector systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie A. Wise; John D. Buckley; Henry W. Randolf; Darren Verbelyi; Gene H. Haertling; Matthew W. Hooker; Raouf Selim; Randall Caton

    1992-01-01

    Thick films of superconductive material on low thermal conductivity substrates (e.g., yttria-stabilized zirconia and fused silica) are considered as a replacement for the existing electrical connections between the detector array and data acquisition and storage electronics in the cryogenic detector systems being developed by NASA. The paper describes some of the design constraints on the superconducting device and presents results

  17. Cryogenics for the superconducting module test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A group of laboratories and universities, with Fermilab taking the lead, are constructing a superconducting cryomodule test facility (SMTF) in the Meson Detector Building (MDB) area at Fermilab. The facility will be used for testing and validating designs for both pulsed and CW systems. A multi phase approach is taken to construct the facility. For the initial phase of the project, cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule will be supplied from the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. A cryogenic distribution system to supply cryogens from CTF to MDB is under construction. This paper describes plans, status and challenges of the initial phase of the SMTF cryogenic system.

  18. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Joel

    2004-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is an experiment to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The experiment initially was deployed at a shallow underground site, and is currently deployed at a deep underground site at the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. The detectors operate at cryogenic temperature, and are capable of distinguishing nuclear recoils from WIMP interactions from various backgrounds. The detectors are shielded from background by both active and passive elements. We will describe the components of the overall experiment, and focus on the novel data acquisition system that has been develop to control and monitor the experiment via the World Wide Web. Preliminary signals from the operation at Soudan will be discussed.

  19. Electromagnetic dampers for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic turbomachinery of the type used to pump high-pressure liquid hydrogen at -423 F and liquid oxygen at -297 F to the main engines of the Space Shuttle are subjected to lateral rotor vibrations from unbalance forces and transient loads. Conventional dampers which utilize viscous fluids such as lubricating oil cannot be used in turbopumps because the bearing components are filled with either liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen, which have viscosity comparable to air and, therefore, are not effective in viscous dampers. Electromagentic dampers are currently being explored as a means of providing damping in cryogenic turbopumps because their damping effectiveness increases as temperature decreases and because they are compatible with the liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen in the turbopumps.

  20. Advanced Reusable Foam Cryogenic Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Allan H.; Mcauliffe, P. S.; Sparks, L. L.

    1990-01-01

    Lightweight, reusable cryogenic containers reduce costs of operation of advanced hypersonic airplanes and space launch vehicles. Specimens demonstrated in temperature range of negative 420 to positive 400 degrees F (negative 251 to positive 204 degrees C). Prototype reusable cryogenic foam insulation developed. Consists of two discrete layers of closed-cell polymethacrylimide foam of density 6.9 lb/ft to the 3rd power (111 kg/m to the 3rd power) bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Additionally reinforced with 0.003-in. (0.08-mm)-thick layer of fiberglass cloth. Wrapped with precut and preformed vapor-barrier cover. Such containers useful on Earth in laboratories, factories, and transportation systems.

  1. Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hoevers; P. Verhoeve

    2003-01-01

    Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with

  2. Cryogenic operation of silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Collins; I. B. M. Barnett; P. Bartalini; W. Bell; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; S. Buontempo; K. Borer; T. Bowcock; J. Buytaert; L. Casagrande; V. Chabaud; P. Chochula; V. Cindro; C. Da Via; S. Devine; H. Dijkstra; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; O. Dormond; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; R. Frei; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; F. Hauler; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; T. O Niinikoski; V O'Shea; V. G Palmieri; S. Paul; C. Parkes; G. Ruggiero; T. Ruf; S. Saladino; L. Schmitt; K. Smith; I. Stavitski; E. Verbitskaya; F. Vitobello; M. Zavrtanik

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements at cryogenic temperatures of a silicon microstrip detector irradiated with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5×1014p\\/cm2 and of a p–n junction diode detector irradiated to a similar fluence. At temperatures below 130 K a recovery of charge collection efficiency and resolution is observed. Under reverse bias conditions this recovery degrades in time towards

  3. Steels for cryogenic power engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Ermakov; A. Ya. Nikolaich; V. A. Oparin

    1986-01-01

    1.The mechanical properties of the investigated steels at normal and cryogenic temperatures improve when their aluminum content increases to 10%. Further alloying with aluminum causes some impairement of the plastic and ductile properties; this is connected with the formation of a-phase in the structure of the steels.2.Magnetic permeability is practically independent of the temperature in the range 293–4°K because of

  4. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  5. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  6. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  7. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  8. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  9. CRYOGENIC FLUID JETS AND MIXING LAYERS IN TRANSCRITICAL AND SUPERCRITICAL

    E-print Network

    Yang, Vigor

    CRYOGENIC FLUID JETS AND MIXING LAYERS IN TRANSCRITICAL AND SUPERCRITICAL ENVIRONMENTS NAN ZONG modeling and numerical simulation of cryogenic fluid injection and mixing in transcritical- layer instability, volume dilatation, and property variations, dictating the evolution of cryogenic jets

  10. Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original Motivation for broad international program on cryogenic particle detectors was neutrino physics and dark

  11. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  12. The evolution of cryogenic safety at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, R.; Kilmer, J.

    1992-12-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, Fermilab has been involved in cryogenic technology as it relates to pursuing experimentation in high energy physics. The Laboratory has instituted a strong cryogenic safety program and has maintained a very positive safety record. The solid commitment of management and the cryogenic community to incorporating safety into the system life cycle has led to policies that set requirements and help establish consistency for the purchase and installation of equipment and the safety analysis and documentation.

  13. Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

  14. Cryogenic transfer options for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The literature of in-space cryogenic transfer is reviewed in order to propose transportation concepts to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Forty-nine references are listed and key findings are synopsized. An assessment of the current maturity of cryogenic transfer system technology is made. Although the settled transfer technique is the most mature technology, the No-Vent Fill technology is maturing rapidly. Future options for development of cryogenic transfer technology are also discussed.

  15. Usaf Space Sensing Cryogenic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, F.

    2010-04-01

    Infrared (IR) space sensing missions of the future depend upon low mass components and highly capable imaging technologies. Limitations in visible imaging due to the earth's shadow drive the use of IR surveillance methods for a wide variety of applications for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications, and almost certainly in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. Utilization of IR sensors greatly expands and improves mission capabilities including target and target behavioral discrimination. Background IR emissions and electronic noise that is inherently present in Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and surveillance optics bench designs prevents their use unless they are cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This paper describes the role of cryogenic coolers as an enabling technology for generic ISR and BMD missions and provides ISR and BMD mission and requirement planners with a brief glimpse of this critical technology implementation potential. The interaction between cryogenic refrigeration component performance and the IR sensor optics and FPA can be seen as not only mission enabling but also as mission performance enhancing when the refrigeration system is considered as part of an overall optimization problem.

  16. ZERODUR TAILORED for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, R.; Westerhoff, T.

    2014-07-01

    ZERODUR® glass ceramic from SCHOTT is known for its very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. It is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors but also for satellite applications. Many reference application demonstrate the excellent and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. For space application a low CTE of the mirror material is required at cryogenic temperatures together with a good match of the thermal expansion to the supporting structure material. It is possible to optimize the coefficient of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® for cryogenic applications. This paper reports on measurements of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® down to cryogenic temperatures of 10 K performed by the PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstallt, Braunschweig, Germany, the national metrology laboratory). The ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO presented in this paper has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion down to 70 K. The maximum absolute integrated thermal expansion down to 10 K is only about 20 ppm. Mirror blanks made from ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO can be light weighted to almost 90% with our modern processing technologies. With ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO, SCHOTT offers the mirror blank material for the next generation of space telescope applications.

  17. Cryogenic actuator for subnanometer positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, B. v.; Janssen, H.; Paalvast, S.; Albers, R.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses the development, realization, and qualification of a positioning actuator concept specifically for cryogenic environments. Originally developed for quantum physics research, the actuator also has many applications in astronomic cryogenic instruments to position optical elements with nanometer level accuracy and stability. Typical applications include the correction of thermally induced position errors of optical components after cooling down from ambient to cryogenic temperatures or sample positioning in microscopes. The actuator is nicknamed the ‘PiezoKnob’ because it is piezo based and it is compatible with the typical manipulator knob often found in standard systems for optical benches, such as linear stages or tip/tilt lens holders. Actuation with high stiffness piezo elements enables the Piezoknob to deliver forces up to 50 Newton which allows relatively stiff guiding mechanisms or large pre-loads. The PiezoKnob has been qualified at 77 Kelvin and was shown to work down to 2 Kelvin. As part of the qualification program, the custom developed driving electronics and set point profile have been fine-tuned, by combing measurements with predictions from a dynamic model, thus maximizing efficiency and minimizing power dissipation. Furthermore, the actuator holds its position without power and thanks to its mechanical layout it is absolutely insensitive to drift of the piezo elements or the driving electronics.

  18. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  19. Cryogenic cooling of instruments in orbit - A standard solid cryogen cooler approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Nast; A. Sherman

    1979-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the utility and characteristics of a solid cryogen cooler which could meet a variety of instrument and mission requirements. The cooler consists essentially of two stages of solid cryogen and two cooled shields. The inner shield is thermally grounded to the secondary (warmer) cryogen and provides a low temperature boundary around the colder

  20. Dynamics of cryogen deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Verkruysse; Boris Majaron; Guillermo Aguilar; Lars O. Svaasand; J. Stuart Nelson

    2000-01-01

    Goal is to investigate how delivery nozzle design influences the cooling rate of cryogen spray as used in skin laser treatments. Cryogen was sprayed through nozzles that consist of metal tubes with either a narrow or wide diameter and two different lengths. Fast-flashlamp photography showed that the wide nozzles, in particular the long wide one, produced a cryogen jet (very

  1. Report on the First VLHC Photon Stop Cryogenic Design Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geynisman, M.; Bauer, P.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Ewald, K.; Klebaner, A.; Limon, P.; Martinez, A.

    2004-06-01

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high-field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon-stop prototype.

  2. Report on the First VLHC Photon Stop Cryogenic Design Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Geynisman, M.; Bauer, P.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Ewald, K.; Klebaner, A.; Limon, P.; Martinez, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois, 60510 (United States)

    2004-06-23

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high-field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon-stop prototype.

  3. Effects of electrostatic discharge on three cryogenic temperature sensor models

    SciTech Connect

    Courts, S. Scott; Mott, Thomas B. [Lake Shore Cryotronics, 575 McCorkle Blvd., Westerville, OH 43082 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic temperature sensors are not usually thought of as electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitive devices. However, the most common cryogenic thermometers in use today are thermally sensitive diodes or resistors - both electronic devices in their base form. As such, they are sensitive to ESD at some level above which either catastrophic or latent damage can occur. Instituting an ESD program for safe handling and installation of the sensor is costly and it is desirable to balance the risk of ESD damage against this cost. However, this risk cannot be evaluated without specific knowledge of the ESD vulnerability of the devices in question. This work examines three types of cryogenic temperature sensors for ESD sensitivity - silicon diodes, Cernox(trade mark, serif) resistors, and wire wound platinum resistors, all manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Testing was performed per TIA/EIA FOTP129 (Human Body Model). Damage was found to occur in the silicon diode sensors at discharge levels of 1,500 V. For Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors, damage was observed at 3,500 V. The platinum temperature sensors were not damaged by ESD exposure levels of 9,900 V. At the lower damage limit, both the silicon diode and the Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors showed relatively small calibration shifts of 1 to 3 K at room temperature. The diode sensors were stable with time and thermal cycling, but the long term stability of the Cernox(trade mark, serif) sensors was degraded. Catastrophic failure occurred at higher levels of ESD exposure.

  4. Design of Subcooled Pressurized Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, G. E.

    2008-03-01

    High—temperature-superconducting power lines and various beamline targets require cooling with subcooled, non-boiling cryogens in the pressure range from 5 to 15 Bar. In conventional closed-loop refrigerated systems this is accomplished by using a pressurized ballast cryogen dewar to maintain the desired pressure. Although consumption is modest, cryogen flows continuously from the ballast dewar and periodic replenishment is necessary. This paper describes an innovative refrigerated system which eliminates the ballast dewar and operates continuously without cryogen or gaseous make-up after the initial fill.

  5. Network analyzer calibration for cryogenic on-wafer measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Housel, M.S.; Caldwell, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    A cryogenic probe station for on-wafer microwave measurements has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to explore the basic device physics and characterize advanced components for low-temperature applications. The station was designed to operate over a temperature range of 20 to 300 K with a frequency range of DC to 50 GHz. Due to the vacuum and the low temperature environment, the use of microwave probes and the calibration of network analyzer measurements are somewhat elaborate. This paper presents guidelines for probe use and calibration in this environment.

  6. Cryogenic filter wheel design for an infrared instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcue, Joaquín.; Villanueva, Carlos; Sánchez, Antonio; Polo, Cristina; Reina, Manuel; Carretero, Angel; Torres, Josefina; Ramos, Gonzalo; Gonzalez, Luis M.; Sabau, Maria D.; Najarro, Francisco; Pintado, Jesús M.

    2014-09-01

    In the last two decades, Spain has built up a strong IR community which has successfully contributed to space instruments, reaching Co-PI level in the SPICA mission (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics). Under the SPICA mission, INTA, focused on the SAFARI instrument requirements but highly adaptable to other missions has designed a cryogenic low dissipation filter wheel with six positions, taking as starting point the past experience of the team with the OSIRIS instrument (ROSETTA mission) filter wheels and adapting the design to work at cryogenic temperatures. One of the main goals of the mechanism is to use as much as possible commercial components and test them at cryogenic temperature. This paper is focused on the design of the filter wheel, including the material selection for each of the main components of the mechanism, the design of elastic mount for the filter assembly, a positioner device designed to provide positional accuracy and repeatability to the filter, allowing the locking of the position without dissipation. In order to know the position of the wheel on every moment a position sensor based on a Hall sensor was developed. A series of cryogenic tests have been performed in order to validate the material configuration selected, the ball bearing lubrication and the selection of the motor. A stepper motor characterization campaign was performed including heat dissipation measurements. The result is a six position filter wheel highly adaptable to different configurations and motors using commercial components. The mechanism was successfully tested at INTA facilities at 20K at breadboard level.

  7. Issues of Long-Term Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratov, C. B.; Osipov, Viatcheslav V.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern multi-layer insulation (MLI) allows to sharply reduce the heat leak into cryogenic propellant storage tanks through the tank surface and, as a consequence, significantly extend the storage duration. In this situation the MLI penetrations, such as support struts, feed lines, etc., become one of the most significant challenges of the tanks heat management. This problem is especially acute for liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, since currently no efficient cryocoolers exist that operate at very low LH2 temperatures (20K). Even small heat leaks under microgravity conditions and over the period of many months give rise to a complex slowly-developing, large-scale spatiotemporal physical phenomena in a multi-phase liquid-vapor mixture. These phenomena are not well-understood nor can be easily controlled. They can be of a potentially hazardous nature for long-term on-orbital cryogenic torage, propellant loading, tank chilldown, engine restart, and other in-space cryogenic fluid management operations. To support the engineering design solutions that would mitigate these effects a detailed physics-based analysis of heat transfer, vapor bubble formation, growth, motion, coalescence and collapse is required in the presence of stirring jets of different configurations and passive cooling devices such as MLI, thermodynamic vent system, and vapor-cooled shield. To develop physics-based models and correlations reliable for microgravity conditions and long-time scales there is a need for new fundamental data to be collected from on-orbit cryogenic storage experiments. Our report discusses some of these physical phenomena and the design requirements and future studies necessary for their mitigation. Special attention is payed to the phenomena occurring near MLI penetrations.

  8. Cryogenic detectors below 100 mK for X-ray measurements in metrology

    PubMed

    Bobin; Leblanc; Bouchard; Coron; Cassette; Leblanc; de Marcillac P; Plagnard

    2000-03-01

    Due to the intrinsic performances of cryogenic detectors such as energy resolution, LPRI has decided to use these devices to improve the quality of the radioactive measurements usually obtained with classical semiconductor detectors. A bolometer with a 10 microg tin absorber has been developed at IAS (Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale) and has been tested in the cryogenic installation of LPRI; an energy resolution (full width half maximum, FWHM) of 39 eV has been obtained on the Kalpha line of Mn. Besides these good spectrometry results, an absolute activity measurement using bolometers is proposed by adapting an absorber geometry for 4 pi counting. PMID:10724382

  9. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  10. Cryogenic, high speed, turbopump bearing cooling requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, Fred J.; Gibson, Howard G.; Cannon, James L.; Cody, Joe C.

    1988-01-01

    Although the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has repeatedly demonstrated the capability to perform during launch, the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) main shaft bearings have not met their 7.5 hour life requirement. A tester is being employed to provide the capability of subjecting full scale bearings and seals to speeds, loads, propellants, temperatures, and pressures which simulate engine operating conditions. The tester design permits much more elaborate instrumentation and diagnostics than could be accommodated in an SSME turbopump. Tests were made to demonstrate the facilities; and the devices' capabilities, to verify the instruments in its operating environment and to establish a performance baseline for the flight type SSME HPOTP Turbine Bearing design. Bearing performance data from tests are being utilized to generate: (1) a high speed, cryogenic turbopump bearing computer mechanical model, and (2) a much improved, very detailed thermal model to better understand bearing internal operating conditions. Parametric tests were also made to determine the effects of speed, axial loads, coolant flow rate, and surface finish degradation on bearing performance.

  11. Development of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, Subhash; Narasimham, G. S. V. L.; Nadig, D. S.; Behera, Upendra; Kumar, Dinesh

    2008-03-01

    The design of a cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is presented in the paper. As the wick is required only in the evaporator section, very small pore size wicks can be used in applications with high thermal transport requirements and/or where the heat must be transported over a long distance against gravity. A FORTRAN program to solve the mathematical model and to determine the parameters for various boundary conditions has been developed. The CLHP is designed to transfer 5W heat at 70K using nitrogen or oxygen as working fluid. It will be a self priming type device which can operate against gravity with evaporator above the condenser as well as under microgravity condition. A G-M type single stage double inlet pulse tube refrigerator is coupled to the CLHP to test its performance. The mathematical model, design, fabrication integration of the heat pipe with the pulse tube system and testing with stainless steel wick at the evaporator will be described in the paper.

  12. Neutron Detection with Cryogenics and Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    bell, Z.W.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2005-03-10

    The common methods of neutron detection are reviewed with special attention paid to the application of cryogenics and semiconductors to the problem. The authors' work with LiF- and boron-based cryogenic instruments is described as well as the use of CdTe and HgI{sub 2} for direct detection of neutrons.

  13. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vol. 29

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains 116 of the papers presented at the 1983 Cryogenic Engineering Conference held in Colorado. The latest work of the most advanced researchers in low-temperature technology is reviewed. Topics considered include resource availability (helium, LNG), applications of superconductivity (magnets for fusion and physics research, test facilities, components of electric power systems, electronics and RF structures, cryogenic techniques, magnet

  14. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 141 conference papers which include the following topics: applications of superconducting magnets in magnetic resonance imaging, synchrotron radiation sources, particle detectors, and fusion reactors; applications of superconductivity in electronic circuits and rectifiers; cryogenic techniques in cooling superconducting magnets, space vehicles, and physics instrumentation; thermal and electrical insulation for superconducting magnets and cryogenic systems; heat and mass transfer

  15. Advances in cryogenic engineering: Vol. 31

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the 1985 Cryogenic Engineering Conference held August 12-16, 1985, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The 151 included papers begin by discussing the applications of superconductivity in the following fields: the Superconducting Super Collider; superconducting magnetic energy storage; magnets for fusion and physics research; test facilities; cryogenic techniques; acoustic emission testing; and magnet stability. From there, the

  16. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  17. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li; Ke-Xiang Wang; Ji-Jiu Zhao; Ke-Juan Yue; Ming-Hui Dai; Yi-Ling Huang; Bo Jiang

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the

  18. Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana)

    E-print Network

    Grütter, Peter

    Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana) and P. Gru¨tter Centre for the Physics for publication 27 June 2000 We describe our cryogenic magnetic force microscope, operating between 4.2 and 300 K. As an effective means of vibration isolation, we suspend the microscope from a soft bellows which attenuates

  19. Properties of composite materials for cryogenic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B Schutz

    1998-01-01

    Composite materials are used in a wide variety of cryogenic applications because of their unique and highly tailorable properties. These cryogenic applications of composites may be, for the sake of discussion, classified as support structures, vessels, or electrical insulation. Examples of these applications are presented, with a brief discussion of the critical material properties associated with each application. Composite material

  20. Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

    1984-01-01

    Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

  1. Cryogenic recondenser with remote cold box

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Bartlett; B. R. Andeen; P. A. Lessard

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a cryogenic recondenser for recondensing cryogen retained in a storage vessel. The recondenser consists of: cooling means comprising a mechanical refrigerator positioned outside of the storage vessel, the means precooling a volume of gaseous refrigerant; a transfer line leading from the cooling means and removeably inserted into the storage vessel; and a JT valve at an end

  2. Biopolymer mass spectrometer with cryogenic particle detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian Twerenbold

    1996-01-01

    A novel type of biopolymer mass spectrometer is proposed for massive proteins, polypeptides and DNA-fragments by replacing standard ionizing detectors with cryogenic particle detectors. The detection efficiency in ionizing detectors decreases rapidly with increasing biopolymer mass owing to the biopolymer's decreasing velocity. Cryogenic particle detectors, however, record the total kinetic energy deposited by the accelerated biopolymer. In a given electric

  3. Novel Cryogenic Insulation Materials: Aerogel Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan

    2001-01-01

    New insulation materials are being developed to economically and reliably insulate future reusable spacecraft cryogenic tanks over a planned lifecycle of extreme thermal challenges. These insulation materials must prevent heat loss as well as moisture and oxygen condensation on the cryogenic tanks during extended groundhold, must withstand spacecraft launch conditions, and must protect a partly full or empty reusable cryogenic tank from significant reentry heating. To perform over such an extreme temperature range, novel composites were developed from aerogels and high-temperature matrix material such as Space Shuttle tile. These materials were fabricated and tested for use both as cryogenic insulation and as high-temperature insulation. The test results given in this paper were generated during spacecraft re-entry heating simulation tests using cryogenic cooling.

  4. Techniques for on-orbit cryogenic servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLee, C. H.; Barfknecht, P.; Breon, S.; Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Huynh, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Wegel, D.

    2014-11-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has a renewed interest in on-orbit cryogen storage and transfer to support its mission to explore near-earth objects such as asteroids and comets. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission (CPST-TDM), managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and scheduled for launch in 2018, will demonstrate numerous key technologies applicable to a cryopropellant fuel depot. As an adjunct to the CPST-TDM work, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will support the development of techniques to manage and transfer cryogens on-orbit and expand these techniques as they may be applicable to servicing science missions using solid cryogens such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The results of several ground experiments are described, including autogenous pressurization used for transfer of liquid nitrogen and argon, characterization of the transfer and solidification of argon, and development of robotic tools for cryogen transfer.

  5. Cryogenic properties of several copolyesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Yano; A. Kimoto; H. Yamaoka

    1997-01-01

    Copolyesters of polyethylene terephthalate(PET) and polyethylene-2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate(PEN) with composition of PET\\/PEN= 100\\/0, 95\\/5, 90\\/10, 85\\/15, 70\\/30, 50\\/50, 30\\/70, 10\\/90, 0\\/100 were prepared. The mechanical properties of uniaxial-drawn films were examined at 83 K and 296 K. PET\\/PEN=90\\/10 copolymer film possessed especially excellent cryogenic properties. It was found to withstand elongations in excess of 40% at stress levels of about 400

  6. Design and Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Kroliczek, Edward J.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Ted; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the flight configuration and pre-flight performance test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5). This device will fly on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight represents the first in-space demonstration of a CCPL, a miniaturized two-phase fluid circulator for thermally linking cryogenic cooling sources to remote cryogenic components. CCPL-5 utilizes N2 as the working fluid and has a practical operating range of 75-110 K. Test results indicate that CCPL-5, which weighs about 200 grams, can transport over 10 W of cooling a distance of 0.25 m (or more) with less than a 5 K temperature drop.

  7. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  8. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer.

    PubMed

    Carr, S M; Woods, S I; Jung, T M; Carter, A C; Datla, R U

    2014-07-01

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/?Hz for the measured experimental parameters. PMID:25085171

  9. Power Electronics Being Developed for Deep Space Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    Electronic circuits and systems designed for deep space missions need to operate reliably and efficiently in harsh environments that include very low temperatures. Spacecraft that operate in such cold environments carry a large number of heaters so that the ambient temperature for the onboard electronics remains near 20 C. Electronics that can operate at cryogenic temperatures will simplify system design and reduce system size and weight by eliminating the heaters and their associated structures. As a result, system development and launch cost will be reduced. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, an ongoing program is focusing on the development of power electronics geared for deep space low-temperature environments. The research and development efforts include electrical components design, circuit design and construction, and system integration and demonstration at cryogenic temperatures. Investigations are being carried out on circuits and systems that are targeted for use in NASA missions where low temperatures will be encountered: devices such as ceramic and tantalum capacitors, metal film resistors, semiconductor switches, magnetics, and integrated circuits including dc/dc converters, operational amplifiers, voltage references, and motor controllers. Test activities cover a wide range of device and circuit performance under simple as well as complex test conditions, such as multistress and thermal cycling. The effect of low-temperature conditions on the switching characteristics of an advanced silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor is shown. For gate voltages (VGS) below 2.6 V, drain currents at -190 C are lower than drain currents at room temperature (20 C).

  10. Challenges for Cryogenics at Iter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, L.

    2010-04-01

    Nuclear fusion of light nuclei is a promising option to provide clean, safe and cost competitive energy in the future. The ITER experimental reactor being designed by seven partners representing more than half of the world population will be assembled at Cadarache, South of France in the next decade. It is a thermonuclear fusion Tokamak that requires high magnetic fields to confine and stabilize the plasma. Cryogenic technology is extensively employed to achieve low-temperature conditions for the magnet and vacuum pumping systems. Efficient and reliable continuous operation shall be achieved despite unprecedented dynamic heat loads due to magnetic field variations and neutron production from the fusion reaction. Constraints and requirements of the largest superconducting Tokamak machine have been analyzed. Safety and technical risks have been initially assessed and proposals to mitigate the consequences analyzed. Industrial standards and components are being investigated to anticipate the requirements of reliable and efficient large scale energy production. After describing the basic features of ITER and its cryogenic system, we shall present the key design requirements, improvements, optimizations and challenges.

  11. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  12. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 ?W at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  13. Computed Tomography of Cryogenic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G.; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knöchel, C.; Weiss, D.; Legros, M.; Larabell, C.

    Soft X-ray microscopy has resolved 30 nm structures in biological cells. To protect the cells from radiation damage caused by X-rays, imaging of the samples has to be performed at cryogenic temperatures, which makes it possible to take multiple images of a single cell. Due to the small numerical aperture of zone plates, X-ray objectives have a depth of focus on the order of several microns. By treating the X-ray microscopic images as projections of the sample absorption, computed tomography (CT) can be performed. Since cryogenic biological samples are resistant to radiation damage, it is possible to reconstruct frozen-hydrated cells imaged with a full-field X-ray microscope. This approach is used to obtain three-dimensional information about the location of specific proteins in cells. To localize proteins in cells, immunolabeling with strongly X-ray absorbing nanoparticles was performed. With the new tomography setup developed for the X-ray microscope XM-1 installed at the ALS, we have performed tomography of immunolabeled frozen-hydrated cells to detect protein distributions inside of cells. As a first example, the distribution of the nuclear protein male-specific lethal 1 (MSL-1) in the Drosophila melanogaster cell was studied.

  14. Nanotomography of labeled cryogenic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Gerd; Knoechel, Christian; Vogt, Stefan; Weiss, Daniel; Anderson, Erik H.

    2002-01-01

    By employing the natural absorption contrast of organic matter in water at 0.5 keV photon energy, X-ray microcopy has resolved 30 nm structures in animal cells. To protect the cells from radiation damage caused by x-rays, imaging of the samples was performed at cryogenic temperatures, which makes it possible to take multiple images of a single cell. Due to the small numerical aperture of zone plates, X-ray objectives have a depth of focus on the order of several microns. By treating the X-ray microscopic images as projections of the sample absorption, computed tomography (CT) can be performed. Since cryogenic biological samples are resistant to radiation damage, it is possible to reconstruct frozen-hydrated cells imaged with a full-field X-ray microscope. This approach is used to obtain three- dimensional information about the location of specific proteins in cells. To localize proteins in cells, immunolabelling with strongly X-ray absorbing nanoparticles was performed. With the new tomography apparatus developed for the X-ray microscope XM-1 installed at the ALS, we have performed tomography of immunolabelled frozen-hydrated cells to detect protein distributions in all three dimensions inside of cells. As a first example, the distribution of the nuclear protein, male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1) in the Drosophila melanogaster cell was studied.

  15. Cryogen free low temperature sample environment for neutron scattering experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Kirichek; B E Evans; R B E Down; Z A Bowden

    2009-01-01

    Recent increase in liquid helium cost caused by global helium supply problems rose significant concern about affordability of conventional cryogenic equipment. Luckily the progress in cryo-cooler technology offers a new generation of cryogenic systems with significantly reduced consumption and in some cases nearly complete elimination of cryogens. These cryogen-free systems also offer the advantage of operational simplicity and require less

  16. Design, production, and testing of field effect transistors. [cryogenic MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sclar, N.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic MOSFETS (CRYOFETS), specifically designed for low temperature preamplifier application with infrared extrinsic detectors were produced and comparatively tested with p-channel MOSFETs under matched conditions. The CRYOFETs exhibit lower voltage thresholds, high source-follower gains at lower bias voltage, and lower dc offset source voltage. The noise of the CRYOFET is found to be 2 to 4 times greater than the MOSFET with a correspondingly lower figure of merit (which is established for source-follower amplifiers). The device power dissipation at a gain of 0.98 is some two orders of magnitude lower than for the MOSFET. Further, CRYOFETs are free of low temperature I vs V character hysteresis and balky conduction turn-on effects and operate effectively in the 2.4 to 20 K range. These devices have promise for use on long term duration sensor missions and for on-focal-plane signal processing at low temperatures.

  17. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  18. Cryogenic direct current superconducting quantum interference device readout circuit

    E-print Network

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    in the preamplifier. In this case, simple complementary metal­oxide­semiconductor circuits with low power dissipation can be used as amplifier, phase-sensitive detector and integrator. The power dissipation circuit as a null detector of mag- netic flux.1 Operating a SQUID in this so-called flux-locked loop

  19. Highly efficient cryogenic thermal insulation for optical devices and pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Kurskaya; R. S. Mikhal'Chenko; V. F. Getmanets

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the improved efficiency of shielding vacuum thermal insulation (SVTI) with gaskets fabricated from polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) film treated with antistatic substances (surface-active substances (SAS)) for reduction of electrostatic charges and contact heat transfer (by 30% or more).

  20. Experimental results of gain fluctuations and noise in microwave low-noise cryogenic amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Juan D.; López-Fernández, Isaac; Diez, Carmen; Barcia, Alberto

    2004-05-01

    Applications like radio astronomy and space communications require ultimate sensitivity and make use of very particular receivers with state-of-the-art devices. Usually the receivers are cooled at cryogenic temperatures to reduce the noise even further. Noise temperatures of only a few times the quantum limit can be obtained in these conditions. During the past decade, Indium Phosphide HEMTs have demonstrated the best noise performance at cryogenic temperatures in the microwave frequency range of all active semiconductor devices, together with extremely low power consumption. For certain applications noise is not the only factor affecting the sensitivity. For example, gain fluctuations may play a dominant role in wide band radiometers. Unfortunately some of the factors that have contributed to improve the noise temperature have degraded the gain fluctuations. The operation at cryogenic temperatures also increases the fluctuations. This paper describes the experimental results obtained at the Centro Astronomico de Yebes (CAY) in the development of wide band cryogenic amplifiers. Special attention is paid to the influence of the bias point in noise and gain fluctuations. InP HEMTs from different foundries were tested. The amplifiers developed will be used in the Herschel ESA mission radiometers and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) receivers.

  1. Summary of test results for the cryogenic two-phase flight experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, T.D. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 724.2, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Buchko, M.T. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 724.2, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Bello, M. [The Aerospace Corporation, P.O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009 (United States); Brennan, P. [Swales & Associates, Inc., 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Stoyanof, M.M. [Phillips Laboratory, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a brief summary of the flight results for the Cryogenic Two-Phase Flight Experiment (CRYOTP). This experiment was a Hitchhiker-based payload that flew on the space shuttle Columbia in March of 1994 (STS-62). CRYOTP tested two new technologies for advanced cryogenic thermal control; the Space Heat Pipe (SHP), which was a constant conductance cryogenic heat pipe, and the Brilliant Eyes Thermal Storage Unit (BETSU), which was a cryogenic phase-change thermal storage device. Both devices were tested independently during the mission. Analysis of the flight data indicated that the SHP was unable to start in either of two attempts, due to a supercritical startup limit related to the wall material thermal conductivity, parasitic heat leaks, and cryocooler capacity. The BETSU test article was successfully operated with more than 250 hours of on-orbit testing including several cooldown cycles and 56 freeze/thaw cycles. Some degradation was observed with the five tactical cryocoolers used as thermal sinks, and one of the cryocoolers failed completely after 331 hours of operation. Post-flight analysis indicated that this problem was most likely due to failure of an electrical controller internal to the unit. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. The Accelerator Systems String Test cryogenics

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.

    1993-04-01

    The ASST magnet string cryogenic refrigeration requirements were planned around an original design and a much smaller, backup, He refrigeration system. The ASST schedule required that the backup, or Plan B, helium refrigerator provide and meet all the requirements of the milestone test. The Plan B design, layout, sub-system commissioning tests, and the performance schedule will be provided. The magnet string cryogenic system pump and purge, cooldown and warmup, central and multiple shield cooling, temperature control and subcooling, and recooler operating experience are reported. The ASST cryogenic system static performance and the dynamic provisions, response, and recovery to magnet quenches will be described.

  3. Progress on the CUORE Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Arnaboldi, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca /INFN Sez. Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Alessandria, F. [INFN Sez. Milano (Italy); Barucci, M. [INFN Sez. Firenze (Italy); Bucci, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Frossati, G. [Leiden Cryogenics (Netherlands); De Waard, A. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University (Netherlands); Woodcraft, A. [SUPA, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-16

    We give here an update on the CUORE cryogenic system. It consists of a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by five pulse tubes and one high-power specially designed dilution refrigerator built by Leiden Cryogenics. The cryostat design has been completed and it is presently under construction. The site at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is ready for the installation of the cryostat which is expected to begin by the end of 2009. We discuss here the preliminary results obtained on the performance of the mechanical cryorefrigerators. We also present a measurement of the residual heat leak of the copper which has been selected for the cryostat fabrication.

  4. Other cryogenic wind-tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Following the development of the cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972, a large number of cryogenic wind-tunnel projects have been undertaken at various research establishments around the world. Described in this lecture are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center), England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, Royal Aircraft Establishment - Bedford, and University of Southampton), Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy), Sweden (Rollab), and the United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

  5. Structural damping studies at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of an engineering study to measure changes in structural damping properties of two cryogenic wind tunnel model systems and two metallic test specimens at cryogenic temperatures are presented. Data are presented which indicate overall, a trend toward reduced structural damping at cryogenic temperatures (-250 degrees F) when compared with room temperature damping properties. The study was focused on structures and materials used for model systems tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The study suggests that the significant reductions in damping at extremely cold temperatures are most likely associated with changes in mechanical joint compliance damping rather than changes in material (solid) damping.

  6. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Saint Charles, IL, June 14-18, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on superconductivity applications including magnets, electronics, rectifiers, magnet stability, coil protection, and cryogenic techniques. Also considered are insulation, heat transfer to liquid helium and nitrogen, heat and mass transfer in He II, superfluid pumps, and refrigeration for superconducting systems. Other topics include cold compressors, refrigeration and liquefaction, magnetic refrigeration, and refrigeration for space applications. Papers are also presented on cryogenic applications, commercial cryogenic plants, the properties of cryogenic fluids, and cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition.

  7. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  8. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  9. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  10. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  11. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  12. Cryogenic xenon droplets for advanced lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.

    1996-04-01

    A cryogenic xenon droplet production system for use in anadvanced laser plasma source for x-ray lithography has been designed, fabricated, and tested at ORNL. The droplet generator is based on proven (ink jet printer) drop-on-demand.

  13. Inexpensive cryogenic insulation replaces vacuum jacketed line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Commercially available aluminized Mylar, cork and fiber glass form a multilayered sealed system and provide rugged and economical field installed insulation for cryogenic /liquid nitrogen or oxygen/ pipe lines in an exposed environment.

  14. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 1: Summary report. [cryogenic storage and fuel flow regulation system for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design, construction, and quality control tests on a dual screen liner device for the space shuttle orbiter cryogenic fuel tank and feedliner system are summarized. The dual stainless steel mesh of the device encloses eight liquid fuel channels and provides the liquid/vapor interface stability required for low gravity orbits.

  15. The Fast Alternative Cryogenic Experiment Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Alfred; Holmes, Warren

    2000-01-01

    One of the challenges in the area of cryogenics for space exploration in the next millennium is providing the capability for inexpensive, frequent, access to space. Faced with this challenge during the International Space Station (ISS) build era, when other Space Shuttle manifesting opportunities are unavailable, a "proof of concept" cryostat has been developed to demonstrate the ability to accommodate low temperature science investigations within the constraints of the Hitchhiker siderail carrier. The Hitchhiker siderail carrier is available on a "mass available" basis during the ISS build era. In fact, several hitchhiker payloads flew with the deployment of the Unity module. Hitchhiker siderail carrier payloads have historically flown an average of about four times a year. A hybrid Solid Neon - Superfluid Helium cryostat has been developed with Janis Research Company to accommodate instruments of 16.5 cm diameter and 30 cm. length. This hybrid approach was taken in part to provide adequate on-orbit lifetime for instruments with high (conducted) heat loads from the instrumentation wiring. Mass, volume, lifetime and the launch hold scenario were all design drivers. In addition, with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, a multichannel VME architecture Germanium Resistance Thermometer (GRT) readout and heater control servo system has been developed. In a flight system, the cryostat and electronics payloads would be umbilically attached in a paired Hitchhiker siderail mount, and permit on-orbit command and telemetry capability. The results of performance tests of both the cryostat, and a helium sample instrument will be presented. The instrument features a self contained, miniaturized, nano-Kelvin resolution High Resolution Thermometer (HRT). This high level of thermal resolution is achieved through the utilization of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). Although developed for the Low Temperature Microgravity Fundamental Physics investigator community, many design features are applicable in fields such as infrared and x-ray astronomy.

  16. Creep of pure aluminum at cryogenic temperatures 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Lacy Clark

    1989-01-01

    Conducted on OFHC Copper . B. Equipment Used in Successful Long-term Creep Testing. . . C. Creep Mechanisms at Cryogenic Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . 8 8 11 III PRIMARY RESEARCH OBJECTIVE . . 14 IV EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURES . . 15 A. Load... aluminum and NbTi. 2 Constant load creep curve showing three distinct regions. 3 Creep curves for OPHC copper taken over 200 hours. 10 4 Photograph of creep frame used in cryogenic creep tests. . . . . . . . . 5 Photograph of top of creep frame showing...

  17. Visual-Inspection Probe For Cryogenic Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, Steve; Valenzuela, James; Yoshinaga, Jay

    1990-01-01

    Visual-inspection probe that resembles borescope enables observer at ambient temperature to view objects immersed in turbulent flow of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, or other cryogenic fluid. Design of probe fairly conventional, except special consideration given to selection of materials and to thermal expansion to provide for expected range of operating temperatures. Penetrates wall of cryogenic chamber to provide view of interior. Similar probe illuminates scene. View displayed on video monitor.

  18. The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse N. Jones Iv; Chris B. Rogersi

    2003-01-01

    The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets is investigated. Ten Vincent Bach Stradivarious Bb trumpets are studied, half of which have been cryogenically treated. The trumpets were played by six players of varying proficiency, with sound samples being recorded directly to disk at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Both the steady-state and initial transient portions of the audio samples

  19. Liquid Cryogenic Target Development for Fast Ignition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hanson; C. Russell; R. A. Vesey; D. G. Schroen; J. L. Taylor; C. A. Back; D. Steinman; A. Nikroo; J. L. Kaae; E. Giraldez; R. R. Johnston; K. Youngman

    2007-01-01

    As an alternative to foam-stabilized cryogenic solid D-T fuel layers for indirect-drive fast ignitor targets, which will tend to beta-layer to a nonuniform distribution in a reentrant cone geometry [1], we are investigating hemispherical cryogenic fast ignition capsules with a liquid fuel layer confined between a thick outer ablator shell and a thin inner shell [2]. The shape and surface

  20. Filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. S.; Timberlake, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports for a LH2 tank, a LF2/FLOX tank and a CH4 tank. These supports consist of filament-wound fiberglass tubes with titanium end fittings. These units were satisfactorily tested at cryogenic temperatures, thereby offering a design that can be reliably and economically produced in large or small quantities. The basic design concept is applicable to any situation where strong, lightweight axial load members are desired.

  1. Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H. (inventor); Schein, Michael E. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain a cryogen through surface tension effects during launch and zero-g operations and maintains instrumentation within the temperature range of 10 to 140 K. The cooler operation is completely passive, with no inherent vibration or power requirements.

  2. Performance of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.J.; Stouffer, C.; Thienel, L.; Morgan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Cryogenic Heat Pipe (CRYOHP) Experiment has been designed to test two cryogenic heat pipes independently in a micro-gravity environment. The CRYOHP experiment is manifested for flight aboard the shuttle (STS-53) which is scheduled for launch in November, 1992. This paper presents the design of this experiment and the thermal vacuum verification test results. A correlation of the test data and the planned mission operations are also provided. 4 refs.

  3. Development of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Backovsky, Z. F.; Wilson, D. E.

    1992-07-01

    A summary of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joint technology development, at Rockwell International Space Division, is presented. Starting with the flight qualified radiative joint on the RM-20B IR sensor of the early 70's, leading to rotatable heat pipe joint, gas conductive joints, rolling-contact-conductance joints, and the more recent work on development and evaluation of cryogenic rotatable seals and mechanical interfaces. Potential applications, joint design optimization, heat transfer, seal leakage and torque test data are presented.

  4. Cryogenic engineering and superconductor technology; Proceedings of the 14th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference, Kiev, Ukraine, June 8-12, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Komarek; C. Rizzuto

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to application concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducting magnet systems, thermoelectric materials for Peltier cryogenic coolers, closed-cycle liquid helium refrigerators, built-in cryogenic control fixtures with electric drive, large cryogenic helium systems for superconducting magnets, low temperature adsorptive hydrogen isotope separation, cryogenic thermometry for space testing systems, performance of parallel flow He-II heat exchangers, and transient heat

  5. Flight Performance of the AKARI Cryogenic System

    E-print Network

    Nakagawa, Takao; Hirabayashi, Masayuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kii, Tsuneo; Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masahide; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Narita, Masanao; Ohnishi, Akira; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Yoshida, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    We describe the flight performance of the cryogenic system of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, which was successfully launched on 2006 February 21 (UT). AKARI carries a 68.5 cm telescope together with two focal plane instruments, Infrared Cameras (IRC) and Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS), all of which are cooled down to cryogenic temperature to achieve superior sensitivity. The AKARI cryogenic system is a unique hybrid system, which consists of cryogen (liquid helium) and mechanical coolers (2-stage Stirling coolers). With the help of the mechanical coolers, 179 L (26.0 kg) of super-fluid liquid helium can keep the instruments cryogenically cooled for more than 500 days. The on-orbit performance of the AKARI cryogenics is consistent with the design and pre-flight test, and the boil-off gas flow rate is as small as 0.32 mg/s. We observed the increase of the major axis of the AKARI orbit, which can be explained by the thrust due to thermal pressure of vented helium gas.

  6. Flight Performance of the AKARI Cryogenic System

    E-print Network

    Takao Nakagawa; Keigo Enya; Masayuki Hirabayashi; Hidehiro Kaneda; Tsuneo Kii; Yoshiyuki Kimura; Toshio Matsumoto; Hiroshi Murakami; Masahide Murakami; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Masanao Narita; Akira Ohnishi; Shoji Tsunematsu; Seiji Yoshida

    2007-08-14

    We describe the flight performance of the cryogenic system of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, which was successfully launched on 2006 February 21 (UT). AKARI carries a 68.5 cm telescope together with two focal plane instruments, Infrared Cameras (IRC) and Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS), all of which are cooled down to cryogenic temperature to achieve superior sensitivity. The AKARI cryogenic system is a unique hybrid system, which consists of cryogen (liquid helium) and mechanical coolers (2-stage Stirling coolers). With the help of the mechanical coolers, 179 L (26.0 kg) of super-fluid liquid helium can keep the instruments cryogenically cooled for more than 500 days. The on-orbit performance of the AKARI cryogenics is consistent with the design and pre-flight test, and the boil-off gas flow rate is as small as 0.32 mg/s. We observed the increase of the major axis of the AKARI orbit, which can be explained by the thrust due to thermal pressure of vented helium gas.

  7. D0 Cryogenic System Operator Training

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1991-11-30

    D0 is a collider detector. It will be operating and doing physics at the same time as CDP, therefore it has been decided to train CDP operators to operate and respond to the D0 cryogenic control system. A cryogenic operator will be required to be in residence at D0, during the cooldown and liquid Argon fill of any of the calorimeters. The cryogenic system at D0 is designed to be unmanned during steady state operation. CDP operations has 2 man cryogenic shifts 24 hours a day. It is intended that CDP operators monitor the D0 cryogenic systems, evaluate and respond to alarms, and notify a D0 cryo expert in the event of an unusual problem. A D0 cryogenic system view node has been installed at CDP to help facilitate these goals. It should be noted that even though the CDP view node is a fully operational node it is intended that it be more of an information node and is therefore password protected. The D0 cryo experts may reassess the use of the CDP node at a later date based on experience and operating needs. This engineering note outlines the format of the training and testing given to the CDP operators to make them qualified D0 operators.

  8. Cryogenic field effect transistors using strained silicon quantum wells in Si:SiGe heterostructures grown by APCVD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J Rack; T. J Thornton; D. K Ferry; Jeff Roberts; Richard C Westhoff; McDonald Robinson

    2001-01-01

    High mobility strained silicon quantum wells in modulation doped SiGe heterostructures, grown epitaxially on silicon substrates, offer exciting opportunities for devices compatible with silicon CMOS processing, having significantly improved performance over their single crystal silicon counterparts. We present results from a collaborative academic\\/industrial program to develop field effect transistors suitable for cryogenic circuit applications. This work reports on the fabrication

  9. Specification and Design of the SBRC-190: A Cryogenic Multiplexer for Far Infrared Photoconductor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Young, E. T.; Wolf, J.; Asbrock, J. F.; Lum, N.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Arrays of far-infrared photoconductor detectors operate at a few degrees Kelvin and require electronic amplifiers in close proximity. For the electronics, a cryogenic multiplexer is ideal to avoid the large number of wires associated with individual amplifiers for each pixel, and to avoid adverse effects of thermal and radiative heat loads from the circuitry. For low background applications, the 32 channel CRC 696 CMOS device was previously developed for SIRTF, the cryogenic Space Infrared Telescope Facility. For higher background applications, we have developed a similar circuit, featuring several modifications: (a) an AC coupled, capacitive feedback transimpedence unit cell, to minimize input offset effects, thereby enabling low detector biases, (b) selectable feedback capacitors to enable operation over a wide range of backgrounds, and (c) clamp and sample & hold output circuits to improve sampling efficiency, which is a concern at the high readout rates required. We describe the requirements for and design of the new device.

  10. Cryogenic characterization and testing of magnetically-actuated microshutter arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T T King; G Kletetschka; M A Jah; M A Beamesderfer; M J Li; L L Wang; S H Moseley; L M Sparr; M D Jhabvala; A S Kutyrev; R F Silverberg; D Rapchun; Y Zheng; D S Schwinger; G M Voellmer

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional MEMS microshutter arrays (MSA) have been fabricated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to enable cryogenic (?35 K) spectrographic astronomy measurements at near-infrared wavelengths. Functioning as a focal plane object selection device, the MSA is a 2D programmable aperture mask with fine resolution, high efficiency and high contrast. The MSA

  11. Flow Visualization of Density in a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Planar Rayleigh and Raman Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory C. Herring; Behrooz Shirinzadeh

    2002-01-01

    Abstract: Using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and a gated, intensifiedcharge-coupled device, planar Rayleigh and Raman scattering techniqueshave been used to visualize the unseeded Mach 0.2 flow density ina 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Detection limits are determinedfor density measurements by using both unseeded Rayleigh andRaman (N 2 vibrational) methods. Seeding with CO 2 improved theRayleigh flow visualization at

  12. Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer Satellite (COLD-SAT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Schuster; Edwin J. Russ; Joseph P. Wachter

    1990-01-01

    The Cryogenic On-Orbit Liquid Depot Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer Satellite (COLD-SAT) will perform subcritical liquid hydrogen handling experiments under low gravity conditions to provide engineering data for future space transportation missions. Comprising the four Class 1 enabling experiments are tank press control, tank chilldown, tank no-vent fill, and liquid acquisition device fill\\/refill. The nine Class 2 enhancing experiments are tanker

  13. Ultrahigh efficiency power conversion using cryogenic MOSFETs and HT-superconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. Mueller; K. G. Herd

    1993-01-01

    Ultra-high efficiency (>99%) power conversion and the corresponding energy savings can be accomplished by combining two new devices: the cryogenic power MOSFET and the high current inductor made with high-temperature (HT) superconductors. Their properties are reviewed. Several possible applications are discussed such as high-power inverters, switchmode amplifiers, and multi-kilowatt RF generators. Design information is presented for the thermal losses of

  14. On the collapse of drain IV characteristics in modulation-doped FET's at cryogenic temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Fischer; T. J. Drummond; J. Klem; W. Kopp; T. S. Henderson; D. Perrachione; H. Morkoc

    1984-01-01

    The collapse of the drain current-voltage characteristics of modulation-doped field-effect transistors (MODFET's) at cryogenic temperatures, previously thought to be unavoidable, has been investigated. The results indicate that the mechanism responsible for the collapse is dependent on both the device fabrication steps and the parameters of crystal growth. Bulk Al(x)Ga(1-x)As FET's fabricated in laboratory exhibited little or no collapse in the

  15. A 2.3-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT amplifier for DSS 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanida, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype 2.3 GHz (S band) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier/closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) system was installed in the DDS-13 feedcone, replacing the 2.3 GHz maser. The amplifier is cryogenically cooled to a physical temperature of 12 K and provides 31.5 K antenna system noise temperature and 29 dB of gain. The HEMT device used in the amplifier is a prototype.

  16. Electronic Components and Systems for Cryogenic Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammoud, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S.; Elbuluk, M. E.; Overton, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic components and systems capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated in many future NASA space missions such as deep space probes and planetary surface exploration. For example, an unheated interplanetary probe launched to explore the rings of Saturn would reach an average temperature near Saturn of about - 183 C. In addition to surviving the deep space harsh environment, electronics capable of low temperature operation would contribute to improving circuit performance, increasing system efficiency, and reducing payload development and launch costs. Terrestrial applications where components and systems must operate in low temperature environments include cryogenic instrumentation, superconducting magnetic energy storage, magnetic levitation transportation system, and arctic exploration. An on-going research and development program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on the development of reliable electronic devices and efficient power systems capable of surviving in low temperature environments. An overview of the program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low temperature test facilities along with selected data obtained from in-house component testing will also be discussed. Ongoing research activities that are being performed in collaboration with various organizations will also be presented.

  17. 32-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Duh, K.H.G.; Kopp, W.F.; Ho, P.; Chao, P.C.; Kao, M.Y.; Smith, P.M.; Ballingall, J.M. (General Electric Co., Syracuse, NY (USA). Electronics Lab.); Bautista, J.J.; Ortiz, G.G. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The cryogenic noise temperature performance of a two-stage and a three-state 32-GHz HEMT amplifier has been evaluated. The Amplifiers utilize quarter-micrometer conventional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices, employ hybrid matching input and output microstrip circuits, and a cryogenically stable dc biasing network. The noise temperature measurements were performed in the frequency range of 31 to 33 GHz over a physical temperature range of 300 to 12 {Kappa}. Across the measurement band, the amplifiers displayed a broad-band response, and the noise temperature was observed to decrease by a factor of ten in cooling from 300 to 15 {Kappa}. The lowest noise temperature measured for the two-stage amplifier at 32 GHz was 35 {Kappa} with an associated gain of 16.5 dB, while the three-stage measured 39 {Kappa} with an associated gain of 26 dB. It was further observed that both amplifiers were insensitive to light.

  18. Cryogenic pellet production developments for long-pulse plasma operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitner, S. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; McGill, J. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; McGinnis, W. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Long pulse plasma operation on large magnetic fusion devices require multiple forms of cryogenically formed pellets for plasma fueling, on-demand edge localized mode (ELM) triggering, radiative cooling of the divertor, and impurity transport studies. The solid deuterium fueling and ELM triggering pellets can be formed by extrusions created by helium cooled, twin-screw extruder based injection system that freezes deuterium in the screw section. A solenoid actuated cutter mechanism is activated to cut the pellets from the extrusion, inserting them into the barrel, and then fired by the pneumatic valve pulse of high pressure gas. Fuel pellets are injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, and ELM triggering pellets are injected at rates up to 20 Hz. The radiative cooling and impurity transport study pellets are produced by introducing impurity gas into a helium cooled section of a pipe gun where it deposits in-situ. A pneumatic valve is opened and propellant gas is released downstream where it encounters a passive punch which initially accelerates the pellet before the gas flow around the finishes the pellet acceleration. This paper discusses the various cryogenic pellet production techniques based on the twin-screw extruder, pipe gun, and pellet punch designs.

  19. Cryogenic pellet production developments for long-pulse plasma operation

    SciTech Connect

    Meitner, S. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; McGill, J. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; McGinnis, W. D.; Rasmussen, D. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1Bethel Valley Rd Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long pulse plasma operation on large magnetic fusion devices require multiple forms of cryogenically formed pellets for plasma fueling, on-demand edge localized mode (ELM) triggering, radiative cooling of the divertor, and impurity transport studies. The solid deuterium fueling and ELM triggering pellets can be formed by extrusions created by helium cooled, twin-screw extruder based injection system that freezes deuterium in the screw section. A solenoid actuated cutter mechanism is activated to cut the pellets from the extrusion, inserting them into the barrel, and then fired by the pneumatic valve pulse of high pressure gas. Fuel pellets are injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, and ELM triggering pellets are injected at rates up to 20 Hz. The radiative cooling and impurity transport study pellets are produced by introducing impurity gas into a helium cooled section of a pipe gun where it deposits in-situ. A pneumatic valve is opened and propellant gas is released downstream where it encounters a passive punch which initially accelerates the pellet before the gas flow around the finishes the pellet acceleration. This paper discusses the various cryogenic pellet production techniques based on the twin-screw extruder, pipe gun, and pellet punch designs.

  20. Thin semi-rigid coaxial cables for cryogenics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushino, Akihiro; Kasai, Soichi

    2013-03-01

    We have developed cryogenic coaxial cables for low temperature signal readout from sensitive devices, such as transition edge sensors, superconducting tunnel junctions, and kinetic inductance detectors. In order to reduce heat penetration into cryogenic stages, low thermal conductivity metals were chosen for both center and outer electrical conductors. Various types of coaxial cables, employing stainless-steel, cupro-nickel, brass, beryllium-copper, phosphor-bronze, niobium, and niobium-titanium, were manufactured using drawing dies. Thermal and electrical properties were investigated between 1 and 8 K. Coaxial cables made of copper alloys showed thermal conductance roughly consistent with literature, meanwhile Nb coaxial cable must be affected by the drawing process and thermal conductance was lowered. Attenuation of superconducting Nb and NbTi coaxial cables were observed to be adequately small up to above 10 GHz compared to those of normal conducting coaxial cables, which are subject to the Wiedemann-Franz law. We also measured normal conducting coaxial cables with silver-plated center conductors to improve high frequency performance.

  1. On 32-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Ortiz, G. G.; Duh, K. H. G.; Kopp, W. F.; Ho, P.; Chao, P. C.; Kao, M. Y.; Smith, P. M.; Ballingall, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The cryogenic noise temperature performance of a two-stage and a three-stage 32 GHz High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifier was evaluated. The amplifiers employ 0.25 micrometer conventional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices, hybrid matching input and output microstrip circuits, and a cryogenically stable dc biasing network. The noise temperature measurements were performed in the frequency range of 31 to 33 GHz over a physical temperature range of 300 K down to 12 K. Across the measurement band, the amplifiers displayed a broadband response, and the noise temperature was observed to decrease by a factor of 10 in cooling from 300 K to 15 K. The lowest noise temperature measured for the two-stage amplifier at 32 GHz was 35 K with an associated gain of 16.5 dB, while the three-stage amplifier measured 39 K with an associated gain of 26 dB. It was further observed that both amplifiers were insensitive to light.

  2. Flight Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Kobel, Mark; Bugby, David; Kroliczek, Edward; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1999-01-01

    Future space-based cryogenic systems will require enhanced integration flexibility, lower weight reduced parasitic penalties, better vibration isolation, and a variety of other improvements to meet performance goals. Additionally, there is an increasing need to locate cooling sources remotely from cooled components. In the past flexible conductive links were used and worked well in most cases. However, as the transport lengths increase, conductive couplings become heavier and less effective, and must be replaced by higher performance systems. One available option, which can meet many of these future requirements, is the cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL). The development of the CCPL technology started in 1992, following the success of the room temperature CPLS. The extrapolation of CCPL technology to cryogenic temperatures offers many performance benefits, which are not currently within the reach of traditional heat pipes or conductive links. Specific advantages of the CCPL technology pertaining to cryocooler integration include: (1) greater capillary pumping pressure for improved ground testability; (2) improved mechanical isolation; (3) faster diode shutdown and lower reverse heat leaks; (4) tighter control of detector temperature; (5) variable or fixed conductance operation; and (6) ease of integration due to their flexibility. The applications of CCPL technology are numerous. Military and commercial applications include surveillance satellites, earth observing satellites, deep space observation systems, medical devices, and many other cryogenic systems. Over the past few years, several breadboard and prototype CCPLs have been built and ground tested. A prototype CCPL has demonstrated successful operation between 80K and 110K with heat loads between O.5W and 12W using nitrogen as the working fluid, and 35K and 40K with head loads of 0.25W to 3.5W using neon. In order to verify CCPL performance in a microgravity environment, a flight unit, CCPL-5, was tested onboard the Space Shuttle STS-95 in October of 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight was the first in-space demonstration of the CCPL. The CCPL-5 utilized nitrogen as the working fluid and operated between 75K and 110K. Flight results indicated excellent performance of the CCPL-5 under zero-G environment The CCPL could start from a supercritical condition in all tests, and the loop operating temperature could be tightly controlled regardless of changes in the heat load and/or the sink temperature. In addition, the loop demonstrated successful operation with a heat load of 0.5W as well as with parasitic heat loads alone. There were no noticeable differences between zero-G and one-G operation.

  3. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    E-print Network

    Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

    2015-05-01

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  4. Millimeter-wave, cryogenically-coolable amplifiers using AlInAs\\/GaInAs\\/InP HEMTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Pospieszalski; W. J. Lakatosh; R. Lai; K. L. Tan; D. C. Streit; P. H. Liu; R. M. Dia; J. Velebir

    1993-01-01

    The cryogenic performance of AlInAs\\/GaInAs\\/InP 0.1- mu m high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is reported. Collapse-free DC operation is observed down to the ambient temperature of 18 K. The application of these devices to Q- and E-band low-noise, cryogenically coolable amplifiers is demonstrated. The measured noise temperature of 15 K (noise figure of 0.2 dB) for a multistage 40-45-GHz amplifier with 33

  5. Materials and methods for pressure and temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, W. N.; Clark Jr., F.

    1985-10-08

    Capacitive pressure and temperature sensing devices for use at cryogenic temperatures are provided utilizing a quantum ferroelectric pyrochlore ceramic material as the dielectric. The ceramic material has the formula: (Cd/sub 1/ /SUB x/ M /SUB x/ )/sub 2/(Nb/sub 1/ /SUB y/ M' /SUB y/ )/sub 2/O/sub 7/ where M is Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, or mixtures thereof; where M' is Ta, Sb, or mixtures thereof; and where x and y are numbers in the range of from 0 to 1. M and M' are chosen such that the pressure sensing device uses a ceramic with a nearly temperature independent dielectric constant while the temperature sensing device sues a ceramic with a strongly temperature dependent dielectric constant. The sensors may comprise multi-layered capacitive devices, and may be combined into a single temperature and pressure sensing device.

  6. Improving the stability of cryogenic current comparator setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, D.; Götz, M.; Pesel, E.; Storm, J.-H.; Aßmann, C.; Peters, M.; Schurig, Th

    2009-11-01

    We have realized an improved resistance calibration setup based on a cryogenic current comparator (CCC). The comparator, with 18 windings and 4647 turns in total, is well-suited for all the necessary comparisons with a 100 ? standard resistor with the quantum Hall effect and inside the range of standard resistance values from 1 ? to 1 M?. The new state-of-the-art setup is equipped with a low-noise dc SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) and a digital double current source. Proper damping of the CCC resonance, careful electronics design ('box-in-box') and application of internal wideband feedback to the SQUID sensor improve the dynamic stability considerably and lower the overall measurement time as compared against our previous setup.

  7. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet gallium arsenide (GaAs) junction field effect transistors (JFET's) have been investigated down to liquid-helium temperatures. Noise characterization was performed with the field effect transistor (FET) in the floating-gate mode, in the grounded-gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible, and with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages to determine optimum operating conditions. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to silicon (Si) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET's) operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n channel junction field effect transistor (n-JFET's) operating at 300 K.

  8. Tests of VPHGs in the NIR for use at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insausti, Maider; Garzón, Francisco; Madrigal, Roque; Fimia, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    We report on the performances measured at room temperature, before and after a cryogenic cooling cycle, of a set of NIR Volume Phase Holographic Gratings (VPHGs) manufactured at the Miguel Hernández University (UMH, Elche, Spain) aimed at their use in astronomical instrumentations. VPHGs are novel optical components which can replace standard ruled transmission gratings, offering some advantages. Instead of a surface modulation, a diffraction index modulation printed in a volume of material generates the diffraction according to the required specifications. While VPHGs are becoming an option for instruments working in the optical regime at room temperature, their use is still minimal in the NIR wavebands due to the stringent requirements impose by the cryogenic environment. But their good properties in terms of high transmission and compact mechanical design are kept even in cryogenic, so efforts to develop such devices functional at cryogenic temperatures are underway in several institutions. We report results on transmission of newly manufactured VPHGs. These results were achieved through a collaborative effort within the European network OPTICON WP6, “New Materials and Processes in Astronomical Instrumentation”, and whose participating institutions are Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Universidad Miguel Hernández, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (INAF) and Politecnico di Milano.

  9. Implementation of Prognostic Methodologies to Cryogenic Propellant Loading Testbed

    E-print Network

    Daigle, Matthew

    technologies, a testbed has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that transfers cryogenic for pneumatic valves. The demonstration testbed will integrate with the cryogenic testbed at KSC through

  10. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  11. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  12. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  13. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  14. Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic Electron Microscopy Hemant D. Tagare-dimensional structure of macromolecules. A more modern method is cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-em), which

  15. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  16. Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  17. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  18. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J. G.; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  19. Characterization of large area PMTs at cryogenic temperature for rare event physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnes, P.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.

    2014-03-01

    We carried out a careful evaluation of the behaviour of the large cathode area Hamamatsu R5912-MOD and R5912-2-MOD photomultiplier tubes operating at cryogenic temperature. The measurements were focused on evaluating the parameters which mainly characterize the operating performances of the devices down to 77K. The results that we obtained demonstrate that both photomultipliers models are suited, with some distinguishing characteristics, for light detection in such unconventional operating conditions, certifying the devices for the direct measurement of scintillation light coming from noble-gas liquids in detectors dedicated to neutrino physics and Dark Matter research.

  20. A low-power-dissipation broadband cryogenic preamplifier utilizing GaAs MESFETs in parallel

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.T. (Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States))

    1993-08-01

    A voltage sensitive preamplifier design is presented for operation at 1.6 K. The active device is a Sony 3SK164 dual-gate GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET), which was chosen for its low-frequency noise performance, stability against oscillations, and the inclusion of a gate protection diode. Active devices made from GaAs operate at cryogenic temperatures without carrier freeze out.'' The main design goal was to keep the power dissipation in the cryostat minimal, while maintaining high bandwidth and low noise. This was achieved by operating four parallel MESFETs at cryogenic temperatures in cascode with a room-temperature Si JFET. Parallel operation gives a higher transconductance-to-power dissipation ratio than with a single device. The input cascode is followed by high-speed, low-noise operational amplifiers. The low-frequency noise corner occurs at 100 kHz. The white voltage noise of the preamplifier referred to the input is [lt]0.9 nV/Hz[sup 1/2] at 1 MHz with 2 mW dissipated in the cryogenic stage. The power dissipation can be reduced to 1 mW with a moderate increase in noise. The preamplifier noise was found to be dominated by the cryogenic stage. There are two 50-[Omega] outputs with gains of 39 dB and 59 dB, and the [minus]3 dB points occur at 500 Hz and 10 MHz. The design of the preamplifier is discussed in detail. Noise measurements under a variety of bias conditions are presented along with an analysis of the different noise sources.

  1. Advances in cryogenic engineering materials, Volume 40, Part B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Reed; F. R. Fickett; L. T. Summers; M. Stieg

    1994-01-01

    This book is one of four parts of the collected articles presented as talks or posters at the 1993 International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC), held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 12-16. It covers cryogenic materials being developed and implemented worldwide for a broad array of applications. This volume contains articles directed towards structural materials used in cryogenic applications, their mechanical

  2. Advances in cryogenic engineering materials. Volume 38, Part A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Fickett; R. P. Reed

    1992-01-01

    Contained in this volume (Volume 1 of 2) are papers concerned with advances in the field of cryogenic engineering taken from the Proceedings of the Ninth International Cryogenic Materials Conference, held June 11-14, 1991, in Huntsville, Alabama. The focus of the papers presented here is on materials (superconductors are addressed in the second volume) for cryogenic engineering. The papers are

  3. Advances in cryogenic engineering, Volume 39, Part A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kittel

    1994-01-01

    This volume presents the latest international work in the field of cryogenic engineering, in a broad range of applications. It can serve as a reference to the field of cryogenic applications for researchers and engineers working in cryogenics, materials science, low-temperature physics, polymer science, and solid-state physics. Section headings for this volume are: transportation applications; wind tunnels; space applications; magnet:

  4. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 41, Part A & B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kittel

    1996-01-01

    This proceedings is of the 1995 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. It consists of 252 published papers covering the latest developments in all aspects of cryogenic engineering research. Contributions touch on fields including: cryobiology; heat and mass transfer (including data on boiling and superfluid helium); magnet technology; large-scale cryogenic systems, such as the large hadron collider and the TeV Electron Superconducting Linear

  5. ccsd00003303, Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic

    E-print Network

    ccsd­00003303, version 1 ­ 17 Nov 2004 Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic Detectors cryogenic experiments currently provide the best sensitivity, by nearly one order of magnitude, to WIMP of cryogenic exper- iments promises two orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity over the next few years

  6. The effect of cryogenic cooling on grinding forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Paul; A. B. Chattopadhyay

    1996-01-01

    Grinding forces are important parameters to judge the performance of any grinding process. Cryogenic cooling in grinding is a new concept to control the high grinding zone temperature without polluting the environment. The paper presents a hypothesis on the mechanics of grinding under cryogenic cooling. Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of cryogenic cooling on grinding forces

  7. Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy

    E-print Network

    i Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems Executive Summary Cryogenic systems providing 100-1000 watts of cooling power at 65-80 K are required) and operate more efficiently (30+% of Carnot) and reliably than present day off the shelf cryogenic systems

  8. TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic System Roger Bennett and Yury Ivanyushenkov CCLRC "SPECIFICATION" of the cryogenic cycle is: 1. Initial fill of the magnet cryostat slowly over many hours -12 at CERN, December 2004, drawn by Peter Titus #12;Design and Costing of the Cryogenic System 1. The input

  9. An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea)

    E-print Network

    Eisenstein, Jim

    An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea) and J. P. Eisenstein Condensed Matter contained in a cryogenic environment. Cyclotron emission from a two-dimensional electron gas 2DEG heated microwave to optical frequencies.2 In this article an all-cryogenic spectrometer is presented that bypasses

  10. Microstructure of cryogenic treated M2 tool steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y Huang; Y. T Zhu; X. Z Liao; I. J Beyerlein; M. A Bourke; T. E Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Cryogenic treatment has been claimed to improve wear resistance of certain steels and has been implemented in cutting tools, autos, barrels etc. Although it has been confirmed that cryogenic treatment can improve the service life of tools, the underling mechanism remains unclear. In this paper, we studied the microstructure changes of M2 tool steel before and after cryogenic treatment. We

  11. Interaction of Cryogen Spray with Human Skin under Vacuum Pressures

    E-print Network

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Interaction of Cryogen Spray with Human Skin under Vacuum Pressures Walfre Franco, Jie Liu vessels in port wine stains (PWS) birthmarks laser therapy. The release of cryogen spurts under vacuum is to study the time and space dependent thermal response of a skin phantom to cryogen sprays at different

  12. Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields

    E-print Network

    Fajans, Joel

    Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields by Ramesh Gopalan A.B. (University: Chair Date Date Date University of California at Berkeley 1998 #12;Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields Copyright 1998 by Ramesh Gopalan #12;1 Abstract Studies of Cryogenic Electron

  13. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N), powder insulation, and foam insulation, are used in the cryogenic storage vessels. Among CP823, Advances in Cjyogenie Engineering: Transactions of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC, Vol. 51, edited by J. G

  14. Performance of Power Converters at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Power converters capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated to play an important role in the power system architecture of future NASA deep space missions. Design of such converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance and reduce development and launch costs. Aerospace power systems are mainly a DC distribution network. Therefore, DC/DC and DC/AC converters provide the outputs needed to different loads at various power levels. Recently, research efforts have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to design and evaluate DC/DC converters that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. This paper presents a summary of the research performed to evaluate the low temperature performance of five DC/DC converters. Various parameters were investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 20 to -196 C. Data pertaining to the output voltage regulation and efficiency of the converters is presented and discussed.

  15. Applicability of ceramics for cryogenic use

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, S.; Nakahira, A.; Niihara, K.; Okada, T. [ISIR Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Ceramic thermal shield support used at cryogenic temperatures had been developed for superconducting magnet system. The ceramic materials were screened, based on thermal conductivity down to cryogenic temperature. mechanical properties and machinability, and zirconia was chosen as the candidate for the thermal shield support. The thermal conductivity down to 10 K was measured, the thermal penetration through the support was calculated and compared with the stainless steel support. It was found that with approximately 1/5 of heat penetration to 80K, with 1/4 of that to 4.2 K, a shield can be made with zirconia support. The machinability of the zirconia was also examined. The bolt shaped shield support was successfully developed. The other possible applications of ceramic materials for cryogenic use were also discussed.

  16. Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (review)

    E-print Network

    Buzulutskov, A

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

  17. Designs of pulsed power cryogenic transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Heyne, C.J.; Hackowrth, D.T.; Shestak, E.J.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has completed designs of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These transformers will be configured to transfer their stored energy sequentially to an electro-magnetic launcher and form a three-stage power supply. The pulse transformers will act as two winding energy storage solenoids which provide a high current and energy pulse compression by transforming a 50 kA power supply into a megamp level power supply more appropriate for the electromagnetic launcher duty. This system differs from more traditional transformer applications in that significant current levels do not exists simultaneously in the two windings of the pulse transformer. This paper describes the designs of the pulsed power cryogenic transformers.

  18. Cryogenic surface-electrode ion trap apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubielzig, Timko; Carsjens, Martina; Kohnen, Matthias; Grondkowski, Sebastian; Ospelkaus, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In this talk we describe the infrastructure necessary to operate a surface-electrode ion trap with integrated microwave conductors for near-field quantum control of 9Be+ in a cryogenic environment. These traps are promising systems for analog quantum simulators and for quantum logic applications. Our group recently developed a trap with an integrated meander-like microwave guide for driving motional sidebands on an 9Be+ ion. The trap will be operated in a cryogenic vacuum chamber. We will discuss the vibrational isolated closed cycle cryostat and the design of the vacuum chamber with all electrical supplies necessary to apply two different microwave currents, dc voltages and three independent rf supplies to generate a reconfigurable rf trapping potential. We will also discuss the used hyperfine qubit and the laser systems required to cool and repump. Furthermore we will present the cryogenic, high aperture and fully acromatic imaging system.

  19. A survey of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Following the development of the cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972, a large number of cryogenic wind-tunnel projects have been undertaken at various research establishments around the world. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the more significant of these projects. Described in this paper are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in China (CARDC), England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, RAE-Bedford, and University of Southampton), 'Europe' (Pilot European Transonic Windtunnel at NAL-Amsterdam, and the European Transonic Windtunnel proposed for DFVLR-Koeln), France (ONERA-CERT), Germany (DFVLR-Koeln, and DFVLR-Goettingen), Japan (NAL, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy), Sweden (Rollab), and the United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA-Langley).

  20. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  1. Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

  2. Cryogenic insulation standard data and methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although some standards exist for thermal insulation, few address the sub-ambient temperature range and cold-side temperatures below 100 K. Standards for cryogenic insulation systems require cryostat testing and data analysis that will allow the development of the tools needed by design engineers and thermal analysts for the design of practical cryogenic systems. Thus, this critically important information can provide reliable data and methodologies for industrial efficiency and energy conservation. Two Task Groups have been established in the area of cryogenic insulation systems Under ASTM International's Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation. These are WK29609 - New Standard for Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems and WK29608 - Standard Practice for Multilayer Insulation in Cryogenic Service. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Thermal Energy Laboratory of LeTourneau University are conducting Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) of selected insulation materials. Each lab carries out the measurements of thermal properties of these materials using identical flat-plate boil-off calorimeter instruments. Parallel testing will provide the comparisons necessary to validate the measurements and methodologies. Here we discuss test methods, some initial data in relation to the experimental approach, and the manner reporting the thermal performance data. This initial study of insulation materials for sub-ambient temperature applications is aimed at paving the way for further ILS comparative efforts that will produce standard data sets for several commercial materials. Discrepancies found between measurements will be used to improve the testing and data reduction techniques being developed as part of the future ASTM International standards.

  3. Ultra-high heat flux cooling characteristics of cryogenic micro-solid nitrogen particles and its application to semiconductor wafer cleaning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Oh, U.; Guanghan, Zhao; Koike, Tomoki; Ochiai, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    The ultra-high heat flux cooling characteristics and impingement behavior of cryogenic micro-solid nitrogen (SN2) particles in relation to a heated wafer substrate were investigated for application to next generation semiconductor wafer cleaning technology. The fundamental characteristics of cooling heat transfer and photoresist removal-cleaning performance using micro-solid nitrogen particulate spray impinging on a heated substrate were numerically investigated and experimentally measured by a new type of integrated computational-experimental technique. This study contributes not only advanced cryogenic cooling technology for high thermal emission devices, but also to the field of nano device engineering including the semiconductor wafer cleaning technology.

  4. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Sperling, P.; Harmand, M.; Becker, A.; Bornath, T.; Bredow, R.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fennel, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Förster, E.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Holst, B.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Mithen, J. P.; Mitzner, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Roling, S.; Schulz, M.; Siemer, B.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Wöstmann, M.; Zacharias, H.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ?300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ˜0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  5. Current developments in NASA cryogenic cooler technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Cooler technologies that are being developed by NASA to meet the varying temperature and cooling power requirements of NASA instruments are described. In addition to providing the desired operating temperature and cooling power by stabilizing temperatures from room temperature down to 0.1 K or less, these coolers will have working lifetimes commensurate with the 10 to 15 year lifetime expected for major future NASA facilities. The types of coolers currently under development are discussed, including radiative coolers, solid cryogen coolers, surface tension confined liquid cryogen coolers, mechanical coolers, liquid helium dewars, He3 adsorption coolers, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, and dilution refrigerators.

  6. Cryogenic electron beam induced chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aiden A; Toth, Milos

    2014-11-12

    Cryogenic cooling is used to enable efficient, gas-mediated electron beam induced etching (EBIE) in cases where the etch rate is negligible at room and elevated substrate temperatures. The process is demonstrated using nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) as the etch precursor, and Si, SiO2, SiC, and Si3N4 as the materials volatilized by an electron beam. Cryogenic cooling broadens the range of precursors that can be used for EBIE, and enables high-resolution, deterministic etching of materials that are volatilized spontaneously by conventional etch precursors as demonstrated here by NF3 and XeF2 EBIE of silicon. PMID:25333843

  7. Thermoelectric Module Performance in Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Morita, Ryo; Omoto, Kazuyuki; Koji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Noishiki, Koji

    Performance of thermoelectric (TE) modules for the TE power conversion system combined with open rack type LNG vaporizer (ORV) is discussed. Most of the conventional BiTe TE modules suffer sudden decrease of the power at cryogenic temperature as low as -160°C. This is called as Mayer-Marschall effect. Authors investigated the cause of this effect and found TE modules that could avoid such effect. Performance data of such TE modules obtained at the cryogenic thermoelectric (CTE) test rig which could realize temperature and fluid dynamic condition of the ORV is presented.

  8. Photochemistry of chloropicrin in cryogenic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Elisabeth A.; Reak, Kristina E.; Parsons, Bradley F.; Clemes, Thomas P.; Singmaster, Karen A.

    2002-11-01

    The photolysis of chloropicrin (CCl 3NO 2) was investigated in Ar and N 2 cryogenic matrices. The extent of reaction was monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy. Phosgene and nitrosyl chloride were the observed photoproducts at all wavelengths investigated (220, 251, 313, 365, and 405 nm). When the photolysis was performed with 220, 251, or 313 nm light, two additional bands were also observed. These bands have been assigned to CCl 3ONO. Chloropicrin was also photolyzed in the presence of O 2 and 18O2. 18O-labeled photoproducts were not detected in cryogenic matrices.

  9. Cryogenic Hybrid Coupler for Ultra-Low-Noise Radio Astronomy Balanced Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo-Gomez, Inmaculada; Gallego-Puyol, Juan Daniel; Diez-Gonzalez, Carmen; Lopez-Fernandez, Isaac; Briso-Rodriguez, César

    2009-12-01

    Modern heterodyne ultra low noise receivers used for radio astronomy have evolved to provide very wide instantaneous bandwidth. Some of the configurations used in present cryogenic front-ends, such as sideband separating mixers and balanced amplifiers, require 90?? hybrids as a part of the intermediate frequency (IF) circuitry. A very common choice for the band of operation of these hybrids is 4-12-GHz band. There are devices commercially available covering this band with good ambient temperature characteristics, but their cryogenic performance degrades to unacceptable levels. This paper describes the design, construction and measurement of a multioctave stripline hybrid for the 4-12 GHz band specially conceived to operate satisfactorily when cooled down to 15 K (-258 C). The materials and mechanical construction have been carefully selected and the result is a very compact, reliable and low thermal mass device, capable to withstand extreme thermal cycling. The coupling and reflection characteristics of the prototype show very low temperature dependence. The utility of the hybrid developed is demonstrated in a cryogenic balanced amplifier. The noise temperature obtained using this configuration (6 K) shows clear advantage (about 33%) over the classical isolator-amplifier combination normally used in heterodyne radio astronomy receivers. Besides, a superior insensitivity of the amplifier's noise performance to the input termination mismatch is obtained.

  10. Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Chan, Hue Sun

    safety precautions to be taken when working with inert cryogenics, and is based on standard industry_______________________________________________________________________ Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 March 2009 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage

  11. CRYOGENIC AND VACUUM TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE LOW-ENERGY ELECTROSTATIC CRYOGENIC STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. A.; Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Sieber, T.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg, 69029 Germany (Germany); Rappaport, M. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2008-03-16

    The cryogenic and vacuum concepts for the electrostatic Cryogenic ion Storage Ring (CSR), under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, is presented. The ring will operate in a broad temperature range from 2 to 300 K and is required to be bakeable up to 600 K. Extremely high vacuum and low temperatures are necessary to achieve long lifetimes of the molecular ions stored in the ring so that the ions will have enough time to cool by radiation to their vibrational and rotational ground states. To test cryogenic and vacuum technological aspects of the CSR, a prototype is being built and will be connected to the commercial cryogenic refrigerator recently installed, including a specialized 2-K connection system. The first results and the status of current work with the prototype are also presented.

  12. Cryogenic Technology, part 1. [conference proceedings; cryogenic wind tunnel design and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Different engineering problems associated with the design of mechanisms and systems to operate in a cryogenic environment are discussed. The focal point for the entire engineering effort was the design of the National Transonic Facility, which is a closed-circuit cryogenic wind tunnel. The papers covered a variety of mechanical, structural, and systems design subjects including thermal structures insulation systems, noise, seals, and materials.

  13. Abel inversion of cryogenic laser target images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Yaakobi; F. J Marshall; J. A Delettrez

    1997-01-01

    Abel inversion of backlighted laser target images have been recently used to infer shell densities during the implosion. We calculate here images of predicted cryogenic implosions and show that very high peak densities can be diagnosed if the image is monochromatized. A simple Abel procedure is used, where the two-dimensional image is integrated to yield a one-dimensional image before inversion.

  14. Dimensional stability considerations for cryogenic metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Work performed as part of an effort to identify, and where possible separate out, some of the factors that contribute to dimensional stability in cryogenic wind tunnel models is reported. Initial problems were encountered with two dimensional models made of 15-5 PH stainless steel, which warped significantly after being subjected to cryogenic testing in the 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Subsequently, an effort was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms that could cause model warpage during cryogenic testing. The two basic mechanisms that can lead to warpage are (1) metallurgical structural instability in which one phase transforms partially or fully into a second phase which has a different crystal structure and volume, and (2) deformation due to the creation, or relief, of unbalanced induced or residual stresses. In the case of the 15-5 PH airfoils, it is highly probable that metallurgical instability was responsible for most of the observed warpage. A particular specimen configuration was established for use in the systematic evaluation of the factors influencing warpage. Preliminary studies of a specimen made of VASCOMAX 200 suggest the possibility of manipulating the stresses in the surface layers by appropriate combinations of milling and grinding steps. This opens up the possibility of correcting or establishing the required surface profile of an airfoil.

  15. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Timmerhaus

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented describing recent studies and developments in applied superconductivity, liquid natural gas technology, phase equilibria, insulation technology, cryotechnology and cryobiology. Some of the topics covered include a survey of cryogenic power transmission research in the U.S., liquid natural gas peakshaving plants - a comparison of cycles, measurement techniques for phase equilibria at low temperatures, transient optimization of a

  16. Advances in cryogenic engineering materials. Volume 34

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Clark; R. P. Reed

    1988-01-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the Seventh International Cryogenics Materials Conference and includes papers on the following topics: composite insulators under gas permeation, irradiation, magnetic field, thermal, and mechanical conditions and effects; superconducting alloy development and testing; mechanical and physical property determination; A15 conductors; high critical temperature oxide superconductors; Chevrel phase sulfide superconductors; flux pinning determination; superconducting film and

  17. Three-axis cryogenic Hall sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kvitkovic; M. Majoros

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements are very important for magnetic and superconducting material research. Hall sensors have many advantages for these measurements. They can also be used for magnetic field profile measurements, which provide information about material homogeneity. We have developed a three-axis Hall system which consists of three perpendicular InSb Hall sensors for operation at room as well as cryogenic temperatures.

  18. The Cryogenic Supervision System in NSRRC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsing-Chieh Li; Zong-Da Tsai; Feng-Zone Hsiao; Sheng-Hsiung Chang; Wen-Song Chiou

    2005-01-01

    The helium cryogenic system in NSRRC is a fully automatic system using the Siemens SIMATIC 300 PLC (Programable Logic Controller). Modularization in both hardware and software makes it easy in the program reading, the system modification and the problem debug. Based on the LabVIEW program we had developed a supervision system taking advantage of the Internet technology to get system's

  19. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  20. Optical testing cryogenic thermal vacuum facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. Dohogne; Warren A. Carpenter

    1990-01-01

    The construction of a turnkey cryogenic vacuum test facility was recently completed. The facility will be used to measure and record the surface profile of large diameter and 540 kg optics under simulated space conditions. The vacuum test chamber is a vertical stainless steel cylinder with a 3.5 diameter and a 7 m tangent length. The chamber was designed to

  1. Rigid plastic foam insulation for cryogenic application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mathes; H. Langer; R. Sangkohl

    1976-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of rigid foam materials necessary for cryogenic applications are described. The following data from PVC, PUR and PMI rigid foams were determined: tensile strength, stress-strain diagram, compressive strength, specific dates of thermal conductivity, permeability to gas, and contractive behavior at low temperature. The testing methods applied are described and the results are tabulated. Efficiency data for

  2. Infrared Telescope (IRT) System Cryogenic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, E. W.; Ladner, D. R.

    1985-02-01

    The Spacelab 2 Infrared Telescope Experiment has recently completed a series of extensive tests both in the laboratory and as part of the integrated Spacelab 2 payload. We report on the results of the cryogenic performance and servicing tests conducted to date.

  3. Fiber optic level sensor for cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.

    1981-01-01

    Sensor is useful in cryogenic environments where liquids of very low index of refraction are encountered. It is "yes/no" indication of whether liquid is in contact with sensor. Sharp bends in fiber alter distribution of light among propagation modes. This amplifies change in light output observed when sensor contacts liquid, without requiring long fiber that would increse insertion loss.

  4. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; van Slyke, V.; Barrera, F.; Petersen, H.; Rago, C.E.; Rinta, R.I.; Talaska, D.; Watt, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin. The tests identified problems with the cryogenic system and the 2800 refrigerator. Procedures for successful operation and quenching of the superconducting magnet were developed. 19 references.

  5. Cryogenic magnetostrictive actuators and stepper motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad H. Joshi

    2000-01-01

    Energen, Inc. has developed actuators based on cryogenic magnetostrictive materials. These actuators are designed to provide precision positioning and active control of adaptive optical surfaces such as those that are being considered for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The NGST is a large 8-mm diameter segmented reflecting telescope that uses a thin optical surface mounted on a rigid composite

  6. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  7. Development of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Karunanithi; Subhash Jacob; G. S. V. L. Narasimham; D. S. Nadig; Upendra Behera; Dinesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is presented in the paper. As the wick is required only in the evaporator section, very small pore size wicks can be used in applications with high thermal transport requirements and\\/or where the heat must be transported over a long distance against gravity. A FORTRAN program to solve the mathematical model

  8. Dielectric strength of condensed cryogenic helium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Belevtsev

    1993-01-01

    The quantitative theory of the intrinsic dielectric strength of condensed helium under cryogenic temperatures is considered. It is based on examining the electron impact multiplication process in this medium in a strong electric field. The method of the electron kinetic Boltzmann equation is used to calculate the impact ionization coefficients and other related transport quantities. These quantities have been used

  9. Optimum Input Leads for Cryogenic Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard McFee

    1959-01-01

    Electrical leads carrying currents into cryogenic apparatus also introduce heat. Even with an ideal Carnot cycle, the mechanical power needed to remove this heat can be one hundred or more times the heat flow itself. If the currents and hence the input leads are heavy, a very sizeable refrigerator may be required. In this article the configuration of the leads

  10. Cryogenic Filters for RFI Mitigation in Radioastronomy

    E-print Network

    G. Tuccari; A. Caddemi; S. Barbarino; G. Nicotra; F. Consoli; F. Schilliro; F. Catalfamo

    2005-01-03

    RFI mitigation in Radioastronomy can be achieved adopting cryogenic filters in appropriate typologies. A study has been conducted in L, C and X band with the evaluation of the filter architecture in copper, with theoretical estimation, computer simulations, prototypes realization, laboratory measurements. Such work has been preliminary to the realization of HTS samples with the purpose of a similar complete characterization approach.

  11. Cryogenic recondenser with remote cold box

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, A.J.; Andeen, B.R.; Lessard, P.A.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a cryogenic recondenser for recondensing cryogen retained in a storage vessel. The recondenser consists of: cooling means comprising a mechanical refrigerator positioned outside of the storage vessel, the means precooling a volume of gaseous refrigerant; a transfer line leading from the cooling means and removeably inserted into the storage vessel; and a JT valve at an end of the transfer line in the storage vessel, the precooled refrigerant being transferred in the transfer line from the cooling means to the JT valve in heat exchange relation with returning refrigerant and being expanded through the JT valve to form a liquid-gas cryogen mixture within the end of the transfer line which is in heat exchange relation with boil-off from the cryogen retained in the storage vessel such that the boil off is cooled and recondensed; refrigerant being returned to the cooling means through the transfer line in a manner in which the returning refrigerant is in heat exchange relation with the refrigerant being transferred to the JT valve.

  12. Cryogenic propellant prestart conditioning for NLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Merlin, M. V.; Gautney, T. T.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of a candidate National Launch System (NLS) passive cryogenic propellant prestart conditioning system that offers a stable propellant thermal environment and minimum system complexity. A 2D, multinode model utilizing real fluid properties was developed. This model predicts flow recirculation due to thermal gradients by assuming vertical cold and warm opposing flow streams produced by density differential.

  13. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Rucinski; K. D. Dixon; R. Krasa; K. J. Krempetz; G. T. Mulholland; G. R. Trotter; J. B. Urbin

    1993-01-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation

  14. Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a

    E-print Network

    with experiments for similar helium systems / 2 // 3 /. At least on the scale of one TESLA cryomodule the effect1 Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a Single TTF / FEL - Cryomodule Test Bench TESLA Report No of the TESLA accelerator, can be conducted only in the TTF/FEL-linac. Sometimes such kinds of tests are shifted

  15. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  16. Temperature control of a cryogenic bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, I. M.

    1972-01-01

    Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

  17. Cryogenic small-signal conversion with relaxation oscillations in Josephson junctions

    E-print Network

    Furlan, M

    2006-01-01

    Broadband detection of small electronic signals from cryogenic devices, with the option of simple implementation for multiplexing, is often a highly desired, although non-trivial task. We investigate and demonstrate a small-signal analog-to-frequency conversion system based on relaxation oscillations in a single Josephson junction. Operation and stability conditions are derived, with special emphasis on noise analysis, showing the dominant noise sources to originate from fluctuation processes in the junction. At optimum conditions the circuit is found to deliver excellent noise performance over a broad dynamic range. Our simple models successfully apply within the regime of classical Josephson junction and circuit dynamics, which we confirm by experimental results. A discussion on possible applications includes a measurement of the response to a cryogenic radiation detector.

  18. Design and Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Kroliczek, Edward J.; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Ted; Tomlinson, B. J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1998-01-01

    This paper details the flight configuration and pre-flight performance test results of the fifth generation cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL-5). This device will fly on STS-95 in October 1998 as part of the CRYOTSU Flight Experiment. This flight represents the first in-space demonstration of a CCPL; a miniaturized two-phase fluid circulator for thermally linking cryogenic components. CCPL-5 utilizes N2 as the working fluid and has a practical operating range of 75-110 K. Test results indicate that CCPL-5, which weighs about 200 grams, can transport over 10 W of cooling a distance of 0.25 m (or more) with less than a 5 K temperature drop.

  19. Flow Visualization of Density in a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Planar Rayleigh and Raman Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.; Shirinzadeh, Behrooz

    2002-01-01

    Using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and a gated, intensified charge-coupled device, planar Rayleigh and Raman scattering techniques have been used to visualize the unseeded Mach 0.2 flow density in a 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Detection limits are determined for density measurements by using both unseeded Rayleigh and Raman (N2 vibrational) methods. Seeding with CO2 improved the Rayleigh flow visualization at temperatures below 150 K. The seeded Rayleigh version was used to demonstrate the observation of transient flow features in a separated boundary layer region, which was excited with an oscillatory jet. Finally, a significant degradation of the laser light sheet, in this cryogenic facility, is discussed.

  20. Cryogenic systems for the large deployable reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Peter V.

    1988-01-01

    There are five technologies which may have application for Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), one passive and four active. In order of maturity, they are passive stored cryogen systems, and mechanical, sorption, magnetic, and pulse-tube refrigerators. In addition, deep space radiators will be required to reject the heat of the active systems, and may be useful as auxiliary coolers for the stored cryogen systems. Hybrid combinations of these technologies may well be more efficient than any one alone, and extensive system studies will be required to determine the best trade-offs. Stored cryogen systems were flown on a number of missions. The systems are capable of meeting the temperature requirements of LDR. The size and weight of stored cryogen systems are proportional to heat load and, as a result, are applicable only if the low-temperature heat load can be kept small. Systems using chemisorption and physical adsorption for compressors and pumps have received considerable attention in the past few years. Systems based on adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts were used for refrigeration for many years. Pulse-tube refrigerators were recently proposed which show relatively high efficiency for temperatures in the 60 to 80 K range. The instrument heat loads and operating temperatures are critical to the selection and design of the cryogenic system. Every effort should be made to minimize heat loads, raise operating temperatures, and to define these precisely. No one technology is now ready for application to LDR. Substantial development efforts are underway in all of the technologies and should be monitored and advocated. Magnetic and pulse-tube refrigerators have high potential.

  1. Thales Cryogenics rotary cryocoolers for HOT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Freche, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Thales Cryogenics has an extensive background in delivering reliable linear and rotary coolers for military, civil and space programs. Recent work carried out at detector level enable to consider a higher operation temperature for the cooled detectors. This has a direct impact on the cooling power required to the cryocooler. In continuation of the work presented last year, Thales cryogenics has studied the operation and optimization of the rotary cryocoolers at high cold regulation temperature. In this paper, the performances of the Thales Cryogenics rotary cryocoolers at elevated cold regulation temperature will be presented. From these results, some trade-offs can be made to combine correct operation of the cryocooler on all the ambient operational range and maximum efficiency of the cryocooler. These trade-offs and the impact on MTTF of elevated cold regulation temperature will be presented and discussed. In correlation with the increase of the cold operation temperature, the cryocooler input power is significantly decreased. As a consequence, the cooler drive electronics own consumption becomes relatively important and must be reduced in order to minimize global input power to the cooling function (cryocooler and cooler drive electronics). Thales Cryogenics has developed a new drive electronics optimized for low input power requirements. In parallel, improvements on RM1 and RM2 cryocoolers have been defined and implemented. The main impacts on performances of these new designs will be presented. Thales cryogenics is now able to propose an efficient cooling function for application requiring a high cold regulation temperature including a range of tuned rotary coolers.

  2. DIII-D cryogenics control system status

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Harris, J.J.; Schaubel, K.M.

    1993-09-01

    The DIII-D cryogenics system provides liquid helium for various auxiliary systems at the DIII-D tokamak facility. The system described here executes control and supervision of the cryogenics plant and associated load systems which include four neutral beam injectors, superconducting magnets, and an in-vessel tokamak cryocondensation pump. The recent addition of this divertor cryopump represented a major increase in the scope of the control system and greater need for reliable and automatic operation. The pump must be precooled, cooled and regenerated in a relatively short period of time under automatic control. Since the pump is located in the tokamak primary vacuum, coordination with the machine vacuum control system and consideration for the requirements of physics operations and vessel wall conditioning are required. A programmable logic controller is the central element in the cryogenics control system and exercises direct or supervisory control over the liquefier, gas management and loads. In the time since the control system was built during 1989, additions and improvements have been made to simplify operation and support upgrades. Cryogenics system capacity has been upgraded by the purchase of a new 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, a second 400 hp helium compressor and additional gas storage. The new liquefier incorporates a controller of its own which exchanges information with the cryogenics control system. This independent controller relieved the main system of liquefier process control tasks but necessitates much finer control of the system high and low pressures. The control system upgrades and automation are discussed with emphasis on the divertor cryocondensation pump control.

  3. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Smith, Timothy D.; Wadel, Mary F.; Meyer, Michael L.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    Exploration Systems Architecture Study conducted by NASA in 2005 identified the liquid oxygen (LOx)/liquid methane (LCH4) propellant combination as a prime candidate for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module propulsion and for later use for ascent stage propulsion of the lunar lander. Both the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Lander were part the Constellation architecture, which had the objective to provide global sustained lunar human exploration capability. From late 2005 through the end of 2010, NASA and industry matured advanced development designs for many components that could be employed in relatively high thrust, high delta velocity, pressure fed propulsion systems for these two applications. The major investments were in main engines, reaction control engines, and the devices needed for cryogenic fluid management such as screens, propellant management devices, thermodynamic vents, and mass gauges. Engine and thruster developments also included advanced high reliability low mass igniters. Extensive tests were successfully conducted for all of these elements. For the thrusters and engines, testing included sea level and altitude conditions. This advanced development provides a mature technology base for future liquid oxygen/liquid methane pressure fed space propulsion systems. This paper documents the design and test efforts along with resulting hardware and test results.

  4. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.; Van Rheenen, Arthur D.; Jostad, Leon; Kim, Joo-Young; Gable, Ben

    1992-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet GaAs n-JFETs have been investigated down to liquid helium temperatures. Voltage noise characterization was performed with the FET in 1) the floating gate mode, 2) the grounded gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible and 3) with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages, to determine optimum operating conditions. Current noise characterization was measured at the drain in the temperature range 300 to 77 K. Device design and MBE processing are described. Static I-V characterization is done at 300, 77 and 6 K. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs n-JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered as a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to that of Si MOSFETs operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n-JFETs operating at 300 K.

  5. Cryogenic Optical Systems and Instrumentation IX (AM 116) Newly Modified Cryogenic Optical Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ronnie; Kegley, Jeff; Keidel, John

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has maintained and operated a world-class x-ray optics and detector testing facility known as the X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) since the mid 1970's. The ground test and calibration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory optics and detectors were successfully completed at the XRCF in 1997. The beginning of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) development programs (NMSD, SBMD, AMSD, etc.) and the establishment of the Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center at MSFC have led to an XRCF modification. In 1999 the facility was upgraded to perform cryogenic testing of lightweight visible optics (without compromising the existing x-ray testing capability). A thermal enclosure capable of 20 degrees Kelvin and vibration isolated instrumentation mount were added. A vacuum-compatible five-axis motion table was modified to operate under cryogenic conditions. Optics up to two meters in diameter with radii of curvature of up to twenty meters can be accommodated. Facility characterization tests and one NGST program mirror test have been completed to date. By July 2000, two other mirrors will be tested. Optical wavefront measurements were made at < 35 degrees Kelvin with several instruments located at the test mirror's radius of curvature. The current wavefront measuring instruments include a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, a point diffraction interferometer, a point spread function-measuring device, and a radius of curvature measuring instrument. A vibration insensitive phase shifting interferometer is planned for future optical testing. This paper will present a brief history of the facility, a discussion of its current x-ray optic testing capabilities, and a complete description of the new capabilities in the visible optical testing regime.

  6. Status of the Cryogen-Free Cryogenic System for the CUORE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucciotti, A.; Alessandria, F.; Ameri, M.; Bucci, C.; Bersani, A.; Canonica, L.; Cereseto, R.; Ceruti, G.; Cremonesi, O.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; Dossena, S.; Ejzak, L.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Franceschi, A.; Gregerson, G.; Heeger, K.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T.; Orlandi, D.; Sisti, M.; Taffarello, L.; Tatananni, L.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.

    2011-11-01

    The CUORE detector will be made of 988 TeO2 crystals and will need a base temperature lower than 10 mK in order to meet the performance specifications. To cool the CUORE detector a large cryogen-free cryostat with five pulse tubes and one specially designed high-power dilution refrigerator has been designed. The detector assembly has a total mass of about 1.5 ton and uses a vibration decoupling suspension system. Because of the stringent requirements regarding radioactivity, about 12 tons of lead shielding need to be cooled to 4 K and below, and only a limited number of construction materials are acceptable. The eight retractable radioactive sources for detector calibration and about 2600 signal wires add further complexity to the system. The many stringent and contrasting requirements together with the overall large size made the design of the CUORE cryogenic system a real mechanical and cryogenic engineering challenge. The cryogenic system is expected to be fully operational in the Gran Sasso Laboratory in July 2013. We report here about the current status of the cryogenic system construction, which has started about one year.

  7. Design, construction and cooling system performance of a prototype cryogenic stopping cell for the Super-FRS at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, M.; Dendooven, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Dickel, T.; Reiter, M. P.; Ayet, S.; Haettner, E.; Moore, I. D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Geissel, H.; Plaß, W. R.; Schäfer, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schreuder, F.; Timersma, H.; Van de Walle, J.; Weick, H.

    2015-01-01

    A cryogenic stopping cell for stopping energetic radioactive ions and extracting them as a low energy beam was developed. This first ever cryogenically operated stopping cell serves as prototype device for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS at FAIR. The cell has a stopping volume that is 1 m long and 25 cm in diameter. Ions are guided by a DC field along the length of the stopping cell and by a combined RF and DC fields provided by an RF carpet at the exit-hole side. The ultra-high purity of the stopping gas required for optimum ion survival is reached by cryogenic operation. The design considerations and construction of the cryogenic stopping cell, as well as some performance characteristics, are described in detail. Special attention is given to the cryogenic aspects in the design and construction of the stopping cell and the cryocooler-based cooling system. The cooling system allows the operation of the stopping cell at any desired temperature between about 70 K and room temperature. The cooling system performance in realistic on-line conditions at the FRS Ion Catcher Facility at GSI is discussed. A temperature of 110 K at which efficient ion survival was observed is obtained after 10 h of cooling. A minimum temperature of the stopping gas of 72 K was reached. The expertise gained from the design, construction and performance of the prototype cryogenic stopping cell has allowed the development of a final version for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS to proceed.

  8. Conceptual design of a centrifugal CO{sub 2} cleaning device. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.N.

    1997-12-01

    The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division designs and manufactures cryogenic cleaning devices in their Wichita, Kansas, facility. The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division identified a market need for a new cryogenic cleaning device that would generate a high level of kinetic energy at a lower operating pressure and noise level. This market need is being generated because the existing products when operated at high kinetic energy levels create an excessive amount of noise and consume a very high level of compressed gases. The intention of this CRADA effort was to join AlliedSignal`s expertise in knowledge of manufacturing processes, design, and capabilities in performing solid modeling together with The L.A.W. Group, Inc., Cryokinetics Division`s knowledge of cryogenic cleaning design and manufacturing into a design team to create a prototype of a high-energy centrifugal cryogenic cleaning device.

  9. Feasibility study for the Cryogenic Orbital Nitrogen Experiment (CONE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. S.; Crouch, M. A.; Hanna, G. J.; Cady, E. C.; Meserole, J. S.

    1991-07-01

    An improved understanding of low gravity subcritical cryogenic fluid behavior is critical for the continued development of space based systems. Although early experimental programs provided some fundamental understanding of zero gravity cryogenic fluid behavior, more extensive flight data are required to design space based cryogenic liquid storage and transfer systems with confidence. As NASA's mission concepts evolve, the demand for optimized in-space cryogenic systems is increasing. Cryogenic Orbital Nitrogen Experiment (CONE) is an attached shuttle payload experiment designed to address major technological issues associated with on-orbit storage and supply of cryogenic liquids. During its 7 day mission, CONE will conduct experiments and technology demonstrations in active and passive pressure control, stratification and mixing, liquid delivery and expulsion efficiency, and pressurant bottle recharge. These experiments, conducted with liquid nitrogen as the test fluid, will substantially extend the existing low gravity fluid data base and will provide future system designers with vital performance data from an orbital environment.

  10. Transition detection studies in the cryogenic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartenberg, Ehud; Johnson, William G., Jr.; Johnson, Charles B.; Carraway, Debra L.; Wright, Robert E.

    Boundary-layer transition detection studies were carried out in the 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a supercritical airfoil, using an infrared imaging system. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent of the temperature range in which commercially available IR systems can detect transition in cryogenic environment. The experiment was designed to take advantage of a combination of factors including the wind tunnel operation mode, the model construction materials and the IR system image processing options. During the initial phases of the study, the IR based findings were confirmed by measurements done with a micro-thin hot-film system. Ultimately, free and forced transition could be detected down to 170 K.

  11. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  12. Large scale cryogenic fluid systems testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Cryogenic Fluid Systems Branch (CFSB) within the Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) has the ultimate goal of enabling the long term storage and in-space fueling/resupply operations for spacecraft and reusable vehicles in support of space exploration. Using analytical modeling, ground based testing, and on-orbit experimentation, the CFSB is studying three primary categories of fluid technology: storage, supply, and transfer. The CFSB is also investigating fluid handling, advanced instrumentation, and tank structures and materials. Ground based testing of large-scale systems is done using liquid hydrogen as a test fluid at the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility (K-site) at Lewis' Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. A general overview of tests involving liquid transfer, thermal control, pressure control, and pressurization is given.

  13. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  14. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  15. Bonding and Sealing Evaluations for Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Several different cryogenic tank concepts are being considered for reusable launch vehicles (RLV'S) . Though different tank concepts are being considered, many will require that the cryogenic insulation be evacuated and be bonded to a structure. In this work, an attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of maintaining a vacuum on a specimen where foam or honeycomb core was encased within Gr/Ep. In addition to these tests, flatwise adhesion pull off tests were performed at room temperature with PR 1664, EA 9394, FM-300, Crest 3170, and HT 435 adhesives. The materials bonded included Gr/Ep, Gr/BMI, Al, and stainless steel facesheets, and Ti honeycomb, Hexcel honeycomb, and Rohacell foam core materials.

  16. Low-noise cryogenic transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D.

    1987-01-01

    New low-noise cryogenic input transmission lines have been developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) at 1.668 GHz for cryogenically cooled Field Effect Transistors (FET) and High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. These amplifiers exhibit very low noise temperatures of 5 K to 15 K, making the requirements for a low-noise input transmission line critical. Noise contribution to the total amplifier system from the low-noise line is less than 0.5 K for both the 1.668-GHz and 2.25-GHz FET systems. The 1.668-GHz input line was installed in six FET systems which were implemented in the DSN for the Venus Balloon Experiment. The 2.25-GHz input line has been implemented in three FET systems for the DSN 34-m HEF antennas, and the design is currently being considered for use at higher frequencies.

  17. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  18. Designs of pulsed power cryogenic transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Heyne, C.J.; Hackworth, D.T.; Shestak, E.J.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has completed designs of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These transformers will be configured to transfer their stored energy sequentially to an electromagnetic launcher and form a three-stage power supply. The pulse transformers will act as two winding energy storage solenoids which provide a high current and energy pulse compression by transforming a 50 kA power supply into a megamp level power supply more appropriate for the electromagnetic launcher duty. This system differs from more traditional transformer applications in that significant current levels do not exist simultaneously in the two windings of the pulse transformer. This paper describes the designs of the pulsed power cryogenic transformers.

  19. Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Y. N.; Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, P.; Wang, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

  20. Titanium doped cryogenic sapphire resonator oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kersalé; N. Boubekeur; J. G. Hartnett; M. E. Tobar; N. Bazin; V. Giordano

    2005-01-01

    Residual paramagnetic impurities are present in high quality sapphire crystal. This phenomenon was exploited as paramagnetic spin compensation at liquid helium temperature to build high Q cryogenic sapphire resonator oscillators (CSRO). In this paper we present the characterization of intentionally Ti3+ and Ti4+ doped sapphire resonator oscillators. For the Ti3+ resonator we used the 12.7 GHz mode operating at 34K.

  1. Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Lebrun

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from

  2. Cryogenics for the Large Hadron Collider

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lebrun

    2000-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a 26.7 km circumference superconducting accelerator equipped with high-field magnets operating in superfluid helium below 1.9 K, has now fully entered construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The heart of the LHC cryogenic system is the quasi-isothermal magnet cooling scheme, in which flowing two-phase saturated superfluid helium removes the heat load from

  3. Space cryogenics from 1970 to 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mason

    1990-01-01

    While space-related cryogenic engineering in the 1950s and 1960s was primarily concerned with liquid fueled rocket fuel supply systems, the leading edge of technology development moved in the 1970s to the supply of 1.4-70 K cooling facilities for IR and gamma-ray astronomy instruments. Attention is presently given to the development history, current status, and future prospects for superfluid He cryocooling

  4. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 29

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    Applications of superconductivity are discussed, taking into account the thermal performance of the MFTF magnets, the design and testing of a large bore superconducting magnet test facility, the development of a 12-tesla multifilamentary Nb3Sn magnet, a superconducting magnet for solid NMR studies, advanced applications of superconductors, transition and recovery of a cryogenically stable superconductor, and finite-difference modeling of the cryostability

  5. Active Control of Cryogenic Propellants in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, William

    2011-01-01

    A new era of space exploration is being planned. Exploration architectures under consideration require the long term storage of cryogenic propellants in space. This requires development of active control systems to mitigate the effect of heat leak. This work summarizes current state of the art, proposes operational design strategies and presents options for future architectures. Scaling and integration of active systems will be estimated. Ideal long range spacecraft systems will be proposed with Exploration architecture benefits considered.

  6. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, David W.; Guzik, Monica C.

    2014-03-01

    A computational model of the cryogenic boil-off reduction system being developed by NASA as part of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer technology maturation project has been applied to a range of propellant storage tanks sizes for high-performing in-space cryogenic propulsion applications. This effort focuses on the scaling of multi-layer insulation (MLI), cryocoolers, broad area cooling shields, radiators, solar arrays, and tanks for liquid hydrogen propellant storage tanks ranging from 2 to 10 m in diameter. Component scaling equations were incorporated into the Cryogenic Analysis Tool, a spreadsheet-based tool used to perform system-level parametric studies. The primary addition to the evolution of this updated tool is the integration of a scaling method for reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocoolers, as well as the development and inclusion of Self-Supporting Multi-Layer Insulation. Mass, power, and sizing relationships are traded parametrically to establish the appropriate loiter period beyond which this boil-off reduction system application reduces mass. The projected benefit compares passive thermal control to active thermal control, where active thermal control is evaluated for reduced boil-off with a 90 K shield, zero boil-off with a single heat interception stage at the tank wall, and zero boil-off with a second interception stage at a 90 K shield. Parametric studies show a benefit over passive storage at loiter durations under one month, in addition to showing a benefit for two-stage zero boil-off in terms of reducing power and mass as compared to single stage zero boil-off. Furthermore, active cooling reduces the effect of varied multi-layer insulation performance, which, historically, has been shown to be significant.

  7. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A Demko; J. E. Fesmire; S. D. Augustynowicz

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed.

  8. DESIGN TOOL FOR CRYOGENIC THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Demko; J. E. Fesmire; S. D. Augustynowicz

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed.

  9. Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Philip A. (Moore, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

  10. Cryogenic preservation of fish and mammalian spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Mounib

    1978-01-01

    Summary. Various combinations of sucrose, reduced glutathione and potassium bi- carbonate were tested for the cryogenic preservation of salmon spermatozoa. When a fast freezing procedure was followed, the extender that gave the best results was composed of 1 part ofdimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), as a protective agent, and 7 parts of a medium containing 125 mM-sucrose, 6.50 mM-reduced glutathione and 100

  11. Cryogenic properties of optomechanical silica microcavities

    E-print Network

    Olivier Arcizet; Rémi Rivière; Albert Schliesser; Tobias J. Kippenberg

    2009-01-09

    We present the optical and mechanical properties of high-Q fused silica microtoroidal resonators at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.6 K). A thermally induced optical multistability is observed and theoretically described; it serves to characterize quantitatively the static heating induced by light absorption. Moreover the influence of structural defect states in glass on the toroid mechanical properties is observed and the resulting implications of cavity optomechanical systems on the study of mechanical dissipation discussed.

  12. Superconductors and cryogenics for future communication systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Klauda; T. Kasser; B. Mayer; C. Neumann; F. Schnell; B. Aminov; A. Baumfalk; H. Chaloupka; S. Kolesov; H. Piel; N. Klein; S. Schornstein; M. Bareiss

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of a German research program on “superconductors and ceramics for future communication technology”, efforts are undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of cryogenic and high-temperature superconductor technology for applications in communication satellites and base transceiver stations (BTS's) for terrestrial mobile communication. For the receiver front end of C-band satellites, noise reduction filters as well as input-multiplexer channel filters

  13. Terrestrial Planet Finder cryogenic delay line development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, Robert F.; Swain, Mark R.; Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar; Moore, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Delay lines provide the path-length compensation that makes the measurement of interference fringes possible. When used for nulling interferometry, the delay line must control path-lengths so that the null is stable and controlled throughout the measurement. We report on a low noise, low disturbance, and high bandwidth optical delay line capable of meeting the TPF interferometer optical path length control requirements at cryogenic temperatures.

  14. Reinforcing Liner For Composite Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgeson, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed fiber-reinforced liner for graphite/epoxy fuel tank prevents metal-foil leakage barrier from detaching at low temperatures. Consists of epoxy containing fibers of Spectra 1000. Tank holds inner layers of foil, adhesive, and proposed liner. Liner much thinner than shell, adds little weight, and subtracts little volume. Lined composite tank used to hold liquids from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. Not suitable for oxygen, because organic materials in liner oxidized quickly.

  15. Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.

    PubMed

    Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

    2000-03-01

    Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p < 0.05). Cryogen cooling of the tissue surface during laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing. PMID:10730969

  16. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  17. Advances in the first cryogen-free hybrid magnet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Watanabe; G. Nishijima; S. Awaji; K. Takahashi; K. Koyama; M. Motokawa; M. Ishizuka; T. Hasebe; J. Sakuraba

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve problems of a large amount of liquid helium supply for a wide bore superconducting magnet of a hybrid magnet, we intended to construct the first cryogen-free 23 T hybrid magnet, consisting of an outer wide bore cryogen-free superconducting magnet and an inner water-cooled resistive magnet. Up to now, the wide bore cryogen-free superconducting magnet was tested

  18. Effects of cryogenic equal channel angular deformation on copper 101 

    E-print Network

    Horan, Christopher Sean

    2001-01-01

    alone can produce, To date, it is well known that material processing combined with cryogenics produces improved material properties as a result of finer grain size. ' ' ' Upon 4, 5, 15, 16, 17 close examination of the literature, very little.... Copper Production Method. D. Cryogenic Processing E. Cryoformed Materials . . . . . . . F. Equal Channel Angular Deformation (ECAD) of Copper. . . . . G, Cryogenic ECAD. III RATIONALE 5 7 9 10 11 16 17 18 A. Pure Copper for Pulse Magnets. B...

  19. Cryogen-free hybrid magnet for magnetic levitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Watanabe; K. Takahashi; I. Mogi; G. Nishijima; S. Awaji; M. Motokawa

    2003-01-01

    The development of a cryogen-free hybrid magnet with no use of liquid helium was intended. A cryogen-free hybrid magnet is composed of an outer conduction-cooled superconducting magnet using GM-cryocoolers and an inner water-cooled resistive magnet. As a first step, we constructed a cryogen-free NbTi superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore, which generated 4.5 T at a magnet

  20. Texture comparison between cold rolled and cryogenically rolled pure copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeire, L.; Sidor, J.; Martinez Lombardia, E.; Verbeken, K.; De Graeve, I.; Terryn, H.; Kestens, L. A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, there is a considerable scientific interest in bulk ultrafine grained materials, due to their potential for superior mechanical properties. One of the possible formation methods of nano-grained materials is cryogenic rolling. The influence of rolling at cryogenic temperatures has been investigated. Significant differences in the textures and the microstructures can be observed between the cryogenically rolled copper and conventionally cold rolled copper, reduced to the same thickness.

  1. Friction Stir Welded Thin Wall Cryogenic Tank Skins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Potter; Jennifer A. Takeshita; Michael J. Holguin

    2007-01-01

    A cryogenic propellant tank is the common element of trans-planetary transportation systems, in-space storage depots, lunar landers, in-space habitats\\/laboratories, ascent\\/descent, and launch vehicles. Lockheed Martin's (LM) cryogenic tank approach integrates Friction Stir Welding (FSW) with thin-gage aluminum monocoque structural design, common spin formed FSW domes and variable tank lengths to tailor the cryogenic tank from smaller stages, such as landers

  2. Rapid-Chill Cryogenic Coaxial Direct-Acting Solenoid Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James; Castor, Jim; Sheller, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A commercially available cryogenic direct- acting solenoid valve has been modified to incorporate a rapid-chill feature. The net effect of the modifications is to divert some of the cryogenic liquid to the task of cooling the remainder of the cryogenic liquid that flows to the outlet. Among the modifications are the addition of several holes and a gallery into a valve-seat retainer and the addition of a narrow vent passage from the gallery to the atmosphere.

  3. Cryogenic emissivity properties of Ball Infrared Black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Randy; Renbarger, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation (BATC) developed a unique thermal control coating named Ball InfraRed BlackTM (BIRBTM). The coating generates a highly diffuse surface with a large effective surface area ideal for thermal radiative applications. Independent testing demonstrates excellent emissivity properties across the cryogenic region, especially at temperatures <50K where other products tend to roll off. Emissivity in this region exceeds that of other commercially available thermal control coatings. The proprietary coating was developed for use on spacecraft thermal radiators, but also has application to terrestrial cryogenic and vacuum systems. The coating is qualified for spaceflight, demonstrating outstanding adhesion after thermal cycling and vibration testing. Critical material properties for BIRBTM are characterized. BIRBTM is durable and cleanable with proper handling. BIRBTM has the additional benefit of being static-dissipative, making it ideal for direct exposure to the space environment. Additionally, contamination control properties are optimized, achieving low total outgassing rates and demonstrating particle cleanliness to meet stringent requirements for optical instruments. Thermal systems realize enhanced performance and/or substantial mass savings by applying BIRBTM to the radiator surface. To date, BIRBTM has been applied to several large cryogenic radiators for use on space-based thermal control systems.

  4. SAFETY ASPECTS OF BIG CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Chorowski, M.; Fydrych, J.; Polinski, J. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-04-09

    Superconductivity and helium cryogenics are key technologies in the construction of large scientific instruments, like accelerators, fusion reactors or free electron lasers. Such cryogenic systems may contain more than hundred tons of helium, mostly in cold and high-density phases. In spite of the high reliability of the systems, accidental loss of the insulation vacuum, pipe rupture or rapid energy dissipation in the cold helium can not be overlooked. To avoid the danger of over-design pressure rise in the cryostats, they need to be equipped with a helium relief system. Such a system is comprised of safety valves, bursting disks and optionally cold or warm quench lines, collectors and storage tanks. Proper design of the helium safety relief system requires a good understanding of worst case scenarios. Such scenarios will be discussed, taking into account different possible failures of the cryogenic system. In any case it is necessary to estimate heat transfer through degraded vacuum superinsulation and mass flow through the valves and safety disks. Even if the design of the helium relief system does not foresee direct helium venting into the environment, an occasional emergency helium spill may happen. Helium propagation in the atmosphere and the origins of oxygen-deficiency hazards will be discussed.

  5. Demonstration of Microsphere Insulation in Cryogenic Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, R. G.; Myers, E. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Morris, D. L.; Sokalski, E. R.

    2006-04-01

    While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual use in full-scale cryogenic storage tanks has not been demonstrated until now. The performance and life-cycle-cost advantages previously predicted have now been proven. Most bulk cryogenic storage tanks are insulated with either multilayer insulation (MLI) or perlite. Microsphere insulation, consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. These properties were proven during recent field testing of two 22,700-L (6,000-gallon) liquid nitrogen tanks, one insulated with microsphere insulation and the other with perlite. Normal evaporation rates (NER) for both tanks were monitored with precision test equipment and insulation levels within the tanks were observed through view ports as an indication of insulation compaction. Specific industrial applications were evaluated based on the test results and beneficial properties of microsphere insulation. Over-the-road trailers previously insulated with perlite will benefit not only from the reduced heat leak, but also the reduced mass of microsphere insulation. Economic assessments for microsphere-insulated cryogenic vessels including life-cycle cost are also presented.

  6. Developing NDE Techniques for Large Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Don; Starr, Stan; Arens, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The Shuttle Program requires very large cryogenic ground storage tanks in which to store liquid oxygen and hydrogen. The existing Pads A and B Launch Complex-39 tanks, which will be passed onto future launch programs, are 45 years old and have received minimal refurbishment and only external inspections over the years. The majority of the structure is inaccessible without a full system drain of cryogenic liquid and granular insulation in the annular region. It was previously thought that there was a limit to the number of temperature cycles that the tanks could handle due to possible insulation compaction before undergoing a costly and time consuming complete overhaul; therefore the tanks were not drained and performance issues with these tanks, specifically the Pad B liquid hydrogen tank, were accepted. There is a needind an opportunity, as the Shuttle program ends and work to upgrade the launch pads progresses, to develop innovative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to analyze the current tanks. Techniques are desired that can aid in determining the extent of refurbishment required to keep the tanks in service for another 20+ years. A nondestructive technique would also be a significant aid in acceptance testing of new and refurbished tanks, saving significant time and money, if corrective actions can be taken before cryogen is introduced to the systems.

  7. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.; Smits, R. G.; Taylor, J. D.; Vanslyke, V.; Barrera, F.; Petersen, H.; Rago, C. E.; Rinta, R. I.; Talaska, D.; Watt, R. D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin.

  8. The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jesse; Rogers, Chris

    2003-10-01

    The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets is investigated. Ten Vincent Bach Stradivarious B? trumpets are studied, half of which have been cryogenically treated. The trumpets were played by six players of varying proficiency, with sound samples being recorded directly to disk at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Both the steady-state and initial transient portions of the audio samples are analyzed. When comparing the average power spectra of the treated trumpets to the untreated set, no repeatable, statistically independent differences are observed in the data. Differences observed in player-to-player and trumpet-to-trumpet comparisons overshadow any differences that may have been brought on due to the cryogenic treatment. Qualitatively, players established no clear preference between the treated and untreated trumpets regarding tone and playability, and could not differentiate between the two sets of instruments. All data was collected in a double blind fashion. The treatment itself is a three step process, involving an 8 hour linear cool down period, a 10 hour period of sustained exposure to -195°C (-300°F), and a 20-25 hour period of warming back to room temperature. [Work was completed with the support of Steinway & Sons Pianos and Selmer Musical Instruments.

  9. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida] [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida] [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  10. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  11. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

  12. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.

    1997-11-18

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

  13. Aerodynamics of a Cryogenic Semi-Tanker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz

    2009-11-01

    The design of a modern cryogenic semi-tanker is based primarily upon functionality with little consideration given to aerodynamic drag. As a result, these tankers have maintained the appearance of a wheeled cylinder for several decades. To reduce the fuel usage of these vehicles, this study investigates their aerodynamics. A detailed understanding of the flow field about the vehicle and its influence on aerodynamic drag is obtained by performing Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of a full-scale tractor and cryogenic tanker-trailer operating at highway speed within a crosswind. The tanker-trailer has a length to diameter ratio of 6.3. The Reynolds number, based upon the tanker diameter, is 4.0x10^6, while the effective vehicle yaw angle is 6.1 . The flow field about the vehicle is characterized by large flow separation regions at the tanker underbody and base. In addition, the relatively large gap between the tractor and the tanker-trailer allows the free-stream flow to be entrained into the tractor-tanker gap. By mitigating these drag-producing phenomena through the use of simple geometry modifications, it may be possible to reduce the aerodynamic drag of cryogenic semi-tankers and, thereby, improve their fuel economy. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. NTF: Soldering Technology Development for Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) brought about a new application for an old joining method, soldering. Soldering for use at cryogenic temperatures requires that solders remain ductile and free from tin-pest (grey tin), have toughness to withstand aerodynamic loads associated with flight research, and maintain their surface finishes. Solders are used to attach 347 Stainless-Steel tubing in surface grooves of models. The solder must fill up the gap and metallurgically bound to the tubing and model. Cryogenic temperatures require that only specific materials for models can be used, including: Vasco Max 200 CVM, lescalloy A-286 Vac Arc, pH 13-8 Mo. Solders identified for testing at this time are: 50% Sn - 49.5% Pb - 0.5% Sb, 95% Sn - 5% Sb, 50% In 50% Pb, and 37.5% Sn - 37.5% Pb - 25% In. With these materials and solders, it is necessary to determine their solderability. After solderability is determined, tube/groove specimens are fabricated and stressed under cryogenic temperatures. Compatible solders are then used for acutual models.

  15. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  16. Thermal Performance Testing Of Cryogenic Piping Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Nagy, Z. F.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal performance measurement of piping systems under actual field conditions is important for space launch development and commercial industry. Knowledge of the true insulating effectiveness is needed in system design, development, and research activities. A new 18-meter-long test apparatus for cryogenic pipelines has been developed. Three different pipelines, rigid or flexible, can be tested simultaneously. Critical factors in heat leak measurements include eliminating heat transfer at end connections and obtaining proper liquid saturation condition. Effects due to variations in the external ambient conditions like wind, humidity, and solar radiation must be minimized. The static method of liquid nitrogen evaporation has been demonstrated, but the apparatus can be adapted for dynamic testing with cryogens, chilled water, or other working fluids. This technology is suited for the development of an industry standard test apparatus and method. Examples of the heat transfer data from testing commercially available pipelines are given. Prototype pipelines are currently being tested and evaluated at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  17. Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew John; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Boschee, Jacob; Foygel, Michael Gregory

    2013-01-01

    A reduced dynamical model describing temperature stratification effects driven by natural convection in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has been developed. It accounts for cryogenic propellant loading, storage, and unloading in the conditions of normal, increased, and micro- gravity. The model involves multiple horizontal control volumes in both liquid and ullage spaces. Temperature and velocity boundary layers at the tank walls are taken into account by using correlation relations. Heat exchange involving the tank wall is considered by means of the lumped-parameter method. By employing basic conservation laws, the model takes into consideration the major multi-phase mass and energy exchange processes involved, such as condensation-evaporation of the hydrogen, as well as flows of hydrogen liquid and vapor in the presence of pressurizing helium gas. The model involves a liquid hydrogen feed line and a tank ullage vent valve for pressure control. The temperature stratification effects are investigated, including in the presence of vent valve oscillations. A simulation of temperature stratification effects in a generic cryogenic tank has been implemented in Matlab and results are presented for various tank conditions.

  18. Cryogenic Test of a Coaxial Coupling Scheme for Fundamental and Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Sekutowicz, P. Kneisel

    2009-05-01

    A coaxial coupling device located in the beam pipe of the TESLA type superconducting cavities provides for better propagation of Higher Order Modes (HOMs) and their strong damping in appropriate HOM couplers. Additionally, it also provides efficient coupling for fundamental mode RF power into the superconducting cavity. The whole coupling device can be designed as a detachable system. If appropriately dimensioned, the magnetic field can be minimized to a negligible level at the flange position. This scheme, presented previously*, provides for several advantages: strong HOM damping, flangeable solution, exchangeability of the HOM damping device on a cavity, less complexity of the superconducting cavity, possible cost advantages. This contribution will describe the results of the first cryogenic test.

  19. Development of cryogenic instruments and equipment for SSC magnet cryogenic tests at the MTL

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Q.S.; Coles, M.; Dorman, R.; Franclin, C.; Fuzesy, R.; Gabert, G.; Hatfield, D.; Syromyatnikov, I.; Tompkins, J.; Trekell, R.; Weisend, J.; Zolotov, A.

    1993-05-01

    The Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL) will test a considerable portion of the total SSC superconducting magnet production in order to control the manufacturing process and verify magnet performance requirements. With ten cryogenic test stands, MTL is capable of housing tests of 30 dipoles and 5 quadrupoles per month. For further understanding and improving the performance of the SSC magnets, there will be two R&D test stands for extensively instruments were allocated and installed inside the prototype and first production magnets, as well as in the feed and end cans. A data acquisition and control system is developed. A comprehensive cryogenic system (including refrigerator, cryogenic distribution box and, feed/end cans), vapor-cooled power leads, anti-cryostats (warm bore), and other associated systems, have been designed, developed and tested. This paper will briefly discuss the progress to date.

  20. KOTOBUKI-1 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasako, Masayoshi; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan) [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shirahama, Keiya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masaki; Hikima, Takaaki; Yonekura, Koji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Inubushi, Yuichi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Inui, Yayoi [Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Applied Biological Science Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hoshi, Takahiko [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15 Kurigi, Aso-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan)] [Kohzu Precision Co., Ltd., 2-6-15 Kurigi, Aso-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8521 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. For cryogenic specimen stage with small positional fluctuation for a long exposure time of more than several minutes, we here use a cryogenic pot cooled by the evaporation cooling effect for liquid nitrogen. In addition, a loading device is developed to bring specimens stored in liquid nitrogen to the specimen stage in vacuum. The apparatus allows diffraction data collection for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K with a positional fluctuation of less than 0.4 ?m and provides an experimental environment to easily exchange specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage. The apparatus was developed and utilized in diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of ?m from material and biological sciences, such as metal colloid particles and chloroplast, at BL29XU of SPring-8. Recently, it has been applied for single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of sub-?m using X-ray free electron laser at BL3 of SACLA.

  1. A cryogenic electrostatic trap for long-time storage of keV ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Menk, S.; Varju, J.; Bastert, R.; Blaum, K.; López-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Fellenberger, F.; Grieser, M.; von Hahn, R.; Heber, O.; Kühnel, K.-U.; Laux, F.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Shornikov, A.; Sieber, T.; Toker, Y.; Ullrich, J.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2010-05-01

    We report on the realization and operation of a fast ion beam trap of the linear electrostatic type employing liquid helium cooling to reach extremely low blackbody radiation temperature and residual gas density and, hence, long storage times of more than 5 min which are unprecedented for keV ion beams. Inside a beam pipe that can be cooled to temperatures <15 K, with 1.8 K reached in some locations, an ion beam pulse can be stored at kinetic energies of 2-20 keV between two electrostatic mirrors. Along with an overview of the cryogenic trap design, we present a measurement of the residual gas density inside the trap resulting in only 2×103 cm-3, which for a room temperature environment corresponds to a pressure in the 10-14 mbar range. The device, called the cryogenic trap for fast ion beams, is now being used to investigate molecules and clusters at low temperatures, but has also served as a design prototype for the cryogenic heavy-ion storage ring currently under construction at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics.

  2. KOTOBUKI-1 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Nakasako, Masayoshi; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Shirahama, Keiya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hikima, Takaaki; Yonekura, Koji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Inui, Yayoi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Hoshi, Takahiko

    2013-09-01

    We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. For cryogenic specimen stage with small positional fluctuation for a long exposure time of more than several minutes, we here use a cryogenic pot cooled by the evaporation cooling effect for liquid nitrogen. In addition, a loading device is developed to bring specimens stored in liquid nitrogen to the specimen stage in vacuum. The apparatus allows diffraction data collection for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K with a positional fluctuation of less than 0.4 ?m and provides an experimental environment to easily exchange specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage. The apparatus was developed and utilized in diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of ?m from material and biological sciences, such as metal colloid particles and chloroplast, at BL29XU of SPring-8. Recently, it has been applied for single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of sub-?m using X-ray free electron laser at BL3 of SACLA. PMID:24089834

  3. Measurement of the mechanical properties of thin film polymers at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Youngquist, R. C.; Gibson, T. L.; Jolley, S. T.; Williams, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Many applications require specific knowledge of thin film polymeric properties at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, applications in pressure vessels and structural components require understanding of the mechanical properties of polymers. The use of polymeric and composite materials has a strong potential to replace metals and decrease the mass of spacecraft while providing lower thermal conductivity for future space exploration missions. There is limited mechanical property data of thin film polymers available at cryogenic temperatures to evaluate these materials for such applications. In order to quantify material properties such as Young's Modulus and ultimate strength at cryogenic temperatures, a new experimental device has been constructed. This test apparatus uses pressurized liquid nitrogen to deform a polymer film disk and a laser displacement sensor to measure the resulting deformation. In this method, the liquid nitrogen pressure is slowly increased to provide incremental loads for evaluation. Several materials with known bulk modulus at 77 K were tested along with novel materials that are on the cutting edge of polymer science. The test setup and test results are presented here for discussion and further study.

  4. KOTOBUKI-1 apparatus for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasako, Masayoshi; Takayama, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Shirahama, Keiya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hikima, Takaaki; Yonekura, Koji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Inubushi, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Inui, Yayoi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Hoshi, Takahiko

    2013-09-01

    We have developed an experimental apparatus named KOTOBUKI-1 for use in coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments of frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at cryogenic temperature. For cryogenic specimen stage with small positional fluctuation for a long exposure time of more than several minutes, we here use a cryogenic pot cooled by the evaporation cooling effect for liquid nitrogen. In addition, a loading device is developed to bring specimens stored in liquid nitrogen to the specimen stage in vacuum. The apparatus allows diffraction data collection for frozen-hydrated specimens at 66 K with a positional fluctuation of less than 0.4 ?m and provides an experimental environment to easily exchange specimens from liquid nitrogen storage to the specimen stage. The apparatus was developed and utilized in diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of ?m from material and biological sciences, such as metal colloid particles and chloroplast, at BL29XU of SPring-8. Recently, it has been applied for single-shot diffraction data collection of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of sub-?m using X-ray free electron laser at BL3 of SACLA.

  5. Fully differential cryogenic transistor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

    2013-10-01

    We have constructed a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating in the 4.2 K-300 K temperature range. The amplifier can be operated at high-bias setting, where it dissipates 5 mW, has noise temperature TN ? 0.7 K at RS ? 5 k? and >40 MHz bandwidth at 4.2 K bath temperature. The bias setting can be adjusted: at our lowest tested setting the amplifier dissipates <100 ?W, has noise temperature TN ? 2 K at RS ? 25 k? and >2 MHz bandwidth. The 1/f noise corner frequency is a few times 10 kHz. We foresee the amplifier to have an application in the readout of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detectors (STJs) and Transition Edge Sensors (TESes). We have verified the practical use of the amplifier by reading out a 4.2 K 480-SQUID array with 40 MHz bandwidth and <8 × 10-8 ?0/Hz1/2 flux noise.

  6. Commissioning the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, F.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Perin, A.; Riddone, G.; Serio, L.; Soubiran, M.; Tavian, L.; /CERN; Ronayette, L.; /GHMFL, Grenoble; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The LHC machine, composed of eight sectors with superconducting magnets and accelerating cavities, requires a complex cryogenic system providing high cooling capacities (18 kW equivalent at 4.5 K and 2.4 W at 1.8 K per sector produced in large cold boxes and distributed via 3.3-km cryogenic transfer lines). After individual reception tests of the cryogenic subsystems (cryogen storages, refrigerators, cryogenic transfer lines and distribution boxes) performed since 2000, the commissioning of the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector has been under way since November 2006. After a brief introduction to the LHC cryogenic system and its specificities, the commissioning is reported detailing the preparation phase (pressure and leak tests, circuit conditioning and flushing), the cool-down sequences including the handling of cryogenic fluids, the magnet powering phase and finally the warm-up. Preliminary conclusions on the commissioning of the first LHC sector will be drawn with the review of the critical points already solved or still pending. The last part of the paper reports on the first operational experience of the LHC cryogenic system in the perspective of the commissioning of the remaining LHC sectors and the beam injection test.

  7. Cryopumping in Cryogenic Insulations for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Weiser, Erik S.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Testing at cryogenic temperatures was performed to verify the material characteristics and manufacturing processes of reusable propellant tank cryogenic insulations for a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The unique test apparatus and test methods developed for the investigation of cryopumping in cryogenic insulations are described. Panel level test specimens with various types of cryogenic insulations were subjected to a specific thermal profile where the temperature varied from -262 C to 21 C. Cryopumping occurred if the interior temperature of the specimen exhibited abnormal temperature fluctuations, such as a sudden decrease in temperature during the heating phase.

  8. Radiation tolerant D/A converters for the LHC cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Francisco J.; Zong, Yi; de Agapito, Juan A.; Marques, José G.; Fernandes, Ana C.; Casas-Cubillos, Juan; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Miguel A.

    2005-11-01

    The electronic instrumentation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cryogenic system is expected to receive a large radiation dose (>10 13 n cm -2 and 1-2 kGy (Si)) within 10 years of activity so all the electronic devices should tolerate this radiation level without a significant degradation. This paper focuses on the selection of a radiation tolerant 12-bit parallel input D/A converter suitable for the signal conditioners for cryogenic thermometry in the LHC. During an initial campaign, some candidate converters were irradiated to determine the most tolerant device. Once this was determined, a massive test was carried out. Some weak points of the selected device were addressed through the use of an external voltage source and a radiation tolerant operational amplifier. The tests show that a system consisting of an AD565 D/A converter, coupled to an external voltage reference and an OPA627 operational amplifier can tolerate a total radiation dose up to 5×10 13 n cm -2 and 2100 Gy (Si), thus satisfying the requirements set by CERN.

  9. Development and implementation of the TPX structural and cryogenic design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Zatz, I.; Heitzenroeder, P. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Schultz, J.H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is a superconducting tokamak utilizing both Nb{sub 3}Sn and NbTi superconducting magnets and will feature a low-activation titanium alloy vacuum vessel and carbon-carbon composite divertors. Due to the unique nature of the component designs, materials, and environment, the TPX project felt it necessary to develop a design criteria (code) which will specifically address the structural and cryogenic design aspects of such a device. The developed code is intended to serve all components of the device; namely, the TF and PF magnets, vacuum vessel, first wall and divertor, cryostat, diagnostics, heating devices, shielding, and all associated structural elements. The structural portion is based largely on that developed for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), which was modeled after the CIT Vacuum Vessel Structural Design Criteria and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B & PV) Code. The cryogenic criteria is largely modeled after that proposed in the ITER CDA. This paper summarizes the TPX Criteria document.

  10. Cryogenic probe station for use in automated microwave and noise figure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taub, Susan R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Young, Paul G.; Ebihara, Ben T.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    A cryogenic measurement system capable of performing on-wafer RF testing of semiconductor devices and circuits has been developed. This 'CryoProbe Station' can wafer-probe devices and circuits at cryogenic temperatures, thus eliminating the need for wire bonds. The system operates under vacuum created by a sorption pump. It uses an open cycle cooling system that can be cooled with either liquid nitrogen or liquid helium. Presently, it can reach temperatures, as low as 80 K and 37 K for each of the coolants, respectively. The temperature can be raised using a heater and it is stabilized to within 0.2 K by use of a temperature controller. The CryoProbe Station features a 1 by 2 inch stage that can hold large circuits and calibration standards simultaneously. The system is used with a Hewlett Packard 8510C Automatic Network Analyzer (ANA) to obtain S-parameter data over the frequency range 0.045-26.5 GHz. S-parameter data on HEMT (high electron mobility transistors) devices has been obtained with this station. With the use of DEEMBED software from NIST, detailed transmission line studies have been performed. Although the CryoProbe Station is designed for frequencies up to 26.5 GHz, useful transmission line data has been obtained for frequencies as high as 40 GHz. The CryoProbe station has also been used with the ATN noise figure measurement system to perform automatic, temperature dependent noise figure measurements.

  11. Driving perpendicular heat flow: (p×n)-type transverse thermoelectrics for microscale and cryogenic Peltier cooling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuanle; Birner, S; Tang, Yang; Heinselman, K; Grayson, M

    2013-05-31

    Whereas thermoelectric performance is normally limited by the figure of merit ZT, transverse thermoelectrics can achieve arbitrarily large temperature differences in a single leg even with inferior ZT by being geometrically tapered. We introduce a band-engineered transverse thermoelectric with p-type Seebeck in one direction and n-type orthogonal, resulting in off-diagonal terms that drive heat flow transverse to electrical current. Such materials are advantageous for microscale devices and cryogenic temperatures--exactly the regimes where standard longitudinal thermoelectrics fail. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices are shown to have the appropriate band structure for use as a transverse thermoelectric. PMID:23767747

  12. Driving Perpendicular Heat Flow: (p×n)-Type Transverse Thermoelectrics for Microscale and Cryogenic Peltier Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuanle; Birner, S.; Tang, Yang; Heinselman, K.; Grayson, M.

    2013-05-01

    Whereas thermoelectric performance is normally limited by the figure of merit ZT, transverse thermoelectrics can achieve arbitrarily large temperature differences in a single leg even with inferior ZT by being geometrically tapered. We introduce a band-engineered transverse thermoelectric with p-type Seebeck in one direction and n-type orthogonal, resulting in off-diagonal terms that drive heat flow transverse to electrical current. Such materials are advantageous for microscale devices and cryogenic temperatures—exactly the regimes where standard longitudinal thermoelectrics fail. InAs/GaSb type II superlattices are shown to have the appropriate band structure for use as a transverse thermoelectric.

  13. Cryogenic High-Frequency Readout and Control Platform for Spin Qubits

    E-print Network

    J. I. Colless; D. J. Reilly

    2011-11-29

    We have developed a cryogenic platform for the control and readout of spin qubits that comprises a high density of dc and radio frequency sample interconnects based on a set of coupled printed circuit boards. The modular setup incorporates 24 filtered dc lines, 14 control and readout lines with bandwidth from dc to above 6 GHz, and 2 microwave connections for excitation to 40 GHz. We report the performance of this platform, including signal integrity and crosstalk measurements and discuss design criteria for constructing sample interconnect technology needed for multi-qubit devices.

  14. An Overview of NASA's In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Management Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Stephen; Hastings, Leon; Haynes, Davy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future mission planning within NASA continues to include cryogenic propellants for in space transportation, with mission durations ranging from days to years. Between 1995 and the present, NASA has pursued a diversified program of ground-based testing to prepare the various technologies associated with in-space cryogenic fluid management (CFM) for implementation. CFM technology areas being addressed include passive insulation, zero gravity pressure control, zero gravity mass gauging, capillary liquid acquisition devices, and zero boiloff storage. NASA CFM technologies are planned, coordinated, and implemented through the Cryogenic Technology Working Group which is comprised of representatives from the various NASA Centers as well as the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) and, on selected occasions, the Air Force. An overview of the NASA program and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) roles, accomplishments, and near-term activities are presented herein. Basic CFM technology areas being addressed include passive insulation, zero gravity pressure control, zero gravity mass gauging, capillary liquid acquisition devices, and zero boiloff storage. Recent MSFC accomplishments include: the large scale demonstration of a high performance variable density multilayer insulation (MLI) that reduced the boiloff by about half that of standard MLI; utilization of a foam substrate under MLI to eliminate the need for a helium purge bag system; demonstrations of both spray-bar and axial-jet mixer concepts for zero gravity pressure control; and sub-scale testing that verified an optical sensor concept for measuring liquid hydrogen mass in zero gravity. In response to missions requiring cryogenic propellant storage durations on the order of years, a cooperative effort by NASA's Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and MSFC has been implemented to develop and demonstrate zero boiloff concepts for in-space storage of cryogenic propellants. An MSFC contribution to this cooperative effort is a large-scale demonstration of the integrated operation of passive insulation, destratification/pressure control, and cryocooler (commercial unit) subsystems to achieve zero boiloff storage of liquid hydrogen. Testing is expected during the Summer of 2001.

  15. The formation of natural cryogenic brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2003-04-01

    The source of salts in the Ca-chloridic, hypersaline brines (up to 190 g Cl L -1) occurring in crystalline basement rocks in the Canadian, Fennoscandian and Bohemian Shields and their evolution have been investigated and reported. The Cl-Br-Na relationship indicates that these waters have been concentrated from seawater, by freezing during glacial times. The Na/Cl ratio (0.25 to 0.35) in the more saline fluids is compatible with cooling down to -30°C, where the most saline waters have been concentrated by a factor of 25 to 30 relative to the parent seawater. The brines formed from seawater within cryogenic troughs, along the subarctic continental margins, around ice sheets. The depressions within which the brines formed are the cryogenic analogues of the classic, evaporitic lagoon. One million years suffice to saturate with brine a 2000km-radius by 1km-depth rock volume at an H 2O removal rate of only 2.8 mm/yr. Density-induced brine migration on a continental scale takes place via fissures below the ice. Our calculations, that were performed on a hypothetical ice sheet with dimensions compatible with the Laurentide ice sheet, demonstrate that during 1m.y., a 60m thick cryogenic sediment section could have formed. However, the precipitated minerals (mirabilite and hydrohalite) are repeatedly dispersed by the advance and retreat of the ice sheet, dissolved by melt water-seawater mixtures, and eroded during postglacial uplift, leaving almost no trace in the geological record. The cryogenic brines formed intermittently during and between glacial periods. The repeating advance and retreat of the ice sheets exerted a major control on the direction and intensity of brine flow. The cryogenic concentration of seawater and the migration of brine towards the center of the glaciostatic depression occurred mainly during the build up of the ice sheet, while reversal of the water flow from the center of the cryogenic basin outwards happened upon deglaciation. The flow of the waters in the subsurface was, inevitably, accompanied by significant dilution with melt water from the ice sheets. Using a "granitic" U concentration of 4 ppm and a (Ca-Mg mass balance based) rock/water ratio anywhere between 3.4 and 6.8 kg L -1, a few hundred thousand years of brine-rock interaction are sufficient for the growth of 129I in the most saline Canadian Shield brine to its present concentration (3.4×10 8 atoms 129I L -1). Hence, both the formation of the saline fluids and their emplacement in their present sites occurred most likely within the Pleistocene. The young age calculated for cryogenic brines in crystalline shields and the dynamic water flow therein should raise concern about the planning and construction of high-grade nuclear waste repositories in such rocks, which are already under way.

  16. The LUCIFER MOS: a full cryogenic mask handling unit for a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschkamp, Peter; Hofmann, Reiner; Gemperlein, Hans; Polsterer, Kai; Ageorges, Nancy; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lederer, Reinhard; Honsberg, Mathias; Haug, Marcus; Eibl, Johann; Seifert, Walter; Genzel, Reinhard

    2010-07-01

    The LUCIFER-MOS unit is the full cryogenic mask-exchange unit for the near-infrared multi-object spectrograph LUCIFER at the Large Binocular Telescope. We present the design and functionality of this unique device. In LUCIFER the masks are stored, handled, and placed in the focal plane under cryogenic conditions at all times, resulting in very low thermal background emission from the masks during observations. All mask manipulations are done by a novel cryogenic mask handling robot that can individually address up to 33 fixed and user-provided masks and place them in the focal plane with high accuracy. A complete mask exchange cycle is done in less than five minutes and can be run in every instrument position and state reducing instrument setup time during science observations to a minimum. Exchange of old and new MOS masks is likewise done under cryogenic conditions using a unique exchange drive mechanism and two auxiliary cryostats that attach to the main instrument cryostat.

  17. Advanced cryogenic technology for space based infrared surveillance and stored cryogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benny Joe Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Current space cryocooler developments have achieved performance and capability that have made the use of active refrigeration in space missions feasible. Space flight demonstrations baselined and implemented active refrigeration to achieve mission goals. These applications of cryocooler technology validate the improved mission capabilities and reliability and lifetime confidence in active refrigeration in space. Current cryogenic integration and cryocooler development programs

  18. Large Cryogenic Infrastructure for LHC Superconducting Magnet and Cryogenic Component Tests: Layout, Commissioning and Operational Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Calzas, C.; Chanat, D.; Knoops, S.; Sanmarti, M.; Serio, L. [Accelerator Technology Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2004-06-23

    The largest cryogenic test facility at CERN, located at Zone 18, is used to validate and to test all main components working at cryogenic temperature in the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) before final installation in the machine tunnel. In total about 1300 main dipoles, 400 main quadrupoles, 5 RF-modules, eight 1.8 K refrigeration units will be tested in the coming years.The test facility has been improved and upgraded over the last few years and the first 18 kW refrigerator for the LHC machine has been added to boost the cryogenic capacity for the area via a 25,000 liter liquid helium dewar. The existing 6 kW refrigerator, used for the LHC Test String experiments, will also be employed to commission LHC cryogenic components.We report on the design and layout of the test facility as well as the commissioning and the first 10,000 hours operational experience of the test facility and the 18 kW LHC refrigerator.

  19. Cryogenic Safety This course will provide basic information concerning cryogens and

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    gases which have boiling points below 222K or -238F (source "Encyclopedia of Occupational Health handles two cryogenic liquids, helium and nitrogen. Liquefied nitrogen has a boiling point, at atmospheric pressure, of 77K (- 320F). Liquefied helium has a boiling point of, at atmospheric pressure, of 4.3K (-452F

  20. The development of a cryogenic over-pressure pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cease, H.; Flaugher, B.; Flores, R.; Garcia, J.; Lathrop, A.; Ruiz, F.

    2014-01-01

    A cryogenic over-pressure pump (OPP) was tested in the prototype telescope liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling system for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Project. This OPP consists of a process cylinder (PC), gas generator, and solenoid operated valves (SOVs). It is a positive displacement pump that provided intermittent liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow to an array of charge couple devices (CCDs) for the prototype Dark Energy Camera (DECam). In theory, a heater submerged in liquid would generate the drive gas in a closed loop cooling system. The drive gas would be injected into the PC to displace that liquid volume. However, due to limitations of the prototype closed loop nitrogen system (CCD cooling system) for DECam, a quasiclosed-loop nitrogen system was created. During the test of the OPP, the CCD array was cooled to its designed set point temperature of 173K. It was maintained at that temperature via electrical heaters. The performance of the OPP was captured in pressure, temperature, and flow rate in the CCD LN2 cooling system at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL).

  1. Ground-Based Investigations with the Cryogenic Hydrogen Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.; Mattison, Edward; Vessot, Robert F. C.

    2001-01-01

    The room temperature hydrogen maser is an active atomic oscillator used as a high-frequency-stability local oscillator for radio astronomy, metrology, and spacecraft navigation, and in tests of fundamental physics. The cryogenic hydrogen maser (CHM) operates at 0.5 K, employing superfluid helium-coated walls to store the masing hydrogen atoms. We are investigating whether the CHM may provide better frequency stability than the room temperature hydrogen maser: one to three orders of magnitude improvement may be possible because of greatly reduced thermal noise and larger signal power. Exceptional frequency stability will be required for spacecraft tracking in future deep-space missions, for space-based tests of relativity and gravitation, and for local (i.e., flywheel) oscillators used with absolute frequency standards such as laser-cooled atomic fountains and linear ion traps. These new devices are passive high-resolution frequency discriminators. Alone, they cannot function as superior atomic clocks; their effective operation depends on being integrated with an active local oscillator with excellent short term stability - such as that possible with the CHM.

  2. Use of Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization in a Cryogenic Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Hammons, Aaron S.; Hong, Young Soo

    2002-01-01

    The enhanced gaseous nitrogen (EGN) dewar is a cryogenic dry shipper with a sealed cylinder inserted inside along with a temperature monitoring device, and is intended for macromolecular crystallization experiments on the International Space Station. Within the dewar, each crystallization experiment is contained as a solution within a plastic capillary tube. The standard procedure for loading samples in these tubes has involved rapid freezing of the precipitant and biomolecular solution, e.g., protein, directly in liquid nitrogen; this method, however, often resulted in uncontrolled formation of air voids, These air pockets, or bubbles, can lead to irreproducible crystallization results. A novel protocol has been developed to prevent formation of bubbles, and this has been tested in the laboratory as well as aboard the International Space Station during a 42-day long mission of July/August 2001. The gain or loss of mass from solutions within the plastic capillaries revealed that mass transport occurred among separated tubes, and that this mass transport was dependent upon the hygroscopic character of the solution contained in any given tube. The surface area of the plastic capillary tube also related to the observed mass transport. Furthermore, the decreased mass of solutions of-protein correlated to observed formation of protein crystals.

  3. Use of Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization in a Cryogenic Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Hammons, Aaron S.; Hong, Young Soo; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen (EGN) Dewar is a cryogenic dry shipper with a sealed cylinder inserted inside along with a temperature-monitoring device, and is intended for macromolecular crystallization experiments on the International Space Station. Within the Dewar, each crystallization experiment is contained as a solution within a plastic capillary. The standard procedure for loading samples in these tubes has involved rapid freezing of the precipitant and biomolecule solution directly in liquid nitrogen; this method, however, often results in uncontrolled formation of air voids. These air pockets, or bubbles, then can lead to irreproducible crystallization results. A novel protocol has been developed to prevent formation of bubbles, and this has been tested in the laboratory as well as aboard the International Space Station during a 42-day long mission of July/August of 2001. Furthermore, gain or loss of mass from solutions within the capillaries revealed that mass transport amongst separated tubes occurred, and that this mass transport was determined by the hygroscopic character of a solution contained in any given tube. The sample volume and the surface area of the plastic capillary tube also related to the observed mass transport.

  4. Design, construction, and performance of a post type cryogenic support

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, J.D.; Otavka, J.G.; Roman, M.W.

    1985-09-01

    A support member for superconducting magnets and other cryogenic devices has been designed, fabricated and structurally and thermally evaluated. The member is a cylindrical post constructed with fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) tubing and having metallic heat intercepts and end connections. All FRP to metal connections are made by mechanical shrink fitting and do not employ adhesives or fasteners. The post can operate in tension, compression and flexure or in combinations of these loads. The details of the design and construction are enumerated. Structural performance has been measured in tension and compression at 80 and 300 K and in flexure at 300 K. Creep effects on the shrink fit joint reliability are being evaluated. Thermal performance has been measured for a post with ends at 4.5 and 300 K and with heat intercepts at 10 and 80 K. The measured performance has been compared with the analytical predictions. Full scale, working, prototype posts have been successfully utilized in several model cryostats for the Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnet development program.

  5. Cryogenic neutron moderator on mesitylene pellets for IBR-2 reactor

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    refrigerator 5. Heat exchanger 6. Helium blower 7. Primary helium loop 8. 9. Secondary helium loop Used pipeline 5 1 2 4 3 #12;Camera-imitator of cryogenic moderator #12;Thermal exchanger with helium blower. Installation is going on. Cryogenic pipelines is mounted Thermal exchanger with helium blower purchased

  6. Development of 15 T Cryogen-Free Superconducting Magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hirose; S. Hayashi; S. Fukumizu; Y. Muroo; H. Miyata; Y. Okui; A. Itoki; T. Kamikado; O. Ozaki; Y. Nunoya; K. Okuno

    2006-01-01

    Cryogen-free superconducting magnets are becoming popular due to their simple operation compared with the conventional liquid Helium cooled magnet. However, for higher fields such as those greater than 14 T, the cryogen-free magnet has not become popular yet, because it is difficult to design and manufacture since the critical current is markedly reduced at higher fields and higher temperatures. We

  7. Advances in cryogenic engineering, Volume 39, Part B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kittel

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a review of the latest work in cryogenic engineering and technology as related to a number of differing disciplines. It should serve as a valuable reference to researchers and engineers in cryogenics, materials science, low-temperature physics, polymer science, and solid-state physics. This volume contains articles under the following general areas: instrumentation and control; cryocoolers; heat exchangers and

  8. Advances in cryogenic engineering materials, Volume 40, Part A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Reed; F. R. Fickett; L. T. Summers; M. Stieg

    1994-01-01

    This book is one of four parts of the collected articles presented as talks or posters at the 1993 International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC), held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 12-16. It covers cryogenic materials being developed and implemented worldwide for a broad array of applications. This volume contains articles directed towards superconductors, their fabrication, superconducting properties, and mechanical properties.

  9. Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatarao Ganni; James Fesmire

    2012-01-01

    Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that

  10. Control for maintaining constant level of a cryogenic liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberotti, J.

    1969-01-01

    Pressure formed as the cryogenic liquid vaporizes is used to pump new cryogenic liquid from a storage reservoir. Changes in volume of a gas resulting from changes in temperature actuate a valve which either replenishes the depleted liquid in the vessel or vents the evolving gas to the atmosphere.

  11. Cryogenic seal concept for static and dynamic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gaetano, E. A.

    1968-01-01

    Seal rings reduce cryogenic pump seal leakage under static and dynamic conditions. The rings are fitted into annular diaphragms, which are affected by cryogenic pressure and temperature, to move against a mating ring, to increase seal-bearing loads under static conditions.

  12. Dynamic Cryogenic Seals to Support Fueling of Fusion Tokomaks

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Dynamic Cryogenic Seals to Support Fueling of Fusion Tokomaks U. Naranjo and J. W. Leachman School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Introduction / Motivation Sealing failures cost billions of dollars in damaged products every year. Sealing at cryogenic temperatures is a substantially more difficult task than

  13. Cryogenic DT and D2 targets for inertial confinement fusiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Elasky, L. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Jacobs-Perkins, D.; Janezic, R.; Keck, R. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Loucks, S. J.; Lund, L. D.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shmayda, W. T.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Séguin, F. H.; Moody, J. D.; Atherton, J. A.; MacGowan, B. D.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Bernat, T. P.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2007-05-01

    Ignition target designs for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [W. J. Hogan et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 567 (2001)] are based on a spherical ablator containing a solid, cryogenic-fuel layer of deuterium and tritium. The need for solid-fuel layers was recognized more than 30 years ago and considerable effort has resulted in the production of cryogenic targets that meet most of the critical fabrication tolerances for ignition on the NIF. At the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the inner-ice surface of cryogenic DT capsules formed using ?-layering meets the surface-smoothness requirement for ignition (<1-?m rms in all modes). Prototype x-ray-drive cryogenic targets being produced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are nearing the tolerances required for ignition on the NIF. At LLE, these cryogenic DT (and D2) capsules are being imploded on the direct-drive 60-beam, 30-kJ UV OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The designs of these cryogenic targets for OMEGA are energy scaled from the baseline direct-drive-ignition design for the NIF. Significant progress with the formation and characterization of cryogenic targets for both direct and x-ray drive will be described. Results from recent cryogenic implosions will also be presented.

  14. Design concept of cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kinoshita; T. Yamanishi; J. R. Bartlit; R. H. Sherman

    1986-01-01

    A design concept is developed for a cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator by clarifying the differences between this process and a cryogenic distillation column. The process characteristics are greatly improved by the idea of adding an Hâ gas flow to a point near the upper end of the packed section. The flow rate of tritium lost from the top

  15. Thermography to Inspect Insulation of Large Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen; Youngquist, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Thermography has been used in the past to monitor active, large, cryogenic storage tanks. This approach proposes to use thermography to monitor new or refurbished tanks, prior to filling with cryogenic liquid, to look for insulation voids. Thermography may provide significant cost and schedule savings if voids can be detected early before a tank is returned to service.

  16. Novel design of an all-cryogenic RF pound circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Ronni; Wang, Rabi T.; Dick, G. John

    2005-01-01

    We report on the design, construction and test of a new all-cryogenic RF Pound circuit used to stabilize a 100 MHz VCXO. Here, all active and passive RF components used to accomplish the phase modulation and detect a PM to AM conversion have been installed into the cryogenic environment.

  17. Welding consumable development for a cryogenic (4 K) application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Kane; A. L. Farland; T. A. Siewert; C. N. McCowan

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and qualification of an appropriate welding consumable for a demanding cryogenic magnet application. It begins with a review of the research conducted on cryogenic fracture toughness of wrought and welded austenitic stainless steels. This research shows that certain elements of the composition have a powerful effect upon the steel's fracture toughness at 4 K. In

  18. Irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures: The Lazarus effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Granata; W. H. Bell; P. Berglund; W. De Boer; E. Borchi; K. Borer; M. Bruzzi; S. Buontempo; L. Casagrande; V. Cindro; S. Chapuy; N. dAmbrosio; C. Da Viá; S. Devine; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; U. Gambardella; E. Grigoriev; E. Heijne; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; I. Konorov; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; T. O. Niinikoski; V. oShea; S. Pagano; V. G. Palmieri; S. Paul; S. Pirollo; K. Pretzl; G. Ruggiero; E. Sarnelli; K. Smith; R. Sonderegger; M. Valtonen; E. Verbitskaya; S. Watts; M. Zavrtanik

    2000-01-01

    An increasing interest in the behaviour of silicon detectors at cryogenic temperatures has been awakened by the discovery of the so-called Lazarus effect, namely the recovery of charge collection efficiency (CCE) by means of cryogenic cooling. We measured the CCEs of three single diodes previously irradiated with different neutron fluences. The current-voltage characteristic were measured at 300 and 77 K,

  19. A New Shaft Sealing Solution for Small Cryogenic Pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Morrissey

    1996-01-01

    Commonly scaled cryogenic fluids include liquefied gases such as nitrogen, argon and oxygen, pumped both on site and from road tankers at temperatures approaching — 200°C (392°F). Traditionally, cryogenic sealing has employed conventional contact sealing technology, the seal typically being of a metal bellows design.However, because most liquefied gases are pumped at temperatures close to their boiling points, vaporization at

  20. Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced Gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Marchetta; J. I. Hochstein

    2002-01-01

    Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced strong evidence that a magnetic positioning system may be a feasible alternative technology for use in the management of cryogenic propellants onboard spacecraft. The results of these preliminary studies have indicated that further investigation of the physical processes and potential reliability of such a system is required. The utility of magnetic

  1. Cryogenic hydrogen\\/helium storage and supply system, phase 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Norman; R. D. Raynor

    1976-01-01

    An existing cryogenic tank was refurbished, microspheres were installed in the tank annulus, and the thermal performance of the unit was tested. The performance data was compared with NRC-2 multilayer insulation and low emittance aluminized surfaces installed in tanks of the same basic design. The cryogenic tank modified during the program was originally designed for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL)

  2. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Ravex; Robin Flachbart; Barney Holt

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid\\/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical

  3. Feasibility tests of pipeline pigs for cryogenic pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hipple

    1983-01-01

    The cryogenic pig experiment was designed to test the concept of using a pneumatically driven pipeline pig to force cryogenic fluid through a long, large diameter pipe, which is one of the key features of the proposed large-scale Spill Safety Test Facility. The Spill Safety Test Facility will spill materials such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG),

  4. Cryogenic dry etching for high aspect ratio microstructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Murakami; Yuji Wakabayashi; Kazuyuki Minami; Masayoshi Esashi

    1993-01-01

    Cryogenic reactive ion etching (RIE) has been used to fabricate microstructures. The cryogenic system has a cathode stage that is temperature controlled from 0 to -140°C. A magnetic field and a narrow gap between electrodes are introduced to increase plasma density. The etching behavior of silicon and polyimide film has been investigated. Directional etching was achieved at low temperature. The

  5. Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin X. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Contracting/expanding self-sealing cryogenic tube seals are disclosed which use the different properties of thermal contraction and expansion of selected dissimilar materials in accord with certain design criteria to yield self-tightening seals via sloped-surface sealing. The seals of the subject invention are reusable, simple to assemble, and adaptable to a wide variety of cryogenic applications.

  6. Using Composite Materials in a Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batton, William D.; Dillard, James E.; Rottmund, Matthew E.; Tupper, Michael L.; Mallick, Kaushik; Francis, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Several modifications have been made to the design and operation of an extended-shaft cryogenic pump to increase the efficiency of pumping. In general, the efficiency of pumping a cryogenic fluid is limited by thermal losses which is itself caused by pump inefficiency and leakage of heat through the pump structure. A typical cryogenic pump includes a drive shaft and two main concentric static components (an outer pressure containment tube and an intermediate static support tube) made from stainless steel. The modifications made include replacement of the stainless-steel drive shaft and the concentric static stainless-steel components with components made of a glass/epoxy composite. The leakage of heat is thus reduced because the thermal conductivity of the composite is an order of magnitude below that of stainless steel. Taking advantage of the margin afforded by the decrease in thermal conductivity, the drive shaft could be shortened to increase its effective stiffness, thereby increasing the rotordynamic critical speeds, thereby further making it possible to operate the pump at a higher speed to increase pumping efficiency. During the modification effort, an analysis revealed that substitution of the shorter glass/epoxy shaft for the longer stainless-steel shaft was not, by itself, sufficient to satisfy the rotordynamic requirements at the desired increased speed. Hence, it became necessary to increase the stiffness of the composite shaft. This stiffening was accomplished by means of a carbon-fiber-composite overwrap along most of the length of the shaft. Concomitantly with the modifications described thus far, it was necessary to provide for joining the composite-material components with metallic components required by different aspects of the pump design. An adhesive material formulated specially to bond the composite and metal components was chosen as a means to satisfy these requirements.

  7. Daydreaming Devices

    E-print Network

    Da Ponte, Ana Sofia Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Daydreaming Devices is a project on aspects of daydream and the design of convertible furniture within the context of art. This thesis addresses the concepts and the design of two daydreaming devices developed during my ...

  8. Evacuation time of cryogenic pipes for superconducting power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirofumi; Sun, Jian; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Hamabe, Makoto; Kawahara, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    2013-11-01

    The vacuum insulation has been used for the thermal insulation of cryogenic pipes for the superconducting power transmission to reduce the heat leak from the environment at the room temperature to the low temperature parts. Since the cryogenic pipes, in particular, those for long distance power transmission, are considered to be thin long pipes, it might take a long time for evacuation. To estimate the evacuation time of the long cryogenic pipes, model calculations have been performed. According to the calculations, it is found that there is an optimum condition between the pumping speed, the diameter of the outer pipe and the length of the cryogenic pipe for efficient evacuation. It is also found that, if the outgassing is suppressed enough, the evacuation can be possible within 1 week even for the long cryogenic pipe with the length of 10 km. The reduction of outgassing is particularly important for the efficient evacuation.

  9. Numerical simulation for the temperature environment of cryogenic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. X.

    2012-11-01

    To improve performance and design of the cryogenic pump, analyze and solve the pump fault, and ensure the reliability of design and operating, it is highly necessary to understand the cryogenic pump temperature profile. Regarding horizontal single cryogenic centrifugal pump as the studied object, the flow field and structural heat transfer is calculated and analyzed. Based on reasonable boundary condition, three dimensional steady state of the pump mesh model is calculated by finite-element method with the software of Fluent, the fluid pressure field and the whole structural temperature profile is obtained. The structural temperature profile by finite-element heat transfer calculation indicates that: in the operating range of the cryogenic pump, the pumping cryogenic liquid is unable to vaporize at the room temperature, and the low temperature area is unable to interfere with the gear case in normal operation.

  10. Physical understanding of cryogenic implant benefits for electrical junction stability

    SciTech Connect

    Adeni Khaja, Fareen; Colombeau, Benjamin; Thanigaivelan, Thirumal; Ramappa, Deepak; Henry, Todd [Applied Materials-Varian Semiconductor Equipment, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2012-03-12

    We investigate the effect of cryogenic temperature implants on electrical junction stability for ultra shallow junction applications for sub-32 nm technology nodes and beyond. A comprehensive study was conducted to gain physical understanding of the impact of cryogenic temperature implants on dopant-defect interactions. Carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) molecule, a potential alternative to monomer boron was implanted in carbon preamorphized silicon substrates at cryogenic implant temperatures. Results indicate implants at cryogenic temperatures increase dopant activation with reduced diffusion, resulting in lower sheet resistance for a lower junction depth. Further, this study emphasizes the benefits of co-implants performed at cryogenic temperatures as alternative to traditional preamorphizing implants.

  11. Cryogenic Insulation Bondline Studies for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. F.; Weiser, E. S.; Duong, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    Cryogenic insulations bonded to metallic substrates were characterized under simulated mission conditions representative for a reusable launch vehicle. The combined thermal and mechanical test consisted of 50 to a 100 cycles. These combined thermal and mechanical cycles simulated flight missions with temperatures ranging from -423 F to 450 F and a maximum mechanical tension load ranging from 20,000 lbs. to 97,650 lbs. The combined thermal and mechanical (uniaxial tension) test apparatus (1 ft. by 2 ft. Test Apparatus) developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, was used to perform cyclic tests on cryogenic insulations bonded to tank wall substrates. No visual delamination or degradation was observed in the cryogenic insulation-to-metallic substrate bondline or butt joints between cryogenic insulation panels. In addition, after cyclic testing was performed, residual property results from tension-pull and closed-cell content tests of the cryogenic insulations indicated a decrease in the bondline strength and closed-cell content.

  12. Pressure transducer and system for cryogenic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A silicon pressure die is bonded to a borosilicate substrate above the pneumatic port. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is formed on the silicon pressure die and has bridge elements of silicon doped with boron to a deposit density level of approximately 1 x 10(exp 19)-10(exp 21) boron/cc. A current source is provided to excite the Wheatstone bridge circuit. In addition, a temperature sensor is provided to provide temperature readings. An array may be formed of the resulting pressure transducers. This unique solution of materials permits operation of a pressure transducer in cryogenic environments.

  13. New black paint for cryogenic infrared applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A black paint has been developed and tested for cryogenic applications involving wavelengths beyond 10 microns. The paint has been used extensively for liquid helium cooled applications in a variety of instruments operating between 10 and 120 microns. The material is applied by brush over a spray or brush applied primer coat. A final covering is applied by either brush or spray. The composition and preparation of the paint are described, as are data about its outgassing properties. Infrared reflection and scattering data obtained by other groups which compare this material to other commercially available surface preparations are presented.

  14. Molecular cryogenic crystals under pressure (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, Iu. A.

    1990-08-01

    The properties of the high-pressure phases of classical molecular cryogenic crystals of the N2 and O2 types are reviewed with reference to published theoretical and experimental research in this field. In particular, attention is given to general characterization of molecular crystals, ultrahigh pressure technology, and the structure of solid N2, O2, CO, CO2, and NO2. The discussion also covers Raman spectroscopy studies of solid O2 under pressure, high-pressure F2 phases, and melting of molecular crystals under pressure.

  15. Geysering inhibitor for vertical cryogenic transfer piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. S.

    1973-01-01

    Geysering (i.e., the expulsion of boiling liquid and its vapor from a vertical tube) has been a problem for the missile industry in long vertical cryogenic propellant feed lines connecting the launch vehicle propellant tank with the rocket engines. A proposed novel method of inhibiting geysering and the associated pressure gradients provides a self-starting self-regulating action that is not dependent on other active systems or components. The inhibiting action is attained by incorporating a concentric tube within the main transfer tube to prevent constriction of natural convective flow.

  16. Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Bethany M.; Gingrich, Eric C.; Khasawneh, Mazin A.; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William P., Jr.; Birge, Norman O.

    2015-03-01

    Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials are of interest for both scientific and technological purposes. In principle, either the amplitude of the critical current or superconducting phase shift across the junction can be controlled by the relative magnetization directions of the ferromagnetic layers in the junction. Our approach concentrates on phase control utilizing two junctions in a SQUID geometry. We will report on efforts to control the phase of junctions carrying either spin-singlet or spin-triplet supercurrent for cryogenic memory applications. Supported by Northorp Grumman Corporation and by IARPA under SPAWAR Contract N66001-12-C-2017.

  17. Simple Spreadsheet Thermal Models for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Alfred

    1995-01-01

    Self consistent circuit analog thermal models that can be run in commercial spreadsheet programs on personal computers have been created to calculate the cooldown and steady state performance of cryogen cooled Dewars. The models include temperature dependent conduction and radiation effects. The outputs of the models provide temperature distribution and Dewar performance information. these models have been used to analyze the SIRTF Telescope Test Facility (STTF). The facility has been brought on line for its first user, the Infrared Telescope Technology Testbed (ITTT), for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) at JPL. The model algorithm as well as a comparison between the models' predictions and actual performance of this facility will be presented.

  18. Thin Cryogenic X-ray Windows

    E-print Network

    Niinikoski, T O; Davenport, M; Elias, N; Aune, S; Franz, J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the construction and tests of cryogenic X-ray windows of 47 mm diameter made of 15 ìm thick polypropylene foil glued on a UHV flange and supported with a strongback mesh machined by electro-erosion. These hermetic windows of the solar axion telescope of the CAST experiment at CERN withstand the static and dynamic pressures of the buffer gas that are normally below 130 mbar, but may reach 1.2 bar when the magnet quenches. They were tested at 60 K up to 3.5 bar static pressure without permanent deformation.

  19. Diode laser pumping sources for cryogenically cooled solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorov, M. A.; Trofimov, I. E.

    2008-04-01

    One of the recent advances in solid-state laser (SSL) defense technology is the 100W level Er-doped "eye-safe" laser with low quantum defect pumping at 1.53?m. Major technical challenges in achieving high-wattage devices include increasing the system power conversion efficiency and arranging the removal of heat from both the crystal and the pumps. It is known that performance of the crystal can be improved dramatically by cryogenic cooling. Hence, it is desirable to have cryo-cooled pumps to realize ergonomic and efficient diode-pumped SSL with unified cryogenic cooling. In this paper we report on the development of LN2-cooled InP-based ?~1.5-1.6 ?m diode pumps. The broad area lasers demonstrated 11W in continuous-wave (CW) regime at an operating current of 20A. Despite the highest CW power measured to date from an InP-based emitter, we did not observe catastrophic optical mirror damage. The spectral width of the radiation from a cooled device decreased 1.5-2 from its room-temperature value, which will significantly improve pumping efficiency. We show that laser diode design has to be optimized for performance at cryogenic temperatures. Reviewing the data on LN2 cooled lasers emitting in the wavelength range of 1.13 - 1.8 ?m, we discuss the route to increase the power conversion of the LN2 cooled InP-based pumps to greater than 60% and further narrow and stabilize the laser emission spectrum.

  20. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology for Moon and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Gaby, Joseph D.; Salerno, Louis J.; Sutherlin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are being conducted by the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project. Cryogenic Fluid Management Project objectives are to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens to support high performance demands of lunar, and ultimately, Mars missions in the application areas of propulsion, surface systems, and Earth-based ground operations. The targeted use of cryogens and cryogenic technologies for these application areas is anticipated to significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, to reduce and even eliminate storage tank boil-off losses for long term missions, to economize ground pad storage and transfer operations, and to expand operational and architectural operations at destination. This paper organizes Cryogenic Fluid Management Project technology efforts according to Exploration Architecture target areas, and discusses the scope of trade studies, analytical modeling, and test efforts presently underway, as well as future plans, to address those target areas. The target areas are: liquid methane/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Ascent Stage, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Descent Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage, liquefaction, zero boil-off, and propellant scavenging for Lunar Surface Systems, cold helium and zero boil-off technologies for Earth-Based Ground Operations, and architecture definition studies for long term storage and on-orbit transfer and pressurization of LH2, cryogenic Mars landing and ascent vehicles, and cryogenic production via in situ resource utilization on Mars.

  1. Predicted thermal response of a cryogenic fuel tank exposed to simulated aerodynamic heating profiles with different cryogens and fill levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory J. Hanna; Craig A. Stephens

    1991-01-01

    A two dimensional finite difference thermal model was developed to predict the effects of heating profile, fill level, and cryogen type prior to experimental testing the Generic Research Cryogenic Tank (GRCT). These numerical predictions will assist in defining test scenarios, sensor locations, and venting requirements for the GRCT experimental tests. Boiloff rates, tank-wall and fluid temperatures, and wall heat fluxes

  2. Cryogenic characterization and testing of magnetically-actuated microshutter arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. T.; Kletetschka, G.; Jah, M. A.; Beamesderfer, M. A.; Li, M. J.; Wang, L. L.; Moseley, S. H.; Sparr, L. M.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Silverberg, R. F.; Rapchun, D.; Zheng, Y.; Schwinger, D. S.; Voellmer, G. M.

    2005-08-01

    Two-dimensional MEMS microshutter arrays (MSA) have been fabricated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to enable cryogenic (~35 K) spectrographic astronomy measurements at near-infrared wavelengths. Functioning as a focal plane object selection device, the MSA is a 2D programmable aperture mask with fine resolution, high efficiency and high contrast. The MSA are close-packed silicon nitride shutters (cell size of 100 µm × 200 µm) patterned with a torsion flexure to allow their opening to 90°. A layer of magnetic material is deposited onto each shutter to permit magnetic actuation. Two electrodes are deposited, one onto each shutter and another onto the support structure side-wall, permitting electrostatic latching and 2D addressing. New techniques were developed to test MSA under mission-similar conditions (8 K <= T < 300 K). The 'magnetic rotisserie' has proven to be an excellent tool for rapid characterization of MSA. Tests conducted with the magnetic rotisserie method include accelerated cryogenic lifetesting of unpackaged 128 × 64 MSA and parallel measurement of the magneto-mechanical stiffness of shutters in 'pathfinder' test samples containing multiple MSA designs. Lifetest results indicate a logarithmic failure rate out to ~106 shutter actuations. These results have increased our understanding of failure mechanisms and provide a means to predict the overall reliability of MSA devices.

  3. Fielding the NIF Cryogenic Ignition Target

    SciTech Connect

    Malsbury, T; Haid, B; Gibson, C; Atkinson, D; Skulina, K; Klingmann, J; Atherton, J; Mapoles, E; Kozioziemski, B; Dzenitis, E

    2008-02-28

    The United States Department of Energy has embarked on a campaign to conduct credible fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2010. The target assembly specified for this campaign requires the formation of a deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel ice layer on the inside of a 2 millimeter diameter capsule positioned at the center of a 9 millimeter long by 5 millimeter diameter cylinder, called a hohlraum. The ice layer requires micrometer level accuracy and must be formed and maintained at temperatures below 19 K. At NIF shot time, the target must be positioned at the center of the NIF 10 meter diameter target chamber, aligned to the laser beam lines and held stable to less than 7 micrometers rms. We have completed the final design and are integrating the systems necessary to create, characterize and field the cryogenic target for ignition experiments. These designs, with emphasis on the challenges of fielding a precision cryogenic positioning system will be presented.

  4. Cryogenic Propellant Depot Experiments, Demonstrations and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic Propellant Depots have been assessed over many years in terms of architectures, system configuration trades, related technologies, economic assessments, etc., to enable more ambitious and affordable human and robotic exploration of the Earth Neighborhood and beyond. These activities have identified architectures and concepts that produce, preposition and store propellants in space for exploration and commercial space activities. Commonalities across mission scenarios for these architecture definitions, depot concepts, technologies, and operations were identified that also best satisfy the Vision of Space Exploration. The Boeing Company supported the NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by conducting Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies. The primary objectives were: (1) determine high leverage propellant depot concepts and related technologies; (2) identify commonalities across mission scenarios of depot concepts, technologies, and operations; (3) determine the best depot concepts and key technology requirements and (4) identify technology development needs including definition of ground and space demonstration requirements. This presentation briefly summarizes potential ground and flight experiments and demonstrations as well as discusses various commercial and exploration applications of Cryogenic Propellant Depots.

  5. Space cryogenic system for SPICA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Masahide; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Hirabayashi, Masayuki

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes that the feasibility of the next Japanese infrared astronomical SPICA mission is verified in thermal design by numerical analyses and developed technologies. In this advanced cryogenic mission, in order to cool the large primary mirror and focal plane instruments down to 4.5 K for 5 years or longer without cryogen, the mechanical cooling is employed with effective radiant cooling, which compensates the limited cooling capacity of the JT cryocooler for 4.5 K upgraded from that developed for the "JEM/SMILES" mission on the International Space Station. First, thermal design of the telescope is numerically discussed with thermal mathematical models. Some configurations of radiators, shields and solar-array paddles are investigated and compared in technical and mission feasibilities. Next, the development status of the 3He-JT circuit with the Stirling cryocooler for one detector operated at the lowest temperature of 1.7 K is reported. The recent results of experiments give that the breadboard model of the 1.7 K cryocooler successfully exceeds the required cooling capacity of 10mW at 1.7K with small power consumption. Finally, the heat rejection system from those cryocoolers is discussed. As a promising candidate, the loop heat pipe is chosen and suitably designed.

  6. Experimental investigation of cryogenic oscillating heat pipes

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, A.J.; Ma, H.B.; Critser, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    A novel cryogenic heat pipe, oscillating heat pipe (OHP), which consists of an 4 × 18.5 cm evaporator, a 6 × 18.5 cm condenser, and 10 cm length of adiabatic section, has been developed and experimental characterization conducted. Experimental results show that the maximum heat transport capability of the OHP reached 380W with average temperature difference of 49 °C between the evaporator and condenser when the cryogenic OHP was charged with liquid nitrogen at 48% (v/v) and operated in a horizontal direction. The thermal resistance decreased from 0.256 to 0.112 while the heat load increased from 22.5 to 321.8 W. When the OHP was operated at a steady state and an incremental heat load was added to it, the OHP operation changed from a steady state to an unsteady state until a new steady state was reached. This process can be divided into three regions: (I) unsteady state; (II) transient state; and (III) new steady state. In the steady state, the amplitude of temperature change in the evaporator is smaller than that of the condenser while the temperature response keeps the same frequency both in the evaporator and the condenser. The experimental results also showed that the amplitude of temperature difference between the evaporator and the condenser decreased when the heat load increased. PMID:20585410

  7. The cryogenic gas stopping cell of SHIPTRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droese, C.; Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lautenschläger, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Schweikhard, L.; Simon, V. V.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2014-11-01

    The overall efficiency of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt, employed for high-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei in the mass region above fermium, is presently mostly limited by the stopping and extraction of fusion-evaporation products in the SHIPTRAP gas cell. To overcome this limitation a second-generation gas cell with increased stopping volume was designed. In addition, its operation at cryogenic temperatures leads to a higher gas density at a given pressure and an improved cleanliness of the helium buffer gas. Here, the results of experiments with a 219Rn recoil ion source are presented. An extraction efficiency of 74(3)% was obtained, a significant increase compared to the extraction efficiency of 30% of the present gas stopping cell operated at room temperature. The optimization of electric fields and other operating parameters at room as well as cryogenic temperatures is described in detail. Furthermore, the extraction time of 219Rn ions was determined for several operating parameters.

  8. Cryogenic Silicon Microstrip Detector Modules for LHC

    E-print Network

    Perea-Solano, B

    2004-01-01

    CERN is presently constructing the LHC, which will produce collisions of 7 TeV protons in 4 interaction points at a design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. The radiation dose resulting from the operation at high luminosity will cause a serious deterioration of the silicon tracker performance. The state-of-art silicon microstrip detectors can tolerate a fluence of about 3 1014 cm-2 of hadrons or charged leptons. This is insufficient, however, for long-term operation in the central parts of the LHC trackers, in particular after the possible luminosity upgrade of the LHC. By operating the detectors at cryogenic temperatures the radiation hardness can be improved by a factor 10. This work proposes a cryogenic microstrip detector module concept which has the features required for the microstrip trackers of the upgraded LHC experiments at CERN. The module can hold an edgeless sensor, being a good candidate for improved luminosity and total cross-section measurements in the ATLAS, CMS and TOTEM experiments. The design o...

  9. Thermal Design of a Collapsible Cryogenic Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegab, Hisham E.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic planning for human exploration missions to Mars has conclusively identified in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) as an enabling technology. Most mission scenarios include an ISRU plant to produce propellants for ascent from Mars as well as the production of backup reserves of water, oxygen, and process gases. Current mission scenarios call for an ISRU plant to be deployed and then produce and store the required propellants and life support reserves before the arrival of the first human mission. Reliable cryogenic propellant liquefaction and storage technologies for extended period missions are especially critical. This report examines the cryogenic storage problem for liquid oxygen produced by an ISRU plant for a human mission scenario. The analysis examines various hardware configurations including insulation types, packaging techniques, and required cryocoolers to minimize the initial launch mass to low Earth orbit. Results of the analyses indicate that high vacuum insulation systems requiring vacuum pressures below one millitorr will be required to minimize the 'initial launch mass into low Earth orbit even though the temperature on the surface of Mars is much lower than Earth.

  10. Experimental investigation of cryogenic oscillating heat pipes.

    PubMed

    Jiao, A J; Ma, H B; Critser, J K

    2009-07-01

    A novel cryogenic heat pipe, oscillating heat pipe (OHP), which consists of an 4 × 18.5 cm evaporator, a 6 × 18.5 cm condenser, and 10 cm length of adiabatic section, has been developed and experimental characterization conducted. Experimental results show that the maximum heat transport capability of the OHP reached 380W with average temperature difference of 49 °C between the evaporator and condenser when the cryogenic OHP was charged with liquid nitrogen at 48% (v/v) and operated in a horizontal direction. The thermal resistance decreased from 0.256 to 0.112 while the heat load increased from 22.5 to 321.8 W. When the OHP was operated at a steady state and an incremental heat load was added to it, the OHP operation changed from a steady state to an unsteady state until a new steady state was reached. This process can be divided into three regions: (I) unsteady state; (II) transient state; and (III) new steady state. In the steady state, the amplitude of temperature change in the evaporator is smaller than that of the condenser while the temperature response keeps the same frequency both in the evaporator and the condenser. The experimental results also showed that the amplitude of temperature difference between the evaporator and the condenser decreased when the heat load increased. PMID:20585410

  11. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  12. Power control electronics for cryogenic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Myers, Ira T.

    1995-01-01

    In order to achieve a high-efficiency high-density cryogenic instrumentation system, the power processing electronics should be placed in the cold environment along with the sensors and signal-processing electronics. The typical instrumentation system requires low voltage dc usually obtained from processing line frequency ac power. Switch-mode power conversion topologies such as forward, flyback, push-pull, and half-bridge are used for high-efficiency power processing using pulse-width modulation (PWM) or resonant control. This paper presents several PWM and multiresonant power control circuits, implemented using commercially available CMOS and BiCMOS integrated circuits, and their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature (77 K) as compared to their room temperature (300 K) performance. The operation of integrated circuits at cryogenic temperatures results in an improved performance in terms of increased speed, reduced latch-up susceptibility, reduced leakage current, and reduced thermal noise. However, the switching noise increased at 77 K compared to 300 K. The power control circuits tested in the laboratory did successfully restart at 77 K.

  13. Aerogel Beads as Cryogenic Thermal Insulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the use of aerogel beads as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel beads in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel beads produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/cubic m) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10(exp -5) torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel beads was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel beads performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress.

  14. Cryogenic Insulation System for Soft Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cryogenic insulation system for operation under soft vacuum is presented in this paper. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications can be divided into three levels of thermal performance, in terms of apparent thermal conductivity [k-value in milliwatt per meter-kelvin (mW/m-K)]. System k-values below 0.1 can be achieved for multilayer insulation operating at a vacuum level below 1 x 10(exp -4) torr. For fiberglass or powder operating below 1 x 10(exp -3) torr, k-values of about 2 are obtained. For foam and other materials at ambient pressure, k-values around 30 are typical. New industry and aerospace applications require a versatile, robust, low-cost thermal insulation with performance in the intermediate range. The target for the new composite insulation system is a k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K (R-30) at a soft vacuum level (from 1 to 10 torr) and boundary temperatures of approximately 77 and 293 kelvin (K). Many combinations of radiation shields, spacers, and composite materials were tested from high vacuum to ambient pressure using cryostat boiloff methods. Significant improvement over conventional systems in the soft vacuum range was demonstrated. The new layered composite insulation system was also shown to provide key benefits for high vacuum applications as well.

  15. A unit for tensile testing of materials in the cryogenic channel of a nuclear reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Vadachkoriya; G. P. Tavkhelidze

    1981-01-01

    This article describes an intrareactor unit for tensile testing of an unlimited number of samples at cryogenic temperatures (Fig. i). The active zone 1 irradiates the lower portion of the cryogenic channel 2. The gaseous cryogenic coolant (helium) is supplied to the cryogenic channel through the tube 3 and removed through the tube 4. The lower cold portion of the

  16. Cryogenics and its Application with Reference to Spice Grinding: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Balasubramanian; Manoj Kumar Gupta; K. K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenics is the study of very low temperature and its application on different materials including biological products. Cryogenics has numerous applications in space science, electronics, automobiles, the manufacturing industry, sports and musical instruments, biological science and agriculture, etc. Cryogenic freezing finds pivotal application in food, that is, spices and condiments. Although there is a wide range of cryogens to produce

  17. CRYOGENICS AND ITS APPLICATION WITH REFERENCE TO SPICE GRINDING: A REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Balasubramanian; Manoj Kumar Gupta; K. K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenics’ is the study of very low temperature and its application on different materials including biological products. Cryogenics has numerous applications in space science, electronics, automobiles, manufacturing industry, sports and musical instruments, biological science and agriculture etc. Cryogenic freezing finds pivotal application in food i.e. spices and condiments. Although there is a wide range of cryogens to produce the desired

  18. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vols. 37A & 37B - Proceedings of the 1991 Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, June 11-14, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Ronald W. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume on advances in cryogenic engineering discusses heat and mass transfer in helium, heat transfer in cryogenic fluids, thermoacoustic oscillations, and insulation. Attention is given to applications of superconductivity with reference to magnetic stability and coil protection, cryogenic techniques, and refrigeration for electronics and superconducting systems. Topics addressed include compressors, expanders, and pumps for liquid helium, magnetic refrigerators, pulse tube refrigerators, and cryocoolers. Also examined are properties of cryogenic fluids, cryogenic applications in transportion and space science and technology, and cryogenic instrumentation.

  19. Evaluation of biasing and protection circuitry components for cryogenic MMIC low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, James W.

    2014-05-01

    Millimeter-wave integrated circuits with gate lengths as short as 35 nm are demonstrating extremely low-noise performance, especially when cooled to cryogenic temperatures. These operate at low voltages and are susceptible to damage from electrostatic discharge and improper biasing, as well as being sensitive to low-level interference. Designing a protection circuit for low voltages and temperatures is challenging because there is very little data available on components that may be suitable. Extensive testing at low temperatures yielded a set of components and a circuit topology that demonstrates the required level of protection for critical MMICs and similar devices. We present a circuit that provides robust protection for low voltage devices from room temperature down to 4 K.

  20. Progress on the cryogenic system for the KAGRA cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Yusuke; Akutsu, Tomotada; Chen, Dan; Khalaidovski, Aleksandr; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Koike, Shigeaki; Kume, Tatsuya; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Tokoku, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-11-01

    KAGRA is a project to construct a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector in Japan. Its mirrors and the lower parts of the suspension systems will be cooled to 20 K in order to reduce thermal noise, one of the fundamental noise sources. One of the key features of KAGRA's cooling system is that it will keep the mirrors cooled without introducing vibration. This paper describes the current status of the design, manufacture and testing of the KAGRA cooling system.