Sample records for cryogenic distillation column

  1. Effects of helium on separation characteristics of cryogenic distillation column cascade for fusion reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinoshita

    1984-01-01

    By choosing the cryogenic distillation column cascade developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the effects of helium on separation characteristics of the columns are analyzed in a probable case of input and output specifications. Column (2) is mainly affected by the presence of helium. If the helium percentage in the raw fuel input is 1%, the column performance can be

  2. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  3. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Polley, G. T.

    2002-01-01

    component rather than the mixture bubble point (assumed with the 'integral' assumption) (Figure 2). ITvapoUT I [./"-------' Where separation occurs, part of the bundle is 'submerged' in condensate. This 'subennergence' can give rise to significant... should be given a downward incline of 3-SO. Intermediate Condensers The extraction of heat from an intermediate point in a distillation column as heat source for a heat pump or for use in an integration scheme can result in significant energy...

  4. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns Ketan Samant, Aspen Technology Ian Sinclair, Aspen Technology Ginger Keady, Aspen Technology This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a...

  5. Time requirements for heteroazeotropic distillation in batch columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Skouras; Sigurd Skogestad

    2004-01-01

    Batch time requirements are provided for the separation of ternary heterogeneous azeotropic mixtures into three pure products in closed batch column configurations. The separations are performed in hybrid processes where distillation is combined with decantation for completing the separation task. Two multivessel column configurations, with and without vapour bypass, and a rectifier column, are compared in terms of time requirements.

  6. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of multicomponent distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.; Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II

    1999-10-01

    Distillation columns with sharp separations exhibit severely nonlinear behavior, which has been known to cause difficulties in column control and design. Such a column is characterized by sharp composition and temperature variations in the column. Previously, the binary distillation case was thoroughly analyzed using a nonlinear wave theory and such an analysis was experimentally validated. For multicomponent distillation, the complicated nonlinear dynamics of the movement and interference of multiple sharp composition variations can be elucidated with a coherent-wave theory developed earlier for general countercurrent separation processes. With a ternary alcohol mixture, the present study has experimentally verified the theory by demonstrating the existence and propagation of constant-pattern coherent waves in a 50-tray stripping column in response to a step disturbance of feed composition, feed flow rate, or reboiler heat supply. The study has also tested the theory's predictions of composition profile, wave velocities, and asymmetric dynamics.

  7. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte- grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  8. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte­ grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  9. Temperature–enthalpy curve for energy targeting of distillation columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Ranjan K. Malik; Uday V. Shenoy

    1998-01-01

    The temperature–enthalpy (T–H) diagram of a distillation column at practical near-minimum thermodynamic condition (PNMTC) or the column grand composite curve (CGCC) is a useful representation for energy targeting studies and may be generated from a converged simulation of a base-case column design. The calculation procedure for the CGCC involves determination of the net enthalpy deficit at each stage by generating

  10. CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL Erik A. Wol#11; and Sigurd Skogestad #3; University of Trondheim N-7034 Trondheim, NORWAY Keywords: process control, cascade control, distilla- tion, control structure, relative gain array 1 Introduction In most process control

  11. Tritum recovery system from waste water of fusion reactor using CECE and cryogenic-wall thermal diffusion column

    SciTech Connect

    Arita, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, N.; Yamamoto, I. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A system for recovery of tritium in water has been proposed. The system is composed of CECE (Combined Electrolysis Chemical Exchange) and CTD (Cryogenic-wall Thermal Diffusion) columns. A design study was carried out for the two cases: the waste water processing in fusion facilities; and the tritium recovery from heavy water in a fission reactor in Japan. The size and power consumption of the system can greatly be reduced by using the CECE column than the system of WD (Water Distillation) columns. The operation and maintenance of the CTD column are quite easier than the CD (Cryogenic Distillation) column. The proposed system would be applicable for some cases such as the waste water processing in tritium facilities, where the processing flow rate is relatively small. 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States)] [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States); Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-10-01

    High-purity distillation columns are typically difficult to control because of their severely nonlinear behavior reflected by their sharp composition and temperature profiles. The dynamic behavior of such a column, as characterized by the movement of its sharp profile, was elucidated by a nonlinear wave theory established previously. With binary alcohol mixtures, this study provides an experimental observation of such wave-propagation dynamics of a 40-tray stripping column and a 50-tray fractionation column in response to step disturbances of feed composition, feed flow rate, and reboiler heat supply. These experimental results have verified that the sharp profile in a high-purity column moves as a constant-pattern wave and that the nonlinear wave theory predicts its velocity satisfactorily with very simple mathematics. Results also demonstrate the asymmetric dynamics of the transitions between two steady states.

  13. Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Aromatically enhanced pear distillates from blanquilla and conference varieties using a packed column.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Yanine; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López-Vázquez, Cristina; Orriols, Ignacio; López, Francisco

    2013-05-22

    Pear distillates are generally produced from the Bartlett variety because of its rich aroma. In this study, a chemical and sensorial comparative examination of pear distillates from the three main varieties grown in Spain (Bartlett, Blanquilla, and Conference) using two distillation systems (copper Charentais alembic and packed column) was undertaken. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography to differentiate the spirits according to pear variety and distillation method. The Bartlett distillates from both distillation systems possessed higher ethyl ester and acetate and lower cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol concentrations. Despite these differences, a sensory analysis panel could distinguish only the Bartlett alembic distillate from the alembic distillates of the other varieties. In contrast, the panel rated the packed-column distillates equally. Therefore, less aromatic pear varieties can be used to produce distillates with aromatic characteristics similar to those of the Bartlett variety if a suitable distillation process is used. PMID:23531091

  15. A GENERALIZED DYNAMIC MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS-III. STUDY OF STARTUP OPERATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Rurz; I. T. CAMERON; R. GANI

    The dynamic behavior of distillation columns during startup operations have been studied and analyzed. A procedure is proposed for determining appropriate startup policies for distillation column operations based on the analysis of the dynamic behavior. The final startup policy consists of three strategies corresponding to the three characteristic stages of the startup operation. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied

  16. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column how the minimum energy consumption is related to the feed-component distribution for all possible operating points in a two-product distillation column with a multicomponent feed. The classical Underwood

  17. Cryogenic focussing, ohmically heated on-column trap

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, S.R.

    1991-12-01

    A procedure is described for depositing a conductive layer of gold on the exterior of a fused-silica capillary used in gas chromatography. By subjecting a section of the column near the inlet to a thermal cycle of cryogenic cooling and ohmic heating, volatile samples are concentrated and subsequently injected. The performance of this trap as a chromatographic injector is demonstrated. Several additional applications are suggested and the unique properties of this device are discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    -down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered...

  19. Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation

    E-print Network

    Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

    The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill...

  20. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat...

  1. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat...

  2. Development of dynamic models of reactive distillation columns for simulation and determination of control 

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarty, Arnab

    2005-02-17

    Dynamic models of a reactive distillation column have been developed and implemented in this work. A model describing the steady state behavior of the system has been built in a first step. The results from this steady ...

  3. Homogeneous azeotropic distillation in an energy- and mass-integrated pressure swing column system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein; Florian Forner

    2004-01-01

    The separation of a homogeneous azeotropic mixture using the pressure swing distillation process is insufficient researched and therefore industrial applications are limited. The process performance of a heat- and mass-integrated pressure swing distillation column system to separate an acetonitril\\/water mixture is analysed in the scope of this paper. Different control structures are developed and compared by using a rigorous dynamic

  4. State Space Modeling and Predictive Control of a Binary Batch Distillation Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyun Zou; Dehong Yu; Zhen Hu; Ning Guo; Luping Yu; Wenqiang Feng

    2006-01-01

    A linear discrete state-space model of a methanol\\/water binary batch distillation column is developed based on theoretical analysis of dynamic mass balance and vapor-liquid phase balance, and this state-space model is used to design a model predictive control (MPC) strategy. The composition of methanol inside the distillation column is estimated using an empirical temperature-composition relationship model. The state space model

  5. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a simulation environment. The methodology is described using a separations example. Column Thermal Analysis has been discussed in the literature extensively...

  6. A modified model of computational mass transfer for distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. M. Sun; K. T. Yu; X. G. Yuan; C. J. Liu

    2007-01-01

    The computational mass transfer (CMT) model is composed of the basic differential mass transfer equation, closing with auxiliary equations, and the appropriate accompanying CFD formulation. In the present modified CMT model, the closing auxiliary equations c2¯–?c [Liu, B.T., 2003. Study of a new mass transfer model of CFD and its application on distillation tray. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China;

  7. Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Thomas Raymond

    1962-01-01

    in the oalculational procedures are also discussed. This calculational method employs the equations of Thiele and Qeddes (61) with modifications by Hummel (&1) and Donnel and Turbin (21). Certain notational conventions proposed by Lyster et al. (b0) are used... OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1. Convsntional Distillation Coleman . ~ ~ ~ 57 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Specifications for Examples 1, 2, and 4 . . . ~ . . 58 Values oi Ei, Gi, and $ Obtained After the 50'th Trial in the Soluticn of Examples 1 and 2 . 60 1110...

  8. Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part II: Performance Analysis of a Distillation Column Using Exergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Douani; Sabria, Terkhi; Fatima, Ouadjenia

    2007-09-01

    To analyze the performance of the separation process, we have introduced thethermodynamic concept of exergy through the exergetic efficiency of the column. Thesimulation results show that the exergetic output is relatively low and that the producedirreversibility fluxes are distributed throughout the whole column in a non-uniform manner.They are particularly significant in the condenser, boiler and tray feed. The influence of thevarious operating parameters (temperature, concentration and irreversibility in both sectionsof the column) is also established. To emphasize the results, the relation in equation 17, ispresented graphically to evaluate the cumulative irreversibilities from the overhead to thebottom. This presentation is equivalent to the Grassmann diagram.

  9. Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part I: High Pressure Distillation Column Analysis: Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Douani; Fatima, Ouadjenia; Sabria, Terkhi

    2007-06-01

    In this analysis, based on the bubble point method, a physical model wasestablished clarifying the interactions (mass and heat) between the species present in thestreams in circulation in the column. In order to identify the externally controlled operatingparameters, the degree of freedom of the column was determined by using Gibbs phase rule.The mathematical model converted to Fortran code and based on the principles of: 1) Globaland local mass conservation balance, 2) Enthalpy balance, and 3) Vapour-liquid equilibriumat each tray, was used to simulate the behavior of the column, concentration distributions,temperature and streams for each phase along the column at high pressure in each tray. Theenergy consumption at the condenser and the boiler was also evaluated using the Starlingequation of state.

  10. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiyang Cheong; Paul I. Barton

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux\\/reboil ratios, under

  11. Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Eldridge, R. Bruce

    Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks Eric modeled using a neural network. The database developed by Garcia and Fair (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000, 39, 1809) was utilized to train and validate the neural network model. The results indicate that

  12. A nonlinear profile observer using tray temperatures for high-purity binary distillation column control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joonho Shin; Hodong Seo; Myungwan Han

    2000-01-01

    A new, concise nonlinear profile position observer using tray temperatures instead of tray compositions is proposed. Composition measurement has been one of the major difficulties associated with the composition control of distillation columns because the on-line analyzers still suffer from large measurement delays, high investment\\/maintenance costs and low reliability. One of common alternatives to the analyzers is to use the

  13. Nonlinear model-based control algorithm for a distillation column using software sensor.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Ganguly, Saibal

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the design of model-based globally linearizing control (GLC) structure for a distillation process within the differential geometric framework. The model of a nonideal binary distillation column, whose characteristics were highly nonlinear and strongly interactive, is used as a real process. The classical GLC law is comprised of a transformer (input-output linearizing state feedback), a nonlinear state observer, and an external PI controller. The tray temperature based short-cut observer (TTBSCO) has been used as a state estimator within the control structure, in which all tray temperatures were considered to be measured. Accordingly, the liquid phase composition of each tray was calculated online using the derived temperature-composition correlation. In the simulation experiment, the proposed GLC coupled with TTBSCO (GLC-TTBSCO) outperformed a conventional PI controller based on servo performances with and without measurement noise as well as on regulatory behaviors. In the subsequent part, the GLC law has been synthesized in conjunction with tray temperature based reduced-order observer (GLC-TTBROO) where the distillate and bottom compositions of the distillation process have been inferred from top and bottom product temperatures respectively, which were measured online. Finally, the comparative performance of the GLC-TTBSCO and the GLC-TTBROO has been addressed under parametric uncertainty and the GLC-TTBSCO algorithm provided slightly better performance than the GLC-TTBROO. The resulting control laws are rather general and can be easily adopted for other binary distillation columns. PMID:15868863

  14. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux/reboil ratios, under the assumption of linear separation boundaries. It is determined that, under limiting conditions, the distillate product drawn from the MVC is given by the {alpha} limit set of the MVC still pot composition, while the bottoms product drawn from the MVC is given by the {omega} limit set of the MVC still pot composition. The net product composition is determined by taking a convex combination of the two products. The notions of steering the still pot composition, the vector cone of possible motion for the still pot composition, and the equivalency of the MVC to the combined operation of a batch rectifier and a stripper are also explored. The definition of batch distillation regions for the MVC operated at a given value of the middle vessel parameter {lambda}, and the bifurcation of these regions with the variation of {lambda}, are investigated. Lastly, a mathematical model incorporating the concept of warped time is developed for a multivessel column. The MVC can be viewed as a specific case of the multivessel column.

  15. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 2: Nonlinear separation boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    On the basis of the analytical tools developed for the middle vessel column (MVC) operated under limiting conditions, analysis of the qualitative dynamics of the MVC in separating an azeotropic mixture is extended to the more realistic case in which the separation boundaries are nonlinear. The differences between batch stripper pot composition boundaries and batch rectifier pot composition being able to cross these pot composition boundaries. On the basis of these insights, operating procedures are developed in which ternary azeotropic mixtures of acetone, benzene, and chloroform can be separated into their constituent pure components, a separation not achievable with either the batch stripper or the batch rectifier. The operating procedures suggested for separating the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform in the MVC are then shown to be the time analogues of sequences of continuous distillation columns that achieve the same separation. On the basis of this space-time analogy, further analogies are developed between the MVC and a continuous column, and it is postulated that many complex separations currently achieved with sequences of continuous columns can also be achieved with a single MVC. Thus, the MVC represents the ultimate multipurpose solvent recovery technology, as it can handle, in a batch multipurpose mode. separations that will otherwise require a dedicated continuous distillation sequence. Finally, the characteristics of perfect MVC batch entrainers, which allow the complete separation of any azeotrope into its constituent pure components in a single MVC, are discussed.

  16. Soft sensor based composition estimation and controller design for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Raghavan, S R; Radhakrishnan, T K; Srinivasan, K

    2011-01-01

    In this research work, the authors have presented the design and implementation of a recurrent neural network (RNN) based inferential state estimation scheme for an ideal reactive distillation column. Decentralized PI controllers are designed and implemented. The reactive distillation process is controlled by controlling the composition which has been estimated from the available temperature measurements using a type of RNN called Time Delayed Neural Network (TDNN). The performance of the RNN based state estimation scheme under both open loop and closed loop have been compared with a standard Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a Feed forward Neural Network (FNN). The online training/correction has been done for both RNN and FNN schemes for every ten minutes whenever new un-trained measurements are available from a conventional composition analyzer. The performance of RNN shows better state estimation capability as compared to other state estimation schemes in terms of qualitative and quantitative performance indices. PMID:20887987

  17. Penetration of different human pathogenic viruses into sand columns percolated with distilled water, groundwater, or wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Dizer, H; Nasser, A; Lopez, J M

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of several enteroviruses and rotavirus SA11 to sand from an aquifer in the Federal Republic of Germany was estimated in sand-filled columns loaded with ca. 10(7) PFU and run at a velocity of 2.5 m/day for 12 h. After either distilled water, groundwater, secondary effluent, or tertiary effluent was percolated, the sand core was slowly extruded out of the column and cut in 1-cm slices. The slices were eluted with nutrient broth, and the amount of viruses in the broth was estimated. The best adsorption was promoted by groundwater and tertiary effluent, followed by distilled water and secondary effluent. Similar experiments, carried out at different percolation rates, indicated that a 50-day underground stay of recharged water probably suffices to eliminate viruses in the groundwater-recharged tertiary effluent. However, when viruses and sand were incubated in the presence of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, nonyl phenol, dodigen 226, or alkylbenzylsulfonate, the adsorption of the viruses was substantially diminished. Experiments in the presence of nonyl phenol seem to indicate that hydrophobic interactions are involved in the adsorption of viruses to sand. PMID:6324676

  18. Pressure swing distillation for separation of homogeneous azeotropic mixtures in a mass- and heat- integrated column system: operation performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein; F. Forner; Gunter Wozny

    2004-01-01

    The separation of a homogeneous azeotropic mixture using pressure swing distillation process is deficient investigated, therefore industrial applications are limited. The dynamic behaviour of a heat- and mass-integrated pressure swing distillation column system to separate an acetonitrile\\/water mixture is analysed. Different control structures are developed and compared by using a rigorous dynamic model written in gProms®. A first validation of

  19. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 3: Model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A dimensional time model of the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed in the ABACUSS process modeling environment, and simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical insights developed for the operation of the MVC based on a warped time model of the MVC. The qualitative dynamics of the MVC operated in the presence of linear separation boundaries are validated via simulations conducted on the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, chloroform, and methanol. It is also shown via simulation that the separation results obtained from a column with significant but reasonable amounts of holdup on the trays are not significantly different from a column in which holdup in the trays is assumed to be negligible. Theoretical operating policies for separating the azeotrope of acetone and chloroform using benzene as a batch entrainer are also validated using the ABACUSS model. Finally, the authors explore the advantages and disadvantages of different feasible operating policies for separating a mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform completely into its constituent pure components.

  20. Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China. PMID:24517821

  1. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  2. Design concept of cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kinoshita; T. Yamanishi; J. R. Bartlit; R. H. Sherman

    1986-01-01

    A design concept is developed for a cryogenic falling liquid film helium separator by clarifying the differences between this process and a cryogenic distillation column. The process characteristics are greatly improved by the idea of adding an Hâ gas flow to a point near the upper end of the packed section. The flow rate of tritium lost from the top

  3. Recovery of dilute acetic acid through esterification in a reactive distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Saha; S. P. Chopade; S. M. Mahajani

    2000-01-01

    The recovery of acetic acid from its dilute aqueous solutions is a major problem in both petrochemical and fine chemical industries. The conventional methods of recovery are azeotropic distillation, simple distillation and liquid–liquid extraction. Physical separations such as distillation and extraction suffer from several drawbacks. The esterification of an aqueous solution (30%) of acetic acid with n-butanol\\/iso-amyl alcohol is a

  4. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns 

    E-print Network

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    of structured packing make it an effective choice for relieving overloaded conditions in key column zones. Sulzer and Koch Engineering can cite over 35 different installations of this nature, including a crude column in Koch's Rosemount, Minnesota refi nery...

  5. Continuous production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by solid heteropolyacid: Optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Noshadi; N. A. S. Amin; Richard S. Parnas

    This study aims to develop an optimal continuous process to produce fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by a heteropolyacid, H3PW12O40·6H2O. The conventional production of biodiesel in the batch reactor has some disadvantage such as excessive alcohol demand, short catalyst life and high production cost. Reactive distillation combines reaction and separation

  6. An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem

    E-print Network

    Gallun, Steven Eugene

    1975-01-01

    AN EXTENSION OF THE MULTI-THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS AND AN ALMOST BAND SOLUTION OF THE EQUILIBRIUM STAGE PROBLEM A Thesis by STEVEN EUGENE GALLUN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in pa rtia I fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering AN EXTENSION OF THE MULTI-THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS AND AN ALMOST BAND SOLUTION OF THE EQUILIBRIUM STAGE PROBLEM A Thesis STEVEN EUGENE GALLUN...

  7. Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, Robert, B.

    2005-10-13

    The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

  8. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  9. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-print Network

    Steinmeyer, D.

    ? Is the purity necessary? If steam is used as a way to drop partial pressure, why can't straight vacuum be used? If the distillation is batch, why? Would lowering column pressure ease the separation? (Often the impact on Y, in Eqn. 1, is very helpfu... DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium...

  10. The Desulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Gasoline by Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shen; Z. Mei; B. Shen; H. Ling

    2011-01-01

    Desulfurization of fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was investigated in a lab scale extractive distillation column. Before the extractive distillation, fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was distillated into light and heavy fractions. Then, the light fraction was desulfurized by extractive distillation using dimethylformamide as the solvent. Factors impacting the desulfurization efficiency of the extractive distillation were studied. Under optimal desulfurization conditions, distillate

  11. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  12. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  13. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bessling; G. Schembecker; K. H. Simmrock

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of

  14. An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem 

    E-print Network

    Gallun, Steven Eugene

    1975-01-01

    in the modern Chemical Industry. Iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The financial support provided by Texas Eastman Company, Dow Chemica 1 USA, Exxon USA Foundation, Alcoa Foundation, and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station is greatly appreciated, TABLE OF CONTENTS...) and Lewis (1909) were among the first to analyze distillation processes with any degree of mathematical rigor. By the middle 1930's methods proposed by Lewis and Matheson (1932) and Thiele and Geddes (1933) were being used to attempt the design...

  15. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Hill, J.H.

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  16. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects 

    E-print Network

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non...

  17. Solar Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

    \\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

  18. Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Magnus G. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Magnus G. Jacobsen, NTNU, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT: When designing the control structure of distillation columns presented in an earlier paper, to find how the active constraints for distillation columns change

  19. Steady-state simulation of a TSTA column by means of a mass-transfer model

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C. [French Atomic Energy Commission, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sherman, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sere-Peyrigain, P. [PROSIM S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1995-10-01

    The simulation of the units for hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation with packed columns can be carried out with a very efficient tool, based on a non equilibrium model [1]. This new approach enables a better representation of the physical phenomena involved in the columns to be obtained and consequently, better accuracy for the tritium inventory in the whole process. At the TSTA facility, one of main systems is the Isotope Separation System (ISS), fitted with an on-line laser Raman spectroscopy system: it allows to obtain very accurate composition profiles in the columns, rapidly and safely. Using experimental data, provided by TSTA, CEA, associated with PROSIM S.A., have carried out calculations on column 1. This study clearly demonstrates: the high efficiency of the experimental device; the good accuracy of the results in comparison with experimental data (composition profiles); and the efficacy of the method for design activities. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process

    E-print Network

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process Thomas O2/N2 permeable membranes Cryogenic distillation Oxy-fuel process a b s t r a c t The process of oxy. This separation is currently done through energy intensive cryogenic distil- lation. To reduce the overall energy

  1. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    and venting the reject heat to ambient. When efficiency is defined as the ratio of two work terms, more representative efficiencies in the 10 to 45% range are usually obtair.ecJ. Figure 1 is a plot of the ideal separation work for a binary mixture (King..., 1981) and the corresponding separation work required by a simple distillation column at minimum reflux (Benedict, 1947), all as a IDEAL SIMPLE DISTILLATION l.~--------- --J O. 0.8 IDEAL SEPARATION 0.7 : 0.5 ll.-i 0.3 n.:! 0.1 o 0.1 O...

  2. SIMULATION BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A DIABATIC DISTILLATION Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    SIMULATION BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A DIABATIC DISTILLATION COLUMN Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred inside the column as opposed to classical of this technology on the chemical and process industry is enormous since distillation is the single largest energy

  3. Catalytic Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    is continously removed by distillation as it is formed, thus substantially negating the reverse reaction. Also HeOR can be added directly to the reaction zone at a point where the isobutylene concentration is the lowest which also helps drive... the equilibrium forward toward HTBE formation. The net effect is equivalent to "multiple equilibrium stages" and almost total conversion of isobutylene to HTBE. Another possibili ty is to hold the IB in molar excess of HeOH and react HeOH to near extinction...

  4. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns 

    E-print Network

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01

    for dynamically adapting the models to achieve tight composition control. Simple control techniques do not exist for model adaptation in MIMO systems. This thesis will outline a fuzzy supervisory controller based on fuzzy logic and show that control performance...

  5. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  6. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE 

    E-print Network

    Aluko, Obanifemi

    2010-01-16

    This work presents a modeling and control study of a reactive distillation column used for hydrogenation of benzene. A steady state and a dynamic model have been developed to investigate control structures for the column. The most important aspects...

  7. Computational performance of aggregated distillation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Linhart; Sigurd Skogestad

    2009-01-01

    Compartmental and aggregated modeling is used to derive low-order (reduced) dynamic models from detailed models of staged processes. In this study, the aggregated modeling method of (Lévine, J., & Rou- chon, P. (1991). Quality control of binary distillation columns via nonlinear aggregated models. Automatica, 27, 463) is revised with the objective of deriving computationally efficient models for real-time control and

  8. Care with Cryogenics. 02 Care with Cryogenics

    E-print Network

    Bearhop, Stuart

    Care with Cryogenics. #12;02 Care with Cryogenics This document is designed to be used.eiga.org. Care with Cryogenics. #12;03Care with Cryogenics There are a number of potential hazards when using gases that are liquefied by cooling them to low temperatures. These may be referred to as "CRYOGENIC

  9. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  10. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  11. Distill, Distill_human Distill: protein structure prediction by Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    Distill, Distill_human Distill: protein structure prediction by Machine Learning C. Mirabello1, G.pollastri@ucd.ie Distill has two main components: a set of predictors of protein features based on machine learning" of PDB structures suggested by our fold recognition algorithm. The only difference between Distill

  12. Heat pumps in distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The methods used and results obtained in evaluating the economics of substituting heat pumps for conventional distillation process design are presented. From this study it was concluded that: heat pumps have extensive applicability to distillation whenever direct refrigeration or chilled water are required for condensation; heat pumps have limited, but very real ranges of applicability when reboiler temperatures are above

  13. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes 

    E-print Network

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    on of ~ seven-stage horizontally split centrifugal compressor manufactured by General Electric Company*. Pressure ratios greater than 10:1 ar~ possible with this design. Each compression stage of the mUltistag~ centri fugal compressor consi sts of a shaft.... Figure 4 shows the distillation column employing multi stage vapor recompression. The centrifugal compressor is a five stage General Electric Company design employing a horizontally split casing. Compression of the 163,000 lb/hr inlet from 18 psia...

  14. Deterpenation of Brazilian orange peel oil by vacuum distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giane R. Stuart; Daíse Lopes; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The deterpenation of orange peel oil in most industries is accomplished by vacuum distillation, but surprisingly little information\\u000a on this matter can be found in the open literature. This work reports recent results on orange peel oil deterpenation carried\\u000a out in an automatic vacuum distillation column operated in the semibatch mode at the temperatures of 50, 65, and 80C, at

  15. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

  16. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

  17. Winogradsky Columns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Lennox

    This is an exercise about Winogradsky Columns with emphasis placed on the formation and properties of microbial biofilms. It includes background reference material, a field/lab exercise, and several applications. Applications include methods for sampling column layers and a description of how to measure the electro-chemical gradient that develops within the column. Scientific illustrations and images are included as visual references.

  18. Heterogeneous Batch Distillation Processes for Waste Solvent Recovery in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodriguez-Donis; Vincent Gerbaud; Alien Arias-Barreto; Xavier Joulia

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile — water, n hexane — ethyl acetate and

  19. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  20. Influence of distillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on volatile compounds of cider brandy.

    PubMed

    Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez; Gomis, Domingo Blanco; Alonso, Juan J Mangas

    2003-09-10

    A study of the influence of distillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on volatile compounds of cider brandy was carried out. Acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde diethyl acetal were influenced by distillation technology, oak wood type, and maturation time. The majority ester, ethyl ethanoate, increased during aging, the highest level of this ester being detected in spirits distilled by double distillation. The alcohols of higher molecular weight were better recovered in the rectification column than in the double distillation system. Ethanoate esters decreased throughout aging of the spirits, and their degradation velocity was lower in distillates obtained from double distillation. Fatty acids and their ethyl esters presented the opposite evolution during aging, detecting an increase in ethyl esters and a decrease in their corresponding fatty acids. An increase of 1,1,3-triethoxypropane was detected during aging. French oak contributes the trans isomer of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and American oak contributes the cis isomer. PMID:12952423

  1. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

  2. Energy efficient distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, J.D.

    1982-08-17

    An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.

  3. LDR cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nast, T.

    1988-01-01

    A brief summary from the 1985 Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Asilomar 2 workshop of the requirements for LDR cryogenic cooling is presented. The heat rates are simply the sum of the individual heat rates from the instruments. Consideration of duty cycle will have a dramatic effect on cooling requirements. There are many possible combinations of cooling techniques for each of the three temperatures zones. It is clear that much further system study is needed to determine what type of cooling system is required (He-2, hybrid or mechanical) and what size and power is required. As the instruments, along with their duty cycles and heat rates, become better defined it will be possible to better determine the optimum cooling systems.

  4. Efficient distillation beyond qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M. [Institute for Mathematical Physics, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    We provide generalizations of known two-qubit entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions. The protocols, which are analogs of the hashing and breeding procedures, are adapted to bipartite quantum states that are diagonal in a basis of maximally entangled states. We show that the obtained rates are optimal, and thus equal to the distillable entanglement, for a (d-1)-parameter family of rank deficient states. Methods to improve the rates for other states are discussed. In particular, for isotropic states it is shown that the rate can be improved such that it approaches the relative entropy of entanglement in the limit of large dimensions.

  5. Commander prepares glass columns for electrophoresis experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Jack Lousma prepares on of the glass columns for the electrophoresis test in the middeck area of the Columbia. The experiment, deployed in an L-shaped mode in upper right corner, consists of the processing unit with glass columns in which the separation takes place; a camera (partially obscurred by Lousma's face) to document the process; and a cryogenic freezer to freeze and store the samples after separation.

  6. Solution of systems of columns with energy exchange between recycle streams 

    E-print Network

    Haas, Joe Ray

    1980-01-01

    ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES FOR THE SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS INVOLVING SINGLE COLUMNS 1QS Distillation Columns Absorbers 108 125 Application of the Capital Theta Such that Each Stage is Treated as a Column 147 CONCLUSIONS 154 Systems of Columns with Energy... Recycle Between Columns Single Column Convergence Methods NOTATIONS LITERAlURE CITED 154 155 156 160 Page APPENDIX 166 VITA 178 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Specifications for Examples 1 and 2 2. Initial Values of Variables for Examples 1...

  7. Distilling Abstract Machines Beniamino Accattoli

    E-print Network

    Mazza, Damiano

    Distilling Abstract Machines Beniamino Accattoli Carnegie Mellon University & Universit`a di rather distills them: some transitions are simulated while others vanish, as they map to a notion of structural congruence. The distillation process unveils that abstract machines in fact implement weak linear

  8. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gasser, M.G.

    1983-12-01

    Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

  9. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, M. G. (editor)

    1983-01-01

    Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

  10. Advances in Cryogenic Principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Barron

    During the past 50 years, the use of digital computers has significantly influenced the design and analysis of cryogenic systems.\\u000a At the time when the first Cryogenic Engineering Conference was held, thermodynamic data were presented in graphical or tabular\\u000a form (the “steam table” format), whereas thermodynamic data for cryogenic system design is computer generated today. The thermal\\u000a analysis of cryogenic

  11. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  12. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    E-print Network

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

  13. A startup model for simulation of batch distillation starting from a cold state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wang; Pu Li; Günter Wozny; Shuqing Wang

    2003-01-01

    Batch distillation columns are frequently started up with a different initial reboiler charge. A proper initial state is required for simulation and optimization of such processes, but it has been a non-trivial task to obtain it. In this work, a model to express startup behaviors of batch columns starting from an empty cold state is proposed to address this issue.

  14. An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukesh, Doble

    2001-02-01

    Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of this analogy.

  15. Trajan's Column

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Website, from McMaster University, uses the combined skills of artists, writers, programmers, and Web designers to create a resource for the study of Trajan's column, a Roman architectural monument. This 100-foot marble column, built during the reign of Emperor Trajan, 98-117 AD, is topped with a gilded statue of Trajan and decorated with carvings recounting Trajan's rule, primarily the Dacian Wars and his building projects. The heart of the Website is the database of 500 slides of the carvings; indexes allow users to view the slides in thematic groupings such as images of sides of the column, groups organized by subject keywords, or carvings made with specific tools. Cartoons or drawings of the column help to contextualize the details found in the slides, and essays provide more information on its design, construction, and preservation.

  16. Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns

    E-print Network

    Harris, Thomas Raymond

    1962-01-01

    IV. Values of Ei, Qi, P , and Vapor Rates Obtained in the Solution of Example 2 Values of Ei, Vapor Rates, Temperatures and 61 bi/di Specifications for Example 3 . . . . . . . 62 Values of Ei and Vapor Rates Obtained in the Solution of Example... 3 . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 64 VI. Values of Ei, bi/di, p , and Vapor Rates Obtained in the Solution of Example 4 . . . ~ . . 65 VI I. VIII. Values of P and V for Examples 5-10 Equilibrium Data 66 67 IX. EnthalpF Data 68 IBTRODUCTIOH The term most...

  17. Cryogenic System Revised June 1994

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

    Chapter 9. Cryogenic System Revised June 1994 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Heat Loads and Refrigeration Duties -- 175 -- #12; 176 Cryogenic System #12; Cryogenic System 177 9.3. Two Phase Helium Cooling 9.4. The Refrigerator and Control #12; 178 Cryogenic System 9.5. Cryogen Delivery and Control 9.6. Three Cooling

  18. Sawtooth oscillations in a damped/driven cryogenic electron plasma: Experiment and theory

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Sawtooth oscillations in a damped/driven cryogenic electron plasma: Experiment and theory B. P Measurements have been made of nonlinear sawtooth oscillations of the displacement of a magnetized electron column in a cryogenic, cylindrical trap. First reported 7 years ago, these oscillations occur when

  19. Column Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

  20. Cryogenics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the cryogenics program of the Goddard Space Flight Center is given in viewgraph form. Goddard's role and the flight programs requiring cryogenics are outlined. Diagrams are given of the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, a liquid cryogenic cooler for the Shuttle Glow Experiment, a liquid helium dewar, and the X-ray spectrometer on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  1. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

    1999-01-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

  2. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  3. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  4. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  5. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  6. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  7. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  8. Adding rectifying\\/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kejin Huang; Lan Shan; Qunxiong Zhu; Jixin Qian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying\\/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design

  9. Cryogenic capillary screen heat entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hastings, L. J.; Statham, G.

    2008-05-01

    Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of subcooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs?" Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by liquid nitrogen (LN 2) tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, 200 × 1400 and 325 × 2300, both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN 2 data, it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

  10. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-print Network

    are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different oxygen could produce an oxygen-rich atmosphere which could accelerate combustion of other materials cryogenic liquid. But materials such as carbon steel, plastic and rubber become brittle and may fracture

  11. Sealing Mechanical Cryogenic Coolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1985-01-01

    Metal bellows used to seal Vuilleumier and Stirling-cycle cryogenic coolers, replacing sliding seals that failed after only 3,000 hours of service. Metal bellows, incorporated in displacer design provide nonrubbing dynamic seal. Lifetime of cryogenic cooler no longer limited by loss of sealing material and by deterioration of regenerators due to clogging by seal debris.

  12. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Symons, E. P.; Kroeger, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility (CFMF) is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried into space in the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate systems and technologies required to efficiently and effectively manage cryogens in space. The facility hardware is configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage, transfer concepts and processes. Significant design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer systems will be obtained. Future applications include space-based and ground-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV), space station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, space-based weapon systems and space-based orbit maneuvering vehicles (OMV). This paper describes the facility and discusses the cryogenic fluid management technology to be investigated. A brief discussion of the integration issues involved in loading and transporting liquid hydrogen within the Shuttle cargo bay is also included.

  13. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  14. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  15. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, ?ahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by ?/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task. PMID:26191854

  16. Distillation control: For productivity and energy conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skinskey

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of new types of distillation control equipment has necessitated the publication of this second edition. Thermodynamic principles, flow ratios, composition control, and azeotropic distillation are among the topics covered. It includes bibliographies, computer programs suitable for distillation calculations, and a subject index. Contents Distillation fundamentals. Control system structure. Complex processes. Optimization. Appendices. Index.

  17. Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

    2006-01-01

    Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

  18. CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

    2002-07-22

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

  19. Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

  20. APT Cryogenic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Laughon; C. H. Rode; R. Ganni; W. C. Chronis; D. M. Arenius; B. S. Bevins

    1999-01-01

    In the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, a one-kilometer-long linear accelerator (linac) is used as part of a plant that will provide tritium for national defense purposes. The accelerator consists of a low-energy (LE) normally conductive, radiofrequency (rf) linac and a high-energy (HE) superconducting rf linac. The APT cryogenic system will supply cryogenic helium fluids to maintain the HE

  1. Cryogenic Feedthrough Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaff, Antony

    2009-01-01

    The cryogenic feedthrough test rig (CFTR) allows testing of instrumentation feedthroughs at liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen temperature and pressure extremes (dangerous process fluid) without actually exposing the feedthrough to a combustible or explosive process fluid. In addition, the helium used (inert gas), with cryogenic heat exchangers, exposes the feedthrough to that environment that allows definitive leak rates of feedthrough by typical industry-standard helium mass spectrometers.

  2. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  3. Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Smith, Trent; Breakfield, Robert; Baughner, Kevin; Heckle, Kenneth; Meneghelli, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus (CMA) is designed for quantifying the amount of moisture from the surrounding air that is taken up by cryogenic-tank-insulating material specimens while under typical conditions of use. More specifically, the CMA holds one face of the specimen at a desired low temperature (e.g., the typical liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77 K) while the opposite face remains exposed to humid air at ambient or near-ambient temperature. The specimen is weighed before and after exposure in the CMA. The difference between the "after" and "before" weights is determined to be the weight of moisture absorbed by the specimen. Notwithstanding the term "cryogenic," the CMA is not limited to cryogenic applications: the low test temperature can be any temperature below ambient, and the specimen can be made of any material affected by moisture in air. The CMA is especially well suited for testing a variety of foam insulating materials, including those on the space-shuttle external cryogenic tanks, on other cryogenic vessels, and in refrigerators used for transporting foods, medicines, and other perishables. Testing is important because absorbed moisture not only adds weight but also, in combination with thermal cycling, can contribute to damage that degrades insulating performance. Materials are changed internally when subjected to large sub-ambient temperature gradients.

  4. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  5. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  6. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  7. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  8. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny...

  9. Design and optimization of a dividing wall column for debottlenecking of the acetic acid purification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Van Duc Long; Seunghyun Lee; Moonyong Lee

    2010-01-01

    The dividing wall column (DWC) has gained increasing application in a variety of chemical processes because of its potentiality in energy and capital cost savings in multicomponent separations. The main objective in this work is investigation of its use for removing the bottleneck phenomenon within the column when increasing the throughput of an existing distillation process, particularly, the acetic acid

  10. OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

  11. Cryogenic applications for environment simulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardgrove, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the applications of cryogenics for simulating space environmental conditions are reviewed, and typical existing space simulation facilities are described. The techniques of adapting cryogenics to environmental simulation are discussed. Special attention is given to cryosorption pumps designed to accelerate cryogenic cooling of the adsorbent material.

  12. Ball Aerospace Actuator Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Lana; Lightsey, Paul; Quigley, Phil; Rutkowski, Joel; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ambient testing characterizing step size and repeatability for the Ball Aerospace Cryogenic Nano-Positioner actuators for the AMSD (Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator) program has been completed and are presented. Current cryogenic testing is underway. Earlier cryogenic test results for a pre-cursor engineering model are presented.

  13. Cryogenic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, J.; Johnson, S.

    1994-01-01

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems.

  14. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F. [Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division BP15, ZI Les Engenieres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C. [Consultants, Grenoble (France)

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  15. CEBAF cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The CEBAF cryogenic system consists of 3 refrigeration systems: Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), and End Station Refrigerator (ESR). CHL is the main cryogenic system for CEBAF, consisting of a 4.8 kW, 2.0 K refrigerator and transfer line system to supply 2.0 K and 12 kW of 50 K shield refrigeration for the Linac cavity cryostats and 10 g/s of liquid for the end stations. This paper describes the 9-year effort to commission these systems, concentrating on CHL with the cold compressors. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of 3 K which use magnetic bearings, thereby eliminating the possibility of air leaks into the subatmospheric He.

  16. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant from which the distillates were removed....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  20. Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yushchenko, K.A.; Monko, G.G. [E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

    2004-06-28

    For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

  1. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  2. Cryogenics Research and Engineering Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space have a direct impact on NASA, government and commercial programs. Research and development on thermal insulation, propellant servicing, cryogenic components, material properties and sensing technologies provides industry, government and research institutions with the cross-cutting technologies to manage low-temperature applications. Under the direction of the Cryogenic Testing Lab at Kennedy Space Center, the work experience acquired allowed me to perform research, testing, design and analysis of current and future cryogenic technologies to be applied in several projects.

  3. Mechanisms of recirculating liquid flow on distillation sieve plates

    SciTech Connect

    Biddulph, M.W. (Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Burton, A.C. (BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the phenomenon of flow recirculation on distillation sieve trays. A novel dye injection technique has been applied to a 1.81 m air-water simulation column and has yielded new information concerning the nature of the boundary layer of gas-liquid biphase as it detaches from the column wall. The study has shown that recirculation is strongly influenced by inlet conditions. A critical factor is the underflow clearance between the inlet downcomer apron and the tray floor. As this clearance is increased, the size of the recirculating zones passes through a minimum, indicating the existence of two different mechanisms responsible for the nonuniform flow patterns. A significant implication of this work is that tray designers may minimize the impact of recirculating on mass transfer efficiency by appropriate choice of underflow clearance.

  4. ADVANCES IN CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timmerhaus; K. D. ed

    1962-01-01

    Seventy-one papers and two summaries of papers are given, The papers are ; grouped under the following headings: invited papers; space simulation; physical ; equilibria; equipment; fluid transfer phenomena; cryogenic properties; heat ; transfer phenomena; mechanical properties and test procedures; selected short ; papers. Fifteen papers are covered by separate abstracts. (A.G.W.);

  5. Compact cryogenic inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Carr, W.J. Jr.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Hordubay, T.D.; Chuboy, H.L. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center)

    1994-07-01

    Power systems requiring power levels as high as a few megawatts to a few gigawatts for periods of several microseconds to several milliseconds with repetitive frequencies of a few hertz to a few kilohertz are being considered for potential space applications. The impulsive nature of the power presents the opportunity to use inductive energy storage techniques for pulse duty to enhance economic and practical considerations. An inductors must be efficient, lightweight, and reliable, and it must have high energy density if it is to be used in space based power systems. Cryogenic inductors are best studied for such an application. Parametric analyses of the two potential types of cryogenic inductors (superconducting and hyperconducting reveal that the hyperconducting (high purity aluminum)) inductor would be significantly lighter and achieve higher energy densities without the added penalty of a helium refrigeration system, thus resulting in improved overall system reliability. The lightweight hyperconducting cryogenic inductor technology is, however, in its infancy. This paper describes the required technology base which would allow the eventual application of the lightweight cryogenic inductor in space power systems, and also conclusively demonstrates the underlying principles.

  6. Cryogenics for lunar exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talso Chui; Burt Zhang; M. Barmatz; Inseob Hahn; Konstantin Penanen; Charles Hays; Donald Strayer; Yuanming Liu; Fang Zhong; Joseph Young; Tom Radey; Jack Jones; Nicholas Galitzki; Nixon Li; Leyan Lo; Steven Horikoshi; Shawna Hollen; Ho Jung Paik

    2006-01-01

    As part of the refocusing of NASA from Space Station research to exploration research, we are pursuing a number of proposed and funded projects for lunar exploration using cryogenic techniques. This paper gives a summary of these projects which include: (1) Using passive radiative cooling for separation and storage of volatiles from lunar regolith; (2) Studies of boiling and two-phase

  7. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  8. Distillate Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

  9. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  10. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  11. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  12. Calibrating Pressure Transducers at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbens, B. V.

    1986-01-01

    To calibrate transducers immersed in cryogenic environment, sealed reciprocating bellows generates sinusoidal dynamic pressure. Transducer manifold assembly and bellows immersed in cryogenic environment to minimize gradients in controllable cryogenic temperature.

  13. Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Frank Trang

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Zoya

    Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials by Frank Trang B.S., University of California entitled: Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials written by Frank Trang has been approved.D., Electrical Engineering) Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials Thesis directed by Professor

  14. Experiments on Cryogenic Complex Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, O.; Sekine, W.; Kubota, J.; Uotani, N.; Chikasue, M.; Shindo, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan)

    2009-11-10

    Experiments on a cryogenic complex plasma have been performed. Preliminary experiments include production of a plasma in a liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by a pulsed discharge. The extended production of a plasma has been realized in a vapor of liquid helium or in a cryogenic helium gas by rf discharge. The charge of dust particles injected in such a plasma has been studied in detail.

  15. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  16. Cryogenic high current discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Meierovich, B.E. [P.L. Kapitza Inst. of Physics Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges.

  17. Precision Cryogenic Dilatometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudik, Matthew; Halverson, Peter; Levine-West, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    A dilatometer based on a laser interferometer is being developed to measure mechanical creep and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of materials at temperatures ranging from ambient down to 15 K. This cryogenic dilatometer has been designed to minimize systematic errors that limit the best previously available dilatometers. At its prototype stage of development, this cryogenic dilatometer yields a strain measurement error of 35 ppb or 1.7 ppb/K CTE measurement error for a 20-K thermal load, for low-expansion materials in the temperature range from 310 down to 30 K. Planned further design refinements that include a provision for stabilization of the laser and addition of a high-precision sample-holding jig are expected to reduce the measurement error to 5-ppb strain error or 0.3-ppb/K CTE error for a 20-K thermal load. The dilatometer (see figure) includes a common-path, differential, heterodyne interferometer; a dual-frequency, stabilized source bench that serves as the light source for the interferometer; a cryogenic chamber in which one places the material sample to be studied; a cryogenic system for cooling the interior of the chamber to the measurement temperature; an ultra-stable alignment stage for positioning the chamber so that the sample is properly positioned with respect to the interferometer; and a data-acquisition and control system. The cryogenic chamber and the interferometer portion of the dilatometer are housed in a vacuum chamber on top of a vibration isolating optical table in a cleanroom. The sample consists of two pieces a pillar on a base both made of the same material. Using reflections of the interferometer beams from the base and the top of the pillar, what is measured is the change in length of the pillar as the temperature in the chamber is changed. In their fundamental optical and electronic principles of operation, the laser light source and the interferometer are similar to those described in Common-Path Heterodyne Interferometers (NPO-20786), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 12a, and Interferometer for Measuring Displacement to Within 20 pm (NPO- 21221), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 7 (July 2003), page 8a. However, the present designs incorporate a number of special geometric, optical, and mechanical features to minimize optical and thermal-expansion effects that contribute to measurement errors. These features include the use of low-thermal expansion materials for structural components, kinematic mounting and symmetrical placement of optical components, and several measures taken to minimize spurious reflections of laser beams.

  18. Method of soil column preparation for the evaluation of viral transport.

    PubMed Central

    Funderburg, S W; Moore, B E; Sorber, C A; Sagik, B P

    1979-01-01

    A method for packing soil columns to investigate viral transport phenomena is described. The columns were 10 cm in diameter and ranged from 33 to 100 cm in length. Field conditions of the soil, including bulk density and profile, were reproduced in columns. Ionic gradients resulting from sequential applications of wastewater and distilled water affected the movement of poliovirus I (Chat) through soil. Compared with 33-cm- and 66-cm-length columns, lower concentrations of infectious virions were observed in the percolates from 100-cm soil columns. These results may be attributed to the greater pore volume in the longer columns (the greater volume of soil contained in these columns), whereas the volume of liquid applied was constant for all columns. PMID:225992

  19. Five points on columns

    E-print Network

    Rockland, Kathleen

    Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

  20. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC). PMID:21334616

  1. Spacelab cryogenic propellant management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Spacelab cryogen management experiment was performed to demonstrate toe desirability and feasibility of subcritical cryogenic fluid orbital storage and supply. A description of the experimental apparatus, definition of supporting requirements, procedures, data analysis, and a cost estimate are included.

  2. Room temperature cryogenic test interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Faris; A. Davidson; P. A. Moskowitz; G. A. Sai-Halasz

    1985-01-01

    This interface permits the testing of high speed semiconductor devices (room-temperature chips) by a Josephson junction sampling device (cryogenic chip) without intolerable loss of resolution. The interface comprises a quartz pass-through plug which includes a planar transmission line interconnecting a first chip station, where the cryogenic chip is mounted, and a second chip station, where the semiconductor chip to be

  3. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  4. Improving the Performance of a Two-Shell Column with Advanced Control

    E-print Network

    Morrison, T. A.; Laflamme, D.

    ~e~s of the steam flow and the top composltlon would stay below setpoint unless reflux was run extremely low. The soft target composition is the C4 content of the distillate. The value for the composition target is either set by the operator or by an energy... Balancing Shells Approximates Single Distillation Column The original column controls included a stripping temperature controller setting the steam flow. This was never reliable and thestea~flow was set manually. It would be desIrable to use a composition...

  5. Cryogenic Propellant Scavenging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louie, B.; Kemp, N. J.; Daney, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer model that has been developed for assessing the feasibility of low g cryogen propellant scavenging from the space shuttle External Tank (ET) is given. Either pump-assisted or pressure-induced propellant transfer may be selected. The program will accept a wide range of input variables, including the fuel to be transferred (LOX or LH2), heat leaks, tank temperatures, and piping and equipment specifications. The model has been parametrically analyzed to determine initial design specification for the system.

  6. Cryogenic Tritium Target

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimchuk, A.A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Tumkin, D.P. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Boitsov, I.Ye. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    2005-07-15

    To measure muon catalyzed fusion (MC) parameters in liquid tritium with the accuracy better than 10% in the reaction tt{mu} {yields} {sup 4}He + n +n+ {mu}, a cryogenic tritium target (CTT) of a 8.1 cm{sup 3} volume was created. The CTT is a radiation-safe complex containing chemically bound tritium in the form of uranium tritide in a special source.In 2003, using the CTT, two runs of measurements with liquid tritium MC parameters were made on the synchrocyclotron muon channel in the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (DLNP JINR)

  7. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D.; Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  8. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  9. Cryogenic insulation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhard, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Multilayer insulations for long term cryogenic storage are described. The development effort resulted in an insulation concept using lightweight radiation shields, separated by low conductive Dacron fiber tufts. The insulation is usually referred to as Superfloc. The fiber tufts are arranged in a triangular pattern and stand about .040 in. above the radiation shield base. Thermal and structural evaluation of Superfloc indicated that this material is a strong candidate for the development of high performance thermal protection systems because of its high strength, purge gas evacuation capability during boost, its density control and easy application to a tank.

  10. Flexible cryogenic thermosyphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Dogan; Painter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Cryocooler and pulse tubes have been increasingly used in small and large scale cryogenic systems including the superconducting magnet systems as heat sinks to attain and keep the required temperatures. Designing the thermal link between the mechanical refrigerator and the system may present a challenge due to the mechanical stresses developed during the cool-down of the assembled systems. Also, the cross section may be too bulky for metallic conductors for given thermal specifications. In this paper, a thermosysphon with a flexible fluid link between the evaporator and condenser is presented. The working fluid used in preliminary testing is nitrogen. The results of the initial testing of the flexible thermosyphon are presented.

  11. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish [Department of Computer Science, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 (United Kingdom); Joag, Pramod [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Roy, Anirban [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  12. Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, S; Kar, G; Kunkri, S; Roy, A; Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2004-01-01

    A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  13. Experience with distillation unit computer control

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.; Sunell, H.; Latour, P.R.; Paynter, K.K.

    1982-03-01

    In this paper, control improvements, operating experience and operator acceptance are presented for a computer control and optimization project on a 140 Mbpd crude distillation unit. The process description is followed by a presentation of control objectives and functions (atmospheric residue, distillate yields, energy conservation, product quality); operator tasks; results; operators acceptance; system availability and operating experience. 5 refs.

  14. Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Gryta

    2006-01-01

    The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

  15. Key Blog Distillation: Ranking Aggregates Craig Macdonald

    E-print Network

    Jose, Joemon M.

    Key Blog Distillation: Ranking Aggregates Craig Macdonald University of Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland interests to their own. How- ever, a main difference of this blog distillation task from normal adhoc or Web document retrieval is that each blog can be seen as an aggregate of its constituent posts. On the other

  16. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  17. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  18. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  1. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  2. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  3. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  4. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  5. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  6. Optimal steady-state design of reactive distillation processes using simulated annealing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Kai Cheng; Hao-Yeh Lee; Hsiao-Ping Huang; Cheng-Ching Yu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate on a derivative-free optimization approach, simulated annealing (SA), for the optimization of the reactive distillation (RD) column design. Because RD systems exhibit non-monotonic behavior for key design variables, flowsheet optimization using simulator is difficult when derivative-based approach is employed. The SA-based optimization procedure gives an equally good or better design than the optimal flowsheet obtained

  7. Application of high vacuum fractional distillation to complex mixtures of methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Privett; J. D. Nadenicek; F. J. Pusch; E. C. Nickell

    1969-01-01

    A technique for the high vacuum fractional distillation, with a spinning band column, of methyl esters of polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids employing a carrier of long chain acetates is described. The carrier is used to facilitate the fractionation of\\u000a minor components and minimize artifact formation in mixtures of methyl esters containing up to six double bonds. The technique\\u000a is demonstrated on

  8. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates. PMID:22321168

  9. Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lucien, J.P. [Companie Rhenane de Raffinage Reichstett, Reichstett Vendenheim (France); Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Germaine, G. [Shell Recherche SA, Grand-Couronne (France); Gjers, M. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

  10. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  11. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  12. Cryogenic optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Das, Manoj; Ohkubo, Takuya; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of atomic clocks relies on the superb reproducibility of atomic spectroscopy, which is accomplished by careful control and the elimination of environmental perturbations on atoms. To date, individual atomic clocks have achieved a 10?18 level of total uncertainties, but a two-clock comparison at the 10?18 level has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate optical lattice clocks with 87Sr atoms interrogated in a cryogenic environment to address the blackbody radiation-induced frequency shift, which remains the primary source of systematic uncertainty and has initiated vigorous theoretical and experimental investigations. The systematic uncertainty for the cryogenic clock is evaluated to be 7.2?×?10?18, which is expedited by operating two such cryo-clocks synchronously. After 11 measurements performed over a month, statistical agreement between the two cryo-clocks reached 2.0?×?10?18. Such clocks' reproducibility is a major step towards developing accurate clocks at the low 10?18 level, and is directly applicable as a means for relativistic geodesy.

  13. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 26 - Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Clark; R. P. Reed

    1980-01-01

    Materials resource considerations for cryogenic engineering are discussed along with Nb-Ti alloy superconductors, the magnetic character of austenitic stainless steels, the alteration of the superconducting properties of A15 compounds and elementary composite superconductors by nonhydrostatic elastic strain, cryogenic processing, and international standards for cryogenic polymers and composites. A review is presented of antifriction materials and design for cryogenic environments. Other

  14. Final version, May 2002 Cryogenics Assessment Report

    E-print Network

    Final version, May 2002 1 Cryogenics Assessment Report M. J. Gouge, J. A. Demko and B. W. Mc (HTS) have long recognized the importance of cryogenics as an enabling technology. Cryogenic workshops-of-the-art in cryogenic components and estimated performance requirements when used with HTS electric power systems

  15. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  16. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  17. Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Anthony G.

    Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /? where ? is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency stabilities in the range of a few times 10-15 to a few times 10-16. In this contribution we review only liquid-helium-cooled secondary frequency standards, such as those just mentioned, which have attained frequency stabilities of 10-14 or better.

  18. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  19. Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

    1980-09-30

    A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

  20. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  1. Cryogenics for Pulsed Solenoid Magnet

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Committee September 6, 2002 G. T Mulholland ACT World Headquarters Applied Cryogenics Technology PO Box 2158, Peter Titus Magnet Design: Bob Weggel Cryo-Design Issues: ACT, G. T. Mulholland Components 1). Pulsed

  2. Cryogenic characterization of Josephson junctions

    E-print Network

    Brown, Keith Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic characterization is a crucial part of understanding the behavior of low-temperature quantum electronics. Reliable device testing provides the feedback to fabrication process development, facilitating the rapid ...

  3. Adhesive for cryogenic temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    Adhesive, which bonds a metal liner to a filament wound composite structure used for cryogenic pressure vessels, prevents the metal liner from buckling under depressurization. The adhesive consists of adducts of urethane and epoxy resins.

  4. Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

  5. Cryogenics in the food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, H.

    Application of cryogenics in the Food Industry has grown from its inception twelve years ago to nearly 100 000 tons per annum; most of this involves liquid nitrogen. History of this growth is described, together with the technical developments necessary in equipment and control systems which were needed to ensure economic success of the processes. Methods used to distribute the liquid nitrogen are explained and the current theories of freezing principles outlined. Trends for the future in this use of cryogenics are discussed.

  6. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  7. The book review column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William I. Gasarch

    2004-01-01

    Welcome to the Book Reviews Column. We hope to bring you at least two reviews of books every month. In this column four books are reviewed. 1. Stable Marriage and its Relation to Other Combinatorial Problems: An Intro- duction to Algorithm Analysis by Donald Knuth. Reviewed by Tim McNichol. This book uses the stable marriage problem as motivation to look

  8. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related...

  9. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  10. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be delivered at suitably high...

  11. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  12. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen...

  13. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  14. Modeling of column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Many investigators believe that column flotation cells offer significant advantages over standard mechanical machines for the flotation of fine particles. However, because of their unique design and operation, conventional techniques for flotation cell scale-up and design cannot be applied to columns. In an attempt to help alleviate this problem, a population balance model based on first principles has been developed for fine particle flotation in a column. Two different terms have been considered in the model, i.e., transport and rate. Transport terms, incorporating fluid flow and buoyancy, are used to describe the movement of air bubbles, unattached particles and bubble-particle aggregates along the length of the column. Rate terms, which describe the bubble-particle attachment process, have been derived from first principle considerations. Because the model is based on first principles, it can be useful for the design, control, optimization and scale-up of column flotation cells. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  15. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum, and WWW Site Review. These columns differ from the print feature columns in that they use the Internet as the publication medium. Doing so allows these features to include continually updated information, digital components, and links to other online resources. The Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems feature of JCE Internet serves as a good example for the kinds of resources that you can expect to find in an online feature column. Like other columns it contains a mission statement that defines the role of the column. It includes a digital library of continually updated examples of conceptual questions and challenge problems. (As I write this we have just added several new questions to the library.) It also includes a list of links to related online resources, information for authors about how to write questions and problems, and information for teachers about how to use conceptual questions and challenge problems. Teaching with Technology home page at JCE Online. One-Stop Feature Shop The updated Feature area of JCE Online offers information about all JCE feature columns in one place. It gives you a quick and convenient way to access a group of articles in a particular subject area. It provides authors and readers with a good definition of the column and its mission. It complements the print feature columns with online resources. It provides up-to-date bibliographies for selected areas of interest. And last, but not least, it provides that email address you can use to send that message of appreciation to the feature editor for his or her contribution to JCE and the chemical education community.

  16. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  17. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  18. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  19. Composite Column Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Craig

    This module, created by Craig Johnson of Central Washington University, "incorporates engineering design (using smart spreadsheets) into a laboratory activity focusing on columns made of composite materials." In this lab, students will simulate the use of composite columns and use spreadsheets to optimize design for engineering performance. The module features an abstract, objective, curriculum overview, procedures, mathematical calculations and references. The objectives of the module are to design appropriate composite column structures, fabricate composite using appropriate methods and critically evaluate composite's performance referencing predications. This is a great resource to either enhance or create new curriculum for instructors.

  20. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  1. Effect of feeding distiller’s grains on reduced sulfur emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous reduced sulfur compounds are produced during manure decomposition and emitted from confined animal feeding operations. Feeding high-sulfur distiller’s byproducts may increase the emission of these compounds. The objectives of a series of feedlot pen studies was to (i) determine if emission...

  2. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  3. Limits and Consequences of Nonlocality Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Jibran

    Only in the last few decades have we realized how to view quantum nonlocal correlations as possible information theoretic resources rather than as apparent paradoxes. Unfortunately, the past perspective in terms of paradoxes still persists in our considerations of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) that offer stronger than quantum nonlocal correlations. We argue that a more pragmatic approach is to consider the physical framework under which such correlations may be realized. Our consideration immediately yields fruit by allowing us to identify limitations of the NLB model and develop the generalized notion of a quantum nonlocal box ( qNLB). We analyze the NLB and qNLB models within the framework of nonlocality distillation protocols. The ability to concentrate the correlations of many identical noisy copies of a nonlocal correlation source is known as nonlocality distillation. The idea is still in its early stages of development and and we pursue it in this thesis. We develop multiple new nonlocality distillation protocols and prove the optimality of non-adaptive distillation protocols for both NLBs and qNLBs. We show that qNLBs offer stronger non-adaptive distillation protocols than NLBs. At the same time, the understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal adaptive protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB. Through our investigation of nonlocality distillation protocols we conclude that the qNLB model is a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs. As a first step towards the re-examination of such principles, we provide numerical evidence that the distillability of nonlocal correlations depends on properties that are local. We claim that the differing strength of distillation protocols for NLBs and qNLBs can be interpreted as a separation between classical and quantum predictions at the macroscopic level. This implies that there exist quantum correlations that can be observed in principle, at the macroscopic level or that the principle of macroscopic locality identifies exactly the set of quantum correlations.

  4. Towards Atomic Column-by-Column Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.; Rafferty, B.

    1998-09-06

    The optical arrangement of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is ideally suited for performing analysis of individual atomic columns in materials. Using the incoherent Z-contrast image as a reference, and arranging incoherent conditions also for the spectroscopy, a precise correspondence is ensured between features in the inelastic image and elastic signals. In this way the exact probe position needed to maximise the inelastic signal from a selected column can be located and monitored during the analysis using the much higher intensity elastic signal. Although object functions for EELS are typically less than 1 {Angstrom} full width at half maximum, this is still an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding object functions for elastic (or diffuse) scattering used to form the Z-contrast image. Therefore the analysis is performed with an effective probe that is significantly broader than that used for the reference Z-contrast image. For a 2.2 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is of the order of 2.5 {Angstrom}, while for a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is 1.6 {Angstrom}. Such increases in effective probe size can significantly reduce or even eliminate contrast between atomic columns that are visible in the image. However, this is only true if we consider circular collector apertures. Calculations based upon the theory of Maslen and Rossouw (Maslen and Rossouw 1984; Rossouw and Maslen 1984) show that employing an annular aperture can reduce the FWHM of the inelastic object function down to values close 0.1 {Angstrom}. With practical aperture sizes it should be possible to achieve this increased spatial resolution without loosing too much signal.

  5. Developments and Cryogenic Measurements of an Optical

    E-print Network

    Developments and Cryogenic Measurements of an Optical Transducer for the Gravitational Wave. Photograph by European Southern Observatory, 17 November 1999. #12;Developments and Cryogenic Measurements....................................... 4.7 Measurements of the resonator mechanical Q........................ 4.7.1 Cryogenic Run 1

  6. Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors

    E-print Network

    A. Buzulutskov

    2015-03-29

    Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

  7. A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

    2014-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

  8. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  9. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  10. Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE 

    E-print Network

    Woinsky, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    revolutionary changes rather than sm(lll evolutionary changes in the way distillation is practiced in the US chemical industry, and olller U.S industries that lise distillation. sllch as petroleum refining. All approach called Heal Integrated Distributed.../Yr Petroleum Fuel Fractions 0.493 0,082 Crude Oil 0.423 Water -lnoHmnics 0,057 Liauefied Petroleum Gas 0,217 Air 0,017 Oletins 0.118 Water - HCs 0,007 Miscellaneous Hydrocarbons (HCs) 0.101 Other 0,302 Water - Oxygenated HCs 0.100 Total Reboiler Ener!!v 1...

  11. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

  12. Cytokine adsorbing columns.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Takumi

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis induces the activation of complement and the release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. The inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide induced by sepsis can decrease systemic vascular resistance, resulting in profound hypotension. The combination of hypotension and microvascular occlusion results in tissue ischemia and ultimately leads to multiple organ failure. Recently, several experimental and clinical studies have reported that treatment for adsorption of cytokines is beneficial during endotoxemia and sepsis. Therefore, the present article discusses cytokine adsorbing columns. These columns, such as CytoSorb, CYT-860-DHP, Lixelle, CTR-001 and MPCF-X, the structures of which vary significantly, have excellent adsorption rates for inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL8. Many studies have demonstrated that treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns has beneficial effects on the survival rate and inflammatory responses in animal septic models. Moreover, several cases have been reported in which treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns is very effective in hemodynamics and organ failures in critically ill patients. Although further investigations and clinical trials are needed, in the future treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns may play a major role in the treatment of hypercytokinemia such as multiple organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:20473001

  13. Sources of Cryogenic Data and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohling, R. A.; Hufferd, W. L.; Marquardt, E. D.

    It is commonly known that cryogenic data, technology, and information are applied across many military, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and civilian product lines. Before 1950, however, there was no centralized US source of cryogenic technology data. The Cryogenic Data Center of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) maintained a database of cryogenic technical documents that served the national need well from the mid 1950s to the early 1980s. The database, maintained on a mainframe computer, was a highly specific bibliography of cryogenic literature and thermophysical properties that covered over 100 years of data. In 1983, however, the Cryogenic Data Center was discontinued when NBS's mission and scope were redefined. In 1998, NASA contracted with the Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) and Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) to reconstitute and update Cryogenic Data Center information and establish a self-sufficient entity to provide technical services for the cryogenic community. The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) provided this service until 2004, when it was discontinued due to a lack of market interest. The CIC technical assets were distributed to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Plans are under way in 2006 for CPIA to launch an e-commerce cryogenic website to offer bibliography data with capability to download cryogenic documents.

  14. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  15. CRYOGENIC MACHINING OF KEVLAR COMPOSITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bhattacharyya; M. N. Allen; S. J. Mander

    1993-01-01

    Previous attempts to machine Kevlar aramid fibre reinforced plastics (KFRP) with conventional cutting tools have proven to be extremely difficult. This has somewhat restricted the material's usage, often negating the advantages of its high strength to weight ratio and fatigue tolerance. The present paper describes a novel technique of machining KFRP under cryogenic conditions with remarkable results compared to those

  16. Ames Research Center cryogenics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs describe the Ames Research Center's cryogenics program. Diagrams are given of a fluid management system, a centrifugal pump, a flow meter, a liquid helium test facility, an extra-vehicular activity coupler concept, a dewar support with passive orbital disconnect, a pulse tube refrigerator, a dilution refrigerator, and an adiabatic demagnetization cooler.

  17. Cryogenics Testbed Technology Focus Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Our mission is to bring together the mutual elements of research, industry, and training in the field of cryogenics to advance technology development for the spaceports of the future. Successful technology and productive collaboration comes from these three ingredients working together in a triangle of interaction.

  18. Cryogenic technology for tracking detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Granata; C. da Viá; S. Watts; K. Borer; S. Janos; K. Pretzl; B. Dezillie; Z. Li; L. Casagrande; P. Collins; S. Grohmann; E. Heijne; C. Lourenço; T. O. Niinikoski; V. G. Palmieri; P. Sonderegger; E. Borchi; M. Bruzzi; S. Pirollo; S. Chapuy; Z. Dimcovski; E. Grigoriev; W. Bell; S. R. H. Devine; V. O’Shea; G. Ruggiero; K. Smith; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; F. Hauler; S. Heising; L. Jungermann; M. Abreu; P. Rato Mendes; P. Sousa; V. Cindro; M. Mikuz; M. Zavrtanik; A. Esposito; I. Konorov; S. Paul; S. Buontempo; N. D’Ambrosio; S. Pagano; V. Eremin; E. Verbitskaya

    2001-01-01

    A low-mass cryogenic cooling technique for silicon sensor modules has been developed in the framework of the RD39 Collaboration at CERN. A prototype low-mass beam tracker cryostat has been designed, constructed and tested for applications in fixed target experiments. We shall report here briefly the main features and results of the system.

  19. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Casagrande; M. C. Abreu; W. H. Bell; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; E. Borchi; K. Borer; M. Bruzzi; S. Buontempo; S. Chapuy; V. Cindro; P. Collins; N. D'Ambrosio; C. Da Viá; S. Devine; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; F. Hauler; E. Heijne; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; I. Konorov; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; T. O. Niinikoski; V. O'Shea; S. Pagano; V. G. Palmieuri; S. Paul; S. Pirollo; K. Pretzl; P. Rato; G. Ruggiero; K. Smith; P. Sonderegger; P. Sousa; E. Verbitskaya; S. Watts; M. Zavrtanik

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, “resuscitate” when operated at temperatures below 130K. This is often referred to as the “Lazarus effect”. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors.

  20. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  1. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  2. Alternate approaches to cryogenic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, W.; Devilliers, A.; Kappesser, R.

    1983-07-01

    Cryogenic cooling techniques for spaceborne infrared detectors are surveyed, and reason found to explore alternatives. An alternative class of cooling cycles is defined, and four practical cycles described. A general overview of operating efficiency for the whole class is developed. One of these cycles, the isobaric absorption cycle (Servel cycle), is explored in some detail.

  3. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  4. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01

    on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize...

  5. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...incorporates plain language principles in order to improve the clarity...General Distilled spirits taxation is a specialized area of Federal...internal revenue or customs taxation of spirits, wines...This subpart covers the taxation of distilled spirits and...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  10. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into the pump, and the pump was successfully operated meeting all expected operating parameters. Unique pump sub-assembly parts were designed and manufactured by the CTL using specialized materials determined to be superior for cryogenic thermal applications under the pump design conditions. This work is a proof-of-concept/proof-of-operation of the pump only. Other known internal design modifications to the pump should be accomplished for the long-term use of the pump. An upscaled version of this pump, which is under development and testing at the CTL, can be used either for current or future vehicle loading or for vehicle replenishment. Scaling of this pump can be easily accomplished.

  11. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  12. Naphthenic acid corrosion in crude distillation units

    SciTech Connect

    Piehl, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes corrosion experience in crude distillation units processing highly naphthenic California crude oils. Correlations have been developed relating corrosion rates to temperature and total acid number. There is a threshold acid number in the range of 1.5 to 2 mg KOH/g below which corrosion is minimal. High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide may raise this threshold value.

  13. STEAM DISTILLATION OF POLONIUM COMPOUND WITH DIPHENYLCARBAZIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Mabuchi

    1963-01-01

    Trace amounts of polonium can readily be steam distilled from 0.1 to 0.5 ; N nitric acid as the diphenylcarbazide complex. Chloride ion lowers the ; efficiency of the process. The separation is suitable for isoiating Po from ; radium-D-E-F mixtures. (auth);

  14. azeotropic batch distillation with heterogeneous en trainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rodriguez-Donis; J. Acosta-Esquijarosa; V. Gerbaud; E. Pardillo-Fondevila

    In this article, a systematic study of the separati on of the n-hexane - ethyl acetate mixture with an entrainer by heterogeneous azeotropic batch distillation is performed. Based upon the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary mixtures, potential entrainers partially miscible with one or two original azeotropic compon ents are chosen. In all cases, the entrainer adds a heterogeneous binary or

  15. Feasibility study of heterogeneous batch extractive distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodríguez-Donis; Viktória Varga; Vincent Gerbaud; Zoltán Lelkes; Endre Rév; Zsolt Fonyó; Xavier Joulia

    2005-01-01

    Feasibility of batch hetero geneous extractive distillation is studied in the case where the heterogeneous azeotrope formed with the entrainer is not the most volatile point in the system. The composition profile maps based feasibility methodology is extended to this case, and demonstrated on the test problem of separating water from acetonitrile with butyl acetate as entrainer.Whether the process is

  16. Feasibility Study of Heterogeneous Batch Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodríguez-Donis; Viktória Varga; Vincent Gerbaud; Zoltán Lelkes

    Feasibility of batch heterogeneous extractive distillation is studied in the case where the heterogeneous azeotrope formed with the entrainer is not the most volatile point in the system. The composition profile maps based feasibility methodology is extended to this case, and demonstrated on the test problem of separating water from acetonitrile with butyl acetate as entrainer. Whether the process is

  17. PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

  18. Membrane-distillation desalination: Status and potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Alklaibi; Noam Lior

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of membrane distillation (MD) based on the available state of the art and on ourpreliminary analysis. The process has many desirable properties such as low energy consumption, ability to use low temperature heat, compactness, and perceivably more immunity to fouling than other membrane processes. Within the tested range, the operating parameters of conventional MD configurations

  19. Desalination by Membrane Distillation: A Parametric Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawzi A. Banat; Jana Simandl

    1998-01-01

    Membrane distillation was investigated as a possible technique for desalination. An air-gap module with built-in Condensing surface was used for conducting experiments on polyvinylidene fluoride flat membrane sheets. The feed stream tested was artificial seawater. The quality of the permeate, quantified by conductivity measurements, and the permeate flux were monitored as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, cooling temperature, and

  20. Seawater desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Hsu; K. T. Cheng; J. S. Chiou

    2002-01-01

    Membrane fouling still posts as one of the major obstacles in membrane distillation (MD). This is why the MD approach still cannot successfully compete with other conventional seawater desalination methods. In this study, both the NaCl solution and real seawater are used as the feed of MD processes to investigate the differences in permeate flux, product water quality and membrane

  1. Abstracts -1 Distill for CASP11

    E-print Network

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    that everything in our pipeline (except BLAST and the software to blow C traces into full-atom models) is in house in the first stage. Methods Distill runs 3 rounds of PSI-BLAST against a 90% redundancy reduced Uni category. Inputs for map prediction are: the sequence; MSA; PSI-BLAST, SAMD and SAMD templates. That is

  2. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan H. Mistry; Mohamed A. Antar; John H. Lienhard V

    2012-01-01

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple to implement, and suitable for use in optimization of water and power cogeneration systems. The MED system is modeled in a modular method in which each of the

  3. Multieffect distillation plants: state of the art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Shammiri; M. Safar

    1999-01-01

    The multi-effect distillation (MED) process is the oldest process in desalination. References and patents have existed since 1840, more than 150 years ago. Vertical tubes, horizontal tubes and different types of submerged tubes have been commercialized and were used until 1960 when multi-stage flash (MSF) dominated the desalination market. MSF plants are presently the most widely used and are considered

  4. Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus

    E-print Network

    Knezevich, Milan

    1940-01-01

    , Calibration Data of Orifioe ~, i, . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ 13 III. Equilibrium Data of Ethanol-Eater Mixtures . ~ * ~ ~ , 17 IV, . Flash Vaporieation Data of Ethanol Hater hIlxtures& + , 18 VI ~ Hempel Distillation of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . . . Flash... Vaporiration of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . ~ 21 22 VII' Hempel Distillations of Flash Distillates of Oklahoma City Crude . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 VIII+ Hompel Distillations of Flash Residuums of Oklahoma City Crude ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ o...

  5. Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2014-07-01

    This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a ?GC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100?m×100?m has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100?m diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the ?GC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated ?GC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable ?GC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with ?GC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

  6. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  7. Nuclear fuel column retainer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. MacMillan; B. A. Smith; R. P. Dubrule

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a barrier member fixed in the end of a fuel column retaining spring to prevent contact between the retaining spring and the adjacent end plug of the fuel element whereby contamination of the weld between the cladding tube and end plug with retaining spring material is avoided. 12 claims, 5 drawing figures.

  8. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    to measure the volume of distillate, set up test tubes in a test tube rack. Record the vapor temperature when the distillation pot to dryness. Seal the vials tightly to prevent evaporation before you run your GC's. #12;Dispose of your three fractions and the residue from your distillation pot in the appropriate waste

  9. Engineering-scale distillation of cadmium for actinide recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Westphal; J. C. Price; D. Vaden; R. W. Benedict

    2007-01-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate

  10. Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data Michael Schmidt1 and Hod Lipson2 precise and powerful, but automated processes for distilling this data into knowledge in the form relations, thus helping distill data into scientific knowledge. Symbolic regression (10) is an established

  11. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits and wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol...Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at...

  12. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management technology as it applies to the current human Mars mission scenarios.

  13. 11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  14. Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels

    E-print Network

    of perforated multilayer insulation blankets, Fesmire, Augustynowicz, Darve Thermal performance of cryogenic Source: NASA. Performance characterization of perforated multilayer insulation blankets, Fesmire: electricity, phone line, concrete pad, foundation #12;Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February

  15. Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eldridge

    2005-01-01

    The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow

  16. Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers

    E-print Network

    Dickey, Billy Ray

    1962-01-01

    ' rapo 's mt' +' s? h?: djq?4 p?r og ~ . t + ~u o~ 'ys w, uinyd ' tg a oq dr-, g b* trente! &- "h a'. qw e. v ' s '' 0 ths dis", " l'::t a~mar tiana. ol! ct. ua?storm, ri . rc "c 1";is eau given r . +hs . a':1st" cn a~ the ~rotated Wth'. mes" ra+e frw...CALG!fLATI )MAL Pf';)GP&P 'f', !G?, , C, L'IG1VPGf F, "fT fu. ;TrLLAII f GGLffMMS , 'r i RII!E ~&?PAP 8?~?P';ff" A Tfiesis Billy ffay Diczey '. hai+ted . o th ~ f:raduate Bc!" ool o" the Agricultural and Mechanical College oT Texas...

  17. Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers 

    E-print Network

    Dickey, Billy Ray

    1962-01-01

    , nificant, a co, , lets set of p . rtial . . iolar ent. ial . ics may . e calcula=edi 'cy "'qu tions (1), ind (la), ?nii anth:il y biil, inca - usec t'iroughout thc dictil'ation co i uun to establis!i corr ected vai?r and liquid rates. The cor. ected va d...

  18. Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation

    E-print Network

    Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

    1966-01-01

    that represents a component-material balance is t +At t n (v. . t t, - v?- t, . )dt = u . j+l, i j-1 ji ji ji u t t6t tn J1 n (4- 2) By use of the mean value theorem of integral calculus (5), the integral that appears in Equation (4-2) may be stated... exactly in terms of its mean value as follows: 21 t +At n t t v. . +R. , -v. . t. . dt= v, . +t, , -v. , R. . gt j+l, i j-l, i ji ji j L jul, i j-l, i ji jiJ m n or in terms of functional notation, r t +Et udt = v 11t t n (4 4) If the mean...

  19. Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation 

    E-print Network

    Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

    1966-01-01

    . Storey, and J. A. Challis, Proc. of the First International Congress of the I. F. A. C, , Vol. IV, 303 (London, England: Butte rworths, 1961). 17. dt t, R. G. , N tMtdd 1 Et* d~E (Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice Hall, Inc. , 1961). 18. Thiele, E... gratitude is extended to his parents, Mr. and Mrs. David Pendon, to whom this work is dedicated. 111 TABZ E OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES . Page V1 CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION II. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE III. MODIFIED e...

  20. Microcosm and Column Studies on the Biodegradation of Methyl TertButyl Ether (MTBE) in Soil-Water Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Morales; Marc A. Deshusses; Sergio Revah

    Microcosms and column experiments were carried out using soil and groundwater from a MTBE contaminated site or using distilled water amended with mineral salts. The biodegradation of MTBE was tested under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with an initial MTBE concentration of 25 mg\\/L. The water to soil ratio in the microcosm experiments was 1:2 by mass and the inoculum size

  1. Cryogenics for the superconducting module test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A group of laboratories and universities, with Fermilab taking the lead, are constructing a superconducting cryomodule test facility (SMTF) in the Meson Detector Building (MDB) area at Fermilab. The facility will be used for testing and validating designs for both pulsed and CW systems. A multi phase approach is taken to construct the facility. For the initial phase of the project, cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule will be supplied from the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. A cryogenic distribution system to supply cryogens from CTF to MDB is under construction. This paper describes plans, status and challenges of the initial phase of the SMTF cryogenic system.

  2. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Joel

    2004-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is an experiment to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The experiment initially was deployed at a shallow underground site, and is currently deployed at a deep underground site at the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. The detectors operate at cryogenic temperature, and are capable of distinguishing nuclear recoils from WIMP interactions from various backgrounds. The detectors are shielded from background by both active and passive elements. We will describe the components of the overall experiment, and focus on the novel data acquisition system that has been develop to control and monitor the experiment via the World Wide Web. Preliminary signals from the operation at Soudan will be discussed.

  3. Electromagnetic dampers for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic turbomachinery of the type used to pump high-pressure liquid hydrogen at -423 F and liquid oxygen at -297 F to the main engines of the Space Shuttle are subjected to lateral rotor vibrations from unbalance forces and transient loads. Conventional dampers which utilize viscous fluids such as lubricating oil cannot be used in turbopumps because the bearing components are filled with either liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen, which have viscosity comparable to air and, therefore, are not effective in viscous dampers. Electromagentic dampers are currently being explored as a means of providing damping in cryogenic turbopumps because their damping effectiveness increases as temperature decreases and because they are compatible with the liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen in the turbopumps.

  4. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  5. Advanced Reusable Foam Cryogenic Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Allan H.; Mcauliffe, P. S.; Sparks, L. L.

    1990-01-01

    Lightweight, reusable cryogenic containers reduce costs of operation of advanced hypersonic airplanes and space launch vehicles. Specimens demonstrated in temperature range of negative 420 to positive 400 degrees F (negative 251 to positive 204 degrees C). Prototype reusable cryogenic foam insulation developed. Consists of two discrete layers of closed-cell polymethacrylimide foam of density 6.9 lb/ft to the 3rd power (111 kg/m to the 3rd power) bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Additionally reinforced with 0.003-in. (0.08-mm)-thick layer of fiberglass cloth. Wrapped with precut and preformed vapor-barrier cover. Such containers useful on Earth in laboratories, factories, and transportation systems.

  6. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. PMID:22417550

  7. Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hoevers; P. Verhoeve

    2003-01-01

    Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with

  8. Cryogenic operation of silicon detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Collins; I. B. M. Barnett; P. Bartalini; W. Bell; P. Berglund; W. de Boer; S. Buontempo; K. Borer; T. Bowcock; J. Buytaert; L. Casagrande; V. Chabaud; P. Chochula; V. Cindro; C. Da Via; S. Devine; H. Dijkstra; B. Dezillie; Z. Dimcovski; O. Dormond; V. Eremin; A. Esposito; R. Frei; V. Granata; E. Grigoriev; F. Hauler; S. Heising; S. Janos; L. Jungermann; Z. Li; C. Lourenço; M. Mikuz; T. O Niinikoski; V O'Shea; V. G Palmieri; S. Paul; C. Parkes; G. Ruggiero; T. Ruf; S. Saladino; L. Schmitt; K. Smith; I. Stavitski; E. Verbitskaya; F. Vitobello; M. Zavrtanik

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements at cryogenic temperatures of a silicon microstrip detector irradiated with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5×1014p\\/cm2 and of a p–n junction diode detector irradiated to a similar fluence. At temperatures below 130 K a recovery of charge collection efficiency and resolution is observed. Under reverse bias conditions this recovery degrades in time towards

  9. Steels for cryogenic power engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Ermakov; A. Ya. Nikolaich; V. A. Oparin

    1986-01-01

    1.The mechanical properties of the investigated steels at normal and cryogenic temperatures improve when their aluminum content increases to 10%. Further alloying with aluminum causes some impairement of the plastic and ductile properties; this is connected with the formation of a-phase in the structure of the steels.2.Magnetic permeability is practically independent of the temperature in the range 293–4°K because of

  10. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  11. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  12. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  13. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  14. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

  15. CRYOGENIC FLUID JETS AND MIXING LAYERS IN TRANSCRITICAL AND SUPERCRITICAL

    E-print Network

    Yang, Vigor

    CRYOGENIC FLUID JETS AND MIXING LAYERS IN TRANSCRITICAL AND SUPERCRITICAL ENVIRONMENTS NAN ZONG modeling and numerical simulation of cryogenic fluid injection and mixing in transcritical- layer instability, volume dilatation, and property variations, dictating the evolution of cryogenic jets

  16. Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original Motivation for broad international program on cryogenic particle detectors was neutrino physics and dark

  17. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  18. The evolution of cryogenic safety at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, R.; Kilmer, J.

    1992-12-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, Fermilab has been involved in cryogenic technology as it relates to pursuing experimentation in high energy physics. The Laboratory has instituted a strong cryogenic safety program and has maintained a very positive safety record. The solid commitment of management and the cryogenic community to incorporating safety into the system life cycle has led to policies that set requirements and help establish consistency for the purchase and installation of equipment and the safety analysis and documentation.

  19. Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

  20. Cryogenic transfer options for exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The literature of in-space cryogenic transfer is reviewed in order to propose transportation concepts to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Forty-nine references are listed and key findings are synopsized. An assessment of the current maturity of cryogenic transfer system technology is made. Although the settled transfer technique is the most mature technology, the No-Vent Fill technology is maturing rapidly. Future options for development of cryogenic transfer technology are also discussed.

  1. Usaf Space Sensing Cryogenic Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, F.

    2010-04-01

    Infrared (IR) space sensing missions of the future depend upon low mass components and highly capable imaging technologies. Limitations in visible imaging due to the earth's shadow drive the use of IR surveillance methods for a wide variety of applications for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications, and almost certainly in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. Utilization of IR sensors greatly expands and improves mission capabilities including target and target behavioral discrimination. Background IR emissions and electronic noise that is inherently present in Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and surveillance optics bench designs prevents their use unless they are cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This paper describes the role of cryogenic coolers as an enabling technology for generic ISR and BMD missions and provides ISR and BMD mission and requirement planners with a brief glimpse of this critical technology implementation potential. The interaction between cryogenic refrigeration component performance and the IR sensor optics and FPA can be seen as not only mission enabling but also as mission performance enhancing when the refrigeration system is considered as part of an overall optimization problem.

  2. ZERODUR TAILORED for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, R.; Westerhoff, T.

    2014-07-01

    ZERODUR® glass ceramic from SCHOTT is known for its very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. It is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors but also for satellite applications. Many reference application demonstrate the excellent and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. For space application a low CTE of the mirror material is required at cryogenic temperatures together with a good match of the thermal expansion to the supporting structure material. It is possible to optimize the coefficient of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® for cryogenic applications. This paper reports on measurements of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® down to cryogenic temperatures of 10 K performed by the PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstallt, Braunschweig, Germany, the national metrology laboratory). The ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO presented in this paper has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion down to 70 K. The maximum absolute integrated thermal expansion down to 10 K is only about 20 ppm. Mirror blanks made from ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO can be light weighted to almost 90% with our modern processing technologies. With ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO, SCHOTT offers the mirror blank material for the next generation of space telescope applications.

  3. Cryogenic actuator for subnanometer positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, B. v.; Janssen, H.; Paalvast, S.; Albers, R.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses the development, realization, and qualification of a positioning actuator concept specifically for cryogenic environments. Originally developed for quantum physics research, the actuator also has many applications in astronomic cryogenic instruments to position optical elements with nanometer level accuracy and stability. Typical applications include the correction of thermally induced position errors of optical components after cooling down from ambient to cryogenic temperatures or sample positioning in microscopes. The actuator is nicknamed the ‘PiezoKnob’ because it is piezo based and it is compatible with the typical manipulator knob often found in standard systems for optical benches, such as linear stages or tip/tilt lens holders. Actuation with high stiffness piezo elements enables the Piezoknob to deliver forces up to 50 Newton which allows relatively stiff guiding mechanisms or large pre-loads. The PiezoKnob has been qualified at 77 Kelvin and was shown to work down to 2 Kelvin. As part of the qualification program, the custom developed driving electronics and set point profile have been fine-tuned, by combing measurements with predictions from a dynamic model, thus maximizing efficiency and minimizing power dissipation. Furthermore, the actuator holds its position without power and thanks to its mechanical layout it is absolutely insensitive to drift of the piezo elements or the driving electronics.

  4. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  5. Cryogenic cooling of instruments in orbit - A standard solid cryogen cooler approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Nast; A. Sherman

    1979-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the utility and characteristics of a solid cryogen cooler which could meet a variety of instrument and mission requirements. The cooler consists essentially of two stages of solid cryogen and two cooled shields. The inner shield is thermally grounded to the secondary (warmer) cryogen and provides a low temperature boundary around the colder

  6. Dynamics of cryogen deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim Verkruysse; Boris Majaron; Guillermo Aguilar; Lars O. Svaasand; J. Stuart Nelson

    2000-01-01

    Goal is to investigate how delivery nozzle design influences the cooling rate of cryogen spray as used in skin laser treatments. Cryogen was sprayed through nozzles that consist of metal tubes with either a narrow or wide diameter and two different lengths. Fast-flashlamp photography showed that the wide nozzles, in particular the long wide one, produced a cryogen jet (very

  7. Ammonia removal from coal dry distillation wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanghua Wang; Fanjie Gong; Wenbing Li; Yunzhou Lu; Mingdong Sun; Tiejun Liu; Yuhe Liang; Xiaoyuan Li; Zengqiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    the article used coke oven gas as desorption agent, pilot-scale packed tower as desorption equipment, removed ammonia from wastewater produced by coal dry distillation process. Gas stripping method is a new technology for ammonia removal. Through experiments conducted in the coking plant, when the temperature of wastewater T=85°C, pH=1l.5, the ratio of liquid and gas volume n=550:1 and the addition

  8. Enzymatic methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Ramamurthi; Prakash R. Bhirud; Alan R. McCurdy

    1991-01-01

    Methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate catalyzed by a nonspecific lipase was investigated. The conversion of fatty\\u000a acids to methyl esters has been optimized by using a statistical design. Up to 96.5% conversion of fatty acids to their methyl\\u000a esters has been achieved without the aid of vacuum or any water-removing agent. The effects of temperature, ratio of the reactants

  9. Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

  10. Design of Subcooled Pressurized Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, G. E.

    2008-03-01

    High—temperature-superconducting power lines and various beamline targets require cooling with subcooled, non-boiling cryogens in the pressure range from 5 to 15 Bar. In conventional closed-loop refrigerated systems this is accomplished by using a pressurized ballast cryogen dewar to maintain the desired pressure. Although consumption is modest, cryogen flows continuously from the ballast dewar and periodic replenishment is necessary. This paper describes an innovative refrigerated system which eliminates the ballast dewar and operates continuously without cryogen or gaseous make-up after the initial fill.

  11. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  12. Neutron Detection with Cryogenics and Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    bell, Z.W.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2005-03-10

    The common methods of neutron detection are reviewed with special attention paid to the application of cryogenics and semiconductors to the problem. The authors' work with LiF- and boron-based cryogenic instruments is described as well as the use of CdTe and HgI{sub 2} for direct detection of neutrons.

  13. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Vol. 29

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains 116 of the papers presented at the 1983 Cryogenic Engineering Conference held in Colorado. The latest work of the most advanced researchers in low-temperature technology is reviewed. Topics considered include resource availability (helium, LNG), applications of superconductivity (magnets for fusion and physics research, test facilities, components of electric power systems, electronics and RF structures, cryogenic techniques, magnet

  14. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains 141 conference papers which include the following topics: applications of superconducting magnets in magnetic resonance imaging, synchrotron radiation sources, particle detectors, and fusion reactors; applications of superconductivity in electronic circuits and rectifiers; cryogenic techniques in cooling superconducting magnets, space vehicles, and physics instrumentation; thermal and electrical insulation for superconducting magnets and cryogenic systems; heat and mass transfer

  15. Advances in cryogenic engineering: Vol. 31

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the 1985 Cryogenic Engineering Conference held August 12-16, 1985, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The 151 included papers begin by discussing the applications of superconductivity in the following fields: the Superconducting Super Collider; superconducting magnetic energy storage; magnets for fusion and physics research; test facilities; cryogenic techniques; acoustic emission testing; and magnet stability. From there, the

  16. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  17. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li; Ke-Xiang Wang; Ji-Jiu Zhao; Ke-Juan Yue; Ming-Hui Dai; Yi-Ling Huang; Bo Jiang

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the

  18. Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana)

    E-print Network

    Grütter, Peter

    Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana) and P. Gru¨tter Centre for the Physics for publication 27 June 2000 We describe our cryogenic magnetic force microscope, operating between 4.2 and 300 K. As an effective means of vibration isolation, we suspend the microscope from a soft bellows which attenuates

  19. Properties of composite materials for cryogenic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B Schutz

    1998-01-01

    Composite materials are used in a wide variety of cryogenic applications because of their unique and highly tailorable properties. These cryogenic applications of composites may be, for the sake of discussion, classified as support structures, vessels, or electrical insulation. Examples of these applications are presented, with a brief discussion of the critical material properties associated with each application. Composite material

  20. Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

    1984-01-01

    Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

  1. Cryogenic recondenser with remote cold box

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Bartlett; B. R. Andeen; P. A. Lessard

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a cryogenic recondenser for recondensing cryogen retained in a storage vessel. The recondenser consists of: cooling means comprising a mechanical refrigerator positioned outside of the storage vessel, the means precooling a volume of gaseous refrigerant; a transfer line leading from the cooling means and removeably inserted into the storage vessel; and a JT valve at an end

  2. Biopolymer mass spectrometer with cryogenic particle detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian Twerenbold

    1996-01-01

    A novel type of biopolymer mass spectrometer is proposed for massive proteins, polypeptides and DNA-fragments by replacing standard ionizing detectors with cryogenic particle detectors. The detection efficiency in ionizing detectors decreases rapidly with increasing biopolymer mass owing to the biopolymer's decreasing velocity. Cryogenic particle detectors, however, record the total kinetic energy deposited by the accelerated biopolymer. In a given electric

  3. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A? state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A? states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  4. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  5. Novel Cryogenic Insulation Materials: Aerogel Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan

    2001-01-01

    New insulation materials are being developed to economically and reliably insulate future reusable spacecraft cryogenic tanks over a planned lifecycle of extreme thermal challenges. These insulation materials must prevent heat loss as well as moisture and oxygen condensation on the cryogenic tanks during extended groundhold, must withstand spacecraft launch conditions, and must protect a partly full or empty reusable cryogenic tank from significant reentry heating. To perform over such an extreme temperature range, novel composites were developed from aerogels and high-temperature matrix material such as Space Shuttle tile. These materials were fabricated and tested for use both as cryogenic insulation and as high-temperature insulation. The test results given in this paper were generated during spacecraft re-entry heating simulation tests using cryogenic cooling.

  6. Techniques for on-orbit cryogenic servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLee, C. H.; Barfknecht, P.; Breon, S.; Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Huynh, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Wegel, D.

    2014-11-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has a renewed interest in on-orbit cryogen storage and transfer to support its mission to explore near-earth objects such as asteroids and comets. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission (CPST-TDM), managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and scheduled for launch in 2018, will demonstrate numerous key technologies applicable to a cryopropellant fuel depot. As an adjunct to the CPST-TDM work, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will support the development of techniques to manage and transfer cryogens on-orbit and expand these techniques as they may be applicable to servicing science missions using solid cryogens such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The results of several ground experiments are described, including autogenous pressurization used for transfer of liquid nitrogen and argon, characterization of the transfer and solidification of argon, and development of robotic tools for cryogen transfer.

  7. Cryogenic properties of several copolyesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Yano; A. Kimoto; H. Yamaoka

    1997-01-01

    Copolyesters of polyethylene terephthalate(PET) and polyethylene-2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate(PEN) with composition of PET\\/PEN= 100\\/0, 95\\/5, 90\\/10, 85\\/15, 70\\/30, 50\\/50, 30\\/70, 10\\/90, 0\\/100 were prepared. The mechanical properties of uniaxial-drawn films were examined at 83 K and 296 K. PET\\/PEN=90\\/10 copolymer film possessed especially excellent cryogenic properties. It was found to withstand elongations in excess of 40% at stress levels of about 400

  8. Distillation of cadmium from uranium–plutonium–cadmium alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Kato; Masatoshi Iizuka; Tadashi Inoue; Takashi Iwai; Yasuo Arai

    2005-01-01

    Uranium–plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U–Pu–Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9wt% U and 8.7wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser

  9. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples-Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%-109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%-12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

  10. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

  11. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  12. Parametric studies in industrial distillation. Part II. Heuristic optimization. [Industrial distillation trains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Tedder; D. F. Rudd

    1978-01-01

    The venture cost of operating a single distillation tower is examined as a function of the overhead operating pressure, the feed fractional vaporization, and the vapor to minimum vapor rate ratio. One variable is changed parametrically, while the two remaining are fixed at their optimal values. The percentage increase in cost above the minimum is shown. The relative significance of

  13. Challenges for Cryogenics at Iter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, L.

    2010-04-01

    Nuclear fusion of light nuclei is a promising option to provide clean, safe and cost competitive energy in the future. The ITER experimental reactor being designed by seven partners representing more than half of the world population will be assembled at Cadarache, South of France in the next decade. It is a thermonuclear fusion Tokamak that requires high magnetic fields to confine and stabilize the plasma. Cryogenic technology is extensively employed to achieve low-temperature conditions for the magnet and vacuum pumping systems. Efficient and reliable continuous operation shall be achieved despite unprecedented dynamic heat loads due to magnetic field variations and neutron production from the fusion reaction. Constraints and requirements of the largest superconducting Tokamak machine have been analyzed. Safety and technical risks have been initially assessed and proposals to mitigate the consequences analyzed. Industrial standards and components are being investigated to anticipate the requirements of reliable and efficient large scale energy production. After describing the basic features of ITER and its cryogenic system, we shall present the key design requirements, improvements, optimizations and challenges.

  14. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  15. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 ?W at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  16. Computed Tomography of Cryogenic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, G.; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knöchel, C.; Weiss, D.; Legros, M.; Larabell, C.

    Soft X-ray microscopy has resolved 30 nm structures in biological cells. To protect the cells from radiation damage caused by X-rays, imaging of the samples has to be performed at cryogenic temperatures, which makes it possible to take multiple images of a single cell. Due to the small numerical aperture of zone plates, X-ray objectives have a depth of focus on the order of several microns. By treating the X-ray microscopic images as projections of the sample absorption, computed tomography (CT) can be performed. Since cryogenic biological samples are resistant to radiation damage, it is possible to reconstruct frozen-hydrated cells imaged with a full-field X-ray microscope. This approach is used to obtain three-dimensional information about the location of specific proteins in cells. To localize proteins in cells, immunolabeling with strongly X-ray absorbing nanoparticles was performed. With the new tomography setup developed for the X-ray microscope XM-1 installed at the ALS, we have performed tomography of immunolabeled frozen-hydrated cells to detect protein distributions inside of cells. As a first example, the distribution of the nuclear protein male-specific lethal 1 (MSL-1) in the Drosophila melanogaster cell was studied.

  17. Nanotomography of labeled cryogenic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Gerd; Knoechel, Christian; Vogt, Stefan; Weiss, Daniel; Anderson, Erik H.

    2002-01-01

    By employing the natural absorption contrast of organic matter in water at 0.5 keV photon energy, X-ray microcopy has resolved 30 nm structures in animal cells. To protect the cells from radiation damage caused by x-rays, imaging of the samples was performed at cryogenic temperatures, which makes it possible to take multiple images of a single cell. Due to the small numerical aperture of zone plates, X-ray objectives have a depth of focus on the order of several microns. By treating the X-ray microscopic images as projections of the sample absorption, computed tomography (CT) can be performed. Since cryogenic biological samples are resistant to radiation damage, it is possible to reconstruct frozen-hydrated cells imaged with a full-field X-ray microscope. This approach is used to obtain three- dimensional information about the location of specific proteins in cells. To localize proteins in cells, immunolabelling with strongly X-ray absorbing nanoparticles was performed. With the new tomography apparatus developed for the X-ray microscope XM-1 installed at the ALS, we have performed tomography of immunolabelled frozen-hydrated cells to detect protein distributions in all three dimensions inside of cells. As a first example, the distribution of the nuclear protein, male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1) in the Drosophila melanogaster cell was studied.

  18. Cryogen free low temperature sample environment for neutron scattering experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Kirichek; B E Evans; R B E Down; Z A Bowden

    2009-01-01

    Recent increase in liquid helium cost caused by global helium supply problems rose significant concern about affordability of conventional cryogenic equipment. Luckily the progress in cryo-cooler technology offers a new generation of cryogenic systems with significantly reduced consumption and in some cases nearly complete elimination of cryogens. These cryogen-free systems also offer the advantage of operational simplicity and require less

  19. Kinetics of distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe juniper ( Juniperus communis L.) berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetomir Ž. Milojevi?; Tamara D. Stojanovi?; Radosav Pali?; Miodrag L. Lazi?; Vlada B. Veljkovi?

    2008-01-01

    The distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe berries of Juniperus communis L. (juniper oil) was studied at different hydrodistillation rates. The distillation of juniper consisted of an initial, fast oil distillation followed by a slow oil distillation. Based on this mechanism, the kinetics of juniper oil distillation were described using a two-parameter model of unsteady-state diffusion through the plant

  20. Concentration and Drying of Tea Polyphenols Extracted from Green Tea Using Molecular Distillation and Spray Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Qiang Tang; Di-Cai Li; Yang-Xiao Lv; Jian-Guo Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of combining molecular distillation and spray drying to concentrate and dry tea polyphenols extracts. Molecular distillation and spray drying of tea phenols extracts were performed using an orthogonal array design. The order of importance that influenced molecular distillation was distillation temperature > flux > rotational speed. The optimal conditions for concentration by molecular distillation

  1. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  2. On retentivity tuning by flow in the second column of different comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatographic configurations.

    PubMed

    Krup?ík, Ján; Májek, Pavel; Gorovenko, Roman; Sandra, Pat; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2011-05-27

    Retentivity tuning in comprehensive two dimensional GC separations of aliphatics (linear and cyclic hydrocarbons) and aromatics in gasoline by changing the carrier gas flows in the column series at constant working temperature parameters of both columns is discussed. Comprehensive 2D techniques studied include GC×GC with cryogenic and differential flow modulation and non-modulated transfer (NMT). In all configurations, the first dimension was a non-polar column and the second dimension a polar column. Using three different flows (0.6, 1.0 and 1.4mL/min) of helium carrier gas in cryogenic modulated GC×GC illustrated that, as expected, retention of the solutes on the (1)D and (2)D columns increased but the separation quality was nearly constant. A change of carrier gas pressure (p(m)=175-125kPa) on the (1)D and (2)D columns joint point at constant inlet pressure (p(i)=525kPa) in NMT, induces an increase of the carrier gas flow rate on the (1)D and a decrease on the (2)D column, respectively. The higher retentivity of the (2)D column improved the group type separation of aliphatic/cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics and a higher distribution of aromatics on the 2D retention plane was noted. Retentivity tuning was also performed in flow modulated GC×GC by operating the (1)D column at 0.8mL/min and the (2)D column at 20 and 26mL/min. The higher retentivity at 20mL/min improved the group type separation of aliphatic/cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics in the 2D retention plane. PMID:21489538

  3. The Accelerator Systems String Test cryogenics

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.

    1993-04-01

    The ASST magnet string cryogenic refrigeration requirements were planned around an original design and a much smaller, backup, He refrigeration system. The ASST schedule required that the backup, or Plan B, helium refrigerator provide and meet all the requirements of the milestone test. The Plan B design, layout, sub-system commissioning tests, and the performance schedule will be provided. The magnet string cryogenic system pump and purge, cooldown and warmup, central and multiple shield cooling, temperature control and subcooling, and recooler operating experience are reported. The ASST cryogenic system static performance and the dynamic provisions, response, and recovery to magnet quenches will be described.

  4. Progress on the CUORE Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Arnaboldi, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca /INFN Sez. Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Alessandria, F. [INFN Sez. Milano (Italy); Barucci, M. [INFN Sez. Firenze (Italy); Bucci, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Frossati, G. [Leiden Cryogenics (Netherlands); De Waard, A. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University (Netherlands); Woodcraft, A. [SUPA, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-16

    We give here an update on the CUORE cryogenic system. It consists of a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by five pulse tubes and one high-power specially designed dilution refrigerator built by Leiden Cryogenics. The cryostat design has been completed and it is presently under construction. The site at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is ready for the installation of the cryostat which is expected to begin by the end of 2009. We discuss here the preliminary results obtained on the performance of the mechanical cryorefrigerators. We also present a measurement of the residual heat leak of the copper which has been selected for the cryostat fabrication.

  5. Other cryogenic wind-tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Following the development of the cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972, a large number of cryogenic wind-tunnel projects have been undertaken at various research establishments around the world. Described in this lecture are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center), England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, Royal Aircraft Establishment - Bedford, and University of Southampton), Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy), Sweden (Rollab), and the United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

  6. Structural damping studies at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of an engineering study to measure changes in structural damping properties of two cryogenic wind tunnel model systems and two metallic test specimens at cryogenic temperatures are presented. Data are presented which indicate overall, a trend toward reduced structural damping at cryogenic temperatures (-250 degrees F) when compared with room temperature damping properties. The study was focused on structures and materials used for model systems tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The study suggests that the significant reductions in damping at extremely cold temperatures are most likely associated with changes in mechanical joint compliance damping rather than changes in material (solid) damping.

  7. Development and testing of an advanced cryogenic thermal switch and cryogenic thermal switch test bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Marland; D. Bugby; C. Stouffer

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development details and performance results of a high performance, highly reliable cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW), US Patent Number 6,276,144 B1, and cryogenic thermal switch test bed. The principle application for this device is to couple redundant cryocoolers to a cryogenic component with minimal parasitic heat leak from the non-operating cryocooler. Additional applications for the CTSW are also

  8. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  9. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    : A solvent with HA Boiling point with water Heptane or Hexane Low vapor pressure viscosifying oil Distillation setup/ process -Found the Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Boiling points for Water% Solvent Initial Size(µm) Size after one hour(µm) Boiling point Range (°C) 25% PB320 Span 80 75% hex. 28

  10. Homogeneous azeotropic pressure swing distillation: Continuous and batch process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein

    2005-01-01

    The separation of a binary homogeneous azeotropic mixture using pressure swing distillation will be analysed on the example of acetonitrile\\/water. Two different processes are considered: the continuous heat- and mass-integrated process and the inverted batch process. For both processes a model is developed and experimental data are given. In the paper the potential of the pressure swing distillation for the

  11. Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

    1996-01-01

    In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

  12. Catalytic oxidation of mercaptan in sour petroleum distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, R.R.

    1981-04-07

    A process for treating a mercaptan-containing sour petroleum distillate is disclosed. The process comprises contacting said distillate with a supported mercaptan oxidation catalyst at oxidation conditions, said catalyst comprising a metal chelate and a quaternary ammonium hydroxide disposed on an adsorbent support.

  13. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  14. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  15. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  16. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  17. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  18. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  19. Vegetable Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Characterization, Utilization and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setiyo Gunawan

    2009-01-01

    Depending on the sources, deodorizer distillates usually have significantly different characteristics, uses, and value. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene and as a good raw material for the production of fatty acid steryl esters, tocopherols, free phytosterols and fatty acids. The aim of this review paper is to

  20. Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols with Incomplete Information

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols. Entanglement distil­ lation extracts nearly­perfect entanglement from imperfect entangled state. The classical­ nication complexity of entanglement distillation protocols for this model. Our result also suggests

  1. Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols with Incomplete Information

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols. Entanglement distil- lation extracts nearly-perfect entanglement from imperfect entangled state. The classical- nication complexity of entanglement distillation protocols for this model. Our result also suggests

  2. 77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional...TTB proposes to amend the standards of identity regulations for distilled spirits...

  3. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single...

  4. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded...Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits...

  5. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  6. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  7. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  8. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  9. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  10. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  11. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  12. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes....

  13. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes....

  14. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  15. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  16. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Saint Charles, IL, June 14-18, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on superconductivity applications including magnets, electronics, rectifiers, magnet stability, coil protection, and cryogenic techniques. Also considered are insulation, heat transfer to liquid helium and nitrogen, heat and mass transfer in He II, superfluid pumps, and refrigeration for superconducting systems. Other topics include cold compressors, refrigeration and liquefaction, magnetic refrigeration, and refrigeration for space applications. Papers are also presented on cryogenic applications, commercial cryogenic plants, the properties of cryogenic fluids, and cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition.

  17. Selected Topics in Column Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco E. Lübbecke; Jacques Desrosiers

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and column generation, devised for linear programs, is a success story in large scale integer programming. We outline and relate the approaches, and survey mainly recent contributions, not found in textbooks, yet. We emphasize on the growing understanding of the dual point of view, which brought considerable progress to the column generation theory and practice. It stimulated

  18. Simulated distillation of petroleum and coal-derived products by packed capillary supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, M.; Johnson, B.R.; Mitchell, S.C. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The advantages of simulated distillation (SD) of petroleum compounds by super-critical fluid chromatography (SFC) over high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) are well recognised. Most of the research performed using this technique has employed conventional open tubular columns but the use of packed capillary columns which offer high sample capacities, greater efficiency of separation and a shorter analysis time has recently received much attention. Previous work at Leeds using a variety of column packings (C{sub 1}-C{sub 18} alkyl groups bonded to silica) has demonstrated that high molecular weight hydrocarbons with boiling points up to 800{degrees}C can be successfully eluted with pure CO{sub 2} as a mobile phase. However, the high compositional variability of coal-derived samples increases the difficulty of SD-SFC of coal fractions as compared to petroleum derived fractions. In this study, a number of coal samples have been investigated to determine the suitability of packed capillary SD-SFC for heavy coal products.

  19. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  20. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  1. Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Genfa (Yorktown, VA); Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Hayes, VA)

    2008-12-30

    A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

  2. MEMS: fabrication of cryogenic bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, J.; Anders, S.; May, T.; Zakosarenko, V.; Zieger, G.; Kreysa, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2012-02-01

    Cryogenic bolometers are among the most sensitive devices for the detection of electromagnetic radiation in the submillimeter wavelength range. Such radiation is of interest for astronomical observations as well as for security checks. We describe how we fabricate an array of these bolometers. Standard contact lithography is sufficient for these relatively coarse features. To increase the sensitivity, it is imperative to weaken the thermal link between the thermistors (the sensing devices) and the temperature bath. This is achieved by placing them on a silicon nitride membrane that is structured so that the thermistors are placed on a platform which is held only by a few beams. The fabrication process does not require sophisticated lithographic techniques, but special care to achieve the desired yield of 100 % intact bolometers in one array. We discuss bolometer basics and requirements for our applications, critical fabrication issues, and show results of complete systems built for a radio telescope and for security cameras.

  3. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  4. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  5. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  6. Cryogenic xenon droplets for advanced lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.

    1996-04-01

    A cryogenic xenon droplet production system for use in anadvanced laser plasma source for x-ray lithography has been designed, fabricated, and tested at ORNL. The droplet generator is based on proven (ink jet printer) drop-on-demand.

  7. Inexpensive cryogenic insulation replaces vacuum jacketed line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Commercially available aluminized Mylar, cork and fiber glass form a multilayered sealed system and provide rugged and economical field installed insulation for cryogenic /liquid nitrogen or oxygen/ pipe lines in an exposed environment.

  8. Creep of pure aluminum at cryogenic temperatures 

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Lacy Clark

    1989-01-01

    Conducted on OFHC Copper . B. Equipment Used in Successful Long-term Creep Testing. . . C. Creep Mechanisms at Cryogenic Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . 8 8 11 III PRIMARY RESEARCH OBJECTIVE . . 14 IV EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURES . . 15 A. Load... aluminum and NbTi. 2 Constant load creep curve showing three distinct regions. 3 Creep curves for OPHC copper taken over 200 hours. 10 4 Photograph of creep frame used in cryogenic creep tests. . . . . . . . . 5 Photograph of top of creep frame showing...

  9. Visual-Inspection Probe For Cryogenic Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, Steve; Valenzuela, James; Yoshinaga, Jay

    1990-01-01

    Visual-inspection probe that resembles borescope enables observer at ambient temperature to view objects immersed in turbulent flow of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, or other cryogenic fluid. Design of probe fairly conventional, except special consideration given to selection of materials and to thermal expansion to provide for expected range of operating temperatures. Penetrates wall of cryogenic chamber to provide view of interior. Similar probe illuminates scene. View displayed on video monitor.

  10. The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse N. Jones Iv; Chris B. Rogersi

    2003-01-01

    The acoustic effect of cryogenically treating trumpets is investigated. Ten Vincent Bach Stradivarious Bb trumpets are studied, half of which have been cryogenically treated. The trumpets were played by six players of varying proficiency, with sound samples being recorded directly to disk at a sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. Both the steady-state and initial transient portions of the audio samples

  11. Liquid Cryogenic Target Development for Fast Ignition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hanson; C. Russell; R. A. Vesey; D. G. Schroen; J. L. Taylor; C. A. Back; D. Steinman; A. Nikroo; J. L. Kaae; E. Giraldez; R. R. Johnston; K. Youngman

    2007-01-01

    As an alternative to foam-stabilized cryogenic solid D-T fuel layers for indirect-drive fast ignitor targets, which will tend to beta-layer to a nonuniform distribution in a reentrant cone geometry [1], we are investigating hemispherical cryogenic fast ignition capsules with a liquid fuel layer confined between a thick outer ablator shell and a thin inner shell [2]. The shape and surface

  12. Filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. S.; Timberlake, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports for a LH2 tank, a LF2/FLOX tank and a CH4 tank. These supports consist of filament-wound fiberglass tubes with titanium end fittings. These units were satisfactorily tested at cryogenic temperatures, thereby offering a design that can be reliably and economically produced in large or small quantities. The basic design concept is applicable to any situation where strong, lightweight axial load members are desired.

  13. Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H. (inventor); Schein, Michael E. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain a cryogen through surface tension effects during launch and zero-g operations and maintains instrumentation within the temperature range of 10 to 140 K. The cooler operation is completely passive, with no inherent vibration or power requirements.

  14. Performance of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.J.; Stouffer, C.; Thienel, L.; Morgan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The Cryogenic Heat Pipe (CRYOHP) Experiment has been designed to test two cryogenic heat pipes independently in a micro-gravity environment. The CRYOHP experiment is manifested for flight aboard the shuttle (STS-53) which is scheduled for launch in November, 1992. This paper presents the design of this experiment and the thermal vacuum verification test results. A correlation of the test data and the planned mission operations are also provided. 4 refs.

  15. Development of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadunas, J. A.; Backovsky, Z. F.; Wilson, D. E.

    1992-07-01

    A summary of cryogenic rotatable heat transfer joint technology development, at Rockwell International Space Division, is presented. Starting with the flight qualified radiative joint on the RM-20B IR sensor of the early 70's, leading to rotatable heat pipe joint, gas conductive joints, rolling-contact-conductance joints, and the more recent work on development and evaluation of cryogenic rotatable seals and mechanical interfaces. Potential applications, joint design optimization, heat transfer, seal leakage and torque test data are presented.

  16. Cryogenic engineering and superconductor technology; Proceedings of the 14th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference, Kiev, Ukraine, June 8-12, 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Komarek; C. Rizzuto

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to application concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducting magnet systems, thermoelectric materials for Peltier cryogenic coolers, closed-cycle liquid helium refrigerators, built-in cryogenic control fixtures with electric drive, large cryogenic helium systems for superconducting magnets, low temperature adsorptive hydrogen isotope separation, cryogenic thermometry for space testing systems, performance of parallel flow He-II heat exchangers, and transient heat

  17. Flight Performance of the AKARI Cryogenic System

    E-print Network

    Nakagawa, Takao; Hirabayashi, Masayuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kii, Tsuneo; Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masahide; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Narita, Masanao; Ohnishi, Akira; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Yoshida, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    We describe the flight performance of the cryogenic system of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, which was successfully launched on 2006 February 21 (UT). AKARI carries a 68.5 cm telescope together with two focal plane instruments, Infrared Cameras (IRC) and Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS), all of which are cooled down to cryogenic temperature to achieve superior sensitivity. The AKARI cryogenic system is a unique hybrid system, which consists of cryogen (liquid helium) and mechanical coolers (2-stage Stirling coolers). With the help of the mechanical coolers, 179 L (26.0 kg) of super-fluid liquid helium can keep the instruments cryogenically cooled for more than 500 days. The on-orbit performance of the AKARI cryogenics is consistent with the design and pre-flight test, and the boil-off gas flow rate is as small as 0.32 mg/s. We observed the increase of the major axis of the AKARI orbit, which can be explained by the thrust due to thermal pressure of vented helium gas.

  18. Flight Performance of the AKARI Cryogenic System

    E-print Network

    Takao Nakagawa; Keigo Enya; Masayuki Hirabayashi; Hidehiro Kaneda; Tsuneo Kii; Yoshiyuki Kimura; Toshio Matsumoto; Hiroshi Murakami; Masahide Murakami; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Masanao Narita; Akira Ohnishi; Shoji Tsunematsu; Seiji Yoshida

    2007-08-14

    We describe the flight performance of the cryogenic system of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, which was successfully launched on 2006 February 21 (UT). AKARI carries a 68.5 cm telescope together with two focal plane instruments, Infrared Cameras (IRC) and Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS), all of which are cooled down to cryogenic temperature to achieve superior sensitivity. The AKARI cryogenic system is a unique hybrid system, which consists of cryogen (liquid helium) and mechanical coolers (2-stage Stirling coolers). With the help of the mechanical coolers, 179 L (26.0 kg) of super-fluid liquid helium can keep the instruments cryogenically cooled for more than 500 days. The on-orbit performance of the AKARI cryogenics is consistent with the design and pre-flight test, and the boil-off gas flow rate is as small as 0.32 mg/s. We observed the increase of the major axis of the AKARI orbit, which can be explained by the thrust due to thermal pressure of vented helium gas.

  19. D0 Cryogenic System Operator Training

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1991-11-30

    D0 is a collider detector. It will be operating and doing physics at the same time as CDP, therefore it has been decided to train CDP operators to operate and respond to the D0 cryogenic control system. A cryogenic operator will be required to be in residence at D0, during the cooldown and liquid Argon fill of any of the calorimeters. The cryogenic system at D0 is designed to be unmanned during steady state operation. CDP operations has 2 man cryogenic shifts 24 hours a day. It is intended that CDP operators monitor the D0 cryogenic systems, evaluate and respond to alarms, and notify a D0 cryo expert in the event of an unusual problem. A D0 cryogenic system view node has been installed at CDP to help facilitate these goals. It should be noted that even though the CDP view node is a fully operational node it is intended that it be more of an information node and is therefore password protected. The D0 cryo experts may reassess the use of the CDP node at a later date based on experience and operating needs. This engineering note outlines the format of the training and testing given to the CDP operators to make them qualified D0 operators.

  20. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions 

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    -ambitious listing project, covered in a single volume, is that of Hirata, Ohe, and Naghama [17]. In summary, current work is concentrated on the compilation of VLE and the development of estimating parameters for the UNIFAC predictive method. Both... idea. *Sulzer packing, formed from wire mesh in a special corrugated arrangement (Figure 4), has been tested hy FRI in a 40-inch column in Switzerland. The results are available from the vendor [34J. To summarize the needs for research...

  1. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    E-print Network

    Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

    2009-08-01

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  2. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    E-print Network

    Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

    2015-05-01

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  3. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  4. Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations 

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Samuel Lane

    1959-01-01

    for Total Reflux in One Section of a Column Restrictions. Calculational Procedure Illustrative Examples Conclusions 33 35 38 45 Table of Notation Bibliography. Appendix. 46 49 52 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Diagram of a... of 8 at the Operating Reflux 59 ' 6O LIST OF TABLES Table Page I-a Equilibrium Data for Example Equi. librium Data for Examples 1~ 2~ 4-7. 61 62 Enthalpy Data. 63 III-a Statement of Examples ? Composition of Feeds III-b Statement of Examples...

  5. Stripper column of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy is inert to ammonia at 270°F

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hunt; A. Gaines

    1987-01-01

    The Eastern Steel Division of Armco, Inc., in Ashland, Kentucky performs on-site carbonization of coal to produce coke. The coke oven gas is processed into an acceptable fuel. The final step in the processing of this gas is the stripping of ammonia from methylethylamine by steam distillation at about 270°F. The original ammonia stripping column was fabricated in 1978 with

  6. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, E? = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) ? Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (<1 day). This allows multiple measurements to be made on the same column and thus the sediment biology to be monitored non-invasively over time (i.e. after an augmentation has been introduced) and minimizes long-lived radioactive waste. Different parameters can be measured, depending on the tracer type and delivery. A constant infusion of a conservative tracer, such as the positron emitter Br-76 (T1/2= 16.2 hr), measures the exclusion fraction (as a function of position in the column), while a bolus maps the flow velocity as a function of position. A tracer that interacts chemically with the contents of the column (e.g., [99m-Tc(VII)O4]- reduced to 99m-TcO2 by Fe(II) ) yields a map of the chemical environment (e.g., the distribution of Fe(II)). Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  7. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  8. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks 

    E-print Network

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal ...

  9. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  10. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects

    E-print Network

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  11. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  12. Entanglement distillation by means of k-extendible maps

    E-print Network

    Pankowski, L; Horodecki, M; Smith, G

    2011-01-01

    It is known that from entangled states which have positve partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled state by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing problem is whether all states with non-positive partial transpose can be distilled. In this paper we attack this question using a larger class of operations than LOCC operations. Namely, we consider k-extendible operations - those, whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We obtain, in particular, that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. capable of distilling even completely product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which imply, that if we raise the extension index k in parallel with raising the numebr of copies, they are not that powerful anymore.

  13. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    consumed by the chemical and petro chemical industries is used in separation pro cesses. (1) Distillation is one process area where large energy reductions often can be achieved. (2) Numerous studies have identified a number of al ternatives...

  14. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

    1985-02-19

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

  15. Implementation of Prognostic Methodologies to Cryogenic Propellant Loading Testbed

    E-print Network

    Daigle, Matthew

    technologies, a testbed has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that transfers cryogenic for pneumatic valves. The demonstration testbed will integrate with the cryogenic testbed at KSC through

  16. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  17. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  18. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  19. 49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

  20. Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic Electron Microscopy Hemant D. Tagare-dimensional structure of macromolecules. A more modern method is cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-em), which

  1. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  2. Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  3. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  4. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J. G.; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  5. Advanced Devices for Cryogenic Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D.; Stouffer, C.; Garzon, J.; Beres, M.; Gilchrist, A.

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes six advanced cryogenic thermal management devices/subsystems developed by Swales Aerospace for ground/space-based applications of interest to NASA, DoD, and the commercial sector. The devices/subsystems described herein include the following: (a) a differential thermal expansion cryogenic thermal switch (DTE-CTSW) constructed with high purity aluminum end-pieces and an Ultem support rod for the 6 K Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) (b) a quad-redundant DTE-CTSW assembly for the 35 K science instruments (NIRCam, NIRSpec, and FGS) mounted on the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) (c) a cryogenic diode heat pipe (CDHP) thermal switching system using methane as the working fluid for the 100 K CRISM hyperspectral mapping instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and (d) three additional devices/subsystems developed during the AFRL-sponsored CRYOTOOL program, which include a dual DTE-CTSW/dual cryocooler test bed, a miniaturized neon cryogenic loop heat pipe (mini-CLHP), and an across gimbal cryogenic thermal transport system (GCTTS). For the first three devices/subsystems mentioned above, this paper describes key aspects of the development efforts including concept definition, design, fabrication, and testing. For the latter three, this paper provides brief overview descriptions as key details are provided in a related paper.

  6. DISTILL: Learning Domain-Specific Planners by Example Elly Winner ELLY@CS.CMU.EDU

    E-print Network

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    DISTILL: Learning Domain-Specific Planners by Example Elly Winner ELLY@CS.CMU.EDU Manuela Veloso present the DISTILL algorithm for learning dsPlanners automatically from example plans. DISTILL converts that the dsPlan- ners automatically learned by DISTILL com- pactly represent its domain-specific planning ex

  7. Finding limiting flows of batch extractive distillation with interval Erika R. Fritsa,b*

    E-print Network

    Csendes, Tibor

    1/25 Finding limiting flows of batch extractive distillation with interval arithmetic Erika R@inf.u-szeged.hu Abstract Feasibility study on batch extractive distillation is based on analyzing profile maps distillation, feasibility, bifurcation, profile map Introduction Batch extractive distillation (BED) is a unit

  8. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons holding permits as...

  9. Some characteristics of dielectric materials at cryogenic temperatures for HVDC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1981-02-01

    This dielectric study was performed as part of the dc Superconducting Power Transmission Line Program. During a screening test program, the dc breakdown strength of 12 dielectric materials, in sheet form, was determined at 12 K under 1.38 MPa of helium pressure, the operating conditions of the cable design. Tests were also made with four of these materials impregnated with mineral oil. Further dc breakdown tests were performed on five of these dielectric materials at various temperatures (12 to 298 K) and pressures (0.69 and 1.38 MPa) of helium. Two sets of experiments were performed on cellulose paper impregnated with distilled water at 83 K and 1.38 MPa of helium pressure. Five dielectric materials were then selected for tests as cable samples with dc and impulse voltages at 12 K and 1.38 MPa of helium. Data are presented on these tests, as well as on those of the electrical conductivity of four dielectric materials at cryogenic temperatures, and of the surface flashover strength of an epoxy bushing at 12 K and 298 K under 0.69 MPa and 1.38 MPa of helium pressures. The characteristics of the dielectric behavior at cryogenic temperatures are discussed.

  10. Regions of continuous rectification in systems divided into distillation regions

    SciTech Connect

    Balashov, M.I.; Grishunin, A.V.; Serafimov, L.A.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the mechanisms of formation of regions of continuous clear rectification in three-component azeotropic systems of any complexity divided into distillation regions. The limitations of the process for all types of clear rectification have been determined. They have noted the phenomena of intersection of sets in which the rectification process develops as a function of the type of the specified separation. The phenomenon of transfer through the separating manifold of distillation has been pointed out.

  11. Activating NPPT distillation with an infinitesimal amount of bound entanglement

    E-print Network

    Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Michael M. Wolf

    2002-01-23

    We show that bipartite quantum states of any dimension, which do not have a positive partial transpose, become 1-distillable when one adds an infinitesimal amount of bound entanglement. To this end we investigate the activation properties of a new class of symmetric bound entangled states of full rank. It is shown that in this set there exist universal activator states capable of activating the distillation of any NPPT state.

  12. Real option theory from finance to batch distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Rico-ramírez; Urmila M. Diwekar; Benoit Morel

    2003-01-01

    Batch distillation processes have gained renewed interest because of the recent development in small-scale industries producing high-value-added, low-volume specialty chemicals. The flexibility and unsteady state nature of batch distillation constitute a challenge for the designer. A particularly difficult problem is the optimal control problem involving open loop solution for the reflux ratio profile. This is because of the complexity of

  13. The amplified distillation of methyl esters of fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Weitkamp

    1947-01-01

    Summary  Amplified distillation is a useful technique for the quantitative analysis of mixtures of fatty acid esters, especially for\\u000a the detection and estimation of minor components and for the analysis of small samples. The amplified distillation of free\\u000a fatty acids is largely limited to qualitative work on account of the formation of azeotropes with mineral oils.

  14. Process for removing naphthenic acids from petroleum distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Danzik, M.

    1987-01-06

    A liquid extraction process is described for removing naphthenic acids from naphthenic acid containing petroleum distillates boiling within the range of about 180/sup 0/-600/sup 0/C. and having an acid number of at least about 0.2 which process comprises the steps of: (a) intimately contacting the petroleum distillates with a solvent consisting essentially of methanol, water, and about from 2-20 wt. % ammonia and having a methanol: water ratio in the range of about from 0.2 to 3 parts by weight of methanol per part by weight of water and using an ammonia to petroleum distillate ratio of about 0.1-1 part by weight of ammonia per 100 parts by weight of the petroleum distillate. This selectively extracts the naphthenic acids into the solvent and yielding an immiscible two-phase liquid mixture, one of which is naphthenic acid-rich solvent phase and the other of which is a substantially napthenic acid-free petroleum distillate phase; and (b) separating and respectively recovering the naphtenic acid-rich solvent phase and petroleum distillate phase.

  15. Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

  16. Advances in cryogenic engineering materials, Volume 40, Part B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Reed; F. R. Fickett; L. T. Summers; M. Stieg

    1994-01-01

    This book is one of four parts of the collected articles presented as talks or posters at the 1993 International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC), held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 12-16. It covers cryogenic materials being developed and implemented worldwide for a broad array of applications. This volume contains articles directed towards structural materials used in cryogenic applications, their mechanical

  17. Advances in cryogenic engineering materials. Volume 38, Part A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Fickett; R. P. Reed

    1992-01-01

    Contained in this volume (Volume 1 of 2) are papers concerned with advances in the field of cryogenic engineering taken from the Proceedings of the Ninth International Cryogenic Materials Conference, held June 11-14, 1991, in Huntsville, Alabama. The focus of the papers presented here is on materials (superconductors are addressed in the second volume) for cryogenic engineering. The papers are

  18. Advances in cryogenic engineering, Volume 39, Part A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kittel

    1994-01-01

    This volume presents the latest international work in the field of cryogenic engineering, in a broad range of applications. It can serve as a reference to the field of cryogenic applications for researchers and engineers working in cryogenics, materials science, low-temperature physics, polymer science, and solid-state physics. Section headings for this volume are: transportation applications; wind tunnels; space applications; magnet:

  19. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 41, Part A & B

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kittel

    1996-01-01

    This proceedings is of the 1995 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. It consists of 252 published papers covering the latest developments in all aspects of cryogenic engineering research. Contributions touch on fields including: cryobiology; heat and mass transfer (including data on boiling and superfluid helium); magnet technology; large-scale cryogenic systems, such as the large hadron collider and the TeV Electron Superconducting Linear

  20. ccsd00003303, Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic

    E-print Network

    ccsd­00003303, version 1 ­ 17 Nov 2004 Dark Matter Direct Detection using Cryogenic Detectors cryogenic experiments currently provide the best sensitivity, by nearly one order of magnitude, to WIMP of cryogenic exper- iments promises two orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity over the next few years

  1. The effect of cryogenic cooling on grinding forces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Paul; A. B. Chattopadhyay

    1996-01-01

    Grinding forces are important parameters to judge the performance of any grinding process. Cryogenic cooling in grinding is a new concept to control the high grinding zone temperature without polluting the environment. The paper presents a hypothesis on the mechanics of grinding under cryogenic cooling. Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of cryogenic cooling on grinding forces

  2. Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy

    E-print Network

    i Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems Executive Summary Cryogenic systems providing 100-1000 watts of cooling power at 65-80 K are required) and operate more efficiently (30+% of Carnot) and reliably than present day off the shelf cryogenic systems

  3. TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic System Roger Bennett and Yury Ivanyushenkov CCLRC "SPECIFICATION" of the cryogenic cycle is: 1. Initial fill of the magnet cryostat slowly over many hours -12 at CERN, December 2004, drawn by Peter Titus #12;Design and Costing of the Cryogenic System 1. The input

  4. An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea)

    E-print Network

    Eisenstein, Jim

    An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea) and J. P. Eisenstein Condensed Matter contained in a cryogenic environment. Cyclotron emission from a two-dimensional electron gas 2DEG heated microwave to optical frequencies.2 In this article an all-cryogenic spectrometer is presented that bypasses

  5. Microstructure of cryogenic treated M2 tool steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y Huang; Y. T Zhu; X. Z Liao; I. J Beyerlein; M. A Bourke; T. E Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Cryogenic treatment has been claimed to improve wear resistance of certain steels and has been implemented in cutting tools, autos, barrels etc. Although it has been confirmed that cryogenic treatment can improve the service life of tools, the underling mechanism remains unclear. In this paper, we studied the microstructure changes of M2 tool steel before and after cryogenic treatment. We

  6. Interaction of Cryogen Spray with Human Skin under Vacuum Pressures

    E-print Network

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Interaction of Cryogen Spray with Human Skin under Vacuum Pressures Walfre Franco, Jie Liu vessels in port wine stains (PWS) birthmarks laser therapy. The release of cryogen spurts under vacuum is to study the time and space dependent thermal response of a skin phantom to cryogen sprays at different

  7. Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields

    E-print Network

    Fajans, Joel

    Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields by Ramesh Gopalan A.B. (University: Chair Date Date Date University of California at Berkeley 1998 #12;Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields Copyright 1998 by Ramesh Gopalan #12;1 Abstract Studies of Cryogenic Electron

  8. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N), powder insulation, and foam insulation, are used in the cryogenic storage vessels. Among CP823, Advances in Cjyogenie Engineering: Transactions of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC, Vol. 51, edited by J. G

  9. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  10. Performance of Power Converters at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Power converters capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated to play an important role in the power system architecture of future NASA deep space missions. Design of such converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance and reduce development and launch costs. Aerospace power systems are mainly a DC distribution network. Therefore, DC/DC and DC/AC converters provide the outputs needed to different loads at various power levels. Recently, research efforts have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to design and evaluate DC/DC converters that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. This paper presents a summary of the research performed to evaluate the low temperature performance of five DC/DC converters. Various parameters were investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 20 to -196 C. Data pertaining to the output voltage regulation and efficiency of the converters is presented and discussed.

  11. Applicability of ceramics for cryogenic use

    SciTech Connect

    Nishijima, S.; Nakahira, A.; Niihara, K.; Okada, T. [ISIR Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Ceramic thermal shield support used at cryogenic temperatures had been developed for superconducting magnet system. The ceramic materials were screened, based on thermal conductivity down to cryogenic temperature. mechanical properties and machinability, and zirconia was chosen as the candidate for the thermal shield support. The thermal conductivity down to 10 K was measured, the thermal penetration through the support was calculated and compared with the stainless steel support. It was found that with approximately 1/5 of heat penetration to 80K, with 1/4 of that to 4.2 K, a shield can be made with zirconia support. The machinability of the zirconia was also examined. The bolt shaped shield support was successfully developed. The other possible applications of ceramic materials for cryogenic use were also discussed.

  12. Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (review)

    E-print Network

    Buzulutskov, A

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

  13. Designs of pulsed power cryogenic transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Heyne, C.J.; Hackowrth, D.T.; Shestak, E.J.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has completed designs of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These transformers will be configured to transfer their stored energy sequentially to an electro-magnetic launcher and form a three-stage power supply. The pulse transformers will act as two winding energy storage solenoids which provide a high current and energy pulse compression by transforming a 50 kA power supply into a megamp level power supply more appropriate for the electromagnetic launcher duty. This system differs from more traditional transformer applications in that significant current levels do not exists simultaneously in the two windings of the pulse transformer. This paper describes the designs of the pulsed power cryogenic transformers.

  14. Cryogenic surface-electrode ion trap apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubielzig, Timko; Carsjens, Martina; Kohnen, Matthias; Grondkowski, Sebastian; Ospelkaus, Christian

    2014-05-01

    In this talk we describe the infrastructure necessary to operate a surface-electrode ion trap with integrated microwave conductors for near-field quantum control of 9Be+ in a cryogenic environment. These traps are promising systems for analog quantum simulators and for quantum logic applications. Our group recently developed a trap with an integrated meander-like microwave guide for driving motional sidebands on an 9Be+ ion. The trap will be operated in a cryogenic vacuum chamber. We will discuss the vibrational isolated closed cycle cryostat and the design of the vacuum chamber with all electrical supplies necessary to apply two different microwave currents, dc voltages and three independent rf supplies to generate a reconfigurable rf trapping potential. We will also discuss the used hyperfine qubit and the laser systems required to cool and repump. Furthermore we will present the cryogenic, high aperture and fully acromatic imaging system.

  15. A survey of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Following the development of the cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972, a large number of cryogenic wind-tunnel projects have been undertaken at various research establishments around the world. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the more significant of these projects. Described in this paper are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in China (CARDC), England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, RAE-Bedford, and University of Southampton), 'Europe' (Pilot European Transonic Windtunnel at NAL-Amsterdam, and the European Transonic Windtunnel proposed for DFVLR-Koeln), France (ONERA-CERT), Germany (DFVLR-Koeln, and DFVLR-Goettingen), Japan (NAL, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy), Sweden (Rollab), and the United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA-Langley).

  16. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  17. Cryogenic insulation standard data and methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although some standards exist for thermal insulation, few address the sub-ambient temperature range and cold-side temperatures below 100 K. Standards for cryogenic insulation systems require cryostat testing and data analysis that will allow the development of the tools needed by design engineers and thermal analysts for the design of practical cryogenic systems. Thus, this critically important information can provide reliable data and methodologies for industrial efficiency and energy conservation. Two Task Groups have been established in the area of cryogenic insulation systems Under ASTM International's Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation. These are WK29609 - New Standard for Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems and WK29608 - Standard Practice for Multilayer Insulation in Cryogenic Service. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Thermal Energy Laboratory of LeTourneau University are conducting Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) of selected insulation materials. Each lab carries out the measurements of thermal properties of these materials using identical flat-plate boil-off calorimeter instruments. Parallel testing will provide the comparisons necessary to validate the measurements and methodologies. Here we discuss test methods, some initial data in relation to the experimental approach, and the manner reporting the thermal performance data. This initial study of insulation materials for sub-ambient temperature applications is aimed at paving the way for further ILS comparative efforts that will produce standard data sets for several commercial materials. Discrepancies found between measurements will be used to improve the testing and data reduction techniques being developed as part of the future ASTM International standards.

  18. Integrated column arithmetic according to progressive schematisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Treffers

    1987-01-01

    Following an introduction on the relation between column arithmetic and mental arithmetic in connection with the development of pocket calculators and computers, the characteristics of progressive schematisation are described with regard to column multiplication and column division. In this way, an image is formed of the specific characteristics of this approach to column arithmetic set against the background of traditional

  19. Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

    2011-01-01

    The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least 25 C colder than the coldest expected operating temperature. This quenching process is the opposite of the standard burn-in procedure. Normal burn-in raises the temperature (and voltage) to activate quickly any possible manufacturing defects remaining in the device that were not already rejected at a functional test step. The proposed inverse burn-in or quenching process is custom-tailored to the electronic device being used. The doping profiles, materials, minimum dimensions, interfaces, and thermal expansion coefficients are all taken into account in determining the ramp rate, dwell time, and temperature.

  20. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Sperling, P.; Harmand, M.; Becker, A.; Bornath, T.; Bredow, R.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fennel, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Förster, E.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Holst, B.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Mithen, J. P.; Mitzner, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Roling, S.; Schulz, M.; Siemer, B.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Wöstmann, M.; Zacharias, H.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ?300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ˜0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  1. Current developments in NASA cryogenic cooler technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Cooler technologies that are being developed by NASA to meet the varying temperature and cooling power requirements of NASA instruments are described. In addition to providing the desired operating temperature and cooling power by stabilizing temperatures from room temperature down to 0.1 K or less, these coolers will have working lifetimes commensurate with the 10 to 15 year lifetime expected for major future NASA facilities. The types of coolers currently under development are discussed, including radiative coolers, solid cryogen coolers, surface tension confined liquid cryogen coolers, mechanical coolers, liquid helium dewars, He3 adsorption coolers, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, and dilution refrigerators.

  2. Cryogenic electron beam induced chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aiden A; Toth, Milos

    2014-11-12

    Cryogenic cooling is used to enable efficient, gas-mediated electron beam induced etching (EBIE) in cases where the etch rate is negligible at room and elevated substrate temperatures. The process is demonstrated using nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) as the etch precursor, and Si, SiO2, SiC, and Si3N4 as the materials volatilized by an electron beam. Cryogenic cooling broadens the range of precursors that can be used for EBIE, and enables high-resolution, deterministic etching of materials that are volatilized spontaneously by conventional etch precursors as demonstrated here by NF3 and XeF2 EBIE of silicon. PMID:25333843

  3. Thermoelectric Module Performance in Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Morita, Ryo; Omoto, Kazuyuki; Koji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Noishiki, Koji

    Performance of thermoelectric (TE) modules for the TE power conversion system combined with open rack type LNG vaporizer (ORV) is discussed. Most of the conventional BiTe TE modules suffer sudden decrease of the power at cryogenic temperature as low as -160°C. This is called as Mayer-Marschall effect. Authors investigated the cause of this effect and found TE modules that could avoid such effect. Performance data of such TE modules obtained at the cryogenic thermoelectric (CTE) test rig which could realize temperature and fluid dynamic condition of the ORV is presented.

  4. Photochemistry of chloropicrin in cryogenic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Elisabeth A.; Reak, Kristina E.; Parsons, Bradley F.; Clemes, Thomas P.; Singmaster, Karen A.

    2002-11-01

    The photolysis of chloropicrin (CCl 3NO 2) was investigated in Ar and N 2 cryogenic matrices. The extent of reaction was monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy. Phosgene and nitrosyl chloride were the observed photoproducts at all wavelengths investigated (220, 251, 313, 365, and 405 nm). When the photolysis was performed with 220, 251, or 313 nm light, two additional bands were also observed. These bands have been assigned to CCl 3ONO. Chloropicrin was also photolyzed in the presence of O 2 and 18O2. 18O-labeled photoproducts were not detected in cryogenic matrices.

  5. Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Chan, Hue Sun

    safety precautions to be taken when working with inert cryogenics, and is based on standard industry_______________________________________________________________________ Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage in the Laboratory Page 1 of 4 March 2009 Standard for Inert Cryogenic Liquid Usage

  6. CRYOGENIC AND VACUUM TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE LOW-ENERGY ELECTROSTATIC CRYOGENIC STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D. A.; Lange, M.; Froese, M.; Hahn, R. von; Grieser, M.; Mallinger, V.; Sieber, T.; Weber, T.; Wolf, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg, 69029 Germany (Germany); Rappaport, M. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2008-03-16

    The cryogenic and vacuum concepts for the electrostatic Cryogenic ion Storage Ring (CSR), under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg, is presented. The ring will operate in a broad temperature range from 2 to 300 K and is required to be bakeable up to 600 K. Extremely high vacuum and low temperatures are necessary to achieve long lifetimes of the molecular ions stored in the ring so that the ions will have enough time to cool by radiation to their vibrational and rotational ground states. To test cryogenic and vacuum technological aspects of the CSR, a prototype is being built and will be connected to the commercial cryogenic refrigerator recently installed, including a specialized 2-K connection system. The first results and the status of current work with the prototype are also presented.

  7. Cryogenic Technology, part 1. [conference proceedings; cryogenic wind tunnel design and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Different engineering problems associated with the design of mechanisms and systems to operate in a cryogenic environment are discussed. The focal point for the entire engineering effort was the design of the National Transonic Facility, which is a closed-circuit cryogenic wind tunnel. The papers covered a variety of mechanical, structural, and systems design subjects including thermal structures insulation systems, noise, seals, and materials.

  8. Comparison of a Multipore Column with a Mixed-Bed Column for Size Exclusion Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nagata; T. Kato; H. Furutani

    1998-01-01

    A new type of column packed with polystyrene gels which have a broad pore size distribution in a particle (henceforth referred to as the multipore column) was developed, and its performance was compared with the so-called linear column (henceforth referred to as the mixed-bed column). The chromatogram of the epoxy resin (Epikote 1009) on the multipore column showed a monomodal

  9. Selected Topics in Column Generation

    E-print Network

    2002-12-02

    Dec 2, 2002 ... efficient heuristic algorithm for solving the cutting stock problem. ... of linear programming column generation, expanding respectively on the strategies developed for get- ... multiple traveling salesman problem with time windows .... as convex combination of extreme points {pq}q?Q plus non-negative ...

  10. Editorial: Research and Teaching Column

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marcy Towns

    2008-03-01

    The JCST Research and Teaching column will feature sound research on curriculum, pedagogy, and student learning at the college level. Topics of interest include all fields of science: chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, physics, geography, mathematics, environmental science, and computer science. Studies that are interdisciplinary or are readily applicable to several disciplines in the sciences are also of interest.

  11. WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS Domestic wastewater treatment by infiltration-percolation is a process that becomming common in France, a greater depth for desinfection purposes. KEYWORDS Wastewater treatment, Infiltration-percolation. Sand

  12. Abel inversion of cryogenic laser target images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Yaakobi; F. J Marshall; J. A Delettrez

    1997-01-01

    Abel inversion of backlighted laser target images have been recently used to infer shell densities during the implosion. We calculate here images of predicted cryogenic implosions and show that very high peak densities can be diagnosed if the image is monochromatized. A simple Abel procedure is used, where the two-dimensional image is integrated to yield a one-dimensional image before inversion.

  13. Dimensional stability considerations for cryogenic metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Work performed as part of an effort to identify, and where possible separate out, some of the factors that contribute to dimensional stability in cryogenic wind tunnel models is reported. Initial problems were encountered with two dimensional models made of 15-5 PH stainless steel, which warped significantly after being subjected to cryogenic testing in the 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Subsequently, an effort was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms that could cause model warpage during cryogenic testing. The two basic mechanisms that can lead to warpage are (1) metallurgical structural instability in which one phase transforms partially or fully into a second phase which has a different crystal structure and volume, and (2) deformation due to the creation, or relief, of unbalanced induced or residual stresses. In the case of the 15-5 PH airfoils, it is highly probable that metallurgical instability was responsible for most of the observed warpage. A particular specimen configuration was established for use in the systematic evaluation of the factors influencing warpage. Preliminary studies of a specimen made of VASCOMAX 200 suggest the possibility of manipulating the stresses in the surface layers by appropriate combinations of milling and grinding steps. This opens up the possibility of correcting or establishing the required surface profile of an airfoil.

  14. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Timmerhaus

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented describing recent studies and developments in applied superconductivity, liquid natural gas technology, phase equilibria, insulation technology, cryotechnology and cryobiology. Some of the topics covered include a survey of cryogenic power transmission research in the U.S., liquid natural gas peakshaving plants - a comparison of cycles, measurement techniques for phase equilibria at low temperatures, transient optimization of a

  15. Advances in cryogenic engineering materials. Volume 34

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Clark; R. P. Reed

    1988-01-01

    This volume comprises the proceedings of the Seventh International Cryogenics Materials Conference and includes papers on the following topics: composite insulators under gas permeation, irradiation, magnetic field, thermal, and mechanical conditions and effects; superconducting alloy development and testing; mechanical and physical property determination; A15 conductors; high critical temperature oxide superconductors; Chevrel phase sulfide superconductors; flux pinning determination; superconducting film and

  16. Development of a cryogenic capillary pumped loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroliczek, Edward J.; Cullimore, Brent

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a promising new cryogenic technology. Room temperature capillary pumped loops (CPLs), a derivative of heat pipe technology, have been under development for almost two decades and are emerging as a design solution for many spacecraft thermal control problems. While cryogenic capillary pumped loops have application to passive spacecraft radiators and to long term storage of cryogenic propellants and open-cycle coolants, their application to the integration of spacecraft cryocoolers has generated the most excitement. Without moving parts or complex controls, they are able to thermally connect redundant cryocoolers to a single remote load, eliminating thermal switches and providing mechanical isolation at the same time. Development of a cryogenic CPL (CCPL) presented some unique challenges including start-up from a super-critical state, the management of parasitic heat leaks and pressure containment at ambient temperatures. These challenges have been overcome with a novel design that requires no additional devices or preconditioning for start-up. This paper describes the design concept and development and results conducted under SBIR Phase I and Phase II.

  17. Three-axis cryogenic Hall sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kvitkovic; M. Majoros

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements are very important for magnetic and superconducting material research. Hall sensors have many advantages for these measurements. They can also be used for magnetic field profile measurements, which provide information about material homogeneity. We have developed a three-axis Hall system which consists of three perpendicular InSb Hall sensors for operation at room as well as cryogenic temperatures.

  18. The Cryogenic Supervision System in NSRRC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsing-Chieh Li; Zong-Da Tsai; Feng-Zone Hsiao; Sheng-Hsiung Chang; Wen-Song Chiou

    2005-01-01

    The helium cryogenic system in NSRRC is a fully automatic system using the Siemens SIMATIC 300 PLC (Programable Logic Controller). Modularization in both hardware and software makes it easy in the program reading, the system modification and the problem debug. Based on the LabVIEW program we had developed a supervision system taking advantage of the Internet technology to get system's

  19. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  20. Optical testing cryogenic thermal vacuum facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick W. Dohogne; Warren A. Carpenter

    1990-01-01

    The construction of a turnkey cryogenic vacuum test facility was recently completed. The facility will be used to measure and record the surface profile of large diameter and 540 kg optics under simulated space conditions. The vacuum test chamber is a vertical stainless steel cylinder with a 3.5 diameter and a 7 m tangent length. The chamber was designed to

  1. Rigid plastic foam insulation for cryogenic application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mathes; H. Langer; R. Sangkohl

    1976-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of rigid foam materials necessary for cryogenic applications are described. The following data from PVC, PUR and PMI rigid foams were determined: tensile strength, stress-strain diagram, compressive strength, specific dates of thermal conductivity, permeability to gas, and contractive behavior at low temperature. The testing methods applied are described and the results are tabulated. Efficiency data for

  2. Infrared Telescope (IRT) System Cryogenic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, E. W.; Ladner, D. R.

    1985-02-01

    The Spacelab 2 Infrared Telescope Experiment has recently completed a series of extensive tests both in the laboratory and as part of the integrated Spacelab 2 payload. We report on the results of the cryogenic performance and servicing tests conducted to date.

  3. Fiber optic level sensor for cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.

    1981-01-01

    Sensor is useful in cryogenic environments where liquids of very low index of refraction are encountered. It is "yes/no" indication of whether liquid is in contact with sensor. Sharp bends in fiber alter distribution of light among propagation modes. This amplifies change in light output observed when sensor contacts liquid, without requiring long fiber that would increse insertion loss.

  4. Cryogenic testing of the TPC superconducting solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; van Slyke, V.; Barrera, F.; Petersen, H.; Rago, C.E.; Rinta, R.I.; Talaska, D.; Watt, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    This report describes the results of a series of tests on the TPC superconducting magnet cryogenic system which occurred during the winter and spring of 1983. The tests occurred at interaction region 2 of the PEP colliding beam facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The TPC Magnet Cryogenic System which was tested includes the following major components: a remote helium compressor with a full flow liquid nitrogen purification station, 400 meters of high pressure supply and low pressure return lines; and locally a CTi Model 2800 refrigerator with two Sulzer gas bearing turbines, the TPC magnet control dewar, 70 meters of transfer lines, and the TPC thin superconducting solenoid magnet. In addition, there is a conditioner (liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and gas heaters) system for cooldown and warmup of the magnet. This report describes the local cryogenic system and describes the various steps in the cooldown and operation of the TPC magnet. The tests were successful in that they showed that the TPC magnet could be cooled down in 24 hours and the magnet could be operated on the refrigerator or a helium pump with adequate cooling margin. The tests identified problems with the cryogenic system and the 2800 refrigerator. Procedures for successful operation and quenching of the superconducting magnet were developed. 19 references.

  5. Cryogenic magnetostrictive actuators and stepper motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad H. Joshi

    2000-01-01

    Energen, Inc. has developed actuators based on cryogenic magnetostrictive materials. These actuators are designed to provide precision positioning and active control of adaptive optical surfaces such as those that are being considered for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The NGST is a large 8-mm diameter segmented reflecting telescope that uses a thin optical surface mounted on a rigid composite

  6. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  7. Development of Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Karunanithi; Subhash Jacob; G. S. V. L. Narasimham; D. S. Nadig; Upendra Behera; Dinesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) is presented in the paper. As the wick is required only in the evaporator section, very small pore size wicks can be used in applications with high thermal transport requirements and\\/or where the heat must be transported over a long distance against gravity. A FORTRAN program to solve the mathematical model

  8. Dielectric strength of condensed cryogenic helium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Belevtsev

    1993-01-01

    The quantitative theory of the intrinsic dielectric strength of condensed helium under cryogenic temperatures is considered. It is based on examining the electron impact multiplication process in this medium in a strong electric field. The method of the electron kinetic Boltzmann equation is used to calculate the impact ionization coefficients and other related transport quantities. These quantities have been used

  9. Optimum Input Leads for Cryogenic Apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard McFee

    1959-01-01

    Electrical leads carrying currents into cryogenic apparatus also introduce heat. Even with an ideal Carnot cycle, the mechanical power needed to remove this heat can be one hundred or more times the heat flow itself. If the currents and hence the input leads are heavy, a very sizeable refrigerator may be required. In this article the configuration of the leads

  10. Cryogenic Filters for RFI Mitigation in Radioastronomy

    E-print Network

    G. Tuccari; A. Caddemi; S. Barbarino; G. Nicotra; F. Consoli; F. Schilliro; F. Catalfamo

    2005-01-03

    RFI mitigation in Radioastronomy can be achieved adopting cryogenic filters in appropriate typologies. A study has been conducted in L, C and X band with the evaluation of the filter architecture in copper, with theoretical estimation, computer simulations, prototypes realization, laboratory measurements. Such work has been preliminary to the realization of HTS samples with the purpose of a similar complete characterization approach.

  11. Cryogenic recondenser with remote cold box

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, A.J.; Andeen, B.R.; Lessard, P.A.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a cryogenic recondenser for recondensing cryogen retained in a storage vessel. The recondenser consists of: cooling means comprising a mechanical refrigerator positioned outside of the storage vessel, the means precooling a volume of gaseous refrigerant; a transfer line leading from the cooling means and removeably inserted into the storage vessel; and a JT valve at an end of the transfer line in the storage vessel, the precooled refrigerant being transferred in the transfer line from the cooling means to the JT valve in heat exchange relation with returning refrigerant and being expanded through the JT valve to form a liquid-gas cryogen mixture within the end of the transfer line which is in heat exchange relation with boil-off from the cryogen retained in the storage vessel such that the boil off is cooled and recondensed; refrigerant being returned to the cooling means through the transfer line in a manner in which the returning refrigerant is in heat exchange relation with the refrigerant being transferred to the JT valve.

  12. Cryogenic propellant prestart conditioning for NLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Merlin, M. V.; Gautney, T. T.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of a candidate National Launch System (NLS) passive cryogenic propellant prestart conditioning system that offers a stable propellant thermal environment and minimum system complexity. A 2D, multinode model utilizing real fluid properties was developed. This model predicts flow recirculation due to thermal gradients by assuming vertical cold and warm opposing flow streams produced by density differential.

  13. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Rucinski; K. D. Dixon; R. Krasa; K. J. Krempetz; G. T. Mulholland; G. R. Trotter; J. B. Urbin

    1993-01-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation

  14. Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a

    E-print Network

    with experiments for similar helium systems / 2 // 3 /. At least on the scale of one TESLA cryomodule the effect1 Proposal for the Cryogenic Supply of a Single TTF / FEL - Cryomodule Test Bench TESLA Report No of the TESLA accelerator, can be conducted only in the TTF/FEL-linac. Sometimes such kinds of tests are shifted

  15. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  16. Temperature control of a cryogenic bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, I. M.

    1972-01-01

    Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

  17. Cryogenic systems for the large deployable reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Peter V.

    1988-01-01

    There are five technologies which may have application for Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), one passive and four active. In order of maturity, they are passive stored cryogen systems, and mechanical, sorption, magnetic, and pulse-tube refrigerators. In addition, deep space radiators will be required to reject the heat of the active systems, and may be useful as auxiliary coolers for the stored cryogen systems. Hybrid combinations of these technologies may well be more efficient than any one alone, and extensive system studies will be required to determine the best trade-offs. Stored cryogen systems were flown on a number of missions. The systems are capable of meeting the temperature requirements of LDR. The size and weight of stored cryogen systems are proportional to heat load and, as a result, are applicable only if the low-temperature heat load can be kept small. Systems using chemisorption and physical adsorption for compressors and pumps have received considerable attention in the past few years. Systems based on adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts were used for refrigeration for many years. Pulse-tube refrigerators were recently proposed which show relatively high efficiency for temperatures in the 60 to 80 K range. The instrument heat loads and operating temperatures are critical to the selection and design of the cryogenic system. Every effort should be made to minimize heat loads, raise operating temperatures, and to define these precisely. No one technology is now ready for application to LDR. Substantial development efforts are underway in all of the technologies and should be monitored and advocated. Magnetic and pulse-tube refrigerators have high potential.

  18. Thales Cryogenics rotary cryocoolers for HOT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Freche, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Thales Cryogenics has an extensive background in delivering reliable linear and rotary coolers for military, civil and space programs. Recent work carried out at detector level enable to consider a higher operation temperature for the cooled detectors. This has a direct impact on the cooling power required to the cryocooler. In continuation of the work presented last year, Thales cryogenics has studied the operation and optimization of the rotary cryocoolers at high cold regulation temperature. In this paper, the performances of the Thales Cryogenics rotary cryocoolers at elevated cold regulation temperature will be presented. From these results, some trade-offs can be made to combine correct operation of the cryocooler on all the ambient operational range and maximum efficiency of the cryocooler. These trade-offs and the impact on MTTF of elevated cold regulation temperature will be presented and discussed. In correlation with the increase of the cold operation temperature, the cryocooler input power is significantly decreased. As a consequence, the cooler drive electronics own consumption becomes relatively important and must be reduced in order to minimize global input power to the cooling function (cryocooler and cooler drive electronics). Thales Cryogenics has developed a new drive electronics optimized for low input power requirements. In parallel, improvements on RM1 and RM2 cryocoolers have been defined and implemented. The main impacts on performances of these new designs will be presented. Thales cryogenics is now able to propose an efficient cooling function for application requiring a high cold regulation temperature including a range of tuned rotary coolers.

  19. DIII-D cryogenics control system status

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.L.; Harris, J.J.; Schaubel, K.M.

    1993-09-01

    The DIII-D cryogenics system provides liquid helium for various auxiliary systems at the DIII-D tokamak facility. The system described here executes control and supervision of the cryogenics plant and associated load systems which include four neutral beam injectors, superconducting magnets, and an in-vessel tokamak cryocondensation pump. The recent addition of this divertor cryopump represented a major increase in the scope of the control system and greater need for reliable and automatic operation. The pump must be precooled, cooled and regenerated in a relatively short period of time under automatic control. Since the pump is located in the tokamak primary vacuum, coordination with the machine vacuum control system and consideration for the requirements of physics operations and vessel wall conditioning are required. A programmable logic controller is the central element in the cryogenics control system and exercises direct or supervisory control over the liquefier, gas management and loads. In the time since the control system was built during 1989, additions and improvements have been made to simplify operation and support upgrades. Cryogenics system capacity has been upgraded by the purchase of a new 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, a second 400 hp helium compressor and additional gas storage. The new liquefier incorporates a controller of its own which exchanges information with the cryogenics control system. This independent controller relieved the main system of liquefier process control tasks but necessitates much finer control of the system high and low pressures. The control system upgrades and automation are discussed with emphasis on the divertor cryocondensation pump control.

  20. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Dymerski, Tomasz; G?bicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525