These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A cryogenic distillation column for the XENON1T experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XENON collaboration aims for the direct detection of cold dark matter in form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A dual phase time projection chamber filled with liquid xenon is used to detect the WIMP-nucleon interaction. For the next generation experiment XENON1T with an active target mass of 1 ton of xenon, a new distillation column to remove krypton out of xenon to a concentration of < 5 × 10?13 (0.5 ppt) natural krypton in xenon is designed and tested at the Institut für Kernphysik, Universitat Munster. The experimental setup together with two diagnostic tools is presented, as well as one stability test of a 11 hour distillation run at the designed flowrate of 3 kg per hour.

Rosendahl, S.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C.

2014-11-01

2

First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon  

E-print Network

We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

2012-05-01

3

Cryogenic hydrogen isotope distillation for the fusion fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic distillation is an attractive method for the hydrogen isotopic separations required in fusion fuel cycles. The theoretical and practical aspects of designing and constructing such systems are well established. Practical considerations in the design of systems are presented and applied to the Isotope Separation System (ISS) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), as well as systems of distillation columns that might be used for a reactor such as the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) and the recovery of breeding blanket product.

Sherman, R.H.

1985-01-01

4

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns  

E-print Network

to be controlled. In many difficult process situations such as steelmaking furnaces [7], cement kilns [13], presses in the glass industry [4] and distillation columns [12], such models do not exist. While there are a variety of adaptive techniques which can...

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-06-07

5

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

6

Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

2011-01-01

7

Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column, respectively. Because distillation is a mass-transfer process, the purity of the product(s) can be increased by increasing the effectiveness of the mass-transfer process (increasing the mass-transfer coefficient) and/or by increasing the available surface area for mass transfer through increased column height. The diameter of a distillation column is fixed by pressure-drop and mass-flow requirements. The approach taken in designing the present distillation column to be short yet capable of yielding a product of acceptably high purity was to pay careful attention to design details that affect mass-transfer processes.

Rozzi, Jay C.

2006-01-01

8

Effects of System Densities on Distillation Column Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol—butanol, ethanol—propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence

S. O. Fasesan; S. A. Sanni; E. A. Taiwo

1998-01-01

9

Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

10

Cryogenic focussing, ohmically heated on-column trap  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is described for depositing a conductive layer of gold on the exterior of a fused-silica capillary used in gas chromatography. By subjecting a section of the column near the inlet to a thermal cycle of cryogenic cooling and ohmic heating, volatile samples are concentrated and subsequently injected. The performance of this trap as a chromatographic injector is demonstrated. Several additional applications are suggested and the unique properties of this device are discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Springston, S.R.

1991-12-01

11

Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon*  

E-print Network

(the reboiler) and one heat sink (the condenser), a diabatic column uses a heat exchanger at each trayOptimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Exchangers Edward Steven of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred

Salamon, Peter

12

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-print Network

The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill...

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

13

High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

exchangers and distillation trays permits additional energy savings by lower reboiler temperature differences, and reduced reflux requirements for a fixed column height, due to closer tray spacings. This paper surveys the heat pump systems currently...

Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

1981-01-01

14

Application of the theta method to distillation columns where one or more reactions occur per stage  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Approved as to style and content by: cubi...

Izarraraz, Alicia

2012-06-07

15

Assessing Safety in Distillation Column Using Dynamic Simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment becomes an important activity in chemical industries since the need to comply with general legal requirements in addition to meet safer plant and profit. This paper reviews some most frequently causes of distillation column malfunction. First, analysis of case histories will be discussed for providing guidelines in identifying potential trouble spots in distillation column. A dynamic simulation for operational failure is simulated as the basis for assessing the consequences. A case study will be used from a side stream distillation column to show the implementation of the concept. A framework for assessing safety in the column is proposed using Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Further, trouble-free operation in order to reduce the risk associated with column malfunction is described.

Werner, Suhendra; Fred, Witt; Compart

16

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column  

E-print Network

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward the column . We have previously shown (Jimenez et al. 2003) that optimaloperation of serial heat exchangers total heat exchanger area in different trays and calculate the optimal allocation of a given heat

Salamon, Peter

17

Simulation and experimental study of intermediate heat exchange in a sieve tray distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to combine a simulation study with an experimental in the investigation of intermediate heat exchange as a method to change the distribution of the driving forces in the column where the number of trays is kept constant. It was applied to a pilot plant sieve tray distillation column for a binary separation of ethanol

Ingela Niklasson Björn; Urban Grén; Fredrik Svensson

2002-01-01

18

Practical Application of Distillation Column Energy Control Systems  

E-print Network

computer control system on an existing col umn. To be more specific, an ethylene-ethane column will be discussed - ethylene is the light key and ethane is the heavy key. Figure 1 shows a simple diagram for an ethylene column. As shown in Figure 1... is not always at the maximum allowable impurity. In other words, the ethylene column product should not contain the maximum amount of ethane (impurity) for all economic cases. b

Matthews, S. A.

1980-01-01

19

A nonlinear profile observer using tray temperatures for high-purity binary distillation column control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, concise nonlinear profile position observer using tray temperatures instead of tray compositions is proposed. Composition measurement has been one of the major difficulties associated with the composition control of distillation columns because the on-line analyzers still suffer from large measurement delays, high investment\\/maintenance costs and low reliability. One of common alternatives to the analyzers is to use the

Joonho Shin; Hodong Seo; Myungwan Han

2000-01-01

20

Counter-current operation of structured catalytically packed distillation columns: pressure drop, holdup and mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured packed columns, in which the catalyst particles are enclosed within wire gauze envelopes (“sandwiches”) are promising reactor configurations for reactive distillation and hydroconversions. By allowing preferential channels for the gas and liquid phases, counter-current operation is achieved even for millimeter sized catalyst particles without the problem of flooding. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive experimental study of

J. Ellenberger; R. Krishna

1999-01-01

21

Fuzzy supervisory PI control of a binary distillation column via distributed control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the fuzzy supervisory PI control is implemented via distributed control systems (DCS) to control a binary distillation column. The fuzzy c-mean clustering is used to identify the membership functions and fuzzy rules are determined using fuzzy gain scheduling technique. Thus, the need of heuristic method for designing fuzzy membership functions and rules from expert knowledge is omitted.

Poramade Cheingjong; Suvalai Pratishthananda

2008-01-01

22

Modified method to improve the design of Petlyuk distillation columns  

PubMed Central

Background A response surface analysis was performed to study the effect of the composition and feeding thermal conditions of ternary mixtures on the number of theoretical stages and the energy consumption of Petlyuk columns. A modification of the pre-design algorithm was necessary for this purpose. Results The modified algorithm provided feasible results in 100% of the studied cases, compared with only 8.89% for the current algorithm. The proposed algorithm allowed us to attain the desired separations, despite the type of mixture and the operating conditions in the feed stream, something that was not possible with the traditional pre-design method. The results showed that the type of mixture had great influence on the number of stages and on energy consumption. A higher number of stages and a lower consumption of energy were attained with mixtures rich in the light component, while higher energy consumption occurred when the mixture was rich in the heavy component. Conclusions The proposed strategy expands the search of an optimal design of Petlyuk columns within a feasible region, which allow us to find a feasible design that meets output specifications and low thermal loads. PMID:25061476

2014-01-01

23

Nonlinear model-based control algorithm for a distillation column using software sensor.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design of model-based globally linearizing control (GLC) structure for a distillation process within the differential geometric framework. The model of a nonideal binary distillation column, whose characteristics were highly nonlinear and strongly interactive, is used as a real process. The classical GLC law is comprised of a transformer (input-output linearizing state feedback), a nonlinear state observer, and an external PI controller. The tray temperature based short-cut observer (TTBSCO) has been used as a state estimator within the control structure, in which all tray temperatures were considered to be measured. Accordingly, the liquid phase composition of each tray was calculated online using the derived temperature-composition correlation. In the simulation experiment, the proposed GLC coupled with TTBSCO (GLC-TTBSCO) outperformed a conventional PI controller based on servo performances with and without measurement noise as well as on regulatory behaviors. In the subsequent part, the GLC law has been synthesized in conjunction with tray temperature based reduced-order observer (GLC-TTBROO) where the distillate and bottom compositions of the distillation process have been inferred from top and bottom product temperatures respectively, which were measured online. Finally, the comparative performance of the GLC-TTBSCO and the GLC-TTBROO has been addressed under parametric uncertainty and the GLC-TTBSCO algorithm provided slightly better performance than the GLC-TTBROO. The resulting control laws are rather general and can be easily adopted for other binary distillation columns. PMID:15868863

Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Ganguly, Saibal

2005-04-01

24

Large scale xenon purification using cryogenic distillation for dark matter detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high efficiency cryogenic distillation system for removal of radioactive krypton-85 (85Kr) from commercially available xenon (Xe) has been designed, developed and assessed to meet the requirements of high sensitivity, low background dark matter detection experiments. The concentration of krypton (Kr) in a commercial xenon product can be decreased from 10?9 to 10?12 mol/mol based on the theoretical design and simulation. The experimental measurements showed that the concentration of krypton was decreased to 10?11 mol/mol with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h. Over 500 kg of xenon has been purified using this system, which has been used as the detection medium in project Panda X, the first dark matter detector developed in China.

Wang, Z.; Bao, L.; Hao, X. H.; Ju, Y. L.; Pushkin, K.; He, M.

2014-11-01

25

Estimating vent emissions from a distillation column: An alternative to stack testing  

SciTech Connect

This technical paper points out the cost-effectiveness and data manageability of material balance over the epidemic use of stack testing in the chemical industry. An example is drawn from a Title V emissions inventory prepared for an international manufacturer of pharmaceuticals and fuel additives. This example case focuses on the use of mass balance to estimate noncondensibles generated by a typical large-scale distillation column. Distillation fundamentals are reviewed, including discussion of relative volatility, x-y and McCabe-Thiele diagrams, and basic sieve tray mechanics. A seemingly complex set of energy and material balance equations is simplified by the application of constant molar overflow. The example case concludes with a calculation of column noncondensibles, and the paper closes with a review of the material balance approach, including its strengths, limitations, and applicability to other unit operations.

Dickerson, D.L. Jr. [ERM-Southeast, Charleston, SC (United States)

1996-12-31

26

Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation  

E-print Network

-METHOD OF CONVERGENCE Complex Columns . Other Specifications for Holdups 13 15 IV. MODIFIED IMPLICIT METHOD 19 Use of the Modified Implicit Method in the Solution of Unsteady State Distillation Problems. Solution of Enthalpy Balances by Use... for Example 1 44 Results Obtained for Example 2 by Use of the Analytical Solution and Numerical Methods at Relatively Small Intervals 45 Results Obtained for Example 2 with X = 0. 1 and x = 0, 9 by Use of Analytical Solution and 0 Numerical Methods...

Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

2012-06-07

27

Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns  

E-print Network

capacity is required or where there a e severe and internals is less than six months. This assumes that coking problems, Style II F1exigrid 0 packing, hich has the F1exipac@ structured packing can be installed during very low holdUp and minimum dead..."UTILIZATION OF STRUCTURED PACKING FOR ENERGY SAVINGS IN DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION COLUMNS" O. Jeffrey Berven and Wendell E. Howard Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wi chita, Kansas As the need to reduce production costs causes...

Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

28

Towards further internal heat integration in design of reactive distillation columns—part I: The design principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic efficiency of a reactive distillation column involving reactions with a highly thermal effect could sometimes be improved substantially through seeking further internal heat integration between the reaction operation and separation operation. Prudent arrangement of the reactive section and deliberate determination of feed location are the two effective methods that can complement internal heat integration within a reactive distillation

Kejin Huang; Koichi Iwakabe; Masaru Nakaiwa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2005-01-01

29

Distillation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science in its earliest beginnings consisted of a practice called alchemy. Alchemy includes the study of chemistry, biology, astronomy, spirituality, physics, and art. Distillation or experiments in purification of substances may have been a part of the practice of alchemy.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-24

30

Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.  

PubMed

Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China. PMID:24517821

Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

2014-01-01

31

Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

2014-10-01

32

COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

33

A novel 83mKr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioactive isomer 83mKr, has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and ?-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state 83Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long-lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present a new approach, using 83mKr as a radioactive tracer in noble gases. A method of doping 83mKr, into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. Two applications of this method are presented: firstly, it can be used to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems and determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Secondly, it is used for rapid estimating of the separation performance of a distillation system.

Rosendahl, S.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, O.; Levy, C.; Murra, M.; Schneider, S.; V'enos, D.; Weinheimer, C.

2014-10-01

34

The influence of vapour capacitance on the composition dynamics of packed distillation columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general transfer function matrix (TFM) expression is derived for the composition dynamics of ideal packed columns that are statically symmetrical, but are dynamically asymmetric, i.e., having a nonunity vapor/liquid capacitance ratio, c. For the special case of c = o, the system TFM is derived completely analytically to produce a parametric TFM, resembling that for c = 1. The result is successfully tested at high and zero frequencies against the initial and final values of the system step responses determined analytically and by time domain simulation. Complete inverse Nyquist diagrams are presented and compared with the c = 1 case. It is noted that whereas for c = 1, the system response for long columns is nonminimum phase, for c = o, the system behaves in a nonstrictly proper fashion with an abrupt initial negative response of magnitude similar to the nonminimum phase dip produced when c = 1. Hence, the variation of c does not greatly influence the general response characteristics of packed columns.

Edwards, J. B.; Guilandoust, M.

1981-11-01

35

Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design  

SciTech Connect

The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

Eldridge, Robert, B.

2005-10-13

36

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOEpatents

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01

37

Compartmental modeling of high purity air separation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants. The development of nonlinear control technology is motivated by the need to frequently change production rates in response to time varying utility costs. Detailed column models based on stage-by-stage balance equations are too complex to be incorporated directly into optimization-based strategies such as nonlinear model predictive control.

Shoujun Biana; Suabtragool Khowinij; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

38

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOEpatents

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17

39

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22

40

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01

41

Analysis and optimization of two-column cryogenic process for argon recovery from hydrogen-depleted ammonia purge gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, high-purity argon recovery from air is considerably difficult owing to the boiling point of argon close to that of oxygen. Recently with the increasing demands for argon, another attractive source of ammonia purge gas has been paid more attention. In this paper with an objective of minimizing energy consumption per argon product, the two-column process for recovering argon from

Min Zhao; Yanzhong Li; Shanxiu Sun

2011-01-01

42

Catalytic Distillation  

E-print Network

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been...

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01

43

Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10  

E-print Network

Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10 C. Mirabello1, G. Tradigo1,2 , P.Veltri2, and G. Pollastri and Distill_roll is that for the former we use an improved fold recognition algorithm. Methods Distill runs 3 through 3 searches for Distill_roll (PSSM and SAMD profile against PDB sequences and SAMD, with 3

Pollastri, Gianluca

44

Exergy analysis of cryogenic air separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exergy analysis is performed to analyse the possibilities of fuel saving in the cryogenic distillation process, which is the main method of air separation. It is shown that more than half of the exergy loss takes place in the liquefaction unit and almost one-third in the air compression unit. Minor exergy losses are taking place in the distillation unit

R. L. Cornelissen; G. G. Hirs

1998-01-01

45

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

46

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-print Network

is therefore the first requirement of optimal control. Use of Slip-Stream Consider the distillation of a binary mixture where one or both components are valuable. are required pure, and are separated in a single column. The objective is to obtain maximum...

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01

47

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-print Network

distillation application, a column with a small pressure drop is especially important. An example of a vacuum distillation which is made suitable for VRC with use of structured packing is sep~ration of styrene and ethylbenzene. Approximately 70...% of the world's styrene capac ty is now processed through columns filled with Flex pac? or Mellapak structured packings. In conventio al column operation, energy savings of 20 to 30% re obtained by replacing trays or dumped packings Other benefits...

Hill, J.H.

48

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

49

Experimental study of multiple steady states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bekiaris et al. (1993) explained the existence of multiple steady states in homogeneous ternary azeotropic distillation, on the basis of the analysis of the case of infinite reflux and infinite column length (infinite number of trays). They showed that the predictions of multiple steady states for such infinite columns have relevant implications for columns of finite length operated at finite

T. E. Guettinger; Cornelius Dorn; Manfred Morari

1997-01-01

50

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

2007-12-25

51

Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

Barduhn, Allen J.

1984-01-01

52

Dynamic catalytic distillation: Advanced simulation and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive distillation offers a number of potential advantages, so that many traditional operations are currently being investigated in order to discover further applications of this technology. Increasingly, it is performed in columns with catalytic packings that combine the advantages of normal structured packings and heterogeneous catalysts. Analysis of reactive distillation is difficult due to strong physico-chemical interactions, and it is

L. U. Kreul; A. Górak; C. Dittrich; P. I. Barton

1998-01-01

53

Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and…

Pritchard, Colin

1986-01-01

54

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

the operation is switched between total re ux operation and dumping the product i.e., the condenser holdup products are collected in the condenser drum and in the reboiler. Another alternative is to "invert multivessel batch distillation column by calculating in advance the nal holdup in each vessel and then using

Skogestad, Sigurd

55

Application of the self-heat recuperation technology to crude oil distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil distillation is an atmospheric distillation column using a furnace. It consumes about 50% of the energy required in an oil refinery plant. To reduce energy requirements, it is necessary to investigate crude oil distillation and to retrofit it with energy saving processes. Recently, the authors developed an innovative process design technology, termed self-heat recuperation technology for saving energy.

Yasuki Kansha; Akira Kishimoto; Atsushi Tsutsumi

56

Cryogenic shutter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetically operated shutter mechanism is provided that will function in cryogenic or cryogenic zero gravity environments to selectively block radiation such as light from passing through a window to a target object such as a mirror or detector located inside a cryogenic container such as a dewar. The mechanism includes a shutter paddle blade that is moved by an electromagnetically actuated torquing device between an open position where the target object is exposed to ambient radiation or light and a closed position where the shutter paddle blade shields the ambient radiation or light from the target object. The purpose of the shuttering device is to prevent the mirror or other target object from being directly exposed to radiation passing through the window located on the side wall of the dewar, thereby decreasing or eliminating any temperature gradient that would occur within the target object due to exposure to the radiation. A special nylon bearing system is utilized to prevent the device from binding during operation and the paddle blade is also thermally connected to a reservoir containing cryogen to further reduce the internal temperature.

Barney, Richard D. (inventor); Magner, Thomas J. (inventor)

1992-01-01

57

Cryogenic Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kevin Rivers, Thermal Structures Branch, checks electronic wiring on a test panel for a cryogenic insulation system. The thermal-mechanical testing is being done for Lockheed Martin as part of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The foam panel, encased in an aluminum alloy, will be subjected to very low and very high temperatures and then be placed under heavyloads as part of the testing. Material in this panel may be used as part of an RLV fuel tank.

1996-01-01

58

Free Boundary Problems in Distillation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and scaleup of distillation equipment requires an understanding of the vapor-liquid equilibria as well as an understanding of the column hydraulics. This work focuses on two problems of fluid mechanics important in understanding the behavior of distillation columns: the shapes and stability of dielectric drops in an electric field and the flow patterns on distillation trays. Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes and stability of dielectric drops subject to an applied electric field are determined by solving simultaneously the Young-Laplace equation for drop shape and the Maxwell equations for field distribution. Both linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops are studied, as are drops that are pendant/sessile on a supporting plate and those that are floating freely between two plates. The range of parameters for which hysteresis in drop deformation can be observed is given for linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops. Properly accounting for the effects of nonlinear polarization brings the theoretical results of this work into accord with previously published experimental results. Detailed examination of the electric fields inside nonlinearly polarizable drops reveals that they are very nonuniform, in contrast to the nearly uniform fields usually found in linearly polarizable drops. The concept of depth averaging the equations of motion for a thin film (relative to the length of the distillation tray) is used to reduce the three-dimensional, free surface flow problem to two dimensions. A one-dimensional model is first used to gain understanding into the behavior of the bulk flow, ignoring any edge effects. A rise in the height profile on the tray, or hydraulic jump, is predicted. The effects of Reynolds number, capillary number (surface tension), tray geometry, and film thickness are all examined. The importance of the downcomers is shown. The two-dimensional model allows examination not only of rectangular trays, but also round trays and trays which are annular arcs, so called "race track" trays. A large zone of recirculation is predicted near the walls of round trays. This is confirmed in published experimental results and in experimental observations reported here. Race track trays did not show recirculation even at large arc angles.

Wohlhuter, Frederick Karl

59

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01

60

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

61

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20

62

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27

63

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24

64

LDR cryogenics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief summary from the 1985 Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Asilomar 2 workshop of the requirements for LDR cryogenic cooling is presented. The heat rates are simply the sum of the individual heat rates from the instruments. Consideration of duty cycle will have a dramatic effect on cooling requirements. There are many possible combinations of cooling techniques for each of the three temperatures zones. It is clear that much further system study is needed to determine what type of cooling system is required (He-2, hybrid or mechanical) and what size and power is required. As the instruments, along with their duty cycles and heat rates, become better defined it will be possible to better determine the optimum cooling systems.

Nast, T.

1988-01-01

65

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-01-01

66

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

67

Datalogging the Distillation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

1995-01-01

68

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2010-07-01

69

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2011-07-01

70

Winogradsky Columns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise about Winogradsky Columns with emphasis placed on the formation and properties of microbial biofilms. It includes background reference material, a field/lab exercise, and several applications. Applications include methods for sampling column layers and a description of how to measure the electro-chemical gradient that develops within the column. Scientific illustrations and images are included as visual references.

Lennox, John; State, Penn

71

Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

Gasser, M. G. (editor)

1983-01-01

72

APPLICATION OF CAPILLARY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE ANALYSIS OF A MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the application of capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of a middle distillate fuel. Small diameter (50 micrometer i.d.) fused silica capillary columns coated with crosslinked 50% phenyl polymethylsiloxane provided high separation...

73

Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

74

Cryogenic immersion microscope  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14

75

Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.  

PubMed

Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

2014-10-29

76

Cryogen thermal storage matrix  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a thermal storage matrix for the collection and storage of liquid and solid cryogens for use in conjunction with the cooling of detectors by liquid or solid cryogen. It comprises: multiple layers of at least one highly adsorbent material which effectively adsorbs liquid cryogens and at least one relatively porous material which exhibits high thermal conductivity at cryogenic conditions and transfers heat in and out of the matrix and allows a path for a gas, generated as a liquid cryogen evaporates, to escape, without blowing the liquid out from the at least one highly adsorbent material.

Longsworth, R.

1991-05-07

77

Topological quantum distillation.  

PubMed

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding, and computation with magic states. PMID:17155532

Bombin, H; Martin-Delgado, M A

2006-11-01

78

27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits. 27.40 Section 27.40 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

79

AMMONIA DISTILLATION FOR DEUTERIUM SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative volatility or separation factor for deuterium enrichment in ; ammonia distillation was measured at several pressures and deuterium ; concentrations. The knowledge of this ingormation is very helpful in predicting ; costs of heawy water production by the ammonia distillation process. It hss been ; stated by others, that the ammonia distillation process of heawy water production ;

G. T. Petersen; M. Benedict

1960-01-01

80

Microbial activity in weathering columns.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the metabolic activity of the microbial population associated with a pyritic tailing after a column-weathering test. For this purpose, a column 150cm high and 15cm diameter was used. The solid was a tailing with 63.4% pyrite and with minor amounts of Cu, Pb and Zn sulfides (1.4, 0.5 and 0.8%, respectively). The column model was the habitual one for weathering tests: distilled water was added at the top of the column; the water flowed down through tailings and finally was collected at the bottom for chemical and microbiological analysis. Weathering was maintained for 36 weeks. The results showed a significant presence of microbial life that was distributed selectively over the column: sulfur- and iron-oxidizing aerobic bacteria were in the more oxygenated zone; anaerobic sulfur-reducing bacteria were isolated from the samples taken from the anoxic part of the column. Activity testing showed that (oxidizing and reducing) bacteria populations were active at the end of the weathering test. The quality of the water draining from the column was thus the final product of biological oxidation and reduction promoted by the bacteria consortia. PMID:16949201

García, C; Ballester, A; González, F; Blázquez, M L

2007-03-22

81

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

2011-01-01

82

Cascade Distillation System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

2014-01-01

83

Cryogenic processes and equipment 1982  

SciTech Connect

This collection of papers presented at the Joint Cryogenic Symposium in Los Angeles in 1982 covers cryogenic processes and equipment for temperatures above -423/sup 0/F, helium technology, and thermophysical properties and transport phenomena for cryogenic fluids.

Frederking, T.H.K.; Hiza, M.J.; Toscano, W.M.; Wenzel, L.A.

1983-01-01

84

Cryogenics for LDR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three cryogenic questions of importance to Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) are discussed: the primary cooling requirement, the secondary cooling requirement, and the instrument changeout requirement.

Kittel, Peter

1988-01-01

85

Fundamentals of Cryogenics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of the extreme conditions that are encountered in cryogenic systems requires the most effort out of analysts and engineers. Due to the costs and complexity associated with the extremely cold temperatures involved, testing is sometimes minimized and extra analysis is often relied upon. This short course is designed as an introduction to cryogenic engineering and analysis, and it is intended to introduce the basic concepts related to cryogenic analysis and testing as well as help the analyst understand the impacts of various requests on a test facility. Discussion will revolve around operational functions often found in cryogenic systems, hardware for both tests and facilities, and what design or modelling tools are available for performing the analysis. Emphasis will be placed on what scenarios to use what hardware or the analysis tools to get the desired results. The class will provide a review of first principles, engineering practices, and those relations directly applicable to this subject including such topics as cryogenic fluids, thermodynamics and heat transfer, material properties at low temperature, insulation, cryogenic equipment, instrumentation, refrigeration, testing of cryogenic systems, cryogenics safety and typical thermal and fluid analysis used by the engineer. The class will provide references for further learning on various topics in cryogenics for those who want to dive deeper into the subject or have encountered specific problems.

Johnson, Wesley; Tomsik, Thomas; Moder, Jeff

2014-01-01

86

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26

87

Improved Analysis and Understanding of the Petlyuk Distillation Column  

E-print Network

at steady state five degrees of freedom, which may be selected as the following manipulated input variables product specifica- tions we usually have two remaining DOFs when all these specifications are

Skogestad, Sigurd

88

Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include

K. A. Yushchenko; G. G. Monko

2004-01-01

89

Cryogenic Information Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) is a not-for-profit corporation dedicated to preserving and distributing cryogenic information to government, industry, and academia. The heart of the CIC is a uniform source of cryogenic data including analyses, design, materials and processes, and test information traceable back to the Cryogenic Data Center of the former National Bureau of Standards. The electronic database is a national treasure containing over 146,000 specific bibliographic citations of cryogenic literature and thermophysical property data dating back to 1829. A new technical/bibliographic inquiry service can perform searches and technical analyses. The Cryogenic Material Properties (CMP) Program consists of computer codes using empirical equations to determine thermophysical material properties with emphasis on the 4-300K range. CMP's objective is to develop a user-friendly standard material property database using the best available data so government and industry can conduct more accurate analyses. The CIC serves to benefit researchers, engineers, and technologists in cryogenics and cryogenic engineering, whether they are new or experienced in the field.

Mohling, Robert A.; Marquardt, Eric D.; Fusilier, Fred C.; Fesmire, James E.

2003-01-01

90

Shocks in Cryogenic Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified definition of cryogenic fluids has not been clearly given so far. Nevertheless, for convenience’s sake in this chapter, it may be defined as fluids of which normal boiling points (NBP) are below liquid nitrogen temperature, 77 K. The saturated vapor pressure and the triple points and the critical points are shown for typical cryogenic fluids in Fig. 4.1.

Masahide Murakami

91

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-print Network

aT Possible First glance may show only 3 or 4 utility levels (temperatures) to choose from. These might well be 1000e apart. Some ways to increase the options are: ' multieffect distillation (this spreads the 6T across 2 or 3 towers) use of waste heat...). Cooling below top? Liquid composition Heating above bottom FIG. 3 INTERNED lATE CONDENSER AND REBOILER Plax efficiency Max ett'iclenc)' SO, of heavy 95' of heavy component in component In feed teed 1 condenser r 1 [eboiler 67 20 2 con6ensers r 1...

Steinmeyer, D.

92

Cryogenic Capillary Screen Heat Entrapment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of sub-cooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs.?"Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by LN2 tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, "200x1400" and "325x2300", both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN2 data it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

Bolshinskiy, L.G.; Hastings, L.J.; Stathman, G.

2007-01-01

93

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-12-12

94

A reactive distillation process for a cascade and azeotropic reaction system: Carbonylation of ethanol with dimethyl carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling and simulation of the reactive distillation column have been carried out for the carbonylation process of ethanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) producing diethyl carbonate (DEC). As it includes three azeotropes and two cascade reversible reactions with an undesired intermediate, methyl-and-ethyl carbonate (MEC), the reactive distillation is ideally appropriate. Calculations via a robust transient method reveal that a complete DMC

Hu-Ping Luo; Wen-De Xiao

2001-01-01

95

Column Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

Yu, Julie

2007-01-01

96

Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

2006-01-01

97

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2013-04-01

98

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2011-04-01

99

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2012-04-01

100

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2014-04-01

101

27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation...many distilling or other production operations as desired...through the various steps of production as expeditiously as plant operation will...

2010-04-01

102

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2012-04-01

103

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2013-04-01

104

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2011-04-01

105

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2014-04-01

106

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2010-04-01

107

Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures  

E-print Network

. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates the need for pre-calculated vessel holdups- posed a closed (total reflux) operation of the conventional batch distillation column with a condenser Condenser D Middle 3 2 1 2 1 x + 12B xF 1N N N D x x x x M xM B N Figure 1: Steadystate compositionprofile

Skogestad, Sigurd

108

Vapor compression distillation module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

109

Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

bed density for maximum column efficiency. Zenix SEC phases are designed to ensure highest resolution1 Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies and 3 m technologies allow the chemistry of thin film formation to be well controlled, which results in high column-to-column

Lebendiker, Mario

110

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-print Network

The Scaleup of Structured Packing From Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application O. Jeffrey'Berven and Michael A. Ulowetz Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wichita, Kansas Structured packing is being utilized more and more... in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

111

Cryogenic wind tunnels. I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic principles of cryogenic wind-tunnel operation are presented, and a typical cryogenic wind tunnel is described. Low-speed cryogenic wind tunnels are considered, along with some experiments conducted in these tunnels. Focus is placed on real-gas effects including condensation and thermal and caloric imperfections. The operating limits set by the saturation boundaries of nitrogen and air are analyzed, and the consequences of thermal and caloric imperfections on both isentropic and normal-shock flow in nitrogen are considered. The extension of analytical real-gas studies, including both laminar and turbulent boundary layers is covered. It is concluded that the deviation of the nitrogen boundary-layer parameters from their ideal-gas values are small, and that large real-gas effects will not be a factor in cryogenic tunnel simulation of the complex flows met in flight.

Kilgore, Robert A.

1987-01-01

112

Cryogenic Insulation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to reusable, low density, high temperature cryogenic foam insulation systems and the process for their manufacture. A pacing technology for liquid hydrogen fueled, high speed aircraft is the development of a fully reusable, flight weight cryogenic insulation system for propellant tank structures. In the invention cryogenic foam insulation is adhesively bonded to the outer wall of the fuel tank structure. The cryogenic insulation consists of square sheets fabricated from an array of abutting square blocks. Each block consists of a sheet of glass cloth adhesively bonded between two layers of polymethacrylimide foam. Each block is wrapped in a vapor impermeable membrane, such as Kapton(R) aluminum Kapton(R), to provide a vapor barrier. Very beneficial results can be obtained by employing the present invention in conjunction with fibrous insulation and an outer aeroshell, a hot fuselage structure with an internal thermal protection system.

Davis, Randall C. (inventor); Taylor, Allan H. (inventor); Jackson, L. Robert (inventor); Mcauliffe, Patrick S. (inventor)

1988-01-01

113

Cryogenic Insulation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

1999-01-01

114

Cryogenic Feedthrough Test Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic feedthrough test rig (CFTR) allows testing of instrumentation feedthroughs at liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen temperature and pressure extremes (dangerous process fluid) without actually exposing the feedthrough to a combustible or explosive process fluid. In addition, the helium used (inert gas), with cryogenic heat exchangers, exposes the feedthrough to that environment that allows definitive leak rates of feedthrough by typical industry-standard helium mass spectrometers.

Skaff, Antony

2009-01-01

115

Extraction of protein from distiller’s grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the feasibility of extracting the oil and protein from distiller’s grain (DG) to obtain a higher-valued protein-rich product and a carbohydrate-rich residue better suited for conversion to fermentable sugars. Protein extractions based on aqueous ethanol, alkaline-ethanol, and aqueous enzyme treatments were compared. Three of the methods extracted a significant amount of the protein from dried, defatted DG

Drew J. Cookman; Charles E. Glatz

2009-01-01

116

Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

Rysavy, G.

1971-01-01

117

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2014-04-01

118

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2011-04-01

119

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2013-04-01

120

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2012-04-01

121

Revamp for more middle distillate  

SciTech Connect

In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

1985-03-01

122

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

DOEpatents

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03

123

Phytosterol Distribution in Fractions Obtained from Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles Using Sieving and Elutriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 84(6):626-630 In an earlier study, the combination of sieving and elutriation was effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the coproduct remaining after ethanol production from corn. To separate fiber, air was blown through sieve fractions in an elutriation column. Material carried by air to the top of the elutriation column was the lighter

Radhakrishnan Srinivasan; Robert A. Moreau; Kent D. Rausch; M. E. Tumbleson; Vijay Singh

2007-01-01

124

Solution of systems of columns with energy exchange between recycle streams  

E-print Network

, several examples of systems of fractionating columns in which energy is exchanged between columns are solved by use of the capital theta method of convergence. In this col- umn modular approach, the equations of each unit in the system are solved... by the most appropriate method. Also, the theta method of convergence is generalized to solve distillation columns for which the specifications include the reflux ratio and the boilup ratio. This method is also applied to absorber-type columns. iv...

Haas, Joe Ray

2012-06-07

125

Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

126

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

Riggs, J.B.

1997-07-01

127

Cryogenics for Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to "fusion for energy" will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

Dauguet, P.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Bonneton, M.; Boissin, J. C.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.

2008-03-01

128

Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures  

SciTech Connect

For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

Yushchenko, K.A.; Monko, G.G. [E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

2004-06-28

129

Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

Yushchenko, K. A.; Monko, G. G.

2004-06-01

130

Cryogenic Model Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview and status of current activities seeking alternatives to 200 grade 18Ni Steel CVM alloy for cryogenic wind tunnel models is presented. Specific improvements in material selection have been researched including availability, strength, fracture toughness and potential for use in transonic wind tunnel testing. Potential benefits from utilizing damage tolerant life-prediction methods, recently developed fatigue crack growth codes and upgraded NDE methods are also investigated. Two candidate alloys are identified and accepted for cryogenic/transonic wind tunnel models and hardware.

Kimmel, W. M.; Kuhn, N. S.; Berry, R. F.; Newman, J. A.

2001-01-01

131

Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

1994-01-01

132

Cryogenics Research and Engineering Experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space have a direct impact on NASA, government and commercial programs. Research and development on thermal insulation, propellant servicing, cryogenic components, material properties and sensing technologies provides industry, government and research institutions with the cross-cutting technologies to manage low-temperature applications. Under the direction of the Cryogenic Testing Lab at Kennedy Space Center, the work experience acquired allowed me to perform research, testing, design and analysis of current and future cryogenic technologies to be applied in several projects.

Toro Medina, Jaime A.

2013-01-01

133

Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

134

Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

135

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-print Network

have boiling points below -73°C (-100°F). The most common cryogenic liquids currently on campus conditions of temperature and pressure. But all have two very important properties in common. First, the liquids and their vapors are extremely cold. The risk of destructive freezing of tissues is always present

136

High Power Cryogenic Targets  

SciTech Connect

The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

Gregory Smith

2011-08-01

137

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

1999-08-01

138

Solar power water distillation unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

2013-06-01

139

Extended testing of compression distillation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1972-01-01

140

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

141

Comparison of batch and column methods for assessing leachability of hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic and organic analytes were leached from four waste samples by using batch and column leaching methods. Waste samples were electroplating sludge, fly ash, filter cake, and polystill bottoms. Leachate concentration profiles were constructed from sequential leaching of waste with distilled deionized water using a combined solution to waste ratio of 40:1. Leachate profiles produced by the batch and column

Danny R. Jackson; Benjamin C. Garrett; Thomas A. Bishop

1984-01-01

142

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

ENERGY RECOVERY IN INDUSTRIAL DISTILLATION PROCESSES Duane B. Paul General Electric Company Fitchburg, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Overhead separati on processes whi ch present attracti ve Distillation processes are energy intensive Condenser...

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01

143

Properties of Distillers Grains Composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in renewable biofuel sources has intensified in recent years, leading to greatly increased production of ethanol and its primary coproduct, Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS). Consequently, the development of new outlets for DDGS has become crucial to maintaining the economic viab...

144

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

145

Contextual Reasoning Distilled M. Benerecetti  

E-print Network

Contextual Reasoning Distilled M. Benerecetti , P. Bouquet , and C. Ghidini ¡ ¢ Dip. di Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, U.K. Phone number: +44 (0)161 247 1556 C.Ghidini@doc.mmu.ac.uk Abstract can be traced back to R. Weyhrauch and his work on mechanising logical theories in the interactive

Bouquet, Paolo

146

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

147

27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.322 Distillates...system prior to the production gauge for addition...the distilled spirits plant from which the distillates...spirits for use in wine production and the receipt...

2010-04-01

148

27 CFR 1.91 - Bottled distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Bottled distilled spirits. 1.91 Section 1.91 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

149

Cryogenic Control System  

SciTech Connect

The control system (CS) for the cryogenic arrangement of the DO Liquid Argon Calorimeter consists of a Texas instruments 560/565 Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), two remote bases with Remote Base Controllers and a corresponding set of input/output (I/O) modules, and a PC AST Premium 286 (IBM AT Compatible). The PLC scans a set of inputs and provides a set of outputs based on a ladder logic program and PID control loops. The inputs are logic or analog (current, voltage) signals from equipment status switches or transducers. The outputs are logic or analog (current or voltage) signals for switching solenoids and positioning pneumatic actuators. Programming of the PLC is preformed by using the TISOFT2/560/565 package, which is installed in the PC. The PC communicates to the PLC through a serial RS232 port and provides operator interface to the cryogenic process using Xpresslink software.

Goloborod'ko, S.; /Fermilab

1989-02-27

150

Cryogenic treatment of gas  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-04-03

151

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1988-01-01

152

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

2011-04-01

153

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of oil is present in the liquid fraction after fermentation and ethanol distillation. The oil removed represents a significant alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. The objectives of the present research were to study the effect of

Sandra Majoni

2009-01-01

154

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

1995-01-01

155

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-print Network

is described in three configurations overhead vapor compresed, bottoms vapor compressed, or completely closed cycle. As with conventional cascades, conventional heat pumping does to increase the distillation efficiency. Heat pumping merely substitutes...) from overhead to interreboiler; 2) from intercondenser to bottoms reboilerj or 3) from intercondenser to interreboiler. Also, the vapor being compressed can be overhead vapor, bottoms vapor, or a separate closed cycle vapor. Thus there are nine...

Erickson, D. C.

156

Fate of pesticides in a distilled spirit of barley shochu during the distillation process.  

PubMed

Moromi (the fermented mash) of "mugi shochu" that had been artificially contaminated with pesticides was distilled to elucidate the fate of pesticides in the distillation process. The pesticides residing in the distillate were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of the analyzed pesticides (249 compounds), 89% were not detected in the distillate, showing that the distillation process minimized the risk of pesticide contamination. PMID:21150108

Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Kinami, Tomohisa; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2010-01-01

157

The fate of mycotoxins during the distillation process of barley shochu, a distilled alcoholic beverage.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains and critical risk substances for brewers. Fermented barley mash contaminated artificially with 13 representative mycotoxins was distilled with small-scale apparatuses to elucidate the possibility of mycotoxin transfer from mash to distillates. None of these were detected in the distillates. The distillation process can effectively reduce the contamination risk posed by mycotoxins in distilled alcoholic beverages. PMID:22232264

Nagatomi, Yasushi; Inoue, Tomonori; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2012-01-01

158

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

159

Cryogenic radiometer developments at NPL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic radiometers are widely used as the primary standard of choice for optical radiometric measurements. This has led to increased demand for designs optimised for specific applications. NPL has pioneered the field of cryogenic radiometry, both in terms of design and application, from its first successful implementation in the 1970's through to the wide range of instruments and applications available

J. Ireland; M. G. White; N. P. Fox

160

Optical Detection Of Cryogenic Leaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual system identifies leakage without requiring shutdown for testing. Proposed device detects and indicates leaks of cryogenic liquids automatically. Detector makes it unnecessary to shut equipment down so it can be checked for leakage by soap-bubble or helium-detection methods. Not necessary to mix special gases or other materials with cryogenic liquid flowing through equipment.

Wyett, Lynn M.

1988-01-01

161

Spacelab cryogenic propellant management experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design of a Spacelab cryogen management experiment was performed to demonstrate toe desirability and feasibility of subcritical cryogenic fluid orbital storage and supply. A description of the experimental apparatus, definition of supporting requirements, procedures, data analysis, and a cost estimate are included.

Cady, E. C.

1976-01-01

162

Cryogenic Flow Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acousto-optic cryogenic flow sensor (CFS) determines mass flow of cryogens for spacecraft propellant management. The CFS operates unobtrusively in a high-pressure, high-flowrate cryogenic environment to provide measurements for fluid quality as well as mass flow rate. Experimental hardware uses an optical plane-of-light (POL) to detect the onset of two-phase flow, and the presence of particles in the flow of water. Acousto-optic devices are used in laser equipment for electronic control of the intensity and position of the laser beam. Acousto-optic interaction occurs in all optical media when an acoustic wave and a laser beam are present. When an acoustic wave is launched into the optical medium, it generates a refractive index wave that behaves like a sinusoidal grating. An incident laser beam passing through this grating will diffract the laser beam into several orders. Its angular position is linearly proportional to the acoustic frequency, so that the higher the frequency, the larger the diffracted angle. If the acoustic wave is traveling in a moving fluid, the fluid velocity will affect the frequency of the traveling wave, relative to a stationary sensor. This frequency shift changes the angle of diffraction, hence, fluid velocity can be determined from the diffraction angle. The CFS acoustic Bragg grating data test indicates that it is capable of accurately determining flow from 0 to 10 meters per second. The same sensor can be used in flow velocities exceeding 100 m/s. The POL module has successfully determined the onset of two-phase flow, and can distinguish vapor bubbles from debris.

Justak, John

2010-01-01

163

Cryogenic insulation development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer insulations for long term cryogenic storage are described. The development effort resulted in an insulation concept using lightweight radiation shields, separated by low conductive Dacron fiber tufts. The insulation is usually referred to as Superfloc. The fiber tufts are arranged in a triangular pattern and stand about .040 in. above the radiation shield base. Thermal and structural evaluation of Superfloc indicated that this material is a strong candidate for the development of high performance thermal protection systems because of its high strength, purge gas evacuation capability during boost, its density control and easy application to a tank.

Leonhard, K. E.

1972-01-01

164

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

2014-01-01

165

Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

2012-01-01

166

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29

167

Cryogenics maintenance strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALMA is an interferometer composed of 66 independent systems, with specific maintenance requirements for each subsystem. To optimize the observation time and reduce downtime maintenance, requirements are very demanding. One subsystem with high maintenance efforts is cryogenics and vacuum. To organize the maintenance, the Cryogenic and Vacuum department is using and implementing different tools. These are monitoring and problem reporting systems and CMMS. This leads to different maintenance approaches: Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance. In order to coordinate activities with other departments the preventive maintenance schedule is kept as flexible as systems allow. To cope with unavoidable failures, the team has to be prepared to work under any condition with the spares on time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) will help to manage inventory control for reliable spare part handling, the correct record of work orders and traceability of maintenance activities. For an optimized approach the department is currently evaluating where preventive or condition based maintenance applies to comply with the individual system demand. Considering the change from maintenance contracts to in-house maintenance will help to minimize costs and increase availability of parts. Due to increased number of system and tasks the cryo team needs to grow. Training of all staff members is mandatory, in depth knowledge must be built up by doing complex maintenance activities in the Cryo group, use of advanced computerized metrology systems.

Cruzat, Fabiola

2012-09-01

168

Five points on columns  

E-print Network

Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

Rockland, Kathleen

169

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

170

Column Liquid Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

1984-01-01

171

Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

Chato, David J.

2007-01-01

172

LUX Cryogenics and Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LUX is a new dark matter direct detection experiment being carried out at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the renewed Homestake mine in Lead, SD. The detector's large size supports effective internal shielding from natural radioactivity of the surrounding materials and environment. The LUX detector consists of a cylindrical vessel containing 350 kg of liquid xenon (LXe) cooled down and maintained at 175-K operating temperature using a novel cryogenic system. We report the efficiency of our thermosyphon-based cooling system, as well as the efficiency of a unique internal heat exchanger with standard gas phase purification using a heated getter, which allows for very high flow purification without requiring large cooling power. Such systems are required for multi-ton scale up.

Bradley, Adam

2012-10-01

173

Basic cryogenics and materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of cryogenic temperatures on the mechanical and physical properties of materials are summarized. Heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered in the context of conservation of liquid nitrogen, thermal stability of the gas stream, and the response time for changes in operating temperature. Particular attention is given to the effects of differential expansion and failure due to thermal fatigue. Factors affecting safety are discussed, including hazards created due to the inadvertent production of liquid oxygen and the physiological effects of exposure to liquid and gaseous nitrogen, such as cold burns and asphyxiation. The preference for using f.c.c. metals at low temperatures is explained in terms of their superior toughness. The limitations on the use of ferritic steels is also considered. Nonmetallic materials are discussed, mainly in the context of their LOX compatibility and their use in the form of foams and fibers as insulatants, seals, and fiber reinforced composites.

Wigley, D. A.

1985-01-01

174

Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

Jones, David

2011-01-01

175

Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

1980-09-30

176

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

177

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

1983-01-04

178

Adhesive for cryogenic temperature applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adhesive, which bonds a metal liner to a filament wound composite structure used for cryogenic pressure vessels, prevents the metal liner from buckling under depressurization. The adhesive consists of adducts of urethane and epoxy resins.

Doyle, H. M.

1969-01-01

179

A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

2014-01-01

180

Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

Williamson, F. R.

1977-01-01

181

Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

182

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15

183

Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

2011-01-01

184

Latest developments in cryogenic safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

Webster, T. J.

1983-01-01

185

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

NONE

1996-11-01

186

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

Riggs, J.B.

1996-11-01

187

27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The appropriate TTB officer may...

2010-04-01

188

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2011-04-01

189

40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

2010-07-01

190

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

191

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

192

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

193

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

194

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

195

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

196

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

197

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

198

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

199

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

200

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2014-04-01

201

Recycling of acetone by distillation  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

1992-09-01

202

Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process  

SciTech Connect

The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

Lucien, J.P. [Companie Rhenane de Raffinage Reichstett, Reichstett Vendenheim (France); Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Germaine, G. [Shell Recherche SA, Grand-Couronne (France); Gjers, M. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Gothenburg (Sweden)

1994-12-31

203

Inelastic column behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant findings of a theoretical study of column behavior in the plastic stress range are presented. When the behavior of a straight column is regarded as the limiting behavior of an imperfect column as the initial imperfection (lack of straightness) approaches zero, the departure from the straight configuration occurs at the tangent-modulus load. Without such a concept of the behavior of a straight column, one is led to the unrealistic conclusion that lateral deflection of the column can begin at any load between the tangent-modulus value and the Euler load, based on the original elastic modulus. A family of curves showing load against lateral deflection is presented for idealized h-section columns of various lengths and of various materials that have a systematic variation of their stress-strain curves.

Duberg, John E; Wilder, Thomas W , III

1952-01-01

204

Separation characteristics of multistage water/hydrogen exchange column for water detritiation in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

A simulation code of multistage chemical exchange columns has been developed. The sieve trays for liquid-vapor scrubbing and the catalyst beds for vapor-hydrogen exchange reactions are alternately piled within the column. The code deals with all the twelve molecular species of hydrogen gas and water; and is based on the Newton-Raphson method. The characteristics of the column were discussed from the calculated results by this code such as effects of temperature and pressure. Similar to the distillation columns, the phase flow rates within the column (hydrogen gas and water vapor) and product flow rates have large effects on the separation performance of the column. A control method of the column was also proposed from these calculated results. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Yamanishi, T.; Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-10-01

205

Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

2009-01-01

206

Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

Brown, Gerald V.

2004-01-01

207

Cryogenic powered vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic powered vehicle is disclosed which utilizes liquid nitrogen contained in a storage tank or tanks and communicated with a plurality of expansion assemblies through a one-way flow valve with the pressurized expanded gas being discharged to atmosphere through a turbine structure which is drivingly connected to the driving wheels of a vehicle through a suitable transmission and other conventional drive components. The expansion assemblies include heat exchange devices in the form of serpentine tubes having heat exchange fins thereon with one of the expansion assemblies being in the form of a heat exchange coil associated with the air conditioning system of an automobile or the load cooling system of a load carrying vehicle. One of the expansion assemblies is located adjacent the inlet of a turbine and is in the form of a master expander coil to discharge pressurized gas into a rotary vane type turbine to produce a rotational output that is drivingly connected to the drive train of a vehicle.

Boese, H.L.

1981-10-13

208

Cryogenic Technology for Superconducting Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting devices such as magnets and cavities are key components in the accelerator field for increasing the beam energy and intensity, and at the same time making the system compact and saving on power consumption in operation. An effective cryogenic system is required to cool and keep the superconducting devices in the superconducting state stably and economically. The helium refrigeration system for application to accelerators will be discussed in this review article. The concept of two cooling modes -- the liquefier and refrigerator modes -- will be discussed in detail because of its importance for realizing efficient cooling and stable operation of the system. As an example of the practical cryogenic system, the TRISTAN cryogenic system of KEK Laboratory will be treated in detail and the main components of the cryogenic system, including the high-performance multichannel transfer line and liquid nitrogen circulation system at 80K, will also be discussed. In addition, we will discuss the operation of the cryogenic system, including the quench control and safety of the system. The satellite refrigeration system will be discussed because of its potential for wide application in medium-size accelerators and in industry.

Hosoyama, Kenji

2012-01-01

209

Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

Fleming, David C.

2002-01-01

210

Modeling of cryogen leakage through composite laminates  

E-print Network

such as hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures. Exposure to varying temperatures and mechanical loads resulting from ?ight cycle, containment of pressurized cryogen causes thermo-mechanical loading of the composite. The thermo-mechanical loading cycles combined...

Peddiraju, Naga Venkata Satya Pravin Kumar

2005-02-17

211

Other Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first cryogenic tunnel was built at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnels have been built at aeronautical research centers around the world. In this lecture some of the more interesting and significant of these projects that have not been covered by other lecturers at this Special Course are described. In this lecture authors describe cryogenic wind-tunnel projects at research centers in four countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Defence Research Agency - Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); and United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

Kilgore, Robert A.

1997-01-01

212

Other cryogenic wind tunnel projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first cryogenic tunnel was built in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnel projects were started at aeronautical research centers around the world. Some of the more significant of these projects are described which are not covered by other lecturers at this Special Course. Described are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in five countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Royal Aerospace Establishment-Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NASA Langley); and U.S.S.R. (Central Aero-Hydronamics Institute (TsAGI), Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM), and Physical-Mechanical Institute at Kharkov (PMI-K).

Kilgore, Robert A.

1989-01-01

213

Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

uniform and stable packing bed density for maximum column efficiency. Zenix-C SEC phases are designed1 Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies in high column-to-column reproducibility. The nature of the chemical bonding and the maximum bonding

Lebendiker, Mario

214

Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

2009-01-01

215

An improved model for multiple effect distillation  

E-print Network

Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

Mistry, Karan H.

216

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOEpatents

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01

217

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-print Network

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01

218

Identification of the more complex triacylglycerols in bovine milk fat by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using polar capillary columns.  

PubMed

The fourth most volatile 2.5% molecular distillate of butteroil obtained by redistillation of the most volatile 10% cut was examined by gas chromatography on a polar capillary column (RSL-300) with electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectrometry. For this purpose the distillate was first freed from the acetyldiacylglycerols by thin-layer chromatography on plain silica gel and the remainder resolved into long and short chain length saturates, cis- and trans-monoenes, dienes and trienes by thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate-silica gel. The order of gas chromatographic elution was established for more than 100 major and minor species making up the bulk of the molecular distillate. The results were used to derive the quantitative composition of the triacylglycerol species making up the various peaks obtained by polar capillary column gas chromatography of the total molecular distillate, which closely resembles the lower half of the molecular mass distribution of whole bovine milk fat. PMID:3243860

Myher, J J; Kuksis, A; Marai, L; Sandra, P

1988-10-28

219

A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.  

PubMed

We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

2014-06-01

220

Cryogenic behavior of perovskite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of perovskite materials such as La modified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics and Pb(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals were investigated for cryogenic capacitor and actuator applications. Enhanced extrinsic contributions resulted in piezoelectric coefficient (d33) as high as 250 pC\\/N at 30 K, superior to that of PZT (d33 ? 100 pC\\/N). This cryogenic property enhancement was associated with retuning the MPB

Dong-Soo Paik; Seung-Eek Park; Wesley Hackenberger

1999-01-01

221

Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

Alario, J.

1979-01-01

222

Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

Duffell, Amanda

2005-01-01

223

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-print Network

, .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower... not affect tower stability and the operators h~,e adapted well to the new control strategy. INTRODUCTION For its rubber manufacturing operations at Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, Polysar Limited extracts butadiene 1:3 from a mixed C. hydrocarbon feed...

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

224

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

225

27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled spirits. 17.162 Section 17.162 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS...Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

226

27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk. 1.90 Section 1.90 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

227

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography  

E-print Network

CHEM­333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and evaluate the efficiency of the fractional distillation versus simple distillation by gas chromatography discussion of gas chromatography. For your distillations (remember to add boiling stones) you will use 30 m

Taber, Douglass

228

Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3? {3}+1) ? 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

2013-06-01

229

Nuclear reactor control column  

DOEpatents

The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

230

NASA GRC Cryogenic Seal Test Rig Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been about six years since any cryogenic seal tests were run at NASA GRC (Glenn Research Center). The Cryogenic Components Lab, where the cryogenic seal test rigs are located, has been shutdown due to the impending expansion of the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The current plan is to move the Cryogenic Components Lab (CCL), Cells I and 2 to NASA Plumbrook in Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this presentation is to inform the seal community of the cryogenic seal test rig capabilities available at NASA GRC for planning of future programs.

Proctor, Margaret

2001-01-01

231

Thermal lensing in cryogenic sapphire substrates  

E-print Network

We report the reduction of the thermal lensing in cryogenic sapphire mirrors, which is planed to be used in the Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (LCGT) project. We measured three key parameters of sapphire substrate for thermal lensing at cryogenic temperature. They are optical absorption coefficient, thermal conductivity and temperature coefficient of refractive index at cryogenic temperature. On basis of these measurements, we estimated the shot noise sensitivity of the interferometer with thermal lensing by using a wave-front tracing simulation. We found that thermal lensing in cryogenic sapphire mirrors is negligible.

Takayuki Tomaru; Toshikazu Suzuki; Shinji Miyoki; Takashi Uchiyama; C. T. Taylor; Akira Yamamoto; Takakazu Shintomi; Masatake Ohashi; Kazuaki Kuroda

2002-02-12

232

Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Distillers Dried Grain Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distillers dried grains (DDG). The distillers dried\\u000a grain oil distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was\\u000a tested for its impact on the oxidative stability index (OSI) at 110 °C of soybean, sunflower, and high-oleic sunflower oils,\\u000a as well as the same oils that were stripped

Jill Kristine Winkler-Moser; Steven Francis Vaughn

2009-01-01

233

Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices  

SciTech Connect

Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

1996-04-01

234

Filling an Unvented Cryogenic Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slow-cooling technique enables tank lacking top vent to be filled with cryogenic liquid. New technique: pressure buildup prevented through condensation of accumulating gas resulting in condensate being added to bulk liquid. Filling method developed for vibration test on vacuum-insulated spherical tank containing liquid hydrogen.

Beck, Phillip; Willen, Gary S.

1987-01-01

235

Fast response cryogen level sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid level in cryogenic tank or pipe, or amount of gas trapped in pipeline flow, is monitored electronically by cylindrical capacitive sensor. Changes in liquid level between concentric tubes of capacitor change its impedance, varying current in drive circuit. Since it is oriented parallel to direction of liquid flow, sensor presents little resistance to moving fluid.

Fitzpatrick, J. B.; Maier, L. C.

1981-01-01

236

CRYOGENIC MACHINING OF KEVLAR COMPOSITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous attempts to machine Kevlar aramid fibre reinforced plastics (KFRP) with conventional cutting tools have proven to be extremely difficult. This has somewhat restricted the material's usage, often negating the advantages of its high strength to weight ratio and fatigue tolerance. The present paper describes a novel technique of machining KFRP under cryogenic conditions with remarkable results compared to those

D. Bhattacharyya; M. N. Allen; S. J. Mander

1993-01-01

237

Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment  

SciTech Connect

Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

2008-09-07

238

Background reduction in cryogenic detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

2005-04-01

239

A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into the pump, and the pump was successfully operated meeting all expected operating parameters. Unique pump sub-assembly parts were designed and manufactured by the CTL using specialized materials determined to be superior for cryogenic thermal applications under the pump design conditions. This work is a proof-of-concept/proof-of-operation of the pump only. Other known internal design modifications to the pump should be accomplished for the long-term use of the pump. An upscaled version of this pump, which is under development and testing at the CTL, can be used either for current or future vehicle loading or for vehicle replenishment. Scaling of this pump can be easily accomplished.

Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

2011-01-01

240

Five Points on Columns  

PubMed Central

Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five points, in no way comprehensive or canonical, but which may nevertheless serve as a prompt and aid for further discussions and re-evaluation. These are: that anatomical columns are not solid structures, that they are part of locally interdigitating systems, that any delimited column also participates in a widely distributed network, that columns are not an obligatory cortical feature, and that columns (as “modules”) occur widely in the brain in non-cortical structures. I focus on the larger scale macrocolumns, mainly from an anatomical perspective. My position is that cortical organization is inherently dynamic and likely to incorporate multiple processing styles. One can speculate that the distributed mappings within areas like piriform cortex may resemble at least one mode of neocortical processing strategy. PMID:20589097

Rockland, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

241

Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

Dr. James B. Riggs

2000-11-30

242

Cryogenic contamination speed for cryogenic laser interferometric gravitational wave detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflectance of an ultra-low loss dielectric multilayer coating mirror, which was cooled at 10 K and exposed to 300 K vacuum space, was monitored as the finesse of a Fabry–Perot cavity for two months. The reflectance was measured to decrease with a rate of 0.12+0.12?0.08 ppm per day. Accounting for this result, the cryogenic system for a gravitational wave

Shinji Miyoki; Takayuki Tomaru; Hideki Ishitsuka; Masatake Ohashi; Kazuaki Kuroda; Daisuke Tatsumi; Takashi Uchiyama; Toshikazu Suzuki; Nobuaki Sato; Tomiyoshi Haruyama; Akira Yamamoto; Takakazu Shintomi

2001-01-01

243

Eruption column physics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Valentine, G.A.

1997-03-01

244

Computation of multicomponent distillation processes by the Newton-Raphson method using an implicit function  

SciTech Connect

A new iterative method is presented for the rigorous simulation of multicomponent distillation processes using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the simultaneous equations, which is characterized by the use of the liquid compositions as the independent variables and analytical equations for evaluating the partial derivatives, with the vapor compositions and temperatures as the dependent variables. The analytical equations for the partial derivatives of the vapor compositions with respect to the liquid compositions are derived, using the implicit-function theorem. The advantages of the method are that a numerical differentiation of the partial derivatives is unnecessary, as is normalization of the liquid compositions. The method has excellent convergence characteristics when applied to 10 typical distillation columns of complicated structure.

Shimizu, K. (Nippon Synthetic Chem. Ind. Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sayama, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Suzuki, K. (Okayama Univ. (Japan))

1993-01-01

245

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

1981-01-01

246

Electromagnetic dampers for cryogenic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic turbomachinery of the type used to pump high-pressure liquid hydrogen at -423 F and liquid oxygen at -297 F to the main engines of the Space Shuttle are subjected to lateral rotor vibrations from unbalance forces and transient loads. Conventional dampers which utilize viscous fluids such as lubricating oil cannot be used in turbopumps because the bearing components are filled with either liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen, which have viscosity comparable to air and, therefore, are not effective in viscous dampers. Electromagentic dampers are currently being explored as a means of providing damping in cryogenic turbopumps because their damping effectiveness increases as temperature decreases and because they are compatible with the liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen in the turbopumps.

Brown, Gerald V.; Dirusso, Eliseo

1988-01-01

247

Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

2005-01-01

248

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

249

Fluid mechanics of distillation trays (II): Prediction of flow fields on some practically important sieve trays  

SciTech Connect

Separation processes account for 6% of the annual US energy expenditure, 50% of which is consumed by distillation alone. Therefore, it is not too surprising that distillation, the work horse of the chemical process industry, is under attack by emerging technologies based on membranes and adsorption, whose proponents claim enormous potential savings in energy expenditures. Moreover, the massive scale of use plus the energy intensiveness implies that even small improvements in the efficiency of distillation processes can result in large gains in energy savings. Such improvements can come from developing fundamental understanding of the fluid mechanics of tray columns, which has heretofore been lacking and is the subject of this paper. The flow on a distillation tray is governed by the equations of mass and momentum conservation in three-dimensions. These equations are reduced here to a set of two-dimensional equations by averaging them across the depth of the fluid film flowing across the tray. The depth-averaged equations are then solved by a Galerkin/finite element technique. The evolution of film height and flow fields are determined for three types of trays that are commonly found in the laboratory and in actual plants: rectangular trays, circular trays, and so-called race track trays. Sample results include development and growth of eddies of zones of recirculation on various types of trays, variation of film height with position on a tray, and effect of tray geometry, flow rate, and physical properties on tray holdup. Occurrence of eddies and large height variations on trays can have detrimental consequences in vapor-liquid contacting operations. Therefore, the new rigorous computations should prove indispensable in developing column designs that avoid or minimize them.

Basaran, O.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Wohlhuter, F.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

250

Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

1973-01-01

251

Fiber separation from distillers dried grains with solubles using a larger elutriation apparatus and use of fiber as a feedstock for corn fiber gum production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an earlier study, the combination of sieving and elutriation (air flow) was found to be effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); the elutriation column diameter used was 63 mm. Larger quantities of fractions were needed for carrying out studies on producti...

252

Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

1985-01-01

253

Cryogenic moderator simulations : confronting reality.  

SciTech Connect

The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities.

Iverson, E. B.

1999-01-06

254

Power stabilized cryogenic sapphire oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave oscillators of exceptional short-term stability have been realized from cryogenic sapphire resonators with loaded Q factors in excess of 109 at 11.9 GHz and 6 K. This has been achieved by a power stabilized loop oscillator with active Pound frequency stabilization. These oscillators have exhibited a fractional frequency stability of 3-4×10-15 for integration times from 0.3 to 100 s.

A. N. Luiten; A. G. Mann; M. E. Costa; D. G. Blair

1995-01-01

255

Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

1973-01-01

256

Cryogenic transfer options for exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The literature of in-space cryogenic transfer is reviewed in order to propose transportation concepts to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Forty-nine references are listed and key findings are synopsized. An assessment of the current maturity of cryogenic transfer system technology is made. Although the settled transfer technique is the most mature technology, the No-Vent Fill technology is maturing rapidly. Future options for development of cryogenic transfer technology are also discussed.

Chato, David J.

1991-01-01

257

Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

1975-01-01

258

21 CFR 882.4250 - Cryogenic surgical device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cryogenic surgical device. 882...Devices § 882.4250 Cryogenic surgical device. (a) Identification. A cryogenic surgical device is a...nervous tissue by the application of extreme cold to...

2010-04-01

259

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original #12;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University TES

California at Berkeley, University of

260

Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

Chato, David J.

2007-01-01

261

27 CFR 17.151 - Use of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 17.151 Section 17.151 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.151...

2010-04-01

262

40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...forth as follows: § 721.9635 Terpenes and terpenoids, limonene fraction, distn. residues, distillates. (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as terpenes and terpenoids, limonene fraction, distn. residues, distillates (PMN...

2014-07-01

263

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2013-07-01

264

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2012-07-01

265

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2010-07-01

266

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2011-07-01

267

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2014-07-01

268

Columns in Clay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

Leenhouts, Robin

2010-01-01

269

Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

270

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

271

Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

1983-01-01

272

Acetylation of corn distillers dried grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that acidic conditions provide substantially higher % acetyl content, intrinsic viscosity and thermoplasticity even at low ratios of acetic anhydride and catalyst concentrations compared to using alkaline conditions for acetylation of oil-and-zein-free distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Conventional methods of carbohydrate and protein acetylation are unsuitable for acetylating DDGS which is a mixture of carbohydrates and

Narendra Reddy; Chunyan Hu; Kelu Yan; Yiqi Yang

2011-01-01

273

Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a ?GC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100?m×100?m has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100?m diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the ?GC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated ?GC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable ?GC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with ?GC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

2014-07-01

274

Predicting Stability of Distiller’s Wet Grains (DWG) with Color Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distiller’s wet grain (DWG) is one of the coproducts from the fuel ethanol industry. Although many studies have investigated\\u000a the nutritional properties of DWG, little work has investigated the storability and shelf life for these feed products or\\u000a how to measure these quantities. The objectives of this research were to measure the development of microorganisms and their\\u000a respiration over time

K. A. Rosentrater; R. M. Lehman

2010-01-01

275

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2012-04-01

276

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2014-04-01

277

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2013-04-01

278

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2011-04-01

279

Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation  

E-print Network

. Introduction Membrane distillation (MD) is a low temperature distillation process that involves the transportRejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation Kaushalya COCs) Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) Volatility Fate and transport Hydrophobicity

280

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2013-04-01

281

27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...being adjacent to a distilled spirits plant if— (1) Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and ...wine cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the same...

2010-04-01

282

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2014-04-01

283

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2011-04-01

284

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2012-04-01

285

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

286

27 CFR 1.84 - Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies. 1.84...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

287

27 CFR 17.163 - Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits. 17.163 Section 17.163 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS... Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits. (a) Shipments from distilled...

2010-04-01

288

27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

289

DIRECT COMPUTATIONS TO DESCRIBE BATCH DISTILLATION WITH RECTIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analog of the Rayleigh Equation has been applied for many years to describe batch distillation with rectification for binary mixtures. A solution is obtained by iterative graphical computations followed by numerical integration. When the batch distillation algorithm is stated in terms of distillate composition a computational non-iterative soluton may be obtained. For a binary separation this expression may be

RAYMOND C. WAGGONER

1990-01-01

290

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations , shared between two honest par- ties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution , assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2006-01-01

291

Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking

H. J. Beard; L. C. Fletcher; R. Oblasny

1982-01-01

292

Application of vacuum membrane distillation for ammonia removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the applicability of membrane distillation for ammonia removal from its aqueous solutions. Among the different recognized membrane distillation configurations, vacuum membrane distillation is applied in the present work for ammonia removal. The effects of different operating parameters on ammonia removal from aqueous solutions of different concentrations have been investigated. Experimental results showed that high feed

M. S. EL-Bourawi; M. Khayet; R. Ma; Z. Ding; Z. Li; X. Zhang

2007-01-01

293

Cryogenic contamination speed for cryogenic laser interferometric gravitational wave detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reflectance of an ultra-low loss dielectric multilayer coating mirror, which was cooled at 10 K and exposed to 300 K vacuum space, was monitored as the finesse of a Fabry-Perot cavity for two months. The reflectance was measured to decrease with a rate of 0.12 +0.12-0.08 ppm per day. Accounting for this result, the cryogenic system for a gravitational wave laser interferometer such as LCGT requires several tens of meters of radiation shields inside its vacuum ducts to keep its optical performance.

Miyoki, Shinji; Tomaru, Takayuki; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Uchiyama, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Sato, Nobuaki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Shintomi, Takakazu

2001-05-01

294

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

between total reflux operation and dumping the product (i.e., the condenser holdup is introduced in the condenser drum and in the reboiler. Another alternative is to ''invert'' the column by charging the feed column by calculating in advance the final holdup in each vessel and then using a level control system

Skogestad, Sigurd

295

Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage  

DOEpatents

Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

2011-07-05

296

Surrogate Cryogenic Target Experiments on OMEGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will describe the latest set of surrogate cryogenic capsule implosion experiments performed with the OMEGA 60-beam UV laser system. These experiments are investigating the final compression performance of capsules consisting of gas-filled or evacuated CH or CD shells as ``surrogates'' of cryogenically prepared targets soon to be available on OMEGA. The final compression performance of the capsules is diagnosed

F. J. Marshall; B. Yaakobi; D. D. Meyerhofer; R. P. J. Town; J. A. Delettrez; V. Glebov; D. K. Bradley; J. P. Knauer; M. D. Cable; T. J. Ognibene

1998-01-01

297

Large scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present here the Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Tele- scope (LCGT) project which is aimed to improve the sensitivity of the existing gravitational wave projects by ten times. LCGT is the project constructing the km-scale gravitational wave detector in Japan succeeding the TAMA project, which adopts cryogenic mirrors with a higher power laser. We are planing to build it

S. Miyoki; Kazuaki Kuroda; Masatake Ohashi; Daisuke Tatsumi; Hideki Ishizuka; Masa-katsu Fujimoto; Seiji Kawamura; Ryutaro Takahashi; Koji Arai; Mitsuhiro Fukushima; Koichi Waseda; Souichi Telada; Akitoshi Ueda; Takakazu Shintomi; Akira Yamamoto; Toshikazu Suzuki; Yoshio Saito; Tomiyoshi Haruyama; Nobuaki Sato; Kimio Tsubono; Keita Kawabe; Masaki Ando; Ken-ichi Ueda; Hitoki Yoneda; Mitsuru Musha; Norikatsu Mio; Shigenori Moriwaki; Akito Araya; Nobuyuki Kanda; Mike E. Tobar

2005-01-01

298

Neutron Detection with Cryogenics and Semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

The common methods of neutron detection are reviewed with special attention paid to the application of cryogenics and semiconductors to the problem. The authors' work with LiF- and boron-based cryogenic instruments is described as well as the use of CdTe and HgI{sub 2} for direct detection of neutrons.

bell, Z.W.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.; Lamberti, V.E.

2005-03-10

299

D0 Cryogenic System Operator Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

D0 is a collider detector. It will be operating and doing physics at the same time as CDP, therefore it has been decided to train CDP operators to operate and respond to the D0 cryogenic control system. A cryogenic operator will be required to be in residence at D0, during the cooldown and liquid Argon fill of any of the

D. Markley

1991-01-01

300

Mechanical testing of large cryogenic structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical testing performed on the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) instrument installed on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is discussed. The CLAES determines temperatures and concentrations of stratospheric minor species as a function of altitude by measuring the atmospheric infrared emission spectra. CLAES is based on a telescope optical system and infrared spectrometer which are cooled with cryogens.

Newkirk, Roger; Burriesci, Larry

1990-01-01

301

Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana)  

E-print Network

Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana) and P. Gru¨tter Centre for the Physics for publication 27 June 2000 We describe our cryogenic magnetic force microscope, operating between 4.2 and 300 K. As an effective means of vibration isolation, we suspend the microscope from a soft bellows which attenuates

Grütter, Peter

302

Identification of a Pilot Scale Distillation Column: A Kernel Based Approach  

E-print Network

economic and environmental issues be- come more and more important, efficient knowledge of the behavior of possible model structures and techniques exists , e.g., neural networks, wavelets, fuzzy models and Least problem of finding the vector w and b R for regression can be formulated as follows (Suykens et al., 2002

303

Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks  

E-print Network

developed for the prediction of the sieve-tray efficiency and structured packing height equivalent predictions. Introduction Overview. In a previous work,2 the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP connection conveys a signal from one node to another labeled by a "weight", that indicates the extent

Eldridge, R. Bruce

304

Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers  

E-print Network

are initiated at ths bottom of the stripper. Any vapox' rate oalculated by an enthalpy balance is parsd. tted to differ by no more than a specified amount from the one used to saks the given trial calculation. If the oalculated value differs avre than...

Dickey, Billy Ray

2012-06-07

305

Fiberglass supports for cryogenic tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis, design, fabrication, and test activities were conducted to develop additional technology needed for application of filament-wound fiberglass struts to cryogenic flight tankage. It was conclusively verified that monocoque cylinder or ogive struts are optimum or near-optimum for the range of lengths and loads studied, that a higher strength-to-weight ratio can be achieved for fiberglass struts than for any metallic struts, and that integrally-wrapped metallic end fittings can be used to achieve axial load transfer without reliance on bond strength or mechanical fasteners.

Keller, C. W.

1972-01-01

306

Cryogenic properties of several copolyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copolyesters of polyethylene terephthalate(PET) and polyethylene-2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate(PEN) with composition of PET\\/PEN= 100\\/0, 95\\/5, 90\\/10, 85\\/15, 70\\/30, 50\\/50, 30\\/70, 10\\/90, 0\\/100 were prepared. The mechanical properties of uniaxial-drawn films were examined at 83 K and 296 K. PET\\/PEN=90\\/10 copolymer film possessed especially excellent cryogenic properties. It was found to withstand elongations in excess of 40% at stress levels of about 400

O. Yano; A. Kimoto; H. Yamaoka

1997-01-01

307

Residual contact restraints in cryogenics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of residual stress measurements to evaluate the state of cryogenic turbomachines, whose surfaces are worn by the working conductions in dry contact, is addressed. Their contribution to the understanding of the reasons of possible ruptures is considered. It is stated that residual stress measurements should be used as a complementary tool rather than as input data for models. It is shown, thanks to two examples concerning the ball bearings and splines of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of the Vulcain engine, what can be expected from such techniques. Total exploitation of the results has still to be done, but preliminary results are quite encouraging.

Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

308

Control of large cryogenic tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the efficient and economic operation of large cryogenic wind tunnels, automatic control is necessary to precisely regulate the temperature, pressure, and Mach number. The features of the control system currently in operation at the U.S. National Transonic Facility are presented. Some unique features of the tunnel temperature control law are the automatic tunnel cool down utilizing structural temperature feedback and the fan power based liquid nitrogen nozzle switching logic that have played a key role in realizing good automatic tunnel control.

Balakrishna, S.; Kilgore, W. A.; Thibodeaux, J. J.

1992-01-01

309

Techniques for on-orbit cryogenic servicing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has a renewed interest in on-orbit cryogen storage and transfer to support its mission to explore near-earth objects such as asteroids and comets. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission (CPST-TDM), managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and scheduled for launch in 2018, will demonstrate numerous key technologies applicable to a cryopropellant fuel depot. As an adjunct to the CPST-TDM work, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will support the development of techniques to manage and transfer cryogens on-orbit and expand these techniques as they may be applicable to servicing science missions using solid cryogens such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The results of several ground experiments are described, including autogenous pressurization used for transfer of liquid nitrogen and argon, characterization of the transfer and solidification of argon, and development of robotic tools for cryogen transfer.

DeLee, C. H.; Barfknecht, P.; Breon, S.; Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Huynh, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Wegel, D.

2014-11-01

310

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

SciTech Connect

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

311

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-print Network

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2008-03-03

312

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

Kvajic, G.

313

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-print Network

to thank my committee members, Dr. Barrufet and Dr. El- Halwagi, for their guidance throughout the completion of this research. I am truly grateful to Dr. Jorge Lara, the faculty, and the staff of the Chemical Engineering Department of Texas A... is commonly used for small- and medium-scale desalination units. There are two methods to compress the vapor: mechanical compressors and steam jets. Lara [6] states that mechanical vapor compression is very efficient. Unlike other distillation systems...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14

314

Cryogenic properties of several copolyesters  

SciTech Connect

Copolyesters of polyethylene terephthalate(PET) and polyethylene-2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate(PEN) with composition of PET/PEN= 100/0, 95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 10/90, 0/100 were prepared. The mechanical properties of uniaxial-drawn films were examined at 83 K and 296 K. PET/PEN=90/10 copolymer film possessed especially excellent cryogenic properties. It was found to withstand elongations in excess of 40% at stress levels of about 400 MPa at 83 K for PET/PEN=90/10 film uniaxial-drawn 5 times. Differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) curves of samples before and after tensile test at 83 K were compared for PET/PEN=90/10 film uniaxial-drawn 5 times. After tensile test at 83 K, the peak position of cold-crystallization shifted and the peak area between the curve and a baseline decreased, indicating that crystallization is allowed to take place during tensile test at 83 K. Dielectric loss tangent was measured in the temperature range from 18 K to the glass transition temperature. The relaxation below 100 K of PET and its copolymers was observed to be dependent on the morphology of samples. On the basis of the results obtained, relationship between the structure of polymers and their cryogenic properties has been discussed.

Yano, O.; Kimoto, A. [Kyoto Institute of Technology (Japan); Yamaoka, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

1997-06-01

315

A new cryogenic diode thermometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the introduction of yet another cryogenic diode thermometer is not earth shattering, a new diode thermometer, the DT-600 series, recently introduced by Lake Shore Cryotronics, possesses three features that make it unique among commercial diode thermometers. First, these diodes have been probed at the chip level, allowing for the availability of a bare chip thermometer matching a standard curve-an important feature in situations where real estate is at a premium (IR detectors), or where in-situ calibration is difficult. Second, the thermometry industry has assumed that interchangeability should be best at low temperatures. Thus, good interchangeability at room temperatures implies a very good interchangeability at cryogenic temperature, resulting in a premium priced sensor. The DT-600 series diode thermometer is available in an interchangeability band comparable to platinum RTDs with the added advantage of interchangeability to 2 K. Third, and most important, the DT-600 series diode does not exhibit an instability in the I-V characteristic in the 8 K to 20 K temperature range that is observed in other commercial diode thermometer devices [1]. This paper presents performance characteristics for the DT-600 series diode thermometer along with a comparison of I-V curves for this device and other commercial diode thermometers exhibiting an I-V instability.

Courts, S. S.; Swinehart, P. R.; Yeager, C. J.

2002-05-01

316

Models for cryogenic wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model requirements, types of model construction methods, and research in new ways to build models are discussed. The 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel was in operation for 16 years and many 2-D airfoil pressure models were tested. In addition there were airfoil models dedicated to transition detection techniques and other specialized research. There were also a number of small 3-D models tested. A chronological development in model building technique is described which led to the construction of many successful models. The difficulties of construction are illustrated by discussing several unsuccessful model fabrication attempts. The National Transonic Facility, a newer and much larger tunnel, was used to test a variety of models including a submarine, transport and fighter configurations, and the Shuttle Orbiter. A new method of building pressure models was developed and is described. The method is centered on the concept of bonding together plates with pressure channels etched into the bond planes, which provides high density pressure instrumentation with minimum demand on parent model material. With care in the choice of materials and technique, vacuum brazing can be used to produce strong bonds without blocking pressure channels and with no bonding voids between channels. Using multiple plates, a 5 percent wing with 96 orifices was constructed and tested in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Samples of test data are presented and future applications of the technology are suggested.

Lawing, Pierce L.

1989-01-01

317

Challenges for Cryogenics at Iter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion of light nuclei is a promising option to provide clean, safe and cost competitive energy in the future. The ITER experimental reactor being designed by seven partners representing more than half of the world population will be assembled at Cadarache, South of France in the next decade. It is a thermonuclear fusion Tokamak that requires high magnetic fields to confine and stabilize the plasma. Cryogenic technology is extensively employed to achieve low-temperature conditions for the magnet and vacuum pumping systems. Efficient and reliable continuous operation shall be achieved despite unprecedented dynamic heat loads due to magnetic field variations and neutron production from the fusion reaction. Constraints and requirements of the largest superconducting Tokamak machine have been analyzed. Safety and technical risks have been initially assessed and proposals to mitigate the consequences analyzed. Industrial standards and components are being investigated to anticipate the requirements of reliable and efficient large scale energy production. After describing the basic features of ITER and its cryogenic system, we shall present the key design requirements, improvements, optimizations and challenges.

Serio, L.

2010-04-01

318

Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

2004-01-01

319

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15

320

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

321

Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

322

Overview of Air Force Research Laboratory cryogenic technology development programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the pace community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. The primary

Thomas M. Davis; B. J. Tomlinson

1998-01-01

323

A radiometer for monitoring column densities of infrared-active molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cryogenically cooled radiometer capable of accurately measuring the infrared background from 3.5 to 100 microns and the column density of water vapor for the low values specified for the space shuttle orbiter is described. The infrared spectral characteristics of the contaminant atmosphere are considered as well as the spectral characteristics of the natural IR background. The measurement technique is described in detail.

Witteborn, F. C.; Simpson, J. P.; Young, L. S.; Swift, C. D.; Melugin, R. K.

1975-01-01

324

Throttling Cryogen Boiloff To Control Cryostat Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved design has been proposed for a cryostat of a type that maintains a desired low temperature mainly through boiloff of a liquid cryogen (e.g., liquid nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure. (A cryostat that maintains a low temperature mainly through boiloff of a cryogen at atmospheric pressure is said to be of the pour/fill Dewar-flask type because its main component is a Dewar flask, the top of which is kept open to the atmosphere so that the liquid cryogen can boil at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic liquid can be added by simply pouring it in.) The major distinguishing feature of the proposed design is control of temperature and cooling rate through control of the flow of cryogen vapor from a heat exchanger. At a cost of a modest increase in complexity, a cryostat according to the proposal would retain most of the compactness of prior, simpler pour/fill Dewar-flask cryostats, but would utilize cryogen more efficiently (intervals between cryogen refills could be longer).

Cunningham, Thomas

2003-01-01

325

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

326

Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic temperatures, and will not crack or produce leaks. The outer layer serves as more of a high-performance structural unit for the inner layer, and can handle external environments.

DeLay, Thomas

2011-01-01

327

Use of resin composites for cryogenic tankage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in development of hypersonic vehicles has led to the evaluation of lightweight materials and structures for cryogenic tankage. Over the past 20 years, resin composites have replaced conventional metallic structures in improving aircraft and spacecraft performance. Previous attempts to develop resin matrix composites for cryogenic tankage were unsuccessful, due to the brittle nature of the matrix or the need for metallic liners to prevent permeation. With the development of new tougher resins and improved processing techniques, resin composites are once again being considered. This paper addresses the advancements made in resin composite technology and their potential advantages and drawbacks for use as cryogenic tankage.

Callaghan, M. T.

328

Leaching potential of phenylurea herbicides in a calcareous soil: comparison of column elution and batch studies.  

PubMed

The transfer of eleven phenylurea herbicides through soil columns was investigated in laboratory conditions in order to determine leaching properties in a calcareous soil. Elution curves with distilled water were plotted after herbicide application on the soil column. Phenylurea retention by the soil indicating interactions with soil can be classified as follows: fenuron < fluometron ? isoproturon = monuron < metoxuron < monolinuron < metobromuron < chlorotoluron < linuron = diuron < chlorbromuron. The number and nature of halogen atoms on the phenyl ring had an important influence on leaching. Retention was higher for molecules with higher number of halogen, and it was also higher for bromine than chlorine. Column elution experiments were compared to batch experiments from which the distribution coefficients K d were determined. According to Kendall correlation coefficients, parameter m/m 0 max from column experiments was relatively well linked to K d. In case of phenylurea, a linear relationship between K d and m/m 0 max was established. PMID:23097070

Langeron, Julie; Sayen, Stéphanie; Couderchet, Michel; Guillon, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

329

Brush seals for cryogenic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation presents test results of brush seals for cryogenic applications. Leakage for a single brush seal was two to three times less than for a 12-tooth labyrinth seal. The maximum temperature rise for a single brush seal was less than 50 R and occurred at 25 psid across the seal and 35,000 rpm. A static blowout test demonstrated sealing capability up to 550 psid. The seal limit was not obtained. The power loss for a single brush at 35,000 rpm and 175 psid was 2.45 hp. Two brushes far apart leak less than two brushes tight packed. Rotor wear was approximately 0.00075 mils and bristle wear was 1-3 mils after 4-1/2 hours.

Proctor, Margaret P.

1994-01-01

330

Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

1974-01-01

331

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

332

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

333

A cryogenic infrared calibration target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ? 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 ?m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 ?m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ? 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

2014-04-01

334

Double-column gas chromatography using packed pre-columns and glass capillary main columns.  

PubMed

Methods of column switching are described that make possible back-flushing, heart cutting and trapping. Conventional packed columns are employed as pre-columns for their high sample capacity, and glass capillary columns are used as the main columns for their high separation efficiency. Some typical examples of the application of double-column gas chromatography are presented: (1) solvent cutting for identification and exact quantitative determination of a phosphorus ester impurity in a sample of wheat flour (including trapping); (2) separation of trace amounts of methyl esters of fatty acids by means of back-flushing and trapping; (3) enrichment technique using trapping of trace elements in the front section of the capillary (plus solvent cutting, multiple injection and back-flushing); and (4) coupling a nitrogen-selective detector to the capillary main column to gain additional information. To illustrate the trapping effect, the separation number was determined with and without trapping. PMID:548547

Blass, W; Riegner, K; Hulpke, H

1979-04-21

335

Movement of Endotoxin Through Soil Columns  

PubMed Central

Land treatment of wastewater is an attractive alternative to conventional sewage treatment systems and is gaining widespread acceptance. Although land application systems prevent surface water pollution and augment the available water supplies, the potential dangers to human health should be evaluated. Since sewage may contain high amounts of bacterial endotoxin, the removal of endotoxin from sewage by percolation through soil was investigated. It was found that 90 to 99% of the endotoxin was removed after travel of sewage through 100 to 250 cm of loamy sand soil. When distilled water was allowed to infiltrate into the soil to simulate rainfall, the endotoxin was mobilized and moved in a concentrated band through the soil column. On testing samples from actual land treatment sites, as much as 480 ng of endotoxin per milliliter was found in some groundwater samples. The presence of endotoxin in potable water is known to be a potential problem under some circumstances, but the importance of endotoxin in water supplies has not been fully assessed. Therefore, the design, operation, and management of land application systems should take into account the fate of endotoxin in groundwater beneath the sites. PMID:7387154

Goyal, Sagar M.; Gerba, Charles P.; Lance, J. Clarence

1980-01-01

336

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

PubMed Central

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A? state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A? states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

2013-01-01

337

A brief overview of cryogenics in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper general aspects of cryogenics in China are introduced, and applications of cryogenics in the space programme are described briefly, such as its application to the Long March 3 rocket vehicles with LH2/LO2 engines, the development of a 750 dm 3 hr -1 liquid hydrogen plant and railway tank cars with 60 and 70 m 3 capacities. In addition, the progress of various cryogenic techniques in China is presented, such as the FY-1 radiation refrigerator loaded on a meteorology satellite, regenerative cryocoolers of the Gifford-McMahon, Solvay, Vuilleumier, Stirling and pulse tube types, and the KM-3 and KM-4 space simulation facilities. Finally, the paper discusses current education about refrigeration and cryogenics for undergraduates and graduates.

Li, S.-M.

338

Evaluation of two designs for cryogenic insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shingle-type, crinkled, aluminized polyethylene ester is thermally and structurally tested for cryogenic insulation. Insulation systems require thermal efficiency with minimum weight, and the ability to withstand vibration, acceleration, and rapid pressure drops.

Getty, R. C.

1970-01-01

339

Behaviour of 222Rn at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of radon in a cryogenic environment is still not well known. Therefore, measured radon emanation rates at room temperature cannot be translated directly to cryogenic conditions. In this work we present a table-top experiment that provides a direct way of determining the behaviour of 222Rn in cryogenic argon and helium at liquid argon temperature. We observe an increased emanation rate of 222Rn atoms to liquid argon compared to the rate observed to helium at room temperature. We also find that 222Rn atoms stick to cold metal surfaces when emanated to helium at liquid argon temperature but partly distribute in the liquid when emanated to cryogenic argon. Concluding, we give possible interpretations of the observations.

Lindemann, Sebastian; Simgen, Hardy; Zuzel, Grzegorz

2011-04-01

340

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

1980-02-26

341

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01

342

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

Hendricks, C.D.

1980-02-26

343

ZIRCONIUM CORROSION IN DISTILLED WATER AT 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zr corrosion in distilled water (pH = 6.5, SOâ = 0.6 mg\\/l) at 85 ; deg C in contact with 1 x 18H9T steel (0.l2% C, 0.50% Si, l.30% Mn, 18.13% Cr, ; 9.8% Ni, and 0.55% Ti) and with aluminum AlM (0.22 Fe, 0.06 Si, and <0.01 Cu) at ; a surface ratio of 1: 1 was investigated. The

V. V. Gerasimov; A. I. Gromova; E. T. Shapovalov

1961-01-01

344

Distillation and the Role of Weak Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will examine how distillation works and the roles of all components involved in the process. The site is filled with thorough diagrams accompanied by solid textual explanations. Aside from diagrams and text, students will engage in simple quizzes testing the concepts they have just learned. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

2008-10-17

345

Creep of pure aluminum at cryogenic temperatures  

E-print Network

CREEP OF PURE ALUMINUM AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by LACY CLARK MCDONALD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1989 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering CREEP OF PURE ALUMINUM AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by LACY CLARK MCDONALD Approved a. s to style and content by: K. Ted Hartwig (Chair ol' Committee) Walter L. Bradley (Member) Mehrda. d...

McDonald, Lacy Clark

2012-06-07

346

Cryogenic production of ammonia synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved cryogenic separation process is provided for forming a substantially CO-free and lower hydrocarbon-free hydrogen-rich gas, suitable for use in producing an ammonia synthesis gas, from a hydrogen-containing gas stream also containing carbon monoxide and lower hydrocarbon impurities, wherein the hydrogen containing gas is subject to a two-stage autorefrigerated cryogenic flash treatment to remove concentrated methane-containing and carbon monoxide-containing

Traficante

1985-01-01

347

Filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and testing of filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports for a LH2 tank, a LF2/FLOX tank and a CH4 tank. These supports consist of filament-wound fiberglass tubes with titanium end fittings. These units were satisfactorily tested at cryogenic temperatures, thereby offering a design that can be reliably and economically produced in large or small quantities. The basic design concept is applicable to any situation where strong, lightweight axial load members are desired.

Carter, J. S.; Timberlake, T. E.

1971-01-01

348

Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

349

Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

1987-01-01

350

Density Column Lab - Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concluding a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate densities of several household liquids and compare them to the densities of irregularly shaped objects (as determined in Part 1). Then they create density columns with the three liquids and four solid items to test their calculations and predictions of the different densities. Once their density columns are complete, students determine the effect of adding detergent to the columns. After this activity, present the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for a discussion about why the column layers do not mix.

GK-12 Program,

351

Compact electron beam focusing column  

SciTech Connect

A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

2001-07-13

352

Five-Layer Density Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners can create five-layer density columns by employing one of three (or all) methods. Method 1 gives the names of the liquids and the order for adding them, and its goal is to directly construct the density column without any experimentation. Method 2 assumes names and densities of the five materials to be unknown, and involves open-ended experimenting, with few instructions, to construct the column. Method 3 also assumes names and densities of the materials to be unknown, and outlines a systematic way to approach the experimentation involved in constructing the column. Learners complete data tables and analyze the densities of the substances.

Rathjen, Don

2005-01-01

353

Cryogenic ion chemistry and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The use of mass spectrometry in macromolecular analysis is an incredibly important technique and has allowed efficient identification of secondary and tertiary protein structures. Over 20 years ago, Chemistry Nobelist John Fenn and co-workers revolutionized mass spectrometry by developing ways to non-destructively extract large molecules directly from solution into the gas phase. This advance, in turn, enabled rapid sequencing of biopolymers through tandem mass spectrometry at the heart of the burgeoning field of proteomics. In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. This is accomplished by first cooling the ions close to 10 K and condensing onto them weakly bound, chemically inert small molecules or rare gas atoms. This assembly can then be used as a medium in which to quench reactive encounters by rapid evaporation of the adducts, as well as provide a universal means for acquiring highly resolved vibrational action spectra of the embedded species by photoinduced mass loss. Moreover, the spectroscopic measurements can be obtained with readily available, broadly tunable pulsed infrared lasers because absorption of a single photon is sufficient to induce evaporation. We discuss the implementation of these methods with a new type of hybrid photofragmentation mass spectrometer involving two stages of mass selection with two laser excitation regions interfaced to the cryogenic ion source. We illustrate several capabilities of the cryogenic ion spectrometer by presenting recent applications to peptides, a biomimetic catalyst, a large antibiotic molecule (vancomycin), and reaction intermediates pertinent to the chemistry of the ionosphere. First, we demonstrate how site-specific isotopic substitution can be used to identify bands due to local functional groups in a protonated tripeptide designed to stereoselectively catalyze bromination of biaryl substrates. This procedure directly reveals the particular H-bond donor and acceptor groups that enforce the folded structure of the bare ion as well as provide contact points for noncovalent interaction with substrates. We then show how photochemical hole-burning involving only vibrational excitations can be used in a double-resonance mode to systematically disentangle overlapping spectra that arise when several conformers of a dipeptide are prepared in the ion source. Finally, we highlight our ability to systematically capture reaction intermediates and spectroscopically characterize their structures. Through this method, we can identify the pathway for water-network-mediated, proton-coupled transformation of nitrosonium, NO(+) to HONO, a key reaction controlling the cations present in the ionosphere. Through this work, we reveal the critical role played by water molecules occupying the second solvation shell around the ion, where they stabilize the emergent product ion in a fashion reminiscent of the solvent coordinate responsible for the barrier to charge transfer in solution. Looking to the future, we predict that the capture and characterization of fleeting intermediate complexes in the homogeneous catalytic activation of small molecules like water, alkanes, and CO2 is a likely avenue rich with opportunity. PMID:23972279

Wolk, Arron B; Leavitt, Christopher M; Garand, Etienne; Johnson, Mark A

2014-01-21

354

Active Costorage of Cryogenic Propellants for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term storage of cryogenic propellants is a critical requirement for NASA's effort to return to the moon. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen provide the highest specific impulse of any practical chemical propulsion system, and thus provides the greatest payload mass per unit of launch mass. Future manned missions will require vehicles with the flexibility to remain in orbit for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogenic liquids. For decades cryogenic scientific satellites have used cryogens to cool instruments. In many cases, the lifetime of the primary cryogen tank has been extended by intercepting much of the heat incident on the tank at an intermediate-temperature shield cooled either by a second cryogen tank or a mechanical cryocooler. For an LH2/LO2 propellant system, a combination of these ideas can be used, in which the shield around the LO2 tank is attached to, and at the same temperature as, the LO2 tank, but is actively cooled so as to remove all heat impinging on the tank and shield. This configuration eliminates liquid oxygen boil-off and cuts the liquid hydrogen boil-off to a small fraction of the unshielded rate. This paper studies the concept of active costorage as a means of long-term cryogenic propellant storage. The paper describes the design impact of an active costorage system for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This paper also compares the spacecraft level impact of the active costorage concept with a passive storage option in relation to two different scales of spacecraft that will be used for the lunar exploration effort, the CEV and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS). Spacecraft level studies are performed to investigate the impact of scaling of the costorage technologies for the different components of the Lunar Architecture and for different mission durations.

Canavan, Edgar R.; Boyle, Rob; Mustafi, Shuvo

2008-01-01

355

SIGMM Education Column December 2010  

E-print Network

commonly used to analyze and solve multimedia research problems. The course was proposed for two reasons were consulted to identify a common core to go into CS5240. This initial list was still deemed tooSIGMM Education Column December 2010 SIGMM Education Column Authors: Wei Tsang Ooi and Terence Sim

Sim, Terence

356

Integrated Cryogenic System for CO2 Separation and Lng Production from Landfill Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated cryogenic system to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and produce LNG from landfill gas is investigated and designed. The main objective of this design is to eliminate the requirement of a standard CO2 removal process in the liquefaction system such distillation or (temperature or pressure) swing adsorption, and to directly separate carbon dioxide as frost at the liquefying channel of methane. Two identical sets of heat exchangers are installed in parallel and switched alternatively with a time period so that one is in separation-liquefaction mode while the other is in CO2 clean-up mode. A thermal regeneration scheme is presented for the purpose of saving energy and avoiding the stoppage of LNG production followed by the flow switching. The switching period is determined from results of a combined heat and mass transfer analysis on the CO2 freeze-out process.

Chang, H. M.; Chung, M. J.; Park, S. B.

2010-04-01

357

Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction  

E-print Network

: A solvent with HA Boiling point with water Heptane or Hexane Low vapor pressure viscosifying oil Distillation setup/ process -Found the Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Boiling points for Water on microscope - Took several images at different time points - Took pictures in color also to see what was water

Petta, Jason

358

CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;  

E-print Network

of an aqueous mixture but at a much lower/ less destructive temperature than distilling the compound directly for a dropping funnel. The water initially in your round bottom flask will be sufficient for the distillation, but they are obviously required. Boil the mixture vigorously, but watch for boil-overs! Collect about 125 m

Taber, Douglass

359

Sorption Isotherm Characteristics of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds ...

360

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

361

Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

1996-01-01

362

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

363

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

1995-01-01

364

Modeling the flow properties of distillers dried grains with solubles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants, and are also used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now b...

365

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2012-04-01

366

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2010-04-01

367

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2013-04-01

368

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2011-04-01

369

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2014-04-01

370

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.203...

2010-04-01

371

27 CFR 19.133 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.133 Section 19.133...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Location and Use § 19.133 Use of distilled spirits plant premises. (a) General. No...

2010-04-01

372

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.204...

2010-04-01

373

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2010-04-01

374

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2011-04-01

375

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2012-04-01

376

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2014-04-01

377

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2013-04-01

378

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2013-04-01

379

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2014-04-01

380

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2011-04-01

381

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2012-04-01

382

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2012-04-01

383

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2013-04-01

384

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2014-04-01

385

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2011-04-01

386

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2012-04-01

387

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2014-04-01

388

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2013-04-01

389

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

390

27 CFR 5.47 - Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980). 5...LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.47 Standards of fill...

2010-04-01

391

27 CFR 27.120 - Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. 27.120 Section...TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Importation of Distilled Spirits In Bulk § 27.120 Persons...

2010-04-01

392

77 FR 6038 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1513-AB89 Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations...Notice No. 124, Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations...response to a request from a distilled spirits industry association. DATES:...

2012-02-07

393

77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Alcohol...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional 10 days. In Notice...of identity regulations for distilled spirits to include...

2012-06-29

394

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

395

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M.H.

1949-01-01

396

Mush Column Magma Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior of the system, coupled with these processes, define the fundamental compositional and dynamic diversity of the Mush Column. In some ways it functions like a complex musical instrument. Entrainment, transport, and sorting of cumulate crystals as a function of repose time and the local flux intensity also contribute to the basic compositional diversity of the system. In the Ferrar dolerite system, about 104 km3 of dolerite is distributed throughout a fir-tree like stack of 4 or 5 extensive 300-750 m thick sills. The lowest sill contains a vast tongue of entrained orthopyroxene (opx) cumulates emplaced with the sill itself. The bulk sill composition varies from 20 pc MgO in the tongue center to 7 pc in the leading tip and margins of the sill, which itself defines the compositional spectrum of the whole complex and is remarkably similar to that exhibited by Hawaii. Relative sorting of large (1-50 mm) opx and small (1-3 mm) plagioclase due to kinetic sieving in the tongue produces pervasive anorthosite stringers. Through local ponding this has culminated in the formation of a small, well-formed layered intrusion consisting of alternating layers of orthopyroxenite and anorthosite. Upwards in the system the sills become progressively depleted in MgO and temporally and spatially contiguous flood basalts are low MgO tholeiites with no sign of opx cumulates. The size, extent, number of sills, and the internal structure of individual sills suggest a rhythm of injection similar to that of volcanic episodes. The continued horizontal stretching of a system of this type would lead to processes as recorded by ophiolites, and the repeated injection into a single reservoir would undoubtedly lead to a massive layered intrusion or to a series of high-level nested plutons.

Marsh, B. D.

2002-12-01

397

Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

2004-06-01

398

Status of the ESS cryogenic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

Weisend, J. G., II; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

2014-01-01

399

Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

2009-01-01

400

Status of the ESS cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

Weisend II, J. G.; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2014-01-29

401

Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

Lazarus, L.J.

1996-10-01

402

Seismic behavior of lightweight concrete columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen full-scale, column-beam assemblies, which represented a portion of a frame subjected to simulated seismic loading, were tested. Controlled test parameters included concrete type, column size, amount of main column steel, size and spacing of column confining hoops, and magnitude of column axial load. The columns were subjected to constant axial load and slow moment reversals at increasing inelastic deformations. Test data showed that properly designed lightweight concrete columns maintained ductility and strength when subjected to large inelastic deformations from load reversals. Confinement requirements for normal weight concrete columns were shown to be applicable to lightweight concrete columns up to thirty percent of the design strength.

Rabbat, B. G.; Daniel, J. I.; Weinmann, T. L.; Hanson, N. W.

1982-09-01

403

Sr Spec Resin + Small (2 mL) Column Procedure for Sr Separation Prepared by Joseph Street, 3/20/2012  

E-print Network

. It involves the use of nitric acid (up to 8M concentration), so appropriate safety columns (stored in large fume hood in wet lab, in 8M nitric acid in small and 8M distilled nitric acid in separate containers - Milli-Q/Ultrapure water (squirt

Paytan, Adina

404

Cryogenic Amplifier Based Receivers at Submillimeter Wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operating frequency of InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based amplifiers has moved well in the submillimeter-wave frequencies over the last couple of years. Working amplifiers with usable gain in waveguide packages has been reported beyond 700 GHz. When cooled cryogenically, they have shown substantial improvement in their noise temperature. This has opened up the real possibility of cryogenic amplifier based heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths for ground-based, air-borne, and space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary, and Earth science applications. This paper provides an overview of the science applications at submillimeter wavelengths that will benefit from this technology. It also describes the current state of the InP HEMT based cryogenic amplifier receivers at submillimeter wavelengths.

Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore and; Schlecht, Erich; Lin, Robert; Deal, William

2012-01-01

405

Performance of Power Converters at Cryogenic Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power converters capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated to play an important role in the power system architecture of future NASA deep space missions. Design of such converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance and reduce development and launch costs. Aerospace power systems are mainly a DC distribution network. Therefore, DC/DC and DC/AC converters provide the outputs needed to different loads at various power levels. Recently, research efforts have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to design and evaluate DC/DC converters that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. This paper presents a summary of the research performed to evaluate the low temperature performance of five DC/DC converters. Various parameters were investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 20 to -196 C. Data pertaining to the output voltage regulation and efficiency of the converters is presented and discussed.

Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

2001-01-01

406

Performance evaluation of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide tools in turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study on the effects of cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide. Cryogenic treatment has been acknowledged by some as a means of extending the tool life of many cutting tool materials, but little is known about the mechanism behind it. Thus far, detailed studies pertaining to cryogenic treatment have been conducted only on tool steels. However, tungsten

A. Y. L. Yong; K. H. W. Seah; M. Rahman

2006-01-01

407

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives: 1) Store cryogenic propellants in a manner that maximizes their availability for use regardless of mission duration. 2) Efficiently transfer conditioned cryogenic propellant to an engine or tank situated in a microgravity environment. 3) Accurately monitor and gauge cryogenic propellants situated in a microgravity environment.

Chojnacki, Kent

2013-01-01

408

Microstructure of cryogenic treated M2 tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic treatment has been claimed to improve wear resistance of certain steels and has been implemented in cutting tools, autos, barrels etc. Although it has been confirmed that cryogenic treatment can improve the service life of tools, the underling mechanism remains unclear. In this paper, we studied the microstructure changes of M2 tool steel before and after cryogenic treatment. We

J. Y Huang; Y. T Zhu; X. Z Liao; I. J Beyerlein; M. A Bourke; T. E Mitchell

2003-01-01

409

27 CFR 1.71 - Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled...

2010-04-01

410

Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns: Application to supercritical CO[sub 2] extraction of terpenes  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an alternative separation method to more conventional processes such as liquid extraction and distillation. However, up to now, few works have been devoted to the investigation of the efficiency of countercurrent packed columns under supercritical conditions from a mass transfer point of view. Mass transfer in a countercurrent column, filled with structured gauze packing, was measured for the separation of a mixture of terpenes (d-limonene/1,8-cineole) by supercritical carbon dioxide, at 313 and 318 K and pressures up to 9 MPa. The extraction efficiency was determined in terms of the overall mass transfer coefficient. Operating lines for this process had an appreciable curvature due to a high miscibility of the two contacting phases. The real slope of these lines had to be estimated. Available mass transfer models for packed columns predicted efficiencies diverging to a great extent from the experimental results.

Simoes, P.C.; Matos, H.A.; Carmelo, P.J.; Gomes de Azevedo, E.; Nunes da Ponte, M. (Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia)

1995-02-01

411

Cryogenic fluid management experiment trunnion fatigue verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subcritical liquid hydrogen orbital storage and transfer experiment was designed for flight in the Shuttle cargo bay. The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) includes a liquid hydrogen tank supported in a vacuum jacket by two fiberglass epoxy trunnion mounts. This composite material was selected for the trunnions since it provides desirable strength, weight and thermal characteristics for supporting cryogenic tankage. An experimental program was conducted to provide material property and fatigue data for S-glass epoxy composite materials at ambient and liquid hydrogen temperatures and to verify structural integrity of the CFME trunnion supports.

Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.; Toth, J. M., Jr.; Kasper, H. J.

1983-01-01

412

Photochemistry of chloropicrin in cryogenic matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photolysis of chloropicrin (CCl 3NO 2) was investigated in Ar and N 2 cryogenic matrices. The extent of reaction was monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy. Phosgene and nitrosyl chloride were the observed photoproducts at all wavelengths investigated (220, 251, 313, 365, and 405 nm). When the photolysis was performed with 220, 251, or 313 nm light, two additional bands were also observed. These bands have been assigned to CCl 3ONO. Chloropicrin was also photolyzed in the presence of O 2 and 18O2. 18O-labeled photoproducts were not detected in cryogenic matrices.

Wade, Elisabeth A.; Reak, Kristina E.; Parsons, Bradley F.; Clemes, Thomas P.; Singmaster, Karen A.

2002-11-01

413

Adjustable expandable cryogenic piston and ring  

DOEpatents

The operation of a reciprocating expansion engine for cryogenic refrigeration is improved by changing the pistons and rings so that the piston can be operated from outside the engine to vary the groove in which the piston ring is located. This causes the ring, which is of a flexible material, to be squeezed so that its contact with the wall is subject to external control. This control may be made manually or it may be made automatically in response to instruments that sense the amount of blow-by of the cryogenic fluid and adjust for an optimum blow-by.

Mazur, Peter O. (Aurora, IL); Pallaver, Carl B. (Woodridge, IL)

1980-01-01

414

Resolving ultrafast heating of dense cryogenic hydrogen.  

PubMed

We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ?300??fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ?0.9??ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory. PMID:24679300

Zastrau, U; Sperling, P; Harmand, M; Becker, A; Bornath, T; Bredow, R; Dziarzhytski, S; Fennel, T; Fletcher, L B; Förster, E; Göde, S; Gregori, G; Hilbert, V; Hochhaus, D; Holst, B; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Ma, T; Mithen, J P; Mitzner, R; Murphy, C D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Neumayer, P; Przystawik, A; Roling, S; Schulz, M; Siemer, B; Skruszewicz, S; Tiggesbäumker, J; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; White, T; Wöstmann, M; Zacharias, H; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S H; Redmer, R

2014-03-14

415

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

416

GAMMA DENSITY CONTROLS EXTRACTION COLUMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma absorption density gauging can monitor both the organic extract ; and the aqueous raffinate and can control column feed rates to maintain normal ; steadystate operation in a liquid-liquid uranium extraction process. (auth);

Ryle

1957-01-01

417

Self-regenerating column chromatography  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

Park, Woo K. (Centerville, OH)

1995-05-30

418

Dynamic variability of column ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first-order, analytic estimate of the dynamical change in column ozone density is given as a function of temperature change in the lower stratosphere. It is found that, for each 1 percent (about 2 C) cooling averaged over the lower stratosphere, the column ozone density can be expected to decrease by approximately 7 percent, if it can be assumed that such a temperature change is induced by changes in wave transports.

Tung, Ka Kit; Yang, HU

1988-01-01

419

Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

1977-01-01

420

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

2009-04-30

421

Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Zelipsky, Steven A. (Tinley Park, IL); Rezmer, Ronald R. (Lisle, IL); Smelser, Peter (Bruner, MO)

1981-01-01

422

SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF UFC SEGMENT COLUMNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under an extreme ground motion, flexural capacity of a RC column deteriorates due to crushing of the core concrete and buckling of longitudinal bars. Therefore, it is important to prevent damage at the plastic hinge region for enhancing the seismic performance of RC columns. Two UFC segment columns which use UFC segments at the plastic hinge region and unbonded longitudinal bars are proposed; 1) in-core RC type column, and 2) PC cable type column. The seismic performance of two columns were clarified based on cyclic loading experiments. It is shown that the in-core RC type column shows better performance than the PC cable type column.

Ichikawa, Shota; Zhang, Rui; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Kazuhiko; Elgawady, Mohamed; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Yamanobe, Shinichi

423

Cryogenic Technology, part 1. [conference proceedings; cryogenic wind tunnel design and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different engineering problems associated with the design of mechanisms and systems to operate in a cryogenic environment are discussed. The focal point for the entire engineering effort was the design of the National Transonic Facility, which is a closed-circuit cryogenic wind tunnel. The papers covered a variety of mechanical, structural, and systems design subjects including thermal structures insulation systems, noise, seals, and materials.

1980-01-01

424

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-print Network

is the most basic of the three and can be measured with small columns or in special laboratory devices. The other efficiencies depend upon liquid and vapor mixing conditions and on vapor flow rates that might cause entrainment of liquid to the next tray..., corrections for crossflow of liquid and its departure from plug flow must be added. Recently, an improved binary model, developed for sieve trays, was presented [24J. This new model also predicts local efficiency, but its development incorporated also a...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01

425

Cost-Efficient Storage of Cryogens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's cryogenic infrastructure that supports launch vehicle operations and propulsion testing is reaching an age where major refurbishment will soon be required. Key elements of this infrastructure are the large double-walled cryogenic storage tanks used for both space vehicle launch operations and rocket propulsion testing at the various NASA field centers. Perlite powder has historically been the insulation material of choice for these large storage tank applications. New bulk-fill insulation materials, including glass bubbles and aerogel beads, have been shown to provide improved thermal and mechanical performance. A research testing program was conducted to investigate the thermal performance benefits as well as to identify operational considerations and associated risks associated with the application of these new materials in large cryogenic storage tanks. The program was divided into three main areas: material testing (thermal conductivity and physical characterization), tank demonstration testing (liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen), and system studies (thermal modeling, economic analysis, and insulation changeout). The results of this research work show that more energy-efficient insulation solutions are possible for large-scale cryogenic storage tanks worldwide and summarize the operational requirements that should be considered for these applications.

Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J. P.; Nagy, Z.; Sojoumer, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

2007-01-01

426

Germanium JFET for Cryogenic Readout Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The n-channel Germanium junction field effect transistor (Ge-JFET) was designed and fabricated for cryogenic applications. The Ge-JFET exhibits superior noise performance at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). From the device current voltage characteristics of n-channel JFETs, it is seen that transconductance increases monotonically with the lowering of temperature to 4.2 K (liquid helium temperature).

Das, N. C.; Monroy, C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.

1999-01-01

427

The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

1995-01-01

428

Cryogenic Fuel Tank Draining Analysis Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the technological challenges in designing advanced hypersonic aircraft and the next generation of spacecraft is developing reusable flight-weight cryogenic fuel tanks. As an aid in the design and analysis of these cryogenic tanks, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed specifically for the analysis of flow in a cryogenic fuel tank. This model employs the full set of Navier-Stokes equations, except that viscous dissipation is neglected in the energy equation. An explicit finite difference technique in two-dimensional generalized coordinates, approximated to second-order accuracy in both space and time is used. The stiffness resulting from the low Mach number is resolved by using artificial compressibility. The model simulates the transient, two-dimensional draining of a fuel tank cross section. To calculate the slosh wave dynamics the interface between the ullage gas and liquid fuel is modeled as a free surface. Then, experimental data for free convection inside a horizontal cylinder are compared with model results. Finally, cryogenic tank draining calculations are performed with three different wall heat fluxes to demonstrate the effect of wall heat flux on the internal tank flow field.

Greer, Donald

1999-01-01

429

Further Surrogate Cryogenic Target Experiments on OMEGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed surrogate cryogenic (solid shell) implosion experiments (HE1) on the OMEGA 60-beam UV laser system, extending the range of targets to those most suitable to current illumination conditions. Simultaneous measurements of shell (fuel) areal density, electron temperature, and ion temperature have been obtained with both x-ray and neutron spectroscopic techniques. Observed areal densities of as high as ~*60

F. J. Marshall; D. K. Bradley; J. A. Delettrez; P. A. Jaanimagi; R. L. Kremens; C. P. Verdon; B. Yaakobi; M. D. Cable

1997-01-01

430

Cryogenics: Producing a state of suspended reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the phenomenon of cryogenics, and its impact on current conceptualizations about death within social psychology. As an alternative to traditional death ritualization, evaluation of the use of cryonic suspension is offered to show how the technique accommodates the denial of death, feeds on narcissistic values, and aids in the secularization of technology over religion. Finally, the fundamental

J. Smith Teitge

1984-01-01

431

Temperature control of a cryogenic bath  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foreign gas introduced into vapor phase above liquid region cools cryogenic baths. Equipment consists of gas tank and cover of styrofoam. Helium is considered the best choice to produce cooling, though any gas with boiling point lower than that of bath liquid may be used.

Asher, I. M.

1972-01-01

432

Energy Efficient Storage and Transfer of Cryogens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenics is globally linked to energy generation, storage, and usage. Thermal insulation systems research and development is an enabling part of NASA's technology goals for Space Launch and Exploration. New thermal testing methodologies and materials are being transferred to industry for a wide range of commercial applications.

Fesmire, James E.

2013-01-01

433

Robust Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New requirements for thermal insulation include robust Multilayer insulation (MU) systems that work for a range of environments from high vacuum to no vacuum. Improved MLI systems must be simple to install and maintain while meeting the life-cycle cost and thermal performance objectives. Performance of actual MLI systems has been previously shown to be much worse than ideal MLI. Spacecraft that must contain cryogens for both lunar service (high vacuum) and ground launch operations (no vacuum) are planned. Future cryogenic spacecraft for the soft vacuum environment of Mars are also envisioned. Industry products using robust MLI can benefit from improved cost-efficiency and system safety. Novel materials have been developed to operate as excellent thermal insulators at vacuum levels that are much less stringent than the absolute high vacuum requirement of current MLI systems. One such robust system, Layered Composite Insulation (LCI), has been developed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experimental testing and development of LCI is the focus of this paper. LCI thermal performance under cryogenic conditions is shown to be six times better than MLI at soft vacuum and similar to MLI at high vacuum. The experimental apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux data for LCI systems are compared with other MLI systems.

Fesmire, J. E.; Scholtens, B. F.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

2007-01-01

434

Development of a cryogenic heat pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pipe operating characteristics can be used to advantage in cryogenic systems. Diode operation of the heat pipe, the ability to conduct heat in one direction only, is useful in protecting the heat load if the heat sink temperature rises above the load temperature. Because of this, the heat pipe can be made to act as a thermal switch. A

F. C. Prenger; W. F. Stewart; J. E. Runyan

1993-01-01

435

Fiber optic level sensor for cryogens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor is useful in cryogenic environments where liquids of very low index of refraction are encountered. It is "yes/no" indication of whether liquid is in contact with sensor. Sharp bends in fiber alter distribution of light among propagation modes. This amplifies change in light output observed when sensor contacts liquid, without requiring long fiber that would increse insertion loss.

Sharma, M.

1981-01-01

436

Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

Bowers, W. M.

1967-01-01

437

Cost-Efficient Storage of Cryogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's cryogenic infrastructure, which supports launch vehicle operations and propulsion testing, is reaching an age when major refurbishment is required. Key elements of this infrastructure are the large double-walled cryogenic storage tanks used for both space vehicle launch operations and rocket propulsion testing at various NASA field centers. Perlite powder has historically been the insulation material of choice for these applications, but new bulk-fill insulation materials, including glass bubbles and aerogel beads, have been shown to provide improved thermal and mechanical performance. Research was conducted on thermal performance to identify operational considerations and risks associated with using these new materials in large cryogenic storage tanks. The program was divided into three main areas: material testing (thermal conductivity and physical characterization), tank demonstration testing (liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen), and system studies (thermal modeling, granular physics, and insulation changeout). This research showed that more energy-efficient insulation solutions are possible for large-scale cryogenic storage tanks worldwide and summarized the operational requirements that should be considered for these applications.

Fesmire, J. E.; Sass, J. P.; Nagy, Z.; Sojourner, S. J.; Morris, D. L.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

2008-03-01

438

Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

2012-01-01

439

Microwave oscillators incorporating cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported on efforts to develop a commercially-viable high purity X-band signal source incorporating a cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonator. The resonator design is of the whispering gallery type to take advantage of the excellent electromagnetic field confinement offered by this geometry. Complications resulting from the high spurious mode density of this type of resonator have been eliminated by developing

R. C. Taber; C. A. Flory

1995-01-01

440

Cryogenic propellant prestart conditioning for NLS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of a candidate National Launch System (NLS) passive cryogenic propellant prestart conditioning system that offers a stable propellant thermal environment and minimum system complexity. A 2D, multinode model utilizing real fluid properties was developed. This model predicts flow recirculation due to thermal gradients by assuming vertical cold and warm opposing flow streams produced by density differential.

Gaynor, T. L.; Merlin, M. V.; Gautney, T. T.

1992-01-01

441

Cryogenically enhanced magneto-Archimedes levitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of both a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient to a diamagnetic body can produce a vertical force which is sufficient to counteract its weight due to gravity. By immersing the body in a paramagnetic fluid, an additional adjustable magneto-buoyancy force is generated which enhances the levitation effect. Here we show that cryogenic oxygen and oxygen–nitrogen mixtures

A T Catherall; P López-Alcaraz; K A Benedict; P J King; L Eaves

2005-01-01

442

Subcooling for Long Duration In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic propellants such as hydrogen and oxygen are crucial for exploration of the solar system because of their superior specific impulse capability. Future missions may require vehicles to remain in space for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogens. A Thermodynamic Cryogen Subcooler (TCS) can ease the challenge of cryogenic fluid storage by removing energy from the cryogenic propellant through isobaric subcooling of the cryogen below its normal boiling point prior to launch. The isobaric subcooling of the cryogenic propellant will be performed by using a cold pressurant to maintain the tank pressure while the cryogen's temperature is simultaneously reduced using the TCS. The TCS hardware will be integrated into the launch infrastructure and there will be no significant addition to the launched dry mass. Heat leaks into all cryogenic propellant tanks, despite the use of the best insulation systems. However, the large heat capacity available in the subcooled cryogenic propellants allows the energy that leaks into the tank to be absorbed until the cryogen reaches its operational thermodynamic condition. During this period of heating of the subcooled cryogen there will be minimal loss of the propellant due to venting for pressure control. This simple technique can extend the operational life of a spacecraft or an orbital cryogenic depot for months with minimal mass penalty. In fact isobaric subcooling can more than double the in-space hold time of liquid hydrogen compared to normal boiling point hydrogen. A TCS for cryogenic propellants would thus provide an enhanced level of mission flexibility. Advances in the important components of the TCS will be discussed in this paper.

Mustafi, Shuvo; Johnson, Wesley; Kashani, Ali; Jurns, John; Kutter, Bernard; Kirk, Daniel; Shull, Jeff

2010-01-01

443

EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

444

Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

1985-02-19

445

Explosion hazards in crude, distillate storage tanks assessed  

SciTech Connect

Explosion and fire hazards in crude oil and light distillate storage tanks have been assessed by actual field temperature measurements at the Zarka refinery in Jordan. Results of the assessment are presented.

Tamimi, A. (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (JO))

1990-11-19

446

Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings  

E-print Network

The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

1984-01-01

447

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2014-04-01

448

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2012-04-01

449

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2013-04-01

450

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2011-04-01

451

27 CFR 19.830 - Application of distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Administrative...produced in or removed from the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or this...

2010-04-01

452

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOEpatents

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11

453

Thales Cryogenics rotary cryocoolers for HOT applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thales Cryogenics has an extensive background in delivering reliable linear and rotary coolers for military, civil and space programs. Recent work carried out at detector level enable to consider a higher operation temperature for the cooled detectors. This has a direct impact on the cooling power required to the cryocooler. In continuation of the work presented last year, Thales cryogenics has studied the operation and optimization of the rotary cryocoolers at high cold regulation temperature. In this paper, the performances of the Thales Cryogenics rotary cryocoolers at elevated cold regulation temperature will be presented. From these results, some trade-offs can be made to combine correct operation of the cryocooler on all the ambient operational range and maximum efficiency of the cryocooler. These trade-offs and the impact on MTTF of elevated cold regulation temperature will be presented and discussed. In correlation with the increase of the cold operation temperature, the cryocooler input power is significantly decreased. As a consequence, the cooler drive electronics own consumption becomes relatively important and must be reduced in order to minimize global input power to the cooling function (cryocooler and cooler drive electronics). Thales Cryogenics has developed a new drive electronics optimized for low input power requirements. In parallel, improvements on RM1 and RM2 cryocoolers have been defined and implemented. The main impacts on performances of these new designs will be presented. Thales cryogenics is now able to propose an efficient cooling function for application requiring a high cold regulation temperature including a range of tuned rotary coolers.

Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Freche, Sébastien

2012-06-01

454

Cryogenic systems for the large deployable reflector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are five technologies which may have application for Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), one passive and four active. In order of maturity, they are passive stored cryogen systems, and mechanical, sorption, magnetic, and pulse-tube refrigerators. In addition, deep space radiators will be required to reject the heat of the active systems, and may be useful as auxiliary coolers for the stored cryogen systems. Hybrid combinations of these technologies may well be more efficient than any one alone, and extensive system studies will be required to determine the best trade-offs. Stored cryogen systems were flown on a number of missions. The systems are capable of meeting the temperature requirements of LDR. The size and weight of stored cryogen systems are proportional to heat load and, as a result, are applicable only if the low-temperature heat load can be kept small. Systems using chemisorption and physical adsorption for compressors and pumps have received considerable attention in the past few years. Systems based on adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts were used for refrigeration for many years. Pulse-tube refrigerators were recently proposed which show relatively high efficiency for temperatures in the 60 to 80 K range. The instrument heat loads and operating temperatures are critical to the selection and design of the cryogenic system. Every effort should be made to minimize heat loads, raise operating temperatures, and to define these precisely. No one technology is now ready for application to LDR. Substantial development efforts are underway in all of the technologies and should be monitored and advocated. Magnetic and pulse-tube refrigerators have high potential.

Mason, Peter V.

1988-01-01

455

Pollution attenuation by soils receiving cattle slurry after passage of a slurry-like feed solution. Column experiments.  

PubMed

Designing soil filtration systems or vegetated filter strips as a means of attenuating water pollution should take into account soil purging capacity. Here we report data on laboratory column trials used to investigate the capacity of a Hortic Anthrosol to attenuate contamination due to downward leaching from cattle slurry applied at the surface. The columns comprised 900 g of soil to a depth of about 20-25 cm, and had been used previously in an experiment involving passage of at least 5 pore volumes of an ion-containing cattle slurry-like feed solution. For the present experiments, the columns were first washed through with distilled water (simulating resting and rain falling after passage of the feed solution), and then received a single slurry dose equivalent to about 300 m3 ha(-1). The columns were then leached with distilled water, with monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ion contents in outflow. The results indicated that the pollution-neutralising capacity of the soil was still high but clearly lower than in the earlier experiments with the feed solution. Furthermore, the time-course of COD showed that organic acids were leached through the column even more rapidly than chloride (often viewed as an inert tracer) enhancing the risk of heavy metals leaching and subsequent water pollution. Resting and alternate use of different soil-plant buffer zones would increase the lifespan of purging systems that use soil like the here studied one. PMID:12118698

Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; López-Períago, Eugenio; Diaz-Fierros-Viqueira, Francisco

2002-09-01

456

Comparison of cattle fecal communities from animals fed diets containing corn and distiller's grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: Distiller’s grain is a byproduct of ethanol production, and is considered a good source of protein for cattle. However, there is concern that use of distiller’s grain may create a gastrointestinal environment that allows the growth of fecal pathogens, and the specific changes t...

457

RAPID DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SIX ALKYLAMINES IN COSMETICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid distillation method coupled with ion chromatography was developed for simultaneous determination of methylamine, ethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine in cosmetics. The distillation system was designed professionally to achieve rapid distillation in less than 3 min and eliminate the interferences of alkali metals, alkaline earth and organic compounds effectively. Samples were distilled using vapour stream under alkaline conditions and

Zhixiong Zhong; Gongke Li; Binghui Zhu; Zhibin Luo

2012-01-01

458

27 CFR 1.81 - Importation of distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Importation of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.81 Section 1.81 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

459

27 CFR 1.80 - Sales of distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sales of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.80 Section 1.80 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

460

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2011-04-01

461

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2014-04-01

462

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2010-04-01

463

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2012-04-01

464

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2013-04-01

465

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars missions. The NCPS is being designed to readily integrate with the Space Launch System (SLS). A wide range of strategies for enabling affordable NCPS development, qualification, and utilization should be considered. These include multiple test and demonstration strategies (both ground and in-space), multiple potential test sites, and multiple engine designs. Two potential NCPS fuels are currently under consideration - coated graphite composite fuel and tungsten cermet fuel. During 2014 a representative, partial length (approximately 16") coated graphite composite fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In addition, a representative, partial length (approximately 16") cermet fuel element with prototypic depleted uranium loading is being fabricated at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the development process small samples (approximately 3" length) will be tested in the Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) in a hydrogen environment to help ensure that basic fuel design and manufacturing process are adequate and have been performed correctly. Once designs and processes have been developed, longer fuel element segments will be fabricated and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREE) at high temperature (approximately 2800 K) and in flowing hydrogen.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

2014-01-01

466

Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.  

PubMed

Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a?>?F3?>?F3b with invertebrates, and F3a?>?F3b?>?F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. PMID:20836068

Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

2010-12-01

467

A novel $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems  

E-print Network

The radioactive isomer $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and $\\gamma$-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state $^{83}$Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long- lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present two new applications of $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr. It can be used as a radioactive tracer in noble gases to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems. A method of doping $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. This technique has been used to determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Furthermore, 83m Kr can be used to...

Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Levy, C; Murra, M; Schneider, S; Vénos, D; Weinheimer, C

2014-01-01

468

Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

1989-08-22

469

Integrated column arithmetic according to progressive schematisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an introduction on the relation between column arithmetic and mental arithmetic in connection with the development of pocket calculators and computers, the characteristics of progressive schematisation are described with regard to column multiplication and column division. In this way, an image is formed of the specific characteristics of this approach to column arithmetic set against the background of traditional

A. Treffers

1987-01-01

470

Robust Feedback Linearization Applied to a Separation Column for {sup 13}C  

SciTech Connect

In the present developing plan to apply the cryogenic technology for the production of the {sup 13}C, an efficient and safe operation is a strong reason to conceive and to apply a modern computer based control strategy. The authors are concerned with the problem of developing effective and readily implemental techniques for modelling and control of the isotope separation plant. These columns are characterized by complex nonlinearities, with large time-delays. Furthermore, are subject to external disturbances, which are difficult to model. The present paper presents two models of the plant: a nonlinear model and a linear system obtained by robust feedback linearization.

Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Pop, Cristina-Ioana; Festila, Clement [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Automation and Computer Science, 25 Gh. Baritiu Str., 400027 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dulf, Francisc [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Food Quality Control Department, 3-5 Manastur Str., Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2009-03-05

471

Selected Topics in Column Generation  

E-print Network

Dec 2, 2002 ... real-time dispatching of automobile service units. Lübbecke and ...... the dominating column in a post-processing phase. ... anyway, e.g., shortest path problems, the lower bound on the optimal integral z? in (15) obtained from.

2002-12-02

472

A cryogenic valve for spacecraft applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space-compatible cryogenic valves are now required to operate between room and liquid helium temperatures. A remotely controllable cryogenic valve is described, which is made of bellows-type stainless steel and is operated by a miniature dc motor with integral gearset (485:1) at a nominal voltage of 28 Vdc. The power transmission provides a further reduction of 7.2:1 to give an overall gear ratio of nearly 3500:1, assuring reliability of operation at low temperatures. Valve performance (leak rate) data are presented at LN2, LHe, and SfHe temperatures at delivered torques of 18, 27, 31, and 35 N-m. At a closing torque of 31 N-m, a leak rate of 0.028 scc/sec was achieved at 2 K, while at a torque of 18 N-m the leak rate at 300 K was less than 3 x 10 to the -9th scc/sec.

Salerno, L. J.; Spivak, A. L.

1982-01-01

473

Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers) as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz). The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K-170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m-2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

Perin, J. P.; Millet, F.; Divoky, M.; Rus, B.

2013-11-01

474

Bonding and Sealing Evaluations for Cryogenic Tanks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several different cryogenic tank concepts are being considered for reusable launch vehicles (RLV'S) . Though different tank concepts are being considered, many will require that the cryogenic insulation be evacuated and be bonded to a structure. In this work, an attempt was made to evaluate the effectiveness of maintaining a vacuum on a specimen where foam or honeycomb core was encased within Gr/Ep. In addition to these tests, flatwise adhesion pull off tests were performed at room temperature with PR 1664, EA 9394, FM-300, Crest 3170, and HT 435 adhesives. The materials bonded included Gr/Ep, Gr/BMI, Al, and stainless steel facesheets, and Ti honeycomb, Hexcel honeycomb, and Rohacell foam core materials.

Glass, David E.

1997-01-01

475

Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source  

SciTech Connect

Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

Qiu, Y. N. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 China and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China); Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y. [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100190 (China); Zhang, P. [School of Energy and Power Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology, WH430074 (China); Wang, G. P. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ100049 (China)

2014-01-29

476

Large scale cryogenic fluid systems testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center's Cryogenic Fluid Systems Branch (CFSB) within the Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) has the ultimate goal of enabling the long term storage and in-space fueling/resupply operations for spacecraft and reusable vehicles in support of space exploration. Using analytical modeling, ground based testing, and on-orbit experimentation, the CFSB is studying three primary categories of fluid technology: storage, supply, and transfer. The CFSB is also investigating fluid handling, advanced instrumentation, and tank structures and materials. Ground based testing of large-scale systems is done using liquid hydrogen as a test fluid at the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility (K-site) at Lewis' Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. A general overview of tests involving liquid transfer, thermal control, pressure control, and pressurization is given.

1992-01-01

477

Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Magnetic Bearing Test Facility (CMBTF) was designed and built to evaluate compact, lightweight magnetic bearings for use in the SSME's (space shuttle main engine) liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen turbopumps. State of the art and tradeoff studies were conducted which indicated that a hybrid permanent magnet bias homopolar magnetic bearing design would be smaller, lighter, and much more efficient than conventional industrial bearings. A test bearing of this type was designed for the test rig for use at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (-320 F). The bearing was fabricated from state-of-the-art materials and incorporated into the CMBTF. Testing at room temperature was accomplished at Avcon's facility. These preliminary tests indicated that this magnetic bearing is a feasible alternative to older bearing technologies. Analyses showed that the hybrid magnetic bearing is one-third the weight, considerably smaller, and uses less power than previous generations of magnetic bearings.

1992-01-01

478

Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

Qiu, Y. N.; Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, P.; Wang, G. P.

2014-01-01

479

Cryogenic evaluation of epoxy bond strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the work presented here was to determine methods of optimizing the adhesion of a particular epoxy (CTD-101K, Composite Technology Development Inc.) to a particular nickel-based alloy substrate (Incoloy ® 908, Inco Alloys International) for cryogenic applications. Initial efforts were focused on surface preparation of the substrate material via various mechanical and chemical cleaning techniques. Test samples, fabricated to simulate the conduit-to-insulation interface, were put through a mock heat treat and vacuum/pressure impregnation process. Samples were compression/shear load tested to compare the bond strengths at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. The resulting data indicate that acid etching creates a higher bond strength than the other tested techniques and that the bond formed is stronger at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperature. A description of the experiment along with the resulting data is presented here.

Albritton, N.; Young, W.

480

Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

1988-01-01

481

Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

1987-01-01

482

Optimized Heat Interception for Cryogen Tank Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider means for using the cooling available in boil-off gas to intercept heat conducted through the support structure of a cryogen tank. A one-dimensional model of the structure coupled to a gas stream gives an analytical expression for heat leak in terms of flow rate for temperature independent-properties and laminar flow. A numerical model has been developed for heat transfer on a thin cylindrical tube with an attached vent line. The model is used to determine the vent path layout that will minimize heat flow into the cryogen tank. The results are useful for a number of applications, but the one of interest in this study is the minimization of the boil-off in large cryopropellant tanks in low Earth and low lunar orbit.

Canavan, Edgar R.; Miller, F. K.

2007-01-01

483

Transition detection studies in the cryogenic environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary-layer transition detection studies were carried out in the 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a supercritical airfoil, using an infrared imaging system. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent of the temperature range in which commercially available IR systems can detect transition in cryogenic environment. The experiment was designed to take advantage of a combination of factors including the wind tunnel operation mode, the model construction materials and the IR system image processing options. During the initial phases of the study, the IR based findings were confirmed by measurements done with a micro-thin hot-film system. Ultimately, free and forced transition could be detected down to 170 K.

Gartenberg, Ehud; Johnson, William G., Jr.; Johnson, Charles B.; Carraway, Debra L.; Wright, Robert E.

1990-01-01

484

A mirror mount for cryogenic environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The finite element method was used to study the effect of mount-induced aberrations on the optical surface of a lightweight double arch mirror subjected to cryogenic temperatures. The mount design was controlled by the requirements imposed on the optical surface quality and stress levels. The finite element analysis was used to define the feasible range of mount parameters and the selection of a design within the feasible region. The final design consisted of three spring-loaded Invar T-clamps that uniquely define the location of the mirror, three radially compliant parallel spring guides that remove the effect of radial contraction of structure in cryogenic temperatures, and a flexible baseplate that was used to reduce the effect of temperature-induced baseplate tilt errors. The experimental results from the application of this system to an existing 20-inch fused silica double arch mirror are shown, and possible improvements in system performance are discussed.

Iraninejad, B.; Vukobratovich, D.; Richard, R. M.; Melugin, R. K.

1984-01-01

485

Development of cryogen free Ic measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials for advanced power applications has generated much interest in the acquisition of the voltage-current ( V- I) characteristic curve to measure the critical current ( Ic) of HTS tape. Cryogen free Ic measurement system for HTS wires or coils was designed and fabricated by using a GM-cryocooler and two HTS current leads. The sample cools conductively by 2nd stage of SRDK-408D cryocooler manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd. (SHI). Each high temperature end of HTS current leads is thermally connected to 1st stage of the cryocooler and electrically disconnected. HTS tape samples cooled down by about 10 K. Ic measurements were conducted on a BSCCO-2212 tape, a BSCCO-2223 tape with joints and a BSCCO-2223 small coil under self-field. A description of cryogen free Ic measurement system design and results from a series of measurements will be presented.

Sohn, M. H.; Kim, S.; Sim, K. D.; Lee, E. Y.; Kim, H. M.; Park, H. Y.; Seong, K. C.; Kwon, Y. K.

2008-09-01

486

Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

2011-09-01

487

Feasibility study for the Cryogenic Orbital Nitrogen Experiment (CONE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved understanding of low gravity subcritical cryogenic fluid behavior is critical for the continued development of space based systems. Although early experimental programs provided some fundamental understanding of zero gravity cryogenic fluid behavior, more extensive flight data are required to design space based cryogenic liquid storage and transfer systems with confidence. As NASA's mission concepts evolve, the demand for optimized in-space cryogenic systems is increasing. Cryogenic Orbital Nitrogen Experiment (CONE) is an attached shuttle payload experiment designed to address major technological issues associated with on-orbit storage and supply of cryogenic liquids. During its 7 day mission, CONE will conduct experiments and technology demonstrations in active and passive pressure control, stratification and mixing, liquid delivery and expulsion efficiency, and pressurant bottle recharge. These experiments, conducted with liquid nitrogen as the test fluid, will substantially extend the existing low gravity fluid data base and will provide future system designers with vital performance data from an orbital environment.

Bell, R. S.; Crouch, M. A.; Hanna, G. J.; Cady, E. C.; Meserole, J. S.

1991-01-01

488

Cryogen free sample environment for neutron scattering experiments at ISIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most neutron facilities have a fleet of cryostats providing low temperature and high magnetic fields for sample environment. This large scale usage of cryogenic equipment requires significant resources and can create a number of problems including health and safety issues and the considerable cost of the required cryogens. The last problem has become more significant due to the increasing costs of liquid helium caused by global helium supply problems. The ISIS facility has an internal development programme intended to gradually substitute all conventional cryogenic systems with cryogen free systems preferably based on the pulse tube refrigerator. The programme includes a number of development projects which are aiming to deliver a range of cryogen free equipment including a top-loading 1.5 K cryostat, superconducting magnets in re-condensing cryostats and cryogen free dilution refrigerators. Here we are going to describe the design of these systems and discuss the results of prototype testing.

Kirichek, O.; Down, R. B. E.; Keeping, J.; Evans, B.; Bowden, Z. A.

2012-02-01

489

PRESSURE OSCILLATION IN RHIC CRYOGENIC SYSTEM.  

SciTech Connect

HORIZONTAL BEAM VIBRATION AROUND 10HZ IN THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC) HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AND THE POSSIBLE SOURCES TO CAUSE THIS VIBRATION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED. TO DETERMINE THE HETIUM PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS AS A POSSIBLE PRIMARY VIBRATION SOURCE, HELIUM PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS WERE CARRIED OUT IN THE FIVE CRYOGENIC TRANSFER LINES AT 2 VALVE BOXES AND 6 LEAD PORTS AT 2 TRIPLET CRYOSTAT FOR BOTH MAGNET RINGS. ADDITIONALLY, COLD MA...

JIA,L.MONTAG,C.TALLERICO,T.HIRZEL,W.NICOLETTI,A.

2003-09-22

490

Influence of Thermal Cycling on Cryogenic Thermometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stringent requirements on temperature control of the superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), impose that the cryogenic temperature sensors meet compelling demands such as long-term stability, radiation hardness, readout accuracy better than 5 mK at 1.8 K and compatibility with industrial control equipment. This paper presents the results concerning long-term stability of resistance temperature sensors submitted to

C Balle; J Casas-Cubillos; Jean Michel Rieubland; A Suraci; F Togny; N Vauthier

1999-01-01

491

Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets  

DOEpatents

An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

1984-01-01

492

CRYOGENIC FLUIDS IN NUCLEAR PROPULSION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear rocket engines employ hydrogen, a cryogenic liquid, as a ;\\u000a propellant in order to obtain a system with a high specific impulse. Since ;\\u000a hydrogen is also an excellent moderator of neutrons, it provides a reactivity ;\\u000a contribution which must be taken into consideration in the design of a reactor ;\\u000a and in its programmed operation. The reactivity worth

R. S. Thurston; J. D. Balcomb; G. P. Watts; R. S. Pollock; A. R. Lyle

1963-01-01

493

Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

1977-01-01

494

Cryogenic properties of aluminum alloys and composites  

SciTech Connect

Several aluminum-based materials have been evaluated for possible application at cryogenic temperatures. These included the Al-Li alloy 2090, a high purity mechanically alloyed Al, SiC whisker reinforced Al 2124, and SiC particulate reinforced Al 6061. Mechanical properties, thermal properties and electrical properties were measured for these materials. Their performance in a radio frequency cavity was also determined. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Hill, M.A.; Rollett, A.D.; Jacobson, L.A.; Borch, N.R.; Gibbs, W.S.; Patterson, R.A.; Carter, D.H.

1989-01-01

495

Cryogenic regenerator including sarancarbon heat conduction matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A saran carbon matrix is employed to conduct heat through the heat storing volume of a cryogenic regenerator. When helium is adsorbed into the saran carbon matrix, the combination exhibits a volumetric specific heat much higher than previously used lead balls. A helium adsorbed saran regenerator should allow much lower refrigerator temperatures than those practically obtainable with lead based regenerators for regenerator type refrigeration systems.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Britcliffe, Michael J. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

496

Cryogenic Treatment of Tool Materials: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic treatment (CT) of materials has shown significant improvement in their properties. Various advantages like increase in wear resistance, reduced residual stresses, increase in hardness, fatigue resistance, toughness imparted by transformation of retained austenite to martensite, precipitation of carbides, eta-carbide formation, perfect distributed\\/homogenous crystal structure, better thermal conductivity, and reduced chemical degradation. Moreover, this technology is an eco-friendly, nontoxic, and

Nirmal S. Kalsi; Rakesh Sehgal; Vishal S. Sharma

2010-01-01

497

Tough strong iron alloys for cryogenic service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Series of alloys with minor additions of reactive metals possesses outstanding strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Effective metal additons include aluminum, niobium, titanium, and vanadium. Strengthening of series is achieved by thermomechanical processing and by precipitate strengthening while maintaining high level of toughness. Possible applications include liquefied natural-gas storage and transmission, structural members in superconducting machinery, and welding rod for other alloys such as nine nickel steels.

Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

1977-01-01

498

Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed.

Jonathan A Demko; J. E. Fesmire; S. D. Augustynowicz

2008-01-01

499

DESIGN TOOL FOR CRYOGENIC THERMAL INSULATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed.

J. A. Demko; J. E. Fesmire; S. D. Augustynowicz

2008-01-01

500

Photochemistry of chloropicrin in cryogenic matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photolysis of chloropicrin (CCl3NO2) was investigated in Ar and N2 cryogenic matrices. The extent of reaction was monitored using FT-IR spectroscopy. Phosgene and nitrosyl chloride were the observed photoproducts at all wavelengths investigated (220, 251, 313, 365, and 405 nm). When the photolysis was performed with 220, 251, or 313 nm light, two additional bands were also observed. These

Elisabeth A Wade; Kristina E Reak; Bradley F Parsons; Thomas P Clemes; Karen A Singmaster

2002-01-01