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1

ITER relevant testing of a cryogenic distillation column system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental system has been constructed to test ITER relevant distillation columns and related cryogenic distillation (CD) hardware and control systems. These columns are used to purify tritium in the ITER fuel cycle. The ITER test column reported here has a diameter of about 30 mm and a packed length of approximately 150 cm. It can operate with a

D. G. Bellamy; J. R. Robins; K. B. Woodall; S. K. Sood; P. Gierszewski

1995-01-01

2

Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

2013-04-01

3

Design concept of a cryogenic distillation column cascade for a ITER scale fusion reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A column cascade has been proposed for the fuel cycle of a ITER scale fusion reactor. The proposed cascade consists of three columns and has significant features: either top or bottom product is prior to the other for each column; it is avoided to withdraw side streams as products or feeds of down stream columns; and there is no recycle steam between the columns. In addition, the product purity of the cascade can be maintained against the changes of flow rates and compositions of feed streams just by adjusting the top and bottom flow rates. The control system has been designed for each column in the cascade. A key component in the prior product stream was selected, and the analysis method of this key component was proposed. The designed control system never brings instability as long as the concentration of the key component is measured with negligible time lag. The time lag for the measurement considerably affects the stability of the control system. A significant conclusion by the simulation in this work is that permissible time for the measurement is about 0.5 hour to obtain stable control. Hence, the analysis system using the gas chromatography is valid for control of the columns.

Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

1994-07-01

4

Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated

G. Duennebier; Constantinos C. Pantelides

1999-01-01

5

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... condensate sub-cooling. So, if this condensate subsequently requires re-heating both energy and capital have been wasted. If the condensate forms a feed to another distillation column it results in increased energy consumption if that separation...

Polley, G. T.

6

A new fully thermally coupled distillation column with postfractionator  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the improvement of distillation column efficiency, a new system of a fully thermally coupled distillation column is proposed and its performance is examined with two industrial processes. The system has an extra column called postfractionator and attached to the main column of an original fully thermally coupled distillation column.The outcome of performance investigation indicates that a 29% energy saving

Young Han Kim

2006-01-01

7

Using thermally coupled reactive distillation columns in biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methyl dodecanoate (biodiesel) using lauric acid and methanol with a solid acid catalyst of sulfated zirconia is studied by using two distillation sequences. In the first sequence, the methanol recovery column follows the reactive distillation column. In the second sequence, the reactive distillation and methanol recovery columns are thermally coupled. Thermally coupled distillation sequences may consume less energy

Nghi Nguyen; Ya?ar Demirel

2011-01-01

8

Analysis of finishing reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a novel method to deal with the design and the synthesis of finishing reactive distillation columns with one reactive core, two rectifying sections, and one stripping section is presented. The attention of the work is concentrated on three subjects: (1) the feasibility of a given separation at both finite and total reflux operation; (2) the minimum energy demand operation; (3) the distribution of the reaction between the reactor and the finishing reactive column. The design problem presents the same grade of difficulty as that found in the design of conventional extractive columns. A geometric based method is used to explain key features of reactive distillation. Here, the relation between the reaction yield and the distillate flow rate plays a role similar to that of the entrainer flow in extractive distillation. Hence, special attention is given to the behavior of the profiles inside the rectifying section below the reactive core. The methodology is illustrated using the well-known MTBE case study.

Espinosa, J.; Aguirre, P.; Frey, T.; Stichlmair, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik] [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik

1999-01-01

9

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

10

COLLOCATION METHODS FOR DISTILLATION DESIGN III: FLEXIBLE COLUMN DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this third paper on collocation methods for distillation design, we explore the use of the collocation models for design of simple distillation columns as well as flexible columns. Solvent recovery plants must deal with a wide range of feeds and still return pure solvents. The design problem we address is a single flexible column within the overall solvent recovery

Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

11

Research on Configurations of Thermally Integrated Distillation Column(TIDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Taking a C3 distillation column as the base case, possible configurations for Thermally Integrated Distillation Columns (TIDC)\\u000a are proposed and compared to a conventional column and a column with a vapor recompression system (VRC). Thermal efficiency\\u000a of the TIDC appears to be strongly sensitive to column configuration and a highly efficient asymmetrical configuration with\\u000a stripping section stages thermally interconnected with

Lanyi Sun; Jun Li; Xuenuan Liu; Qingsong Li

2011-01-01

12

Are thermally coupled distillation columns always thermodynamically more efficient for ternary distillations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic efficiency of five ternary distillation configurations to distill ideal saturated liquids into pour product streams are calculated and compared. A striking result of this study is that for the fully coupled column (Petlyuk) configuration, which is known to have the lowest heat demand for ternary distillation, the range of values of feed composition and relative volatilities for which

Rakesh Agrawal; Zbigniew T. Fidkowski

1998-01-01

13

Energy savings in heat-integrated distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) provides one of the most effective applications of heat-pump technologies to industrial processes. It reinforces a separation process and yields larger energy savings than other methods such as overhead-to-reboiler heat pumps, which involve moving heat between the hottest and coldest points in the distillation column. A simulation study of this column has been applied to

M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; M. Owa; T. Akiya; T. Nakane; M. Sato; T. Takamatsu

1997-01-01

14

Fraction Collector for Distillation Columns Operating at Reduced Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fraction collector for distillation columns operating at reduced pressure is described. With the apparatus, fractions of known volume can be automatically collected in collecting vessels closed with serum caps under controlled atmosphere or under vacuum. The collecting vessels are accessible at all times for further analysis of the distillate. The design is based on the use of a piston

M. Van Swaay

1964-01-01

15

Operation behaviors of ideal internal thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lack of experience in operation is one of the major difficulties associated with the use of advanced energy saving distillation\\u000a methods. The detailed operational studies of an ideal internal thermally coupled distillation column (ITCDIC) were carried\\u000a out in this work paved the way for further control and design studies and its practical application.

Liu Xin-gao; Qian Ji-xin; Xu Yong-mao

2000-01-01

16

Optimal energy cost in ideal internal thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal thermally coupled distillation column (ITCDIC) is the frontier of energy saving distillation research. In the paper, an evaluation method on operating cost and its saving in the ITCDIC processes of ideal mixtures is presented. A mathematical model for optimization is first derived. The benzene-toluene system is studied as an illustrative example. The optimization results show that the energy cost

Xinggao Liu; Yongmao Xu; Jie Zhang; Jixin Qian

2002-01-01

17

Application of a thermally coupled distillation column with separated main columns to gas concentration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC) for operability improvement is utilized in a gas concentration\\u000a process. The column consists of a prefractionator and two separated main columns having high distillation efficiency and flexible\\u000a control structure. The operability of the proposed column is evaluated by examining the open-loop dynamic responses of step\\u000a input variations with the HYSYS simulation. The

Moon Yong Lee; Su Yeung Jeong; Young Han Kim

2008-01-01

18

Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COIUMNS A Thesis By Thomas Raymond Harris Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1962 Ma)or Sub)ect t Chemical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COLUMNS A Thesis Thomas Raymond Harris Approred as to style and content bye Chairman of ommittee Head...

Harris, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07

19

Kinetic azeotropy and design of reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

The reactive fixed points in the distillation maps of a reactive distillation column (RDC) with kinetically controlled reactions are identified and their role in deciding the design feasibility has been elucidated. The fixed points at which both reaction and distillation vectors have zero magnitudes correspond to the equilibrium fixed point. It is known that the relative positions of these points for the rectifying and stripping sections determine the value of the minimum reflux ratio. However, apart from these fixed points, there are certain fixed points in the distillation map at which, though the reaction and distillation vectors have nonzero magnitudes, they nullify the effects of each other. These points correspond to the kinetic fixed points and have a special significance. Their positions have direct influence on the feasible product composition. A simple example of an ideal ternary system undergoing a reaction 2B {longleftrightarrow} A + c has been illustrated to show the importance of kinetic azeotropy in the design aspects of RDC.

Mahajani, S.M. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01

20

Approximate design of fully thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate design procedure for fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDCs) is proposed and applied to example\\u000a ternary systems. The procedure gives a fast solution of structural and operation design for a preliminary study of the FTCDC.\\u000a The structural information resolves the design difficulty, caused from the interlinking streams of the column, which is encountered\\u000a when a conventional design procedure

Young Han Kim; Masaru Nakaiwa; Kyu Suk Hwang

2002-01-01

21

CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL  

E-print Network

CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL Erik A. Wol#11; and Sigurd Skogestad #3; University of Trondheim N-7034 Trondheim, NORWAY Keywords: process control, cascade control, distilla- tion, control structure, relative gain array 1 Introduction In most process control

Skogestad, Sigurd

22

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Temperature Cascade Control of Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

main objectives for the regulatory control system are as follows: 1. Take care of control tasks where control. This is because the main control objective at this level is to facilitate good operation, that isPROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Temperature Cascade Control of Distillation Columns Erik A. Wolff

Skogestad, Sigurd

23

Rigorous design of extended fully thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate design procedure of extended fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDCs) is refined for the design of real system having non-ideal equilibrium relation. For high thermodynamic efficiency and reduced computational load, a structural design utilizing the minimum tray structure is implemented, and the design procedure to find operational variables for a given specification of products is explained in detail.

Young Han Kim

2002-01-01

24

Distillation column revamp eliminates jet flooding; increases efficiency  

SciTech Connect

UOP's McCook, IL, plant produces a great variety of chemicals, among them many antioxidants and antiozonants which are used by gasoline producers, rubber processors and other industrial customers. Low boiling oxygenated aliphatics are stripped from high boiling nitrogenous compounds in a distillation column. In order to achieve the necessary separation, very high column reflux rates were required. This sometimes caused jet flooding which led to entrainment and contamination of the overhead streams. When the overhead streams did not meet purity specs, they had to be inventoried and later recycled. The result was unacceptably high costs and low overall unit efficiency. To correct the problem, UOP decided to revamp the column in question. The 28 original sieve trays were removed from the 28' tall, 19 1/4'' ID column, and 27 SS304 cartridge-type fabricated screen trays were installed don 12'' spacing. The closely spaced wires from which the decks of the trays are fabricated form venturi-shaped slots that allow operation in the froth regime over a wide range of conditions. Reduced entrainment and low pressure drop combine to permit use of very high vapor and liquid rates without flooding. After the revamp, UOP found that flooding problems were eliminated in the column. Pressure drop was considerably reduced, too. An increase in separation efficiency was also noticed which permitted reboiler temperatures to be lowered by 20-50/sup 0/F, and lower reflux rates to be employed. Energy requirements of the reboiler were cut by 400,000 Btu/hr at 80% of maximum column feed rate. This represented a savings of more that $16,000/yr in fuel costs on an annualized basis, calculated on 80% efficiency in the natural gas-fired furnace.

Arneson, A.D.; Boike, J.

1986-10-01

25

Cryogenic focussing, ohmically heated on-column trap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure is described for depositing a conductive layer of gold on the exterior of a fused-silica capillary used in gas chromatography. By subjecting a section of the column near the inlet to a thermal cycle of cryogenic cooling and ohmic heating, volatile samples are concentrated and subsequently injected. The performance of this trap as a chromatographic injector is demonstrated. Several additional applications are suggested and the unique properties of this device are discussed.

Springston, Stephen R.

1991-01-01

26

A SIMPLE ALGORITHM FOR THE DESIGN OF FULLY THERMALLY COUPLED DISTILLATION COLUMNS (FTCDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although material and thermal coupling between the prefractionator and main distillation column renders the fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC) a frequently favorable design option, it also complicates considerably process synthesis and design. In this contribution, a simple algorithm for the synthesis and design of the FTCDC is derived with the optimization of an economical objective function. In terms of

Peng Wang; Haisheng Chen; Yufeng Wang; Liang Zhang; Kejin Huang; San-Jang Wang

2012-01-01

27

A GENERALIZED DYNAMIC MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS-III. STUDY OF STARTUP OPERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic behavior of distillation columns during startup operations have been studied and analyzed. A procedure is proposed for determining appropriate startup policies for distillation column operations based on the analysis of the dynamic behavior. The final startup policy consists of three strategies corresponding to the three characteristic stages of the startup operation. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied

C. A. Rurz; I. T. CAMERON; R. GANI

28

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column  

E-print Network

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column how the minimum energy consumption is related to the feed-component distribution for all possible operating points in a two-product distillation column with a multicomponent feed. The classical Underwood

Skogestad, Sigurd

29

Application of a fully thermally coupled distillation column for fractionation process in naphtha reforming plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphtha reformate is extracted for aromatic compounds and the aromatics are separated into benzene, toluene and xylene in sequence. This separation is conducted using a series of binary-like columns.In this study, the first two columns of the separation process are replaced with a fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC) also known as the Petlyuk column. Though feed of the process

Ju Yeong Lee; Young Han Kim; Kyu Suk Hwang

2004-01-01

30

The steady-state and dynamic analysis of packed distillation column based on partial differential approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state and dynamic behavior of a binary packed distillation column has been simulated using the two film back-mixing model. The model solution has been obtained employing orthogonal collocation on finite elements. The approach using the Legendre or Jacobi polynomial has been tested on the solution of related models. A pilot plant scaled packed distillation column distilling methanol-water mixture was

S. Karacan; Y. Cabbar; M. Alpbaz; H. Hapo?lu

1998-01-01

31

High-purity control of internal thermally coupled distillation columns based on nonlinear wave model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal thermally coupled distillation column (ITCDIC) is a frontier of energy saving distillation researches, which is a great improvement on conventional distillation column (CDIC). However its high degree thermal coupling makes the control design a bottleneck problem, where data-driven model leads to obvious mismatch with the real plant in the high-purity control processes, and a first-principle model which is comprised

Xinggao Liu; Yexiang Zhou; Lin Cong; Feng Ding

2011-01-01

32

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-print Network

-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered...

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

33

Design of extraction column methanol recovery system for the TAME reactive distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the synthesis and the design of methanol recovery system for TAME reactive distillation process using extraction column with water as a solvent. The design of the extraction column system has not been studied in the literature. The effect of operating conditions such as solvent flowrate, extraction column temperature, and number of equilibrium trays are studied. It is

Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

2004-01-01

34

High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat...

Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

1981-01-01

35

Reactive distillation–pervaporation hybrid column for tert-amyl alcohol etherification with ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etherification of tert-amyl alcohol with ethanol was carried out in a reactive distillation column inserted by a zeolite NaA membrane tube. Experimental tests were carried out in both of a pervaporation module and a reactive distillation column. Under suitable conditions, the pervaporation tests have shown higher than 99.9% H2O mole fraction in the permeate. The design by the residue

Farid Aiouache; Shigeo Goto

2003-01-01

36

Application of the theta method to distillation columns where one or more reactions occur per stage  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Approved as to style and content by: cubi...

Izarraraz, Alicia

2012-06-07

37

A generalized model for distillation columns—I Model description and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

AM-A generalized model for the dynamic simulation of distillation columns is presented. The model allows the solution of a wide variety of problems, from open- and closed-loop responses of single (and multiple) columns to operability studies (of feed changeover and start-up operations) and column instability studies (effect of plate hydraulics during transient operations). Results are given for single columns (including

R. GANI; I. T. CAMERONS

1986-01-01

38

Assessing Safety in Distillation Column Using Dynamic Simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment becomes an important activity in chemical industries since the need to comply with general legal requirements in addition to meet safer plant and profit. This paper reviews some most frequently causes of distillation column malfunction. First, analysis of case histories will be discussed for providing guidelines in identifying potential trouble spots in distillation column. A dynamic simulation for operational failure is simulated as the basis for assessing the consequences. A case study will be used from a side stream distillation column to show the implementation of the concept. A framework for assessing safety in the column is proposed using Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Further, trouble-free operation in order to reduce the risk associated with column malfunction is described.

Werner, Suhendra; Fred, Witt; Compart

39

Structural design and operation of a fully thermally coupled distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous structural design procedure for fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDC) is applied to the example system of butanol isomers in order to show the design performance. The procedure gives structural information of the column, and therefore iterative computation encountered in the design using conventional procedure and commercial packages can be eliminated.Using the outcome of the structural design, other

Young Han Kim

2002-01-01

40

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column  

E-print Network

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward the column . We have previously shown (Jimenez et al. 2003) that optimaloperation of serial heat exchangers total heat exchanger area in different trays and calculate the optimal allocation of a given heat

Salamon, Peter

41

Practical Application of Distillation Column Energy Control Systems  

E-print Network

Closed loop computer control of an ethylene column has been shown to save $350/day in improved ethylene recovery and $150/day in reduced energy consumption. These savings are achieved through material balance optimization and energy balance...

Matthews, S. A.

1980-01-01

42

Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

by assuming that the equilibrium and operating lines coincide at this stage. This approximation takes into account the losses or inefficiencies introduced through practicalities of column design (such as pressure drops, multiple side-products, side strippers... (heating or cooling) ? Side condensing or reboiling An additional capability is provided through exergy analysis. The exergy profiles are plotted by calculating the exergy loss at each stage of the column, and then taking into account all entering...

Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

43

Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers  

E-print Network

to be uved only where the oorrect values of V and I crc not known in advance. Again for tbe case under consideration, v -" 0 for all plates in ths $1 distillation column below and including the side-stream withdrawal plate, Also, 1 = 0 for all the plates... to be uved only where the oorrect values of V and I crc not known in advance. Again for tbe case under consideration, v -" 0 for all plates in ths $1 distillation column below and including the side-stream withdrawal plate, Also, 1 = 0 for all the plates...

Dickey, Billy Ray

2012-06-07

44

Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part II: Performance Analysis of a Distillation Column Using Exergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the performance of the separation process, we have introduced thethermodynamic concept of exergy through the exergetic efficiency of the column. Thesimulation results show that the exergetic output is relatively low and that the producedirreversibility fluxes are distributed throughout the whole column in a non-uniform manner.They are particularly significant in the condenser, boiler and tray feed. The influence of thevarious operating parameters (temperature, concentration and irreversibility in both sectionsof the column) is also established. To emphasize the results, the relation in equation 17, ispresented graphically to evaluate the cumulative irreversibilities from the overhead to thebottom. This presentation is equivalent to the Grassmann diagram.

Mustapha, Douani; Sabria, Terkhi; Fatima, Ouadjenia

2007-09-01

45

Design of a fully thermally coupled distillation column based on dynamic simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic simulation of a fully thermally coupled distillation column is conducted for the design of a possible operation\\u000a scheme, and its performance is examined with an example process of butanol isomer ternary system. The outcome of the dynamic\\u000a simulation indicates that the column can be operated by using a 3 ? 3 control structure. The structure consists of three

Young Han Kim

2000-01-01

46

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux\\/reboil ratios, under

Weiyang Cheong; Paul I. Barton

1999-01-01

47

Development of gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns which is based on the attenuation of gamma radiation was developed at the Unit Tenaga Nuklear. The system utilised Co-60 or Cs-137 as a gamma-ray emitter and NaI(Tl) detector ...

Mohd Azmi bin Ismail Jaafar bin Abdullah Jamaludin bin Omar

1994-01-01

48

Modified method to improve the design of Petlyuk distillation columns  

PubMed Central

Background A response surface analysis was performed to study the effect of the composition and feeding thermal conditions of ternary mixtures on the number of theoretical stages and the energy consumption of Petlyuk columns. A modification of the pre-design algorithm was necessary for this purpose. Results The modified algorithm provided feasible results in 100% of the studied cases, compared with only 8.89% for the current algorithm. The proposed algorithm allowed us to attain the desired separations, despite the type of mixture and the operating conditions in the feed stream, something that was not possible with the traditional pre-design method. The results showed that the type of mixture had great influence on the number of stages and on energy consumption. A higher number of stages and a lower consumption of energy were attained with mixtures rich in the light component, while higher energy consumption occurred when the mixture was rich in the heavy component. Conclusions The proposed strategy expands the search of an optimal design of Petlyuk columns within a feasible region, which allow us to find a feasible design that meets output specifications and low thermal loads. PMID:25061476

2014-01-01

49

Improving dual composition control in continuous distillation by a novel column design  

SciTech Connect

How a novel design of continuous distillation columns may impact the performance of conventional controllers when it is required to accurately control the purity of both products in a binary separation is analyzed. The proposed column layout is characterized by the presence of a middle vessel, to which two streams are fed: the liquid flow coming from the rectifying section and the feed to be separated. The actual liquid flow to the column is determined by the middle-vessel level controller. For different control configurations and conventional proportional-integral control, it is shown that using a middle-vessel column provides a way to reduce the interaction between the composition loops, in such a way that the control performance of middle-vessel columns may be made remarkably superior to that of the conventional columns. The results obtained are supported by a theoretical analysis based on the frequency-dependent relative gain array tool.

Barolo, M.; Papini, C.A.

2000-01-01

50

Characteristics of energy savings in an ideal heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC)  

SciTech Connect

Distillation columns are major energy consumers in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In order to reduce energy consumption, considerable studies have been carried out and many distillation columns have been proposed. A Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) is constructed in such a manner that its rectifying and stripping sections are separated, while connected through a compressor and a throttling valve. Separation is benefited by heat integration between the two sections. To provide the driving forces for heat transfers from the rectifying to the stripping sections, the former must be operated at higher pressure than the latter. The HIDiC is expected to be more energy efficient than conventional columns, while at the expenses of some energy to raise up the pressure of the rectifying section. In this paper, it is shown by thermodynamical consideration that the HIDiC has high potential of exergy loss reduction compared with conventional columns. The effects of pressure difference on energy saving are analyzed, and possibility of energy saving is found in some case studies.

Nakaiwa, Masaru; Huang, Kejin; Owa, Masaru; Akiya, Takaji; Nakane, Takashi; Sato, Masahito [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Systems; Takamatsu, Takeichiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1997-12-31

51

Industrial application of an extended fully thermally coupled distillation column to BTX separation in a naphtha reforming plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic compounds are yielded from naphtha reforming in a petrochemical plant, and the products are separated with binary\\u000a distillation columns for benzene, toluene, xylene and heavy components in sequence. In this study, the first three columns\\u000a of the fractionation process in the naphtha reforming unit are replaced with an extended fully thermally coupled distillation\\u000a column (EFTCDC) also known as the

Young Han Kim; Dae Woong Choi; Kyu-Suk Hwang

2003-01-01

52

Structural design of fully thermally coupled distillation columns using a semi-rigorous model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new structural design procedure for fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDC) utilizing semi-rigorous material balances is proposed and applied to the design of example systems of butanol, BTX and hexane–heptane mixtures. The structural design can be directly incorporated in the design of commercial design software, giving basic information which is required at the beginning of simulation.The performance of the

Young Han Kim

2005-01-01

53

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux/reboil ratios, under the assumption of linear separation boundaries. It is determined that, under limiting conditions, the distillate product drawn from the MVC is given by the {alpha} limit set of the MVC still pot composition, while the bottoms product drawn from the MVC is given by the {omega} limit set of the MVC still pot composition. The net product composition is determined by taking a convex combination of the two products. The notions of steering the still pot composition, the vector cone of possible motion for the still pot composition, and the equivalency of the MVC to the combined operation of a batch rectifier and a stripper are also explored. The definition of batch distillation regions for the MVC operated at a given value of the middle vessel parameter {lambda}, and the bifurcation of these regions with the variation of {lambda}, are investigated. Lastly, a mathematical model incorporating the concept of warped time is developed for a multivessel column. The MVC can be viewed as a specific case of the multivessel column.

Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-04-01

54

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 2: Nonlinear separation boundaries  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the analytical tools developed for the middle vessel column (MVC) operated under limiting conditions, analysis of the qualitative dynamics of the MVC in separating an azeotropic mixture is extended to the more realistic case in which the separation boundaries are nonlinear. The differences between batch stripper pot composition boundaries and batch rectifier pot composition being able to cross these pot composition boundaries. On the basis of these insights, operating procedures are developed in which ternary azeotropic mixtures of acetone, benzene, and chloroform can be separated into their constituent pure components, a separation not achievable with either the batch stripper or the batch rectifier. The operating procedures suggested for separating the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform in the MVC are then shown to be the time analogues of sequences of continuous distillation columns that achieve the same separation. On the basis of this space-time analogy, further analogies are developed between the MVC and a continuous column, and it is postulated that many complex separations currently achieved with sequences of continuous columns can also be achieved with a single MVC. Thus, the MVC represents the ultimate multipurpose solvent recovery technology, as it can handle, in a batch multipurpose mode. separations that will otherwise require a dedicated continuous distillation sequence. Finally, the characteristics of perfect MVC batch entrainers, which allow the complete separation of any azeotrope into its constituent pure components in a single MVC, are discussed.

Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-04-01

55

On the use of intermediate reboilers in the rectifying section and condensers in the stripping section of a distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Advantages of an intermediate reboiler in the stripping section of a distillation column and an intermediate condenser in the rectifying section are well-known. For highly nonideal mixtures the distillation process can be improved by placing an intermediate reboiler in the rectifying section of the column or an intermediate condenser in the stripping section, which is counterintuitive. In consequence the more expensive heating utility used in the bottom reboiler can be partially replaced with a less expensive heating medium (at a lower temperature) used in the intermediate reboiler. Similarly, a portion of the condensing duty from the top condenser can be replaced with the less expensive condensing duty (at a higher temperature) in the intermediate condenser. This placement of reboilers (condensers) can be used to reduce the total number of stages in the distillation column with a lower (higher) level of utility. Operating and capital costs of the distillation process with an intermediate heat exchanger can be lower than those for a classic column. A simple method providing valuable insights on the possible placement of intermediate heat exchangers along the column is proposed. It is based on calculations of the vapor flow along the height of a reversible, binary distillation column performing the equivalent separation task.

Agrawal, R.; Fidkowski, Z.T. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

56

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 3: Model validation  

SciTech Connect

A dimensional time model of the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed in the ABACUSS process modeling environment, and simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical insights developed for the operation of the MVC based on a warped time model of the MVC. The qualitative dynamics of the MVC operated in the presence of linear separation boundaries are validated via simulations conducted on the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, chloroform, and methanol. It is also shown via simulation that the separation results obtained from a column with significant but reasonable amounts of holdup on the trays are not significantly different from a column in which holdup in the trays is assumed to be negligible. Theoretical operating policies for separating the azeotrope of acetone and chloroform using benzene as a batch entrainer are also validated using the ABACUSS model. Finally, the authors explore the advantages and disadvantages of different feasible operating policies for separating a mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform completely into its constituent pure components.

Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-04-01

57

Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.  

PubMed

Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China. PMID:24517821

Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

2014-01-01

58

Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

2014-10-01

59

Design of a fully thermally coupled distillation column for hexane process using a semi-rigorous model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial scale hexane process is designed for the implementation of a fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC).\\u000a A semi-rigorous material balance and Peng-Robinson equilibrium relation are utilized in the structural design. The operational\\u000a design is conducted with a commercial design program, the HYSYS. The design outcome of the structural design indicates it\\u000a to be comparable with the practical system

Young Han Kim; Kyu Suk Hwang; Masaru Nakaiwa

2004-01-01

60

OPEN LOOP OPTIMIZATION OF LARGE SCALE CRYOGENIC PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we have performed the open loop dynamic optimization of a large-scale cryogenic plant, with rigorous process models. This model includes cryogenic heat exchangers, high-pressure separation tank and distillation columns. They comprise differential energy and mass balances; hydraulic correlations and rigorous thermodynamic predictions for equilibrium calculations in main units. Special attention has been devoted to countercurrent heat exchangers,

M. A. Rodríguez; J. A. Bandoni; M. S. Diaz

61

Advances in Cryogenic Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past 50 years, the use of digital computers has significantly influenced the design and analysis of cryogenic systems. At the time when the first Cryogenic Engineering Conference was held, thermodynamic data were presented in graphical or tabular form (the "steam table" format), whereas thermodynamic data for cryogenic system design is computer generated today. The thermal analysis of cryogenic systems in the 1950s involved analytical solutions, graphical solutions, and relatively simple finite-difference approaches. These approaches have been supplanted by finite-element numerical programs which readily solve complicated thermal problems that could not be solved easily using the methods of the 1950s. In distillation column design, the use of the McCabe-Thiele graphical method for determination of the number of theoretical plates has been replaced by numerical methods that allow consideration of several different components in the feed and product streams.

Barron, R. F.

62

Development of dynamic models of reactive distillation columns for simulation and determination of control  

E-print Network

controllers of PID type were designed between the paired variables found from RGA and the controllers were implemented on the column model. Both servo and regulatory problems have been considered and tested....

Chakrabarty, Arnab

2005-02-17

63

Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns  

E-print Network

gauze structured packings and the F1exipac@ or Me11apak sheetmeta1 structured packings have been widely applied in literally thousands of fractionation columns in the general chemical and specialty chemical areas, particularly for vacuum... gauze structured packings and the F1exipac@ or Me11apak sheetmeta1 structured packings have been widely applied in literally thousands of fractionation columns in the general chemical and specialty chemical areas, particularly for vacuum...

Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

64

A novel 83mKr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radioactive isomer 83mKr, has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and ?-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state 83Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long-lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present a new approach, using 83mKr as a radioactive tracer in noble gases. A method of doping 83mKr, into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. Two applications of this method are presented: firstly, it can be used to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems and determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Secondly, it is used for rapid estimating of the separation performance of a distillation system.

Rosendahl, S.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, O.; Levy, C.; Murra, M.; Schneider, S.; V'enos, D.; Weinheimer, C.

2014-10-01

65

Thermally Coupled Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief overview in the design of mixed thermally coupled-heat integrated distillation sequences. The approach considers from conventional columns (each distillation column with a condenser and a reboiler) to fully thermally coupled systems (only one reboiler and one condenser in the entire system). The advantages and disadvantages of thermally coupled distillation in comparison with conventional columns are

José A. Caballero

2009-01-01

66

Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design  

SciTech Connect

The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

Eldridge, Robert, B.

2005-10-13

67

Separation of high-boiling petroleum distillates using gradient elution through dual-packed (silica gel-alumina gel) adsorption columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines has developed a chromatographic separation procedure using a single dual-packed adsorption column containing silica gel and alumina that will separate high-boiling petroleum distillates into four concentrates: saturates, monoaromatics, diaromatics, and polyaromatics-polar. Spectral, adsorption, and radiotracer data indicate that the concentrates produced are predominantly as labeled. Subdividing the aromatics into major aromatic types greatly simplifies subsequent separation

D. E. Hirsch; R. L. Hopkins; H. J. Coleman; F. O. Cotton; C. J. Thompson

1972-01-01

68

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOEpatents

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17

69

Computer simulation of the water and hydrogen distillation and CECE process and its experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical simulation procedures have been developed for three processes of hydrogen isotopes separation: (1) a non steady-state water distillation; (2) a cryogenic distillation; and (3) a combined electrolysis and multistage water/hydrogen catalytic exchange (CECE) process. The simulation procedures possess some special features. Thus, the comparatively large step of integration and as a result of this high fast-acting is the peculiarity of the model for the dynamic behaviour of water distillation column operating at total reflux. The simulation procedure for CECE process considers six components and three phases (liquid water, water vapour, and hydrogen gas) and allows one to carry out computations for any mole fraction stock. This procedure, as the one for cryogenic distillation process, is not based on the Newton-Raphson method, and, in spite of this, convergence is reached by a small number of iterations (4 - 11). 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Fedorchenko, O.A.; Alekseev, I.A.; Trenin, V.D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad (Russian Federation); Uborski, V.V. [JVS DOL, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-10-01

70

Preparation of tertiary amyl alcohol in a reactive distillation column. 1: Reaction kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and mass-transfer issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydration of isoamylenes to produce 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol, or TAA) is strongly limited by chemical equilibrium to olefin conversions of less than 50%. The general goal of this work was to determine whether reactive distillation would be a valid method to enhance the yield of TAA. The first step was to study the reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium, using

J. Castor González; James R. Fair

1997-01-01

71

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01

72

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22

73

Preparation of tertiary amyl alcohol in a reactive distillation column. 1: Reaction kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and mass-transfer issues  

SciTech Connect

The hydration of isoamylenes to produce 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol, or TAA) is strongly limited by chemical equilibrium to olefin conversions of less than 50%. The general goal of this work was to determine whether reactive distillation would be a valid method to enhance the yield of TAA. The first step was to study the reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium, using a polymeric acid catalyst (Amberlyst-15). Acetone was identified as a suitable medium to enable single liquid phase operation and also to enhance the reaction rate. It was found that the intraparticle mass-transfer resistance is negligible at temperatures below 70 C. A kinetic expression, based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism, is proposed. The forward and reverse reactions show first-order dependence on isoamylenes and TAA, respectively, while water is essentially an inhibitor of the reaction in both directions. The temperature effect on the forward reaction is quantified with an activation energy of 69.5 kJ/mol.

Gonzalez, J.C.; Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Separations Research Program] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Separations Research Program

1997-09-01

74

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-print Network

Benedict. Manson. 1947. "Multistage Separation Processes". Transactions American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Vol. 43, No.2. Kayihan, Ferhan. 1980. "Optimum Distribution of Heat Load in Distillation Columns Using Intermediate Condensers... Benedict. Manson. 1947. "Multistage Separation Processes". Transactions American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Vol. 43, No.2. Kayihan, Ferhan. 1980. "Optimum Distribution of Heat Load in Distillation Columns Using Intermediate Condensers...

Erickson, D. C.

75

Catalytic Distillation  

E-print Network

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been...

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01

76

Semicontinuous, pressure-swing distillation  

SciTech Connect

The merits of semicontinuous, pressure-swing, azeotropic distillation are examined. In continuous operation, two columns at different pressures are fed streams having compositions on opposite sides of the azeotropic compositions. The distillates, which approach the azeotropic compositions at high and low pressure, are cycled between the columns. In contrast, semicontinuous operation involves only a single distillation column, which has lower investment costs and, when the mixture to be separated is changed, shorter downtimes. An optimal-control algorithm is employed to determine desirable campaigns, and to schedule pressure switch-over policies. Simulation results for the dehydration of tetrahydrofuran, involving a pressure-sensitive azeotrope, indicate that switch-over between steady states occurs quickly with on-spec product removed during 93% of the campaign. The column achieves production rates near 89% of the maximum throughput of a single column in the continuous process and shows superior performance when compared to reverse-batch operation.

Phimister, J.R.; Seider, W.D.

2000-01-01

77

An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem  

E-print Network

application of the Newton-Raphson procedure for such thermodynamic functions, and thus convergence properties typical of this method were obtained. The extended multiple theta method was then applied to a distillation problem involving thermodynamic... of the Newton-Raphson method even when composition dependent thermodynamic functions are used. The particular set of variables and functions chosen in this work leads to a large Jacobian matrix that is easily solved due to its special structure, Several...

Gallun, Steven Eugene

2012-06-07

78

Petroleum distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides data for the evaluation of the safety of certain petroleum distillate fractions used in commercial products to which consumers may be exposed. Chemical information and data on the toxicology, pharmacology and relevent biology are compiled on mixtures under the headings petroleum naphthas, distillate fuels, and mineral oils. Petroleum products find wide use in products available to the

J. Villaume; P. Walter; R. Levine; A. Craigmill; H. Schwartz

1976-01-01

79

Design of distillation sequences: from conventional to fully thermally coupled distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a novel superstructure optimization approach for the design of distillation sequences of zeotropic mixtures. The approach considers as alternatives from conventional sequences in which each final distillation column has a condenser and a reboiler, to fully thermally coupled distillation sequences going through all possible intermediate combinations. A two-stage procedure is proposed. In the first one, a sequence

José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2004-01-01

80

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-print Network

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

Hill, J.H.

81

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

82

Control properties of thermally coupled distillation sequences for different operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the dynamic behavior of distillation columns has received considerable attention due to the fact that distillation is one of the most widely used unit operations in chemical process industries. Thermally coupled distillation sequences (TCDS) can provide significant energy savings with respect to the operation of sequences based on conventional distillation columns. TCDS exhibit a complex structure, with

Juan Gabriel Segovia-hernández; Esteban Abelardo Hernández-vargas; Jorge Alberto Márquez-muñoz

2007-01-01

83

A simple method for systematic synthesis of thermally integrated distillation sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic approach to heat integration of processes involving separation of multicomponent mixtures is described. An integrability criterion based on geometrical presentation of distillation columns in temperature–enthalpy flow rate diagram was tested by rigorous simulation of distillation columns. The integrability criterion for distillation columns sequence was defined as the minimum sum of products of intracolumn temperatures and their heat flow rates

Gorazd Sobo?an; Peter Glavi?

2002-01-01

84

Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process  

E-print Network

Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process Thomas O2/N2 permeable membranes Cryogenic distillation Oxy-fuel process a b s t r a c t The process of oxy. This separation is currently done through energy intensive cryogenic distil- lation. To reduce the overall energy

Struchtrup, Henning

85

Cryogenic gas plant  

SciTech Connect

A process for separating substantially all of the C/sub 3/ and heavier components and a major portion of the C/sub 2/ component from a natural gas stream using a cryogenic process. The process uses a rectifying column in combination with a fractionating column to separate the C/sub 2/ and heavier components with the reflux for the rectifying column being supplied by compressing a small portion of the overheads and condensing it via heat exchange with the overheads stream.

Harryman, J. M.

1985-01-29

86

Distillations Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the folks at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Distillations is an award-winning podcast that offers commentary and perspective on the past, present, and future of chemistry. The program is hosted by Meir Rinde and new episodes are issued every other Friday. The archive here contains over 150 podcasts with titles such as "Shipwrecks," "Sweat," and "Something in the Air." Visitors can also sort through the documents by category and learn about the Distillations staff. The archives date back to 2007, so there's plenty to explore and visitors are free to use the materials as they see fit. An episode or two might be the perfect way to keep a group of students intrigued by the world of chemistry.

2012-09-14

87

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology â?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22

88

Hydrothermal carbonization of distiller’s grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet distiller’s grains are intermediate byproducts of ethanol manufacture that have high moisture contents and require significant energy for drying and conversion into dry distiller’s grains. Hydrothermal carbonization was investigated as a wet process to provide alternative products, and chars were obtained in moderate yield that possessed high heats of combustion. The mechanism of char formation was also investigated employing

Steven M. Heilmann; Lindsey R. Jader; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

2011-01-01

89

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns  

E-print Network

for dynamically adapting the models to achieve tight composition control. Simple control techniques do not exist for model adaptation in MIMO systems. This thesis will outline a fuzzy supervisory controller based on fuzzy logic and show that control performance...

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-06-07

90

ROBUST CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS Sigurd Skogestad  

E-print Network

of Technology Chemical Engineering, 206-41 Pasadena, CA 91125 Abstract. Ill-conditioned plants are generally in the directions where the plant gain is low, that is, a controller similar to G,1 in di- rectionality is desirable

Skogestad, Sigurd

91

ROBUST CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS Sigurd Skogestad  

E-print Network

of Technology Chemical Engineering, 206­41 Pasadena, CA 91125 Abstract. Ill­conditioned plants are generally \\Gamma1 in di­ rectionality is desirable. However, because of uncertainty, the direction of the large

Skogestad, Sigurd

92

Cryogenic exciter  

DOEpatents

The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

Bray, James William (Niskayuna, NY); Garces, Luis Jose (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-03-13

93

Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE  

E-print Network

), as well as benefiting the public. The first proposal for petroleum refineries didll't receive an award. but that work put us in all excellent position relative to a later Chemical llldustry solicitation. The proposed program is il imed at making... increases are easily achievable due to the reduced reboiler duty, and resulting substantial reduction in column internal vapor/liquid mlffic. Since 40% of refinery energy usc is for distillation, Advanced Distillation has the potential to eventually...

Woinsky, S. G.

94

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

95

A Rigorous Minimum Energy Calculation Method for a Fully Thermally Coupled Distillation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, Tanskanen and Pohjola (2000) and Tanskanen and Malinen (2005) have presented a method of rigorous minimum energy calculation for non-ideal multicomponent distillation. The method is based on column simulation with a large number of equilibrium stages to mimic infinitely high columns, and it has been successfully tested with simple distillation column systems. In this paper the rigorous minimum energy

I. Malinen; J. Tanskanen

2007-01-01

96

Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

Barduhn, Allen J.

1984-01-01

97

Strategies for the robust simulation of thermally coupled distillation sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel strategy for the simulation of thermally coupled distillation sequences using process simulators. First, we show that the two side stream connections involved in a ‘thermal couple’ can be accurately substituted by a combination of a material stream and heat flow; enabling a sequence of thermally coupled distillation columns to be simulated without recycle streams, similar

Miguel A. Navarro; Juan Javaloyes; José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

98

Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

for purifying liquids. The basic distillation process involves heating a liquid such that liquid molecules vaporize. The vapors produced are subsequently passed through a water-cooled condenser. Upon cooling

Jasperse, Craig P.

99

Logic-based methods for generating and optimizing thermally coupled distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of a non-azeotropic mixture of N components in their pure components can be performed using from conventional to fully thermally coupled distillation sequences, while for conventional columns there is a one to one match between columns and separations tasks this is not true for (partially or fully) thermally coupled distillation systems where it is possible to find a

José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2002-01-01

100

Aggregated models for integrated distillation systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work the authors present an aggregated representation for distillation columns that can be used in the synthesis of separation sequences with heat integration. A new aggregated model is first presented for the stripping and rectifying sections of individual distillation columns. This model is based on mass balances and equilibrium feasibility, expressed in terms of flows, inlet concentrations, and recoveries. The energy balance can then be decoupled from the mass balance, and the utilities can be calculated for each separation task. The proposed model is applied to three different superstructures: state task network, state equipment network, and an intermediate representation. The proposed model yields a lower bound to the vapor flow or to the total cost of the utilities. Performance of the different superstructure representations in terms of robustness and computational time is illustrated with several examples.

Caballero, J.A. [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Grossmann, I.E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

101

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27

102

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24

103

Synthesis of partially thermally coupled distillation flowsheets: Zeotropic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a detailed description of algorithms for generating the complete set of n-component zeotropic distillation flowsheets for sequences of simple two-section columns and for sequences including partially\\u000a thermally coupled complexes. The description of the algorithms is oriented toward writing of implementing computer programs.\\u000a The distillation flowsheets have been generated using their matrix representations equivalent to their graphical representations.

M. I. Skvortsova; A. V. Timoshenko; D. G. Rudakov

2011-01-01

104

DESIGN STUDY OF THE CONTROL OF A REACTIVE THERMALLY COUPLED DISTILLATION SEQUENCE FOR THE ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ORGANIC ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the esterification of lauric acid and methanol studied using a thermally coupled distillation sequence with a side rectifier and the Petlyuk distillation column. The product of the esterification can be used as biodiesel. It was found that the thermally coupled distillation sequence with a side rectifier can produce ester with a high purity (around 0.999) and also

Salvador Hernández; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Lorena Juárez-Trujillo; Juan Ernesto Estrada-Pacheco; Rafael Maya-Yescas

2010-01-01

105

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-print Network

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids

106

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

107

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-01-01

108

APPLICATION OF CAPILLARY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE ANALYSIS OF A MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the application of capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of a middle distillate fuel. Small diameter (50 micrometer i.d.) fused silica capillary columns coated with crosslinked 50% phenyl polymethylsiloxane provided high separation...

109

Identification of petroleum distillates from fire debris using multidimensional gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for identifying petroleum distillates (accelerants) in fire debris samples by dynamic headspace analysis and multidimensional gas chromatography is described. The method relies on the separation of target compounds characteristic of different petroleum distillate classes from interfering co-eluting and matrix components. A relatively nonpolar column is used to characterize the volatility distribution of the sample and heartcutting to a

A. Jayatilaka; C. F. Poole

1994-01-01

110

Dynamic Behaviour of Thermally Coupled Distillation Arrangements: Effect of the Interconnection Flowrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally coupled distillation sequences can provide significant energy savings with respect to the operation of conventional distillation columns. Coupled sequences exhibit a complex struc- ture, with recycle streams, that appear to affect their controllability properties. One potential solution to this problem has been suggested through the operation of complex schemes under con- ditions that do not provide minimum energy consumption.

Erick Yair Miranda-Galindo; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández

2008-01-01

111

Logic based algorithms for the rigorous design of thermally coupled distillation sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for the rigorous design of thermally coupled distillation sequences using process simulators. First we show that the two side streams connections that produce a thermal ‘couple’ can be substituted by a combination of a material stream and a heat flow. In this way, the sequence of thermally coupled distillation columns can be simulated without recycle

José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2007-01-01

112

Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

113

Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

Gasser, M. G. (editor)

1983-01-01

114

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-print Network

of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps...

Polley, G. T.

115

Tritium Attenuation by Distillation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

Wittman, N.E.

2001-07-31

116

Distillation under electric fields  

SciTech Connect

Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

Shah, V.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-11-01

117

Design and synthesis of multicomponent thermally coupled distillation flowsheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and synthesis of thermally coupled distillation flowsheets for separations of five-component mixtures are studied. Four types of possible configurations are identified when simple and complex columns are both considered in a flowsheet. A universal design procedure is developed for design of any types of the identified configurations based on the abstraction of the three basic units in the

Ben-Guang Rong; Andrzej Kraslawski; Lars Nyström

2001-01-01

118

Cryogenic processing and recycling  

SciTech Connect

This article examines cryogenic processing and recycling of rubber and rubber products. The topics discussed include utilization of cryogenically recycled materials in the rubber industry, current status of the industry, economic benefit, performance advantage, environmental benefit, technology assessment, the future of cryogenic process and recycling.

Leyden, J.J.

1991-03-01

119

Effects of Distillation System and Yeast Strain on the Aroma Profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Pomace Spirits.  

PubMed

Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

2014-10-29

120

Trajan's Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, from McMaster University, uses the combined skills of artists, writers, programmers, and Web designers to create a resource for the study of Trajan's column, a Roman architectural monument. This 100-foot marble column, built during the reign of Emperor Trajan, 98-117 AD, is topped with a gilded statue of Trajan and decorated with carvings recounting Trajan's rule, primarily the Dacian Wars and his building projects. The heart of the Website is the database of 500 slides of the carvings; indexes allow users to view the slides in thematic groupings such as images of sides of the column, groups organized by subject keywords, or carvings made with specific tools. Cartoons or drawings of the column help to contextualize the details found in the slides, and essays provide more information on its design, construction, and preservation.

121

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

2011-01-01

122

Simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations  

SciTech Connect

The computational tools needed for simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations are described. These tools include simple methods to identify the existence of binary and ternary azeotropes and to classify ternary mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. The tools also include more complex methods to compute the phase diagram (or a heterogeneous liquid boiling surface), predict liquid-vapor phase equilibrium, and/or predict liquid-liquid-vapor phase equilibrium for simulations of batch and continuous distillation column operations. Important new features of these tools are the incorporation of a fast and efficient method for test of phase stability in simulation of distillation operations, the ability to handle a large range of mixtures (including mixtures with supercritical compounds), and the ability for computations covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure. On the basis of these tools, simple and consistent design algorithms are developed. The applicability of the design algorithms is verified through process simulation and analysis of the predicted behavior and data from the open literature. Conditions are given for examples illustrating (when and how possible distillation boundaries can be crossed) how multiple steady states can be obtained. Finally, the effect of changes in operating on the dynamic behavior of the azeotropic distillation columns and the sensitivity of design to the prediction of phase equilibria are presented.

Bossen, B.S.; Joergensen, S.B.; Gani, R. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark))

1993-04-01

123

Cryogenic System Revised June 1994  

E-print Network

Chapter 9. Cryogenic System Revised June 1994 9.1. Introduction 9.2. Heat Loads and Refrigeration Duties -- 175 -- #12; 176 Cryogenic System #12; Cryogenic System 177 9.3. Two Phase Helium Cooling 9.4. The Refrigerator and Control #12; 178 Cryogenic System 9.5. Cryogen Delivery and Control 9.6. Three Cooling

Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

124

Porosity distribution in random packed columns by gamma ray tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma ray tomography experiments have been carried out to detect any spatial patterns in the porosity in a 0.6 m diameter packed column. Three different sizes of stainless steel Pall rings (16, 25 and 38 mm) have been examined. The primary objective is to detect spatial patterns and statistical information on porosity variation in packed distillation columns. Such data are

Zhongcheng Wang; Artin Afacan; K. Nandakumar; Karl T. Chuang

2001-01-01

125

Column Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

Yu, Julie

2007-01-01

126

An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of this analogy.

Mukesh, Doble

2001-02-01

127

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-print Network

the relation for minimum reflux Q ? A [1 +( (a-l)xll (5 ) a-I where A is the heat, of vaporization and a is the relative volatility of the components; and if, we further eliminate 6T's in the reboiler and condenser and 6P in the column, then Maximum [1 1... losses are in ? pressure drop and temperature difference. This is a characteristic of towers with low relative volatilities. ***In this tower the losses are unusually high because the column operated between two refrigeration levels which were fixed...

Steinmeyer, D.

128

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26

129

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1998-11-30

130

Qutrit magic state distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation.

Anwar, Hussain; Campbell, Earl T.; Browne, Dan E.

2012-06-01

131

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-06-14

132

Sealing Mechanical Cryogenic Coolers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal bellows used to seal Vuilleumier and Stirling-cycle cryogenic coolers, replacing sliding seals that failed after only 3,000 hours of service. Metal bellows, incorporated in displacer design provide nonrubbing dynamic seal. Lifetime of cryogenic cooler no longer limited by loss of sealing material and by deterioration of regenerators due to clogging by seal debris.

Richter, R.

1985-01-01

133

Cryogenic capillary screen heat entrapment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of subcooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs?" Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by liquid nitrogen (LN 2) tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, 200 × 1400 and 325 × 2300, both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN 2 data, it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hastings, L. J.; Statham, G.

2008-05-01

134

ESTUDIO DE SISTEMAS DE DESTILACIÓN TÉRMICAMENTE ACOPLADOS CON REACCIÓN QUÍMICA STUDY OF THERMALLY COUPLED DISTILLATION SYSTEMS WITH CHEMICAL REACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally coupled distillation systems have been excellent options to save energy and capital investment for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. Latest information about design, operation and control of these systems has been published and it has allowed a practical implementation in the chemical industry. In this paper the ethyl acetate process is studied, using distillation systems with side columns (either

F. O. Barroso-Muñoz; S. Hernández; J. G. Segovia-Hernández; A. F. Aguilera-Alvarado

2006-01-01

135

Distilling entanglement from Fermions  

E-print Network

Since Fermions are based on anti-commutation relations, their entanglement can not be studied in the usual way, such that the available theory has to be modified appropriately. Recent publications consider in particular the structure of separable and of maximally entangled states. In this talk we want to discuss local operations and entanglement distillation from bipartite, Fermionic systems. To this end we apply an algebraic point of view where algebras of local observables, rather than tensor product Hilbert spaces play the central role. We apply our scheme in particular to Fermionic Gaussian states where the whole discussion can be reduced to properties of the covariance matrix. Finally the results are demonstrated with free Fermions on an infinite, one-dimensional lattice.

M. Keyl

2008-12-03

136

The cryogenic wind tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

Kilgore, R. A.

1976-01-01

137

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2012-04-01

138

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2014-04-01

139

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2013-04-01

140

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2011-04-01

141

Aroma Recovery in Wine Dealcoholization by SCC Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aroma recovery in wine dealcoholization by spinning cone column (SCC) distillation technique has been studied, with the\\u000a analysis of the influence of the process factors: raw wine flow rate and aromatic extraction percentage. This aroma recovery\\u000a has been measured in terms of aromatic richness (number of peaks obtained in the chromatogram) and aromatic intensity (total\\u000a peaks area of the

Yulissa Y. Belisario-Sánchez; Amaury Taboada-Rodríguez; Fulgencio Marín-Iniesta; Asunción Iguaz-Gainza; Antonio López-Gómez

142

Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

2006-01-01

143

SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

D. Hatfield; F. Casagrande; I. Campisi; P. Gurd; M. Howell; D. Stout; H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; and P. Knudsen

2005-08-29

144

SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

Hatfield, D.; Casagrande, F.; Campisi, I.; Gurd, P.; Howell, M.; Stout, D.; Strong, H.; Arenius, D.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

2006-04-01

145

Cryogenic Insulation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

1999-01-01

146

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-print Network

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01

147

Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient behavior of a small-scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near-horizontal tube. The tube diameter was 1 cm and the overall length was 4.4 m. The apparatus was equipped with view-ports in the near-horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns.

N. T. van Dresar; J. D. Siegwarth

2004-01-01

148

Energy-saving distillation in fuel ethanol production: steady-state and dynamic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This work is a thorough study of distillation designs and operating conditions to produce a fuel-grade ethanol product from a typical grain fermentation broth. Two characteristic features of this system are the dilute feed concentration and the highly non-ideal vapor-liquid equilibrium. A feed concentration of 2.9 mol%, a plant size of 20 million gallons per year of ethanol product and a minimum of 15% return on incremental investments (after tax) are used throughout the study. For production of 83 mole% product, a design featuring mechanical vapor recompression for both distillation and evaporation has the lowest operating cost ($0.135/gallon of ethanol product). The same evaporator with a multi-column distillation design (split-feed flow pattern) and integration of a standard distillation column with a multi-effect evaporator have slightly higher costs ($0.15 and $0.16, respectively). The costs given reflect the operating cost (including depreciation, maintenance, etc.) for both the distillation and evaporation sections of the plant. Comparative costs are very sensitive to the costs used for utilities (steam cost is $5.00/1000 lbs.; electricity cost is $0.07/KWH). Other design variables, such as feed temperature, feed concentration and production rate effect significant changes in costs per gallon, but do not change the order of preference of design configurations. For the production of higher purity distillates without the use of azeotropic or extractive distillation techniques, several vacuum distillation designs are considered. The change in costs with distillate concentration is very significant above 85 mole%. The vapor recompression design and a multi-effect distillation with heavy-split are the best candidates for a 90 mole% product.

Collura, M.A.

1985-01-01

149

Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

Rysavy, G.

1971-01-01

150

Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

151

Sample distillation/graphitization system for carbon pool analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A facility at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC, has been developed to extract, trap, cryogenically distill and graphitize carbon from a suite of organic and inorganic carbon pools for analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The system was developed to investigate carbon pools associated with the formation and stability of methane hydrates. However, since the carbon compounds found in hydrate fields are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, this apparatus is applicable to a number of oceanographic and environmental sample types. Targeted pools are dissolved methane, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), solid organic matrices (e.g., seston, tissue and sediments), biomarkers and short chained (C 1-C 5) hydrocarbons from methane hydrates. In most instances, the extraction, distillation and graphitization events are continuous within the system, thus, minimizing the possibility of fractionation or contamination during sample processing. A variety of methods are employed to extract carbon compounds and convert them to CO 2 for graphitization. Dissolved methane and DIC from the same sample are sparged and cryogenically separated before the methane is oxidized in a high temperature oxygen stream. DOC is oxidized to CO 2 by 1200 W ultraviolet photo-oxidation lamp, and solids oxidized in sealed, evacuated tubes. Hydrocarbons liberated from the disassociation of gas hydrates are cryogenically separated with a cryogenic temperature control unit, and biomarkers separated and concentrated by preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC). With this system, up to 20 samples, standards or blanks can be processed per day.

Pohlman, J. W.; Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; DeTurck, T. M.; Treacy, D. J.; Coffin, R. B.

2000-10-01

152

TPC magnet cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) magnet at LBL and its compensation solenoids are adiabatically stable superconducting solenoid magnets. The cryogenic system developed for the TPC magnet is discussed. This system uses forced two-phase tubular cooling with the two cryogens in the system. The liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are delivered through the cooled load by forced tubular flow. The only reservoirs of liquid cryogen exist in the control dewar (for liquid helium) and the conditioner dewar (for liquid nitrogen). The operation o these systems during virtually all phases of system operation are described. Photographs and diagrams of various system components are shown, and cryogenic system data are presented in the following sections: (1) heat leaks into the TPC coil package and the compensation solenoids; (2) heat leaks to various components of the TPC magnet cryogenics system besides the magnets and control dewar; (3) the control dewar and its relationship to the rest of the system; (4) the conditioner system and its role in cooling down the TPC magnet; (5) gas-cooled electrical leads and charging losses; and (6) a summation of the liquid helium and liquid nitrogen requirements for the TPC superconducting magnet system.

Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.W.

1980-03-01

153

DNA Spin Columns Regular Spin Columns  

E-print Network

or bubbles. 1. Remove tip of Bio-Rad column. Place column in 13 X 100 mm glass tube in rack. Fill column centrifuge with swing-out rotor. Plastic Syringes Prepare syringes as follows. Cut circles of GF/C (glass

Aris, John P.

154

CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION  

SciTech Connect

Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F. [Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division BP15, ZI Les Engenieres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C. [Consultants, Grenoble (France)

2008-03-16

155

CEBAF cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The CEBAF cryogenic system consists of 3 refrigeration systems: Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), and End Station Refrigerator (ESR). CHL is the main cryogenic system for CEBAF, consisting of a 4.8 kW, 2.0 K refrigerator and transfer line system to supply 2.0 K and 12 kW of 50 K shield refrigeration for the Linac cavity cryostats and 10 g/s of liquid for the end stations. This paper describes the 9-year effort to commission these systems, concentrating on CHL with the cold compressors. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of 3 K which use magnetic bearings, thereby eliminating the possibility of air leaks into the subatmospheric He.

NONE

1995-12-31

156

Long hold time cryogens dewar  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dewar for maintaining superconducting temperatures for an extended period of time comprising an outer case, comprising cryogen containing chambers. The improved structure describes how the dewar is constructed so that each of the cryogen chambers completely surrounds the next innermost one of the cryogen chambers, and, except for the innermost of the cryogen chambers. The cryogens contained in each of the chambers are maintained in states such that each cryogen has a progressively higher phase change temperature proceeding from the innermost one of the cryogen chambers to the outermost one of the cryogen chambers and isothermal suspension means for suspending all of the cryogen chambers within the dewar wherein the outermost one of the cryogen chambers is suspended in the dewar solely by isothermal suspension means comprising rods having a low thermal conductivity and all of the cryogen chambers, except the outermost cryogen chamber, are suspended in the dewar solely by isothermal suspension means comprising cords having a low thermal conductivity.

Fixsen, D.J.; Hastings, R.N.; Imsdahl, J.A.

1989-01-10

157

Cryogenic engineering and fusion power  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the consumption of power for the magnets of a fusion power plant to acceptable proportions, it is necessary that fusion reactors must use either cryogenically cooled or superconducting coils. The cryogenic aspects of reactor design are discussed. It is found that the most difficult cryogenic engineering problems of fusion reactors are mainly those caused by the

C. E. Taylor

1974-01-01

158

Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transient behavior of a small scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near horizontal tube. The apparatus was equipped with view ports in the near horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns. Wall temperatures were measured at various locations along the length of the transfer line. Each test was conducted at a constant liquid volumetric flowrate at the transfer line inlet until saturation temperatures were obtained throughout the system.

VanDresar, Neil T.; Siegwarth, James D.

2003-01-01

159

Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

1978-01-01

160

Cryogenic Model Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview and status of current activities seeking alternatives to 200 grade 18Ni Steel CVM alloy for cryogenic wind tunnel models is presented. Specific improvements in material selection have been researched including availability, strength, fracture toughness and potential for use in transonic wind tunnel testing. Potential benefits from utilizing damage tolerant life-prediction methods, recently developed fatigue crack growth codes and upgraded NDE methods are also investigated. Two candidate alloys are identified and accepted for cryogenic/transonic wind tunnel models and hardware.

Kimmel, W. M.; Kuhn, N. S.; Berry, R. F.; Newman, J. A.

2001-01-01

161

Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

1994-01-01

162

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

163

Plant transpiration distillation of water  

SciTech Connect

A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

1986-01-01

164

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium/benzophenone under argon  

E-print Network

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium was equipped with a DB5-MS column (25 m Ã? 0.20 mm ID Ã? 0.33 2m film). Products were purified by flash or vacuum over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated by rotary evaporation under partial vacuum. (n

Hanks, Lawrence M.

165

Determination of benzene and toluene in soils and plant material by azeotropic distillation  

SciTech Connect

The suspected dumping of gasoline near a garden resulted in the need for a method that would measure trace amounts of benzene and toluene in both soil and plant samples. In this report the authors show that a method involving methanolic extraction and azeotropic distillation is a highly sensitive technique that eliminated the contamination of the GC column by non-volatile material.

Kozloski, R.P.

1985-01-01

166

The interactions of design control and operability in reactive distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the design and control of a reactive distillation column, described by a rigorous dynamic model, is tackled via two different optimization approaches. In the first, the steady-state process design and the control system are optimized sequentially. It is shown that operability is a strong function of the process design and potential operability bottlenecks are identified. In the

Michael C Georgiadis; Myrian Schenk; Efstratios N Pistikopoulos; Rafiqul Gani

2002-01-01

167

Green chemical engineering aspects of reactive distillation.  

PubMed

Reactive or catalytic distillation technology combines chemical synthesis steps with separations by distillation. This combination can lead to intensified, high-efficiency process systems with significant green engineering attributes. New applications and understanding have prompted growth in the use of reactive distillation for a variety of chemical syntheses, especially esterifications and etherifications involving oxygenated hydrocarbons. We describe several applications and the potential and tradeoffs for reactive distillation technology in the context of green engineering principles. PMID:14700316

Malone, Michael F; Huss, Robert S; Doherty, Michael F

2003-12-01

168

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

169

27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk. 1.90 Section 1.90 Alcohol, Tobacco...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

170

Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

1 Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies and 3 m. They are compatible with most aqueous buffers, such as ammonium acetate, phosphate, tris, etc. When 150 mM phosphate phase: 150 mM Sodium Phosphate Buffer, pH 7 Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min Temperature: Ambient (~23° C

Lebendiker, Mario

171

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1988-01-01

172

Flexible cryogenic conduit  

DOEpatents

A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

Brindza, Paul Daniel (Yorktown, VA); Wines, Robin Renee (Norfolk, VA); Takacs, James Joseph (Hayes, VA)

1999-01-01

173

Cryogenic treatment of gas  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2012-04-03

174

Cryogenic support system  

DOEpatents

A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

1988-11-01

175

Safety and cryogenic wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) was placed in operation at NASA's Langley Research Center in 1973 as the world's first cryogenic pressure tunnel. The 0.3-m TCT can operate from ambient to cryogenic temperatures over an absolute pressure range from about 1 to 6 atmospheres. Three major test section concepts were developed and refined in this unique facility. The 0.3-m TCT is a leader in the development of various cryogenic pressure wind tunnel experimental techniques, instrumentation, control, model technology and safety standards. The safety experience gained is examined. During this period of advanced research, new operating techniques, training policies, and procedures had to be established. The paper deals with the Do's and Don'ts of cryogenic wind tunnel testing. Hazards and safety requirements which are unique to cryogenic testing are discussed. Highlights of experience and lessons learned with the 0.3-m TCT are reviewed.

Ray, Edward J.

1989-01-01

176

Cryogenic turbopump bearing materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials used for modern cryogenic turbopump bearings must withstand extreme conditions of loads and speeds under marginal lubrication. Naturally, these extreme conditions tend to limit the bearing life. It is possible to significantly improve the life of these bearings, however, by improving the fatigue and wear resistance of bearing alloys, and improving the strength, liquid oxygen compatibility and lubricating ability of the bearing cage materials. Improved cooling will also help to keep the bearing temperatures low and hence prolong the bearing life.

Bhat, Biliyar N.

1989-01-01

177

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer (CGS) first flew on the KAO in 1982 December and has been open to guest investigators since 1984 October. In the past 12 years it has completed over 100 research flights supporting 13 different principal investigators studying a variety of objects. We briefly describe the instrument, its capabilities and accomplishments, and acknowledge the people who have contributed to its development and operation.

Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Rubin, Robert H.

1995-01-01

178

Cryogenic storage vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

McDonnell Douglas Corp.'s new cryogenic storage vessel design features internally-insulated tanks which may be used to store and transport liquefied gas at temperatures as low as -423°F, and store and transport fluids under high pressure or atmospheric pressure. The cargo tanks, which are integrally supported inside the cargo holds, feature a reliable liner-insulation system which can be installed in a

Lemons

1974-01-01

179

High performance cryogenic turboexpanders  

SciTech Connect

The use of turboexpanders for deep cryogenic temperatures has been constrained because of thermal efficiency limitations. This limited thermal efficiency was mostly due to mechanical constraints. Recent improvements in analytical techniques, bearing technology, and design features have made it possible to design and operate turboexpanders at more favorable conditions, such as of higher rotational speeds. Several turboexpander installations in helium and hydrogen processes have shown a significant improvement in plant performance over non-turboexpander options.

Agahi, R.R.; Ershaghi, B.; Lin, M.C. [Atlas Copco Rotoflow, Gardenia, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

180

Cryogenic Treatment of Metal Parts  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic treatment and its variables have been described. Results of eight engineering tests carried out on cryotreated parts have been presented. Cryogenic treatment of metal parts enhances useful properties which in turn, improves various strengths. Our tests viz. Abrasion, Torsion, Fatigue, Tensile, Shear, Hardness and Impact on Mild steel, Cast Iron, Brass and Copper show that the cryogenic treatment improved useful properties of mild steel parts appreciably but did not show promise with brass and copper parts.

Chillar, Rahul [S. P. College of Engineering, Andheri (W), Mumbai - 400 058 (India); Agrawal, S. C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai - 400 005 (India)

2006-03-31

181

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Frank Trang  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials by Frank Trang B.S., University of California entitled: Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials written by Frank Trang has been approved.D., Electrical Engineering) Cryogenic Microwave Anisotropic Artificial Materials Thesis directed by Professor

Popovic, Zoya

182

Precision Cryogenic Dilatometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dilatometer based on a laser interferometer is being developed to measure mechanical creep and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of materials at temperatures ranging from ambient down to 15 K. This cryogenic dilatometer has been designed to minimize systematic errors that limit the best previously available dilatometers. At its prototype stage of development, this cryogenic dilatometer yields a strain measurement error of 35 ppb or 1.7 ppb/K CTE measurement error for a 20-K thermal load, for low-expansion materials in the temperature range from 310 down to 30 K. Planned further design refinements that include a provision for stabilization of the laser and addition of a high-precision sample-holding jig are expected to reduce the measurement error to 5-ppb strain error or 0.3-ppb/K CTE error for a 20-K thermal load. The dilatometer (see figure) includes a common-path, differential, heterodyne interferometer; a dual-frequency, stabilized source bench that serves as the light source for the interferometer; a cryogenic chamber in which one places the material sample to be studied; a cryogenic system for cooling the interior of the chamber to the measurement temperature; an ultra-stable alignment stage for positioning the chamber so that the sample is properly positioned with respect to the interferometer; and a data-acquisition and control system. The cryogenic chamber and the interferometer portion of the dilatometer are housed in a vacuum chamber on top of a vibration isolating optical table in a cleanroom. The sample consists of two pieces a pillar on a base both made of the same material. Using reflections of the interferometer beams from the base and the top of the pillar, what is measured is the change in length of the pillar as the temperature in the chamber is changed. In their fundamental optical and electronic principles of operation, the laser light source and the interferometer are similar to those described in Common-Path Heterodyne Interferometers (NPO-20786), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 12a, and Interferometer for Measuring Displacement to Within 20 pm (NPO- 21221), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 7 (July 2003), page 8a. However, the present designs incorporate a number of special geometric, optical, and mechanical features to minimize optical and thermal-expansion effects that contribute to measurement errors. These features include the use of low-thermal expansion materials for structural components, kinematic mounting and symmetrical placement of optical components, and several measures taken to minimize spurious reflections of laser beams.

Dudik, Matthew; Halverson, Peter; Levine-West, Marie; Marcin, Martin; Peters, Robert D.; Shaklan, Stuart

2005-01-01

183

Five points on columns  

E-print Network

Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

Rockland, Kathleen

184

PULSE COLUMN DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stagewise approach was used in a theoretical analysis of pulse columns. ;\\u000a In the analysis the column was arbitrarily divided into discrete stages ;\\u000a comprising that part of the column between two adjacent perforated plates. The ;\\u000a operation of the pulse column was described mathematically using material balance ;\\u000a equations, and a design method was derived which used two

L. E. Burkhart; R. W. Fahien

1958-01-01

185

JCE Feature Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using

Jon L. Holmes

1999-01-01

186

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

187

Cryogenic fluid management in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many future space based vehicles and satellites will require on orbit refuelling procedures. Cryogenic fluid management technology is being developed to assess the requirements of such procedures as well as to aid in the design and development of these vehicles. Cryogenic fluid management technology for this application could be divided into two areas of study, one is concerned with fluid

Basil N. Antar

1988-01-01

188

Cryogenic container compound suspension strap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

Vorreiter, J. W. (inventor)

1980-01-01

189

Spacelab cryogenic propellant management experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual design of a Spacelab cryogen management experiment was performed to demonstrate toe desirability and feasibility of subcritical cryogenic fluid orbital storage and supply. A description of the experimental apparatus, definition of supporting requirements, procedures, data analysis, and a cost estimate are included.

Cady, E. C.

1976-01-01

190

Optical Detection Of Cryogenic Leaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conceptual system identifies leakage without requiring shutdown for testing. Proposed device detects and indicates leaks of cryogenic liquids automatically. Detector makes it unnecessary to shut equipment down so it can be checked for leakage by soap-bubble or helium-detection methods. Not necessary to mix special gases or other materials with cryogenic liquid flowing through equipment.

Wyett, Lynn M.

1988-01-01

191

Vibration dampers for cryogenic turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of effective and reliable minimum-weight and minimum-envelope vibration dampers for cryogenic turbines. To meet this objective, a high speed test rig was designed and fabricated, which is currently used to test a curved beam type damper. The operation, capacity, structural characteristics, measurement system, and safety features of the cryogenic damper test rig are discussed.

Palazzolo, Alan B.; Olan, Emmanuel; Ibrahim, Azman Syed; Kascak, Albert F.

1990-01-01

192

A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.  

PubMed

The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two procedures were compared. Finally, the agreement between boiling points of polar compounds determined from their retention times and actual boiling points was investigated. PMID:21153592

Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

2011-03-01

193

Cryogenic support member  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Gonczy, John D. (Oak Lawn, IL); Nicol, Thomas H. (Aurora, IL)

1987-01-01

194

Cryogenic insulation development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer insulations for long term cryogenic storage are described. The development effort resulted in an insulation concept using lightweight radiation shields, separated by low conductive Dacron fiber tufts. The insulation is usually referred to as Superfloc. The fiber tufts are arranged in a triangular pattern and stand about .040 in. above the radiation shield base. Thermal and structural evaluation of Superfloc indicated that this material is a strong candidate for the development of high performance thermal protection systems because of its high strength, purge gas evacuation capability during boost, its density control and easy application to a tank.

Leonhard, K. E.

1972-01-01

195

Cryogenic Propellant Scavenging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed description of a computer model that has been developed for assessing the feasibility of low g cryogen propellant scavenging from the space shuttle External Tank (ET) is given. Either pump-assisted or pressure-induced propellant transfer may be selected. The program will accept a wide range of input variables, including the fuel to be transferred (LOX or LH2), heat leaks, tank temperatures, and piping and equipment specifications. The model has been parametrically analyzed to determine initial design specification for the system.

Louie, B.; Kemp, N. J.; Daney, D. E.

1985-01-01

196

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

2014-01-01

197

Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors  

SciTech Connect

High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

Friedrich, S

2003-12-03

198

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-print Network

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-08-14

199

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-print Network

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E

2009-01-01

200

Small scale ethanol production demonstration: comparison of packed versus plate rectifying column  

SciTech Connect

The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant in 1980 from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. In 1981, the Center received a second DOE grant to compare the economics of replacing the plate rectifying column in the initial unit with a packed rectifying column. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit with the packed rectifying column is capable of producing 14 gallons per hour of 170 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation was a positive 2:1. Cost of the packed column was considerably less than the plate column. 1 reference, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Adcock, II, L E; Eley, M H; Schroer, B J

1982-07-01

201

Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

2009-01-01

202

Cryogenic Transfer Line Chilldown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient behavior of a small-scale cryogenic transfer line was investigated during chilldown to cryogenic temperatures. The vacuum-jacketed apparatus consisted of a vertical tube followed by a near-horizontal tube. The tube diameter was 1 cm and the overall length was 4.4 m. The apparatus was equipped with view-ports in the near-horizontal section to allow visual observation of the flow patterns. Wall temperatures were measured at various locations along the length of the transfer line. Each test was conducted at a constant liquid volumetric flowrate at the transfer line inlet until saturation temperatures were obtained throughout the system. Liquid flowrate was varied by more than two orders of magnitude and resulted in chilldown times ranging from a few minutes to several hours. An optimum flowrate exists that minimizes liquid consumption during the chilldown process. At higher flowrates, there is insufficient time for heat transfer from the liquid to the wall and inefficiencies result from the greater amount of incompletely vaporized liquid passing through the system. At lower flowrates, chilldown time and total ambient heat leak into the system increase, which raises liquid consumption. The experimental values of liquid consumption are compared to analytical estimates. At low flowrates, the data compares favorably to a minimum consumption model while at high flowrates the maximum consumption model overpredicts hydrogen consumption and underpredicts nitrogen consumption.

Van Dresar, N. T.; Siegwarth, J. D.

2004-06-01

203

Cryogenic fluid management experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

1981-01-01

204

Cryogenic Safety This course will provide basic information concerning cryogens and  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Safety Training #12;This course will provide basic information concerning cryogens including cryogen, critical point, critical temperature, vacuum jacket, pressure relief device, dewar as the primary cryogens used at the NHMFL. n Explain the pressure hazards associated with contained cryogenic

McQuade, D. Tyler

205

Final version, May 2002 Cryogenics Assessment Report  

E-print Network

Final version, May 2002 1 Cryogenics Assessment Report M. J. Gouge, J. A. Demko and B. W. Mc (HTS) have long recognized the importance of cryogenics as an enabling technology. Cryogenic workshops-of-the-art in cryogenic components and estimated performance requirements when used with HTS electric power systems

206

Inelastic column behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant findings of a theoretical study of column behavior in the plastic stress range are presented. When the behavior of a straight column is regarded as the limiting behavior of an imperfect column as the initial imperfection (lack of straightness) approaches zero, the departure from the straight configuration occurs at the tangent-modulus load. Without such a concept of the behavior of a straight column, one is led to the unrealistic conclusion that lateral deflection of the column can begin at any load between the tangent-modulus value and the Euler load, based on the original elastic modulus. A family of curves showing load against lateral deflection is presented for idealized h-section columns of various lengths and of various materials that have a systematic variation of their stress-strain curves.

Duberg, John E; Wilder, Thomas W , III

1952-01-01

207

Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namie?nik, Jacek

2014-08-01

208

Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Sterile distilled water  

E-print Network

Auble Lab Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Reagents: Sterile distilled water -mercaptoethanol Sorbitol Buffer conical tube at 3,000 rpms for 5 minutes. 3. Resuspend in 10 ml of sterile distilled (SD) water, then spin for 5 minutes at 3,000 rpms and decant off water. 4. Resuspend in 5 ml of SD water and add 100 µl

Auble, David

209

Topic distillation via sub-site retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topic distillation is one of the main information needs when users search the Web. Previous approaches for topic dis- tillation treat single page as the basic searching unit, which has not fully utilized the structure information of the Web. In this paper, we propose a novel concept for topic distillation, named sub-site retrieval, in which the basic searching unit is

Tao Qin; Tie-yan Liu; Xu-dong Zhang; Guang Feng; De-sheng Wang; Wei-ying Ma

2007-01-01

210

Distillability Criterion for all Bipartite Gaussian States  

E-print Network

We prove that all inseparable Gaussian states of two modes can be distilled into maximally entangled pure states by local operations. Using this result we show that a bipartite Gaussian state of arbitrarily many modes can be distilled if and only if its partial transpose is not positive.

G. Giedke; L. -M. Duan; J. I. Cirac; P. Zoller

2001-04-13

211

Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

Chato, David J.

2008-01-01

212

Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

Chato, David J.

2007-01-01

213

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

NONE

1996-11-01

214

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOEpatents

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01

215

Cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiatively cooled Cryogenic Quartz Crystal Microbalance designed to monitor highly volatile contaminants on the shuttle is described. Measurements are made with two 15-MHz microbalances having removable, optically polished sensors mounted in a radiant cooler. One sensor operates below the freezing point of water and monitors contamination including that of water vapor. The second sensor is heated and monitors the contamination background. It provides a reference from which the density of the water vapor cloud enveloping the shuttle is determined. The design incorporates a low-power dissipation oscillator, heaters for ice removal, and a method for attaching second-surface mirrors to the radiator employing an indium type solder instead of a room temperature vulcanizer.

Mckeown, D.; Sonnenschein, G.; Fox, M. G.

1975-01-01

216

Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

Jones, David

2011-01-01

217

Basic cryogenics and materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of cryogenic temperatures on the mechanical and physical properties of materials are summarized. Heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered in the context of conservation of liquid nitrogen, thermal stability of the gas stream, and the response time for changes in operating temperature. Particular attention is given to the effects of differential expansion and failure due to thermal fatigue. Factors affecting safety are discussed, including hazards created due to the inadvertent production of liquid oxygen and the physiological effects of exposure to liquid and gaseous nitrogen, such as cold burns and asphyxiation. The preference for using f.c.c. metals at low temperatures is explained in terms of their superior toughness. The limitations on the use of ferritic steels is also considered. Nonmetallic materials are discussed, mainly in the context of their LOX compatibility and their use in the form of foams and fibers as insulatants, seals, and fiber reinforced composites.

Wigley, D. A.

1985-01-01

218

Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

1980-09-30

219

27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The appropriate TTB officer may...

2010-04-01

220

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

221

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

222

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

223

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

224

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

...2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

225

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

... 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

226

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

227

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

228

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

229

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

230

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2014-04-01

231

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2011-04-01

232

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-print Network

in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot... pilot plant test in order to determine exactly how the process wi 11 respond to the use of hi gh efficiency, low pressure drop packings. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

233

Dynamic analysis of thermally coupled distillation sequences with undirectional flows for the separation of ternary mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Petlyuk distillation system has been considered with special interest because of the high energy savings it can provide\\u000a with respect to the operation of sequences based on conventional columns. The original design of the Petlyuk structure, however,\\u000a shows two interconnections that seem to affect its operational and controllability properties. To overcome this problem, two\\u000a alternate structures have been suggested

Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet; Luis Ignacio Salcedo-Estrada

2006-01-01

234

The synthesis of thermally coupled distillation flowsheets for separations of five-component mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermally coupled distillation flowsheets for separation of five-component mixtures are studied based on the total annual costs. Fourteen simple column sequences and some feasible thermally coupled configurations with side strippers and\\/or side rectifiers are considered. The costs of the flowsheets are calculated and compared for several real five-component mixtures with various relative volatility distributions and a wide range of

Ben-Guang Rong; Andrzej Kraslawski; Lars Nyström

2000-01-01

235

Cryogenic characterization of Josephson junctions  

E-print Network

Cryogenic characterization is a crucial part of understanding the behavior of low-temperature quantum electronics. Reliable device testing provides the feedback to fabrication process development, facilitating the rapid ...

Brown, Keith Andrew

2006-01-01

236

Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

Goodyer, M. J.

1985-01-01

237

The book review column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to the Book Reviews Column. We hope to bring you at least two reviews of books every month. In this column four books are reviewed. 1. Stable Marriage and its Relation to Other Combinatorial Problems: An Intro- duction to Algorithm Analysis by Donald Knuth. Reviewed by Tim McNichol. This book uses the stable marriage problem as motivation to look

William I. Gasarch

2004-01-01

238

Inflatable Column Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

Hedgepeth, J. M.

1985-01-01

239

Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

240

Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

241

Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

Williamson, F. R.

1977-01-01

242

Medial column stabilization.  

PubMed

This article presented a brief review of medial column stabilizing procedures. The various types of procedures that have been advocated for different deformities have been discussed. It is important to keep in mind that fusion of any of the medial column joints should not be performed as an isolated procedure in flexible flatfoot deformity. Medial column stabilization is only a component procedure when surgically managing a flexible flatfoot. When choosing procedures to correct a flexible flatfoot, thorough preoperative evaluation is important. It is also important to realize that conservative measures should be exhausted before attempting any type of stabilization of the medial column for flexible flatfoot deformity. Specific criteria for flexible flatfoot surgery should include severe uncontrollable deformity, an inability to wear standard foot gear, and persistent pain and disability despite exhaustive conservative therapy. A medial column stabilization is also an excellent procedure for those patients who have end-stage degenerative joint disease of the medial longitudinal arch. PMID:1893342

Catanzariti, A R

1991-07-01

243

JCE Feature Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum, and WWW Site Review. These columns differ from the print feature columns in that they use the Internet as the publication medium. Doing so allows these features to include continually updated information, digital components, and links to other online resources. The Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems feature of JCE Internet serves as a good example for the kinds of resources that you can expect to find in an online feature column. Like other columns it contains a mission statement that defines the role of the column. It includes a digital library of continually updated examples of conceptual questions and challenge problems. (As I write this we have just added several new questions to the library.) It also includes a list of links to related online resources, information for authors about how to write questions and problems, and information for teachers about how to use conceptual questions and challenge problems. Teaching with Technology home page at JCE Online. One-Stop Feature Shop The updated Feature area of JCE Online offers information about all JCE feature columns in one place. It gives you a quick and convenient way to access a group of articles in a particular subject area. It provides authors and readers with a good definition of the column and its mission. It complements the print feature columns with online resources. It provides up-to-date bibliographies for selected areas of interest. And last, but not least, it provides that email address you can use to send that message of appreciation to the feature editor for his or her contribution to JCE and the chemical education community.

Holmes, Jon L.

1999-05-01

244

Latest developments in cryogenic safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

Webster, T. J.

1983-01-01

245

Separation characteristics of multistage water/hydrogen exchange column for water detritiation in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

A simulation code of multistage chemical exchange columns has been developed. The sieve trays for liquid-vapor scrubbing and the catalyst beds for vapor-hydrogen exchange reactions are alternately piled within the column. The code deals with all the twelve molecular species of hydrogen gas and water; and is based on the Newton-Raphson method. The characteristics of the column were discussed from the calculated results by this code such as effects of temperature and pressure. Similar to the distillation columns, the phase flow rates within the column (hydrogen gas and water vapor) and product flow rates have large effects on the separation performance of the column. A control method of the column was also proposed from these calculated results. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Yamanishi, T.; Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-10-01

246

Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2014-01-01

247

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOEpatents

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01

248

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operations are continuous. The collection of unfinished spirits for the purpose of redistillation is not considered to be a break in the continuity of the distilling procedure. However, the quantity and proof of any unfinished spirits must be...

2011-04-01

249

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-print Network

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01

250

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

temperatures resulting in significant energy savings. The distillation process will be reviewed as it relates to both vapor recompression and heat pumping techniques and case study examples of these energy recovery methods will be discussed....

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01

251

Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process  

SciTech Connect

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

Westphal, B.R.

1996-03-01

252

7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.  

...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance with...

2014-01-01

253

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-print Network

condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01

254

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2013-04-01

255

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2012-04-01

256

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2010-04-01

257

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2011-04-01

258

Modeling and simulation of reactive distillation operations  

SciTech Connect

Important aspects related to modeling and simulation of reactive distillation processes are presented. Reactive distillation processes are system specific and are subject to the sensitivity of the model parameters. The sensitive model parameters have been identified as those belonging to the models describing the physical and/or chemical equilibrium of the reactive system. The influence of the sensitive model parameters on simulation/design is highlighted through a systematic analysis of the models typically employed for steady-state and dynamic simulation of reactive distillation operations. For reliable and consistent simulation and design of reactive distillation operations, a necessary first step is a systematic analysis of the model parameter and the design/operational variables. Validated numerical results from test problems involving two reactive systems are presented.

Pilavachi, P.A. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Faculty of Applied Sciences] [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Schenk, M.; Perez-Cisneros, E.; Gani, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

259

Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations  

E-print Network

LIBRARY 4 A I4 COLLEGE QF TEXAS USE OF COMPUTERS FOB MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr, Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1959 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering USE OF COMPUTERS FOR NULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

Sullivan, Samuel Lane

2012-06-07

260

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

261

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-print Network

, .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower.... Prior to the development work to be described, the pressure in the extraction tower was controlled at a fixed value. The tower pressure-boilup control loop did not behave satisfactorily in the presence of non-condensables which entered with the feed...

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

262

Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 1 Cryogenic Pressure Vessels This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information #12;Cryogenic Pressure Vessel workshop, LLNL, February 15, 2011, p. 2 The cryogenic pressure vessel concept has evolved from

263

Cryogenic Technology for Superconducting Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting devices such as magnets and cavities are key components in the accelerator field for increasing the beam energy and intensity, and at the same time making the system compact and saving on power consumption in operation. An effective cryogenic system is required to cool and keep the superconducting devices in the superconducting state stably and economically. The helium refrigeration system for application to accelerators will be discussed in this review article. The concept of two cooling modes -- the liquefier and refrigerator modes -- will be discussed in detail because of its importance for realizing efficient cooling and stable operation of the system. As an example of the practical cryogenic system, the TRISTAN cryogenic system of KEK Laboratory will be treated in detail and the main components of the cryogenic system, including the high-performance multichannel transfer line and liquid nitrogen circulation system at 80K, will also be discussed. In addition, we will discuss the operation of the cryogenic system, including the quench control and safety of the system. The satellite refrigeration system will be discussed because of its potential for wide application in medium-size accelerators and in industry.

Hosoyama, Kenji

2012-01-01

264

Overflow sensor for cryogenic-fluid vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overflow sensor for cryogenic fluid vessels has been designed by winding electrical resistance element on porous tubular coil form. Form is positioned in overflow vent of cryogenic fluid vessel where it can differentiate vapor from liquid at same temperature.

Tener, W. M.

1972-01-01

265

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— This paper considers the distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations, PABE, shared between two honest parties and an eavesdropper. In the usual scenario the distillation procedure consists of joint operations on,an arbitrarily large number of copies of the distribution (PABE) 1\\/2 then PABE is distillable, thus providing a sufficient condition for distillability. A simple express ion

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2008-01-01

266

Other cryogenic wind tunnel projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first cryogenic tunnel was built in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnel projects were started at aeronautical research centers around the world. Some of the more significant of these projects are described which are not covered by other lecturers at this Special Course. Described are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in five countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Royal Aerospace Establishment-Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NASA Langley); and U.S.S.R. (Central Aero-Hydronamics Institute (TsAGI), Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM), and Physical-Mechanical Institute at Kharkov (PMI-K).

Kilgore, Robert A.

1989-01-01

267

Other Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first cryogenic tunnel was built at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnels have been built at aeronautical research centers around the world. In this lecture some of the more interesting and significant of these projects that have not been covered by other lecturers at this Special Course are described. In this lecture authors describe cryogenic wind-tunnel projects at research centers in four countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Defence Research Agency - Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); and United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

Kilgore, Robert A.

1997-01-01

268

EASY AND RAPID ESTIMATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM WITH EICHROM COLUMN AND LSC MEASUREMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the capabilities of tritium columns from Eichrom as an effective, easy, and less expensive method for tritium determination by liquid scintillation (LS) counter. The described procedure was compared with the one presented in ISO 9698 (International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 1989) for routine control purposes. The standard distillation method is time consuming and requires significant effort to eliminate

Z Tosheva; A Kies; P Letissier; M Langer

269

Developments and Cryogenic Measurements of an Optical  

E-print Network

Developments and Cryogenic Measurements of an Optical Transducer for the Gravitational Wave. Photograph by European Southern Observatory, 17 November 1999. #12;Developments and Cryogenic Measurements....................................... 4.7 Measurements of the resonator mechanical Q........................ 4.7.1 Cryogenic Run 1

270

Cryogenics and the human exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current studies within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars proposed in 2014. The key cryogenic technology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer

L. J. Salerno; P. Kittel

1999-01-01

271

Liquid chromatographic determination of scopoletin in hydroalcoholic extract of oak wood and in matured distilled alcoholic beverages.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method is described for determination of the coumarins esculin, umbelliferone, scopoletin, and 4-methyl umbelliferone in hydroalcoholic extracts of oak wood and in matured distilled alcoholic beverages. Samples were injected directly into the LC column (30 cm, 5 micron C18) and detected by fluorescence detector. Under these experimental conditions, only scopoletin (detection limit, 200 pg) was found in hydroalcoholic oak wood extracts and in spirits matured in oak wood. Applications of this method to spirits distilled from wine, grain, and sugar cane aged in oak barrels showed that amounts varied from 0.026 to 1.57 ppm. PMID:3391951

Puech, J L; Moutounet, M

1988-01-01

272

Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

Duffell, Amanda

2005-01-01

273

A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS.

Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

2014-06-01

274

A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.  

PubMed

We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

2014-06-01

275

Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

Alario, J.

1979-01-01

276

Eruption column physics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Valentine, G.A.

1997-03-01

277

Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures of Higher Aliphatic Acids in Thermally Coupled Distillation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed to calculate the characteristics of distillation of multicomponent mixtures of higher aliphatic acids in distillation systems with reversible mixing of flows and coupled heat flows. The method is based on the use of the Underwood equations and the Thiele–Geddes method for independently determining the concentrations. Application of the method is illustrated by the example of calculating

V. A. Plesovskikh; A. A. Bezdenezhnykh

2003-01-01

278

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

SciTech Connect

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26

279

NASA GRC Cryogenic Seal Test Rig Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been about six years since any cryogenic seal tests were run at NASA GRC (Glenn Research Center). The Cryogenic Components Lab, where the cryogenic seal test rigs are located, has been shutdown due to the impending expansion of the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The current plan is to move the Cryogenic Components Lab (CCL), Cells I and 2 to NASA Plumbrook in Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this presentation is to inform the seal community of the cryogenic seal test rig capabilities available at NASA GRC for planning of future programs.

Proctor, Margaret

2001-01-01

280

Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

Dr. James B. Riggs

2000-11-30

281

Optimal thermodynamic approximation to reversible distillation by means of interheaters and intercoolers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the problem of heat and power integration on one side and the problem of minimizing heat exchange areas on the other side, in both conventional and nonconventional distillation columns. The authors consider the limiting case of columns operating at minimum reflux. The appropriate objective functions that one must consider are the entropy production rate and the total heat exchange area, respectively. This is done by means of optimal placement of a given number of interheaters (IHs) and intercoolers (ICs) in stripping and rectifying sections, respectively. To solve these problems, an appropriate thermodynamic model for both conventional and nonconventional distillative columns is formally presented. This model allows one to formulate an optimization problem involving thermodynamically reversible profiles in stripping and rectifying sections of the columns. This approach differs from others previously reported in that multiple reversible profiles were identified for each section of the column which give rise to lower and upper bounds for the objective function of the minimization problem. In other words, the authors obtain two solutions for each column section: the first is a nonoptimal feasible one, and the second is an optimal but not necessarily feasible one. Finally, the comparison of this approach with a method based on pseudobinary reversible profiles is carried out. Optimizing with this curve, solutions will be generated with objective function values between the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, care would be taken in using a pseudobinary pinch point curve for the placement of intermediate heat-exchanger units especially when the difference between the upper and lower bounds for the objective function values is relatively great.

Aguirre, P.; Espinosa, J.; Tarifa, E.; Scenna, N. [CONICET, Santa Fe (Argentina)] [CONICET, Santa Fe (Argentina)

1997-11-01

282

Device for underwater cryogenic cutting  

SciTech Connect

An underwater cutting or penetrating device includes a source of liquid nitrogen for cooling a workpiece to a cryogenic temperature before impact by an explosively driven member. Attachment by magnet or clamp, and provision for confining the coolant by flexible gasket or boot are described.

Elkins, J.H.

1982-12-27

283

Alternate approaches to cryogenic cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic cooling techniques for spaceborne infrared detectors are surveyed, and reason found to explore alternatives. An alternative class of cooling cycles is defined, and four practical cycles described. A general overview of operating efficiency for the whole class is developed. One of these cycles, the isobaric absorption cycle (Servel cycle), is explored in some detail.

Atkinson, W.; Devilliers, A.; Kappesser, R.

284

Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices  

SciTech Connect

Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

1996-04-01

285

ILC cryogenic systems reference design  

SciTech Connect

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

2008-01-01

286

Operation of large cryogenic systems  

SciTech Connect

This report is based on the past 12 years of experiments on R and D and operation of the 27 kW Fermilab Tevatron Cryogenic System. In general the comments are applicable for all helium plants larger than 1000W (400 l/hr) and non mass-produced nitrogen plants larger than 50 tons per day. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Rode, C.H.; Ferry, B.; Fowler, W.B.; Makara, J.; Peterson, T.; Theilacker, J.; Walker, R.

1985-06-01

287

Cryogenic separation of gaseous mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cryogenic separation process for recovering C{sub 2} hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon feedstream comprising methane, ethene and ethane. It comprises introducing the hydrocarbon feedstream into a dephlegmation zone at cryogenic temperatures; dephlegmating the hydrocarbon feedstream into a primary methane-rich gas stream and a primary liquid condensate stream rich in C{sub 2} + hydrocarbon components and containing a minor amount of methane; passing the primary liquid condensate stream to a moderately low cryogenic temperature primary demethanizer unit and separating the primary liquid condensate stream into a C{sub 2} + liquid bottoms stream and intermediate methane-rich overhead vapor stream; and further separating the intermediate methane-rich overhead vapor stream from the moderately low cryogenic temperature primary demethanizer unit in an ultra-low temperature final demethanizer unit operating below about 175 psia to recover a first liquid ethene-rich hydrocarbon product stream and a final demethanizer ultra-low temperature vapor stream; whereby total energy requirements for refrigeration to separate the C{sub 2} + hydrocarbon from the C{sub 1} and lighter components are low.

McCue, R.H. Jr.

1991-07-30

288

Status Of Sorption Cryogenic Refrigeration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report reviews sorption refrigeration. Developed for cooling infrared detectors, cryogenic research, and other advanced applications, sorption refrigerators have few moving parts, little vibration, and lifetimes of 10 years or more. Describes types of sorption stages, multistage and hybrid refrigeration systems, power requirements, cooling capacities, and advantages and disadvantages of various stages and systems.

Jones, Jack A.

1988-01-01

289

Foam shell cryogenic ICF target  

DOEpatents

A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

Darling, Dale H. (Pleasanton, CA)

1987-01-01

290

Ames Research Center cryogenics program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs describe the Ames Research Center's cryogenics program. Diagrams are given of a fluid management system, a centrifugal pump, a flow meter, a liquid helium test facility, an extra-vehicular activity coupler concept, a dewar support with passive orbital disconnect, a pulse tube refrigerator, a dilution refrigerator, and an adiabatic demagnetization cooler.

Kittel, Peter

1987-01-01

291

Cryogenic MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monolithic (MMIC) and discrete transistor (MIC) low noise amplifiers are compared on the basis of performance, cost, and reliability. The need for cryogenic LNA's for future large microwave arrays for radio astronomy is briefly discussed and data is presented on a prototype LNA for the 1 to 10 GZH range along with a very wideband LNA for the 1 to 60 GHz range.

Weinreb, S.; Gaier, T.; Fernandez, J.; Erickson, N.; Wielgus, J.

2000-01-01

292

JWST's cryogenic position metrology system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope will undergo a full system test in the cryogenic vacuum chamber A at the Johnson Spaceflight Center in order to verify the overall performance of the combined telescope and instrument suite. This will be the largest and most extensive cryogenic test ever undertaken. Early in the test system development, it was determined that precise position measurements of the overall hardware would enhance the test results. Various concepts were considered before selecting photogrammetry for this metrology. Photogrammetry has been used in space systems for decades, however cryogenic use combined with the size and the optical/thermal sensitivity of JWST creates a unique set of implementation challenges. This paper provides an overview of the JWST photogrammetric system and mitigation strategies for three key engineering design challenges: 1) the thermal design of the viewing windows to prevent excessive heat leak and stray light to the test article 2) cost effective motors and mechanisms to provide the angle diversity required, and 3) camera-flash life and reliability sufficient for inaccessible use during the number and duration of the cryogenic tests.

Whitman, Tony L.; Hammond, Randolph P.; Orndorff, Joe; Hope, Stephen; Smee, Stephen A.; Scorse, Thomas; Havey, Keith A.

2012-09-01

293

Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

2008-03-01

294

A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into the pump, and the pump was successfully operated meeting all expected operating parameters. Unique pump sub-assembly parts were designed and manufactured by the CTL using specialized materials determined to be superior for cryogenic thermal applications under the pump design conditions. This work is a proof-of-concept/proof-of-operation of the pump only. Other known internal design modifications to the pump should be accomplished for the long-term use of the pump. An upscaled version of this pump, which is under development and testing at the CTL, can be used either for current or future vehicle loading or for vehicle replenishment. Scaling of this pump can be easily accomplished.

Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

2011-01-01

295

Columns in Clay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

Leenhouts, Robin

2010-01-01

296

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

1974-01-01

297

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-print Network

it could be useful, and this leads to a discussion of mechanical vapor r.ecompression as appl ied to distillation. Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) is not a new concept. It is not a product of the 1970s energy crisis. For many years its potential... it could be useful, and this leads to a discussion of mechanical vapor r.ecompression as appl ied to distillation. Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) is not a new concept. It is not a product of the 1970s energy crisis. For many years its potential...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01

298

[Determination of tetrodotoxin in fermentation broth of distiller's yeast by ion chromatography].  

PubMed

A method was developed for the quantitative analysis of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fermentation broth of distiller's yeast by ion chromatography. After extraction with acetonitrile solution (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) and purification with an ion-exchange column, the tetrodotoxin was separated by ion chromatography and detected by a ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) absorbance detector. The experimental results showed that the tetrodotoxin had a good linearity (r2 = 0.997) in the range of 10 - 100 mg/L and the detection limit (3 of signal-to-noise ratio) was 1.0 mg/L. The average recoveries were between 90% - 103% with a relative standard deviation lower than 4.9%. The analysis of real samples verified the reliability of this method and demonstrated that the ion chromatography can be used for the quantification detection of the tetrodotoxin. The degradation experiment results suggested that distiller's yeast had a remarkable effect on the tetrodotoxin degradation. PMID:21598524

Shu, Jing; Li, Bailin; Ou, Jie

2011-02-01

299

Computation of multicomponent distillation processes by the Newton-Raphson method using an implicit function  

SciTech Connect

A new iterative method is presented for the rigorous simulation of multicomponent distillation processes using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the simultaneous equations, which is characterized by the use of the liquid compositions as the independent variables and analytical equations for evaluating the partial derivatives, with the vapor compositions and temperatures as the dependent variables. The analytical equations for the partial derivatives of the vapor compositions with respect to the liquid compositions are derived, using the implicit-function theorem. The advantages of the method are that a numerical differentiation of the partial derivatives is unnecessary, as is normalization of the liquid compositions. The method has excellent convergence characteristics when applied to 10 typical distillation columns of complicated structure.

Shimizu, K. (Nippon Synthetic Chem. Ind. Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sayama, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Suzuki, K. (Okayama Univ. (Japan))

1993-01-01

300

Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management technology as it applies to the current human Mars mission scenarios.

Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

301

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

302

Removal of water haze from distillate fuel  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R/sub a/ZSiO/sub (3-a)/2/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, provided that one R may be a hydroxyl group when a has the value 2, Z represents a quaternary ammonum group having the formula R'N/sup +/(R/sup 2/)/sub 3/X/sup -/ linked to the silicon atom of the siloxane unit, in which R' represents a divalent hydrocarbon group linking the silicon and nitrogen atoms, each R/sup 2/ represents an alkyl group having up to 20 carbon atoms and X/sup -/ represents a halogen ion, the distillate fuel containing up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water dispersed therein. The patent also describes a mixture consisting essentially of a distillate fuel and up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water based on the weight of the distillate fuel; with a de-hazing amount of an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit.

Easton, T.; Thomas, B.

1989-04-04

303

Using Artificial Neural networks for the modelling of a distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this paper is to establish a reliable model both for the steady-state and unsteady-state regime s of a nonlinear process. The use of this model should reflect the true behavior of the process under its normal operating conditions and allow distinguishing a normal mode from an abnormal one. In order to obtain this reliable model for

Yahya Chetouani

2007-01-01

304

Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation  

E-print Network

of convergence (7). At the end of each trial, the system was placed in component-material balance subject to the restraints of the specifications by the use of the Newton-Raphson method (6). The implicit method (1, 2, 10) has been thoroughly investigated...-4)) is given by ? 1 N+1 FX. +( )(F X. -d. -b. )+ ? . ' u, . I-'u o o o o 1 ). o i '4 i i i nest =0 'i - D 10 1+ e (b, /d, ) 1+ + ? 3 (u. . /d. ) -I 1 t ca &at u8t . ji i ca j=0 (3-gb) Equations (3 4) may be solved by use of the Newton-Raphson method...

Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

2012-06-07

305

Optimal control of distillation column using Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many control problems involve simultaneous optimization of multiple performance measures that are often non-commensurable and competing with each other. The presence of multiple objectives in a problem usually gives rise to one set of optimal solutions, largely known as Pareto-optimal solutions. In this paper, the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) has been successfully applied to optimization of dynamic state of

Alireza Behroozsarand; Sirous Shafiei

2011-01-01

306

Modeling chromatographic columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a new mathematical model, based on non-equilibrium conditions, describing the dynamic adsorption of proteins in columns packed with spherical adsorbent particles is used to study the performance of chromatographic systems. Simulations of frontal chromatography, including axial dispersion, for non-equilibrium systems with non-linear adsorption isotherms are made and compared to those of the experimentally determined protein A affinity

Ahmet R Özdural; Asl? Alkan; Piet J. A. M Kerkhof

2004-01-01

307

Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a ?GC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100?m×100?m has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100?m diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the ?GC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated ?GC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable ?GC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with ?GC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

2014-07-01

308

Relaxation phenomena in cryogenic electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed is a scenario for the development of observed relaxation phenomena in a cryogenic electrolyte with the structure of "liquid hydrogen + injected ions." Ions of one sign are generated in the bulk of liquid hydrogen in the presence of external field E? by a stationary radioactive source of ± ions at the bottom of a vessel. After accumulation near the free surface of the liquid with a finite density ns the ions can break its stability producing a pulse of ion current to the collector located above the liquid surface. The outlined process is periodically repeated. Its period contains information on the ion mobility and, which is most interesting, on dissociation (association) processes occurring in a system of charged particles placed in an external field. The cryogenic problem is a good model for dissociation in the presence of external field occurring in normal electrolytes without any external ion sources.

Shikin, V.; Chikina, I.; Nazin, S.

2013-06-01

309

Advanced Reusable Foam Cryogenic Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, reusable cryogenic containers reduce costs of operation of advanced hypersonic airplanes and space launch vehicles. Specimens demonstrated in temperature range of negative 420 to positive 400 degrees F (negative 251 to positive 204 degrees C). Prototype reusable cryogenic foam insulation developed. Consists of two discrete layers of closed-cell polymethacrylimide foam of density 6.9 lb/ft to the 3rd power (111 kg/m to the 3rd power) bonded together with epoxy adhesive. Additionally reinforced with 0.003-in. (0.08-mm)-thick layer of fiberglass cloth. Wrapped with precut and preformed vapor-barrier cover. Such containers useful on Earth in laboratories, factories, and transportation systems.

Taylor, Allan H.; Mcauliffe, P. S.; Sparks, L. L.

1990-01-01

310

Electromagnetic dampers for cryogenic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic turbomachinery of the type used to pump high-pressure liquid hydrogen at -423 F and liquid oxygen at -297 F to the main engines of the Space Shuttle are subjected to lateral rotor vibrations from unbalance forces and transient loads. Conventional dampers which utilize viscous fluids such as lubricating oil cannot be used in turbopumps because the bearing components are filled with either liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen, which have viscosity comparable to air and, therefore, are not effective in viscous dampers. Electromagentic dampers are currently being explored as a means of providing damping in cryogenic turbopumps because their damping effectiveness increases as temperature decreases and because they are compatible with the liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen in the turbopumps.

Brown, Gerald V.; Dirusso, Eliseo

1988-01-01

311

Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

2005-01-01

312

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

2010-07-01

313

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

2011-07-01

314

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

2013-07-01

315

27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.  

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for Taxes § 19...free of tax from an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this...

2014-04-01

316

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2013-04-01

317

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2011-04-01

318

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2014-04-01

319

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2012-04-01

320

Cryogenics for the Superconducting Module Test Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of laboratories and universities, with Fermilab taking the lead, are constructing a superconducting cryomodule test facility (SMTF) in the Meson Detector Building (MDB) area at Fermilab. The facility will be used for testing and validating designs for both pulsed and CW systems. A multi phase approach is taken to construct the facility. For the initial phase of the project, cryogens for a single cavity cryomodule will be supplied from the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at MDB results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. A cryogenic distribution system to supply cryogens from CTF to MDB is under construction. This paper describes plans, status and challenges of the initial phase of the SMTF cryogenic system.

Klebaner, A. L.; Theilacker, J. C.

2006-04-01

321

Cryogenics and the human exploration of Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars proposed in 2014. The key cryogenic technology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts, vapor-cooled shields (VCS), and catalytic converters will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. This paper presents a brief overview of the proposed Mars reference mission and the concomitant cryogenic fluid management technology, focusing on active cooling technology.

Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.

1999-04-01

322

Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler  

SciTech Connect

A cryogenic cooler is described for use in craft such as launch, orbital and space vehicles subject to changes in orientation and conditions of vibration and weightlessness comprising: an insulated tank; a porous open celled sponge-like material disposed substantially throughout the contained volume of the insulated tank; a cryogenic fluid disposed within the sponge-like material; a cooling finger immersed in the cryogenic fluid, the finger extending from inside the insulated tank externally to an outside source such as an instrument detector for the purpose of transmitting heat from the outside source into the cryogenic fluid; means for filling the insulated tank with cryogenic fluid; and means for venting vaporized cryogenic fluid from the insulated tank.

Castles, S.H.; Schein, M.E.

1989-04-18

323

Power stabilized cryogenic sapphire oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave oscillators of exceptional short-term stability have been realized from cryogenic sapphire resonators with loaded Q factors in excess of 109 at 11.9 GHz and 6 K. This has been achieved by a power stabilized loop oscillator with active Pound frequency stabilization. These oscillators have exhibited a fractional frequency stability of 3-4×10-15 for integration times from 0.3 to 100 s.

A. N. Luiten; A. G. Mann; M. E. Costa; D. G. Blair

1995-01-01

324

Cryogenic Quenching of Steel Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subject to a continuing debate, cryogenic treatments of alloy steels have been claimed to significantly increase wear resistance and toughness through the interplay of three effects: completing martensitic transformation, promoting uniform precipitation of fine carbides and imparting residual stresses. This study reexamines effects of various heat-treatment schedules including liquid nitrogen (-196oC) and liquid helium (-269 o C) quenching on microstructure

Zbigniew Zurecki

325

Simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) method in the qualitative and quantitative GC analysis of cheese volatile components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus proposed by Godefroot has been used for the GC study of volatile components of cheese. 5–10 g of cheese provide a fraction that can be directly injected into a GC or a GC\\/MS. Two capillary columns (SE-30 and SP-1000) were evaluated, the second one being adequate for quantitative determinations. Camphor was used as internal standard. The

M. de Frutos; J. Sanz; I. Martínez-Castro

1988-01-01

326

Usaf Space Sensing Cryogenic Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared (IR) space sensing missions of the future depend upon low mass components and highly capable imaging technologies. Limitations in visible imaging due to the earth's shadow drive the use of IR surveillance methods for a wide variety of applications for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) applications, and almost certainly in Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions. Utilization of IR sensors greatly expands and improves mission capabilities including target and target behavioral discrimination. Background IR emissions and electronic noise that is inherently present in Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and surveillance optics bench designs prevents their use unless they are cooled to cryogenic temperatures. This paper describes the role of cryogenic coolers as an enabling technology for generic ISR and BMD missions and provides ISR and BMD mission and requirement planners with a brief glimpse of this critical technology implementation potential. The interaction between cryogenic refrigeration component performance and the IR sensor optics and FPA can be seen as not only mission enabling but also as mission performance enhancing when the refrigeration system is considered as part of an overall optimization problem.

Roush, F.

2010-04-01

327

Cryogenic fluid management in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many future space based vehicles and satellites will require on orbit refuelling procedures. Cryogenic fluid management technology is being developed to assess the requirements of such procedures as well as to aid in the design and development of these vehicles. Cryogenic fluid management technology for this application could be divided into two areas of study, one is concerned with fluid transfer process and the other with cryogenic liquid storage. This division is based upon the needed technology for the development of each area. In the first, the interaction of fluid dynamics with thermodynamics is essential, while in the second only thermodynamic analyses are sufficient to define the problem. The following specific process related to the liquid transfer area are discussed: tank chilldown and fill; tank pressurization; liquid positioning; and slosh dynamics and control. These specific issues are discussed in relation with the required technology for their development in the low gravity application area. In each process the relevant physics controlling the technology is identified and methods for resolving some of the basic questions are discussed.

Antar, Basil N.

1988-12-01

328

Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

Trang, Frank

329

ZERODUR TAILORED for cryogenic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZERODUR® glass ceramic from SCHOTT is known for its very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. It is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors but also for satellite applications. Many reference application demonstrate the excellent and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. For space application a low CTE of the mirror material is required at cryogenic temperatures together with a good match of the thermal expansion to the supporting structure material. It is possible to optimize the coefficient of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® for cryogenic applications. This paper reports on measurements of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® down to cryogenic temperatures of 10 K performed by the PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstallt, Braunschweig, Germany, the national metrology laboratory). The ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO presented in this paper has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion down to 70 K. The maximum absolute integrated thermal expansion down to 10 K is only about 20 ppm. Mirror blanks made from ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO can be light weighted to almost 90% with our modern processing technologies. With ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO, SCHOTT offers the mirror blank material for the next generation of space telescope applications.

Jedamzik, R.; Westerhoff, T.

2014-07-01

330

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-print Network

of oil. An overview of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) reports the narrow range of applications of membrane distillation in the industry, such as desalination and water purification (Burgoyne and Vahdati, 2000; Cath et al., 2004). Gryta... crystalliser and air gap membrane distillation as a solution to geothermal water desalination. Desalination 152 (1-3), 237-244. Burgoyne, A, Vahdati, M.M. 2000. Direct contact membrane distillation.Separation Science and Technology 35 (8), 1257...

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2006-10-30

331

CFRP Prestressed Concrete Lighting Columns  

E-print Network

Aspects of the design and installation of a novel carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) prestressed high strength concrete lighting column (Carbolith®) are presented. The tapered cylindrical columns have a nominal height of 8 m and contain...

Terrasi, Giovanni P.; Lees, Janet M.

2003-08-01

332

Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

1973-01-01

333

Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

1975-01-01

334

CRYOGENIC FLUID JETS AND MIXING LAYERS IN TRANSCRITICAL AND SUPERCRITICAL  

E-print Network

CRYOGENIC FLUID JETS AND MIXING LAYERS IN TRANSCRITICAL AND SUPERCRITICAL ENVIRONMENTS NAN ZONG modeling and numerical simulation of cryogenic fluid injection and mixing in transcritical- layer instability, volume dilatation, and property variations, dictating the evolution of cryogenic jets

Yang, Vigor

335

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Particle Detectors in Search for Dark Matter Panofsky Prize presentation American;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University Original #12;Panofsky Prize Talk - Cryogenic Dark Matter Detectors Page Blas Cabrera - Stanford University TES

California at Berkeley, University of

336

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

2010-10-01

337

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

2012-10-01

338

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

2011-10-01

339

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173.319 Transportation...Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid...

2013-10-01

340

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations , shared between two honest par- ties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution , assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2006-01-01

341

27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits and wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol...Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at...

2010-04-01

342

Effects of temperature and salt concentration on distilled water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the influence of salt concentration and temperature on the distillation flow rate in a single effect multi-stage system for small water distillation units for low purchasing communities of 50 to 100 people. The distillation process has been evaporation–condensation under variable conditions: temperature of the evaporation and salt concentration. The results have shown there is a dependence of

C. Armenta-Deu

2002-01-01

343

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2013-04-01

344

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2012-04-01

345

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2014-04-01

346

27 CFR 1.84 - Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies. 1.84 Section...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

347

27 CFR 1.81 - Importation of distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Importation of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.81 Section 1.81 Alcohol, Tobacco...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

348

27 CFR 27.120 - Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. 27.120 Section 27.120 Alcohol... Importation of Distilled Spirits In Bulk § 27.120 Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. Distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

349

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2011-04-01

350

Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.  

PubMed

Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. PMID:22417550

Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

2011-09-01

351

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

Kvajic, G.

352

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-print Network

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Benni Reznik

2000-08-01

353

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-print Network

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Reznik, B

2000-01-01

354

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

355

Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

356

Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Monticello, D.J. (Energy BioSystems Corp., The Woodlands, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

357

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-print Network

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2008-03-03

358

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

SciTech Connect

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

359

Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

1984-01-01

360

Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana)  

E-print Network

Cryogenic magnetic force microscope M. Rosemana) and P. Gru¨tter Centre for the Physics for publication 27 June 2000 We describe our cryogenic magnetic force microscope, operating between 4.2 and 300 K. As an effective means of vibration isolation, we suspend the microscope from a soft bellows which attenuates

Grütter, Peter

361

Neutron detection with cryogenics and semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common methods of neutron detection are reviewed with special attention paid to the application of cryogenics and semiconductors to the problem. The authors' work with LiF- and boron-based cryogenic instruments is described as well as the use of CdTe and HgI2 for direct detection of neutrons.

Zane W. Bell; D. A. Carpenter; S. S. Cristy; V. E. Lamberti; Arnold Burger; Brian F. Woodfield; Thomas Niedermayr; I. Dragos Hau; Simon E. Labov; Stephan Friedrich; W. Geoffrey West; Kenneth R. Pohl; Lodewijk van den Berg

2005-01-01

362

Properties of composite materials for cryogenic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials are used in a wide variety of cryogenic applications because of their unique and highly tailorable properties. These cryogenic applications of composites may be, for the sake of discussion, classified as support structures, vessels, or electrical insulation. Examples of these applications are presented, with a brief discussion of the critical material properties associated with each application. Composite material

J. B Schutz

1998-01-01

363

Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

Kroeger, Erich

1987-01-01

364

Investigation of cryogenic treatment of UHMWPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

UHMWPE has been used as a bearing material in total joint arthroplasty for many years. Wear of UHMWPE can adversely affect the performance and longevity of orthopaedic implants. Various efforts have been focused on the improvement of UHMWPE properties, including wear resistance. In this study, a cryogenic treatment was investigated for potential improvements of UHMWPE. The cryogenic treatment applied in

H. H. Trieu; L. H. Morris; M. E. Kaufman; R. Hood; L. S. Jenkins

1997-01-01

365

Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage  

DOEpatents

Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

2011-07-05

366

Surface tension confined liquid cryogen cooler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cryogenic cooler is provided for use in craft such as launch, orbital, and space vehicles subject to substantial vibration, changes in orientation, and weightlessness. The cooler contains a small pore, large free volume, low density material to restrain a cryogen through surface tension effects during launch and zero-g operations and maintains instrumentation within the temperature range of 10 to

Stephen H. Castles; Michael E. Schein

1989-01-01

367

Self-Sealing Cryogenic Fitting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-sealing fitting for cryogenic tubes remains free of leakage from room temperature to liquid-helium temperature even at internal pressure as high as 2.7 MPa. Fitting comprises parts made of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion to prevent leakage gaps from forming as temperature decreases. Consists of coupling nut, two flared tube ends, and flared O-ring spacer. Spacer contracts more than tube ends do as temperature decreases. This greater contraction seals tube ends more tightly, preventing leakage.

Jia, Lin Xiang; Chow, Wen Lung; Moslemian, Davood; Lin, Gary; Melton, Greg

1994-01-01

368

CRYOTE (Cryogenic Orbital Testbed) Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demonstrating cryo-fluid management (CFM) technologies in space is critical for advances in long duration space missions. Current space-based cryogenic propulsion is viable for hours, not the weeks to years needed by space exploration and space science. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) provides an affordable low-risk environment to demonstrate a broad array of critical CFM technologies that cannot be tested in Earth's gravity. These technologies include system chilldown, transfer, handling, health management, mixing, pressure control, active cooling, and long-term storage. United Launch Alliance is partnering with Innovative Engineering Solutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and others to develop CRYOTE to fly as an auxiliary payload between the primary payload and the Centaur upper stage on an Atlas V rocket. Because satellites are expensive, the space industry is largely risk averse to incorporating unproven systems or conducting experiments using flight hardware that is supporting a primary mission. To minimize launch risk, the CRYOTE system will only activate after the primary payload is separated from the rocket. Flying the testbed as an auxiliary payload utilizes Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle performance excess to cost-effectively demonstrate enhanced CFM.

Gravlee, Mari; Kutter, Bernard; Wollen, Mark; Rhys, Noah; Walls, Laurie

2009-01-01

369

Shadowgraphy of transcritical cryogenic fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The future of liquid-rocket propulsion depends heavily on continued development of high pressure liquid oxygen/hydrogen systems that operate near or above the propellant critical states; however, current understanding of transcritical/supercritical injection and combustion is yet lacking. The Phillips Laboratory and the United Technologies Research Center are involved in a collaborative effort to develop diagnostics for and make detailed measurements of transcritical droplet vaporization and combustion. The present shadowgraph study of transcritical cryogenic fluids is aimed at providing insight into the behavior of liquid oxygen or cryogenic stimulants as they are injected into a supercritical environment of the same or other fluids. A detailed history of transcritical injection of liquid nitrogen into gaseous nitrogen at reduced pressures of 0.63 (subcritical) to 1.05 (supercritical) is provided. Also, critical point enhancement due to gas phase solubility and mixture effects is investigated by adding helium to the nitrogen system, which causes a distinct liquid phase to re-appear at supercritical nitrogen pressures. Liquid oxygen injection into supercritical argon or nitrogen, however, does not indicate an increase in the effective critical pressure of the system.

Woodward, R. D.; Talley, D. G.; Anderson, T. J.; Winter, M.

1994-01-01

370

Cryogenic separation of gaseous mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cryogenic separation method for recovering C{sub 1}{sup +} hydrocarbons from cracked hydrocarbon feed gas. It comprises: introducing dry feed gas into a primary dephlegmation zone having a plurality of serially connected, sequentially colder dephlegmator units for separation of feed gas into a primary methane-rich gas stream recovered at low temperature and at least one primary liquid condensate stream rich in C{sub 2}{sup +} hydrocarbon components and containing a minor amount of methane; passing at least one primary liquid condensate stream from the primary dephlegmation zone to serially connected demethanizer fractionators, wherein a moderately low cryogenic temperature is employed in a first demethanizer fractionator unit to recover substantially all of the methane from the primary liquid condensate stream in a first demethanizer overhead vapor stream and to recover a first C{sub 2}{sup +} liquid demethanizer bottoms stream substantially free of methane; further separating at least a portion of the first demethanizer overhead vapor stream in an ultra-low temperature final demethanizer fractionator unit to recover a liquid ethene-rich predominantly C{sub 2} hydrocarbon crude product stream and a final demethanizer ultra-low temperature overhead vapor stream substantially free of C{sub 2}{sup +} hydrocarbons; and fractionating the second crude ethene stream and the first ethene-rich C{sub 2} hydrocarbon crude product stream to obtain a pure ethene product.

McCue, R.H. Jr.; Pickering, J.L. Jr.

1990-02-13

371

Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

2004-01-01

372

Models for cryogenic wind tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model requirements, types of model construction methods, and research in new ways to build models are discussed. The 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel was in operation for 16 years and many 2-D airfoil pressure models were tested. In addition there were airfoil models dedicated to transition detection techniques and other specialized research. There were also a number of small 3-D models tested. A chronological development in model building technique is described which led to the construction of many successful models. The difficulties of construction are illustrated by discussing several unsuccessful model fabrication attempts. The National Transonic Facility, a newer and much larger tunnel, was used to test a variety of models including a submarine, transport and fighter configurations, and the Shuttle Orbiter. A new method of building pressure models was developed and is described. The method is centered on the concept of bonding together plates with pressure channels etched into the bond planes, which provides high density pressure instrumentation with minimum demand on parent model material. With care in the choice of materials and technique, vacuum brazing can be used to produce strong bonds without blocking pressure channels and with no bonding voids between channels. Using multiple plates, a 5 percent wing with 96 orifices was constructed and tested in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Samples of test data are presented and future applications of the technology are suggested.

Lawing, Pierce L.

1989-01-01

373

Challenges for Cryogenics at Iter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear fusion of light nuclei is a promising option to provide clean, safe and cost competitive energy in the future. The ITER experimental reactor being designed by seven partners representing more than half of the world population will be assembled at Cadarache, South of France in the next decade. It is a thermonuclear fusion Tokamak that requires high magnetic fields to confine and stabilize the plasma. Cryogenic technology is extensively employed to achieve low-temperature conditions for the magnet and vacuum pumping systems. Efficient and reliable continuous operation shall be achieved despite unprecedented dynamic heat loads due to magnetic field variations and neutron production from the fusion reaction. Constraints and requirements of the largest superconducting Tokamak machine have been analyzed. Safety and technical risks have been initially assessed and proposals to mitigate the consequences analyzed. Industrial standards and components are being investigated to anticipate the requirements of reliable and efficient large scale energy production. After describing the basic features of ITER and its cryogenic system, we shall present the key design requirements, improvements, optimizations and challenges.

Serio, L.

2010-04-01

374

Superconducting RF Systems and Cryogenics  

SciTech Connect

The subgroup on Supercondcuting RF Systems and Cryogenics was assigned the following tasks: (1) provide acceptable design recommendations for the accelerating structures and related RF and Cryogenics systems based on the parameters established by High Energy and Nuclear Physics needs (namely a final energy of 2.5 and 8 GeV at the end of the first and second stage, respectively, and the ability of accelerating simultaneously the 200{micro}A Nuclear Physics beam and the three bunches for High Energy Physics). (2) estimate the cost of such systems based on realistic, present day technology, with some assessment of future costs as technology and cavity manufacturing processes will improve. These tasks were carried out for the case of the original design which includes two racetracks of similar structure and with different energies, as well as for the more recent design of Amaldi and Coignet which is capable of reaching a center of mass energy of 15 GeV (alternate design). Design and cost estimates were done for a few cases of possible achievable gradients.

C. Benvenuti; P. Bernard; E. Chiaveri; E. Haebel; H. Lengeler; M. Minestrini; Joseph Bisognano; Isidoro Campisi; Christoph Leemann; R. Boni; U. Gambardella; G. Modestino; B Spataro; F. Tazzioli; H. Piel

1987-12-01

375

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

376

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01

377

A cryogenic receiver for EPR R. Narkowicz a,  

E-print Network

A cryogenic receiver for EPR R. Narkowicz a, , H. Ogata b , E. Reijerse b , D. Suter a a Department: Cryogenic receiver Planar microresonators Signal-to-noise ratio Sensitivity a b s t r a c t Cryogenic probes capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor

Suter, Dieter

378

Microstructural study of cryogenically treated En 31 bearing steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) and deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) on the microstructure of En 31 bearing steel is studied in the present work. En 31 bearing steel subjected to cryogenic treatment showed more hardness than the conventionally heat treated steel. Fractography analysis of the cryogenic treated steel carried out using scanning electron microscope indicate the presence of

S. Harish; A. Bensely; D. Mohan Lal; A. Rajadurai; Gyöngyvér B. Lenkey

2009-01-01

379

Leaching potential of phenylurea herbicides in a calcareous soil: comparison of column elution and batch studies.  

PubMed

The transfer of eleven phenylurea herbicides through soil columns was investigated in laboratory conditions in order to determine leaching properties in a calcareous soil. Elution curves with distilled water were plotted after herbicide application on the soil column. Phenylurea retention by the soil indicating interactions with soil can be classified as follows: fenuron < fluometron ? isoproturon = monuron < metoxuron < monolinuron < metobromuron < chlorotoluron < linuron = diuron < chlorbromuron. The number and nature of halogen atoms on the phenyl ring had an important influence on leaching. Retention was higher for molecules with higher number of halogen, and it was also higher for bromine than chlorine. Column elution experiments were compared to batch experiments from which the distribution coefficients K d were determined. According to Kendall correlation coefficients, parameter m/m 0 max from column experiments was relatively well linked to K d. In case of phenylurea, a linear relationship between K d and m/m 0 max was established. PMID:23097070

Langeron, Julie; Sayen, Stéphanie; Couderchet, Michel; Guillon, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

380

Five-Layer Density Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners can create five-layer density columns by employing one of three (or all) methods. Method 1 gives the names of the liquids and the order for adding them, and its goal is to directly construct the density column without any experimentation. Method 2 assumes names and densities of the five materials to be unknown, and involves open-ended experimenting, with few instructions, to construct the column. Method 3 also assumes names and densities of the materials to be unknown, and outlines a systematic way to approach the experimentation involved in constructing the column. Learners complete data tables and analyze the densities of the substances.

Rathjen, Don

2005-01-01

381

Density Column Lab - Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concluding a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate densities of several household liquids and compare them to the densities of irregularly shaped objects (as determined in Part 1). Then they create density columns with the three liquids and four solid items to test their calculations and predictions of the different densities. Once their density columns are complete, students determine the effect of adding detergent to the columns. After this activity, present the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for a discussion about why the column layers do not mix.

GK-12 Program,

382

Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

1 Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies stability. They are compatible with most aqueous buffers, such as ammonium acetate, phosphate, tris, etc µm, 7.8x300 mm) Mobile phase: 150 mM Sodium Phosphate, pH 7.0 Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min Detection: UV214

Lebendiker, Mario

383

Throttling Cryogen Boiloff To Control Cryostat Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved design has been proposed for a cryostat of a type that maintains a desired low temperature mainly through boiloff of a liquid cryogen (e.g., liquid nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure. (A cryostat that maintains a low temperature mainly through boiloff of a cryogen at atmospheric pressure is said to be of the pour/fill Dewar-flask type because its main component is a Dewar flask, the top of which is kept open to the atmosphere so that the liquid cryogen can boil at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic liquid can be added by simply pouring it in.) The major distinguishing feature of the proposed design is control of temperature and cooling rate through control of the flow of cryogen vapor from a heat exchanger. At a cost of a modest increase in complexity, a cryostat according to the proposal would retain most of the compactness of prior, simpler pour/fill Dewar-flask cryostats, but would utilize cryogen more efficiently (intervals between cryogen refills could be longer).

Cunningham, Thomas

2003-01-01

384

Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

Not Available

1980-05-01

385

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

386

Strategies of Successful Distillation Equipment Revamps Part 1: Determining Existing Distillation Equipment Capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful unit operation revamps are those, which have a high return on investment and low life cycle cost. Life cycle cost may include original capital, energy, operation, and maintenance cost over a typical life span of 10 years. For simplicity, some life cycle cost evaluations only include original capital and energy cost. Distillation equipment is typically greater than 25% of

Karl Kolmetz; Daniel R Summers; Wai Kiong Ng; Sulzer Chemtech; Ryan Pitt

387

Ambient air heated electrically assisted cryogen vaporizer  

SciTech Connect

A high volume cryogen vaporizer includes a radiator where a working fluid draws heat from ambient air for vaporizing a cryogen in a heat exchanger. An electrical heater is provided for periodically heating the working fluid to defrost the radiator, thereby allowing sustained operation of the vaporizer. When not required for defrosting the radiator, the heater may be operated to heat a working fluid in a circuit separate from that of the radiator, and in which the heated working fluid is used for further elevating the temperature of the vaporized cryogen in a second heat exchanger, thereby making possible a gas output temperature higher than ambient air temperature.

Brigham, W. D.; Dung, N. D.

1985-05-28

388

Structural damping studies at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an engineering study to measure changes in structural damping properties of two cryogenic wind tunnel model systems and two metallic test specimens at cryogenic temperatures are presented. Data are presented which indicate overall, a trend toward reduced structural damping at cryogenic temperatures (-250 degrees F) when compared with room temperature damping properties. The study was focused on structures and materials used for model systems tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The study suggests that the significant reductions in damping at extremely cold temperatures are most likely associated with changes in mechanical joint compliance damping rather than changes in material (solid) damping.

Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

1994-01-01

389

Nanosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser is modernised to increase its average and peak power. The master oscillator unit of the laser is considerably modified so that the pulse duration decreases to several nanoseconds with the same pulse energy. A cryogenic disk laser head with a flow-through cooling system is developed. Based on two such laser heads, a new main amplifier is assembled according to an active multipass cell scheme. The total small-signal gain of cryogenic cascades is ~108.

Perevezentsev, E. A.; Mukhin, I. B.; Kuznetsov, I. I.; Vadimova, O. L.; Palashov, O. V.

2014-05-01

390

Other cryogenic wind-tunnel projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the development of the cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972, a large number of cryogenic wind-tunnel projects have been undertaken at various research establishments around the world. Described in this lecture are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center), England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, Royal Aircraft Establishment - Bedford, and University of Southampton), Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy), Sweden (Rollab), and the United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

Kilgore, R. A.

1985-01-01

391

External heat loads on a cryogenic radiator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic radiators are necessary for instruments on earth-orbiting spacecraft for applications in the infrared spectral regions to maintain operating temperatures of 75-100 K. The radiator size can be greatly affected by parasitic heat loads. This paper presents the results of a study which calculated the heat fluxes from solar arrays, masts, and other external appendages to a cryogenic radiator in a synchronous orbit. The analyses showed that care must be taken in the location of spacecraft components that may see a cryogenic radiator. Without proper shielding heat fluxes can easily exceed the radiators cooling capability.

Wedel, R. K.; Zingale, T.

1991-06-01

392

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-print Network

HEAT RECOVERY IN DISTILLATION BY MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION Frederick E. Becker and Alexandra I. Zakak Tecogen, Inc., A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A significant reduction in distillation... tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed...

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

393

Desalination of Seawater by Thermal Distillation and Electrodialysis Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Freshwater is one of the scarce resources in the world. In many countries, due to freshwater shortages, searching for freshwater\\u000a resources has become extremely important and desalination is known to be an essential available solution for this. In this\\u000a chapter, the thermal distillation of multistage flash distillation, multieffect distillation and vapor compression and electrodialysis\\u000a processes for seawater desalination are presented.

Jiaping Paul Chen; Lawrence K. Wang; Lei Yang; Yu-Ming Zheng

394

This column will self destruct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This column aims to focus on the obsolescence of technology, and the problems associated with the archiving, storage and retrieval of data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The column takes the form of a viewpoint paper. Findings – All technology is susceptible to obsolescence, meaning that information can be lost due to changes in hardware and software. A book or printed

John Maxymuk

2010-01-01

395

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following nonmetallic additives with distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust inhibitor. (5) Pour depressant. (6) Dye. (7) Dispersant. (8) Biocide....

2012-07-01

396

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

SciTech Connect

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01

397

Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples--Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction  

PubMed Central

A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

2009-01-01

398

Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

Wu, Genfa (Yorktown, VA); Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Hayes, VA)

2008-12-30

399

Designing insulation for cryogenic ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that the great temperature difference between the outside of a cryogenic duct and the liquified gas it carries can cause a high heat input unless blocked by a high thermal resistance. High thermal resistance for lines needing maximum insulation is provided by metal vacuum jackets. Low-density foam is satisfactory in cases in which higher heat input can be tolerated. Attention is given to the heat transfer through a duct vacuum jacket, the calculation of heat input and the exterior surface's steady-state temperature for various thicknesses of insulation, the calculation of the heat transfer through gimbal jackets, and design specifications regarding the allowable pressure rise in the jacket's annular space.

Love, C. C.

1984-03-01

400

A cryogenic infrared calibration target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ? 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 ?m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 ?m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ? 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

2014-04-01

401

Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Materials and Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energen has patented KelvinAll™, the first material, to exhibit magnetostrictive properties from elevated temperatures to near absolute zero, opening up a new range of applications for magnetostrictive devices. Magnetostrictive materials change their shape in the presence of a magnetic field. This elongation is precise, predictable, reversible and repeatable thereby enabling practical electromechanical devices. KelvinAll has magnetostriction comparable to Terfenol-D at room temperature and its magnetostriction increases at cryogenic temperatures. Energen has developed and prototyped practical electromechanical devices using KelvinAll. These devices include tuners for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, components for magnetic refrigerators, flow control valves and precision translation stages some of which will be discussed in greater detail. Energen's KelvinAll products enhance performance, increase reliability and reduce development costs.

Joshi, C. H.; Mavanur, A.; Tai, C.-Y.; Han, Z.-X.; Rodenbush, A. J.; Wong, Y.

2004-06-01

402

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

403

The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

2014-01-01

404

Computed tomography of cryogenic cells  

SciTech Connect

Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions.

Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

2001-08-30

405

A brief overview of cryogenics in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper general aspects of cryogenics in China are introduced, and applications of cryogenics in the space programme are described briefly, such as its application to the Long March 3 rocket vehicles with LH2/LO2 engines, the development of a 750 dm 3 hr -1 liquid hydrogen plant and railway tank cars with 60 and 70 m 3 capacities. In addition, the progress of various cryogenic techniques in China is presented, such as the FY-1 radiation refrigerator loaded on a meteorology satellite, regenerative cryocoolers of the Gifford-McMahon, Solvay, Vuilleumier, Stirling and pulse tube types, and the KM-3 and KM-4 space simulation facilities. Finally, the paper discusses current education about refrigeration and cryogenics for undergraduates and graduates.

Li, S.-M.

406

Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

Hendricks, C.D.

1980-02-26

407

Evaluation of two designs for cryogenic insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shingle-type, crinkled, aluminized polyethylene ester is thermally and structurally tested for cryogenic insulation. Insulation systems require thermal efficiency with minimum weight, and the ability to withstand vibration, acceleration, and rapid pressure drops.

Getty, R. C.

1970-01-01

408

Cryogenic materials selection, availability, and cost considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of structural alloys, composite materials, solder alloys, and filler materials for use in cryogenic models is discussed. In particular, materials testing programs conducted at Langley are described.

Rush, H. F.

1983-01-01

409

Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 26 - Materials  

SciTech Connect

Materials resource considerations for cryogenic engineering are discussed along with Nb-Ti alloy superconductors, the magnetic character of austenitic stainless steels, the alteration of the superconducting properties of A15 compounds and elementary composite superconductors by nonhydrostatic elastic strain, cryogenic processing, and international standards for cryogenic polymers and composites. A review is presented of antifriction materials and design for cryogenic environments. Other subjects considered are related to metals and alloys, welding, composites, in situ processed superconductors, A15 superconductors, Nb-Ti and aluminum-stabilized superconductors, strain effects in superconductors, the characterization of superconducting systems, and stability and training in superconductors. Attention is given to the propagation of normal zones in thermally insulated superconductors, stability measurements of a large Nb/sub 3/Sn force-cooled conductor, and the ac losses and stabilization of Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting tapes.

Clark, A.F.; Reed, R.P.

1980-01-01

410

Optimum temperature staging of cryogenic refrigeration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimum temperature staging is investigated to minimize entropy generation in a multi-stage cryogenic refrigeration cycle. It is found that the best intermediate temperature distribution is to have the same high to low temperature ratio at each stage of the system. As an example, the result is applied to the design of a cryogenic cascade thermoelectric cooler to find the optimum size distribution of each stage.

Jeong, S.; Smith, J. L.

411

Creep of pure aluminum at cryogenic temperatures  

E-print Network

Conducted on OFHC Copper . B. Equipment Used in Successful Long-term Creep Testing. . . C. Creep Mechanisms at Cryogenic Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . 8 8 11 III PRIMARY RESEARCH OBJECTIVE . . 14 IV EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURES . . 15 A. Load... aluminum and NbTi. 2 Constant load creep curve showing three distinct regions. 3 Creep curves for OPHC copper taken over 200 hours. 10 4 Photograph of creep frame used in cryogenic creep tests. . . . . . . . . 5 Photograph of top of creep frame showing...

McDonald, Lacy Clark

2012-06-07

412

EFFECT OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH ALFALFA POWDERS AND DISTILLERS GRAINS ON NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF CANOLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pot experiments were carried out under controlled environment conditions in the growth chamber to assess the potential use of alfalfa powders and distiller grains as organic fertilizers. Two types of dehydrated alfalfa powders (one with canola meal protein extraction by-product and one without) and two types of distiller grains (dried distillers grain with distillation solubles added and wet distillers

P. Qian; J. J. Schoenau; T. King; C. Fatteicher

2011-01-01

413

Kinetics of distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe juniper ( Juniperus communis L.) berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe berries of Juniperus communis L. (juniper oil) was studied at different hydrodistillation rates. The distillation of juniper consisted of an initial, fast oil distillation followed by a slow oil distillation. Based on this mechanism, the kinetics of juniper oil distillation were described using a two-parameter model of unsteady-state diffusion through the plant

Svetomir Ž. Milojevi?; Tamara D. Stojanovi?; Radosav Pali?; Miodrag L. Lazi?; Vlada B. Veljkovi?

2008-01-01

414

Flight Performance of the AKARI Cryogenic System  

E-print Network

We describe the flight performance of the cryogenic system of the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI, which was successfully launched on 2006 February 21 (UT). AKARI carries a 68.5 cm telescope together with two focal plane instruments, Infrared Cameras (IRC) and Far Infrared Surveyor (FIS), all of which are cooled down to cryogenic temperature to achieve superior sensitivity. The AKARI cryogenic system is a unique hybrid system, which consists of cryogen (liquid helium) and mechanical coolers (2-stage Stirling coolers). With the help of the mechanical coolers, 179 L (26.0 kg) of super-fluid liquid helium can keep the instruments cryogenically cooled for more than 500 days. The on-orbit performance of the AKARI cryogenics is consistent with the design and pre-flight test, and the boil-off gas flow rate is as small as 0.32 mg/s. We observed the increase of the major axis of the AKARI orbit, which can be explained by the thrust due to thermal pressure of vented helium gas.

Takao Nakagawa; Keigo Enya; Masayuki Hirabayashi; Hidehiro Kaneda; Tsuneo Kii; Yoshiyuki Kimura; Toshio Matsumoto; Hiroshi Murakami; Masahide Murakami; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Masanao Narita; Akira Ohnishi; Shoji Tsunematsu; Seiji Yoshida

2007-08-14

415

Chapter 24 Protein Chromatography on Hydroxyapatite Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of spherical forms of hydroxyapatite has enabled protein scientists to separate and purify proteins multiple times with the same packed column. Biopharmaceutical companies have driven single column applications of complex samples to simpler samples obtained from upstream column purification steps on affinity, ion exchange or hydrophobic interaction columns. Multiple column purification permits higher protein loads to spherical forms

Larry J. Cummings; Mark A. Snyder; Kimberly Brisack

2009-01-01

416

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M.H.

1949-01-01

417

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography  

E-print Network

and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds! This week's experiment will show you how to use distillation to purify a compound as well as analyze your apparatus for proper connections and water flow before you begin heating (and don't forget a boiling chip

Taber, Douglass

418

Treating process wastewater employing vacuum distillation using mechanical vapor recompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process wastewater has been successfully treated using an enhanced variable vacuum distillation system (VVDS). The removal of contaminants is achieved initially by degassing the liquid under an intense vacuum which removes the volatile organic compounds. The resulting liquid is then distilled under a vacuum using mechanical vapor recompression. The system was invented by Derald McCabe. This innovative treatment system removes

Derald L. McCabe

1999-01-01

419

Design and Optimization of Thermally Coupled Extractive Distillation Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design and optimization procedures are developed for a conventional extractive distillation sequence and a thermally coupled extractive distillation scheme. The proposed methodologies detect the optimal values of the design variables in order to guarantee the minimum energy consumption. It was found that the optimum energy consumption can be related to the minimum total annual operating cost, minimum

Roberto Gutierrez-Guerra; Juan-Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Salvador Hernandez; Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet; Hector Hernández

2009-01-01

420

Solvent Distillation Studies for a Purex Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillation system has been developed for regeneration of Purex solvent and will be implemented for the first time in a reprocessing plant. The results are described and analyzed, with emphasis on laboratory experiments which were made with a radioactive plant solvent. Particularly the distillation provides a good separation of solvent degradation products, which was verified by measurements of interfacial

C. Ginisty; B. Guillaume

1990-01-01

421

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

422

PPROVIDINGROVIDING SSPECIALIZEDPECIALIZED SSERVICESERVICES TOTO THETHE UCUCONNONN CCOMMUNITYOMMUNITY FORFOR OVEROVER 25 Y25 YEARSEARS!! www.biotech.uconn.edu/tsf  

E-print Network

, McLeod Gauges, Nitrogen Cryogenic Dewars, vacuum systems, and distillation equipment. For more · Chromatography Columns · Vacuum Systems · Cryogenic Traps · Distillation Equipment · Flash Evaporators · Nitrogen · Soldering · Vacuum Pump Reconditioning · Brazing · Customized CAD Design · Printers (including HP

Holsinger, Kent

423

Cryogenic ion chemistry and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The use of mass spectrometry in macromolecular analysis is an incredibly important technique and has allowed efficient identification of secondary and tertiary protein structures. Over 20 years ago, Chemistry Nobelist John Fenn and co-workers revolutionized mass spectrometry by developing ways to non-destructively extract large molecules directly from solution into the gas phase. This advance, in turn, enabled rapid sequencing of biopolymers through tandem mass spectrometry at the heart of the burgeoning field of proteomics. In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. This is accomplished by first cooling the ions close to 10 K and condensing onto them weakly bound, chemically inert small molecules or rare gas atoms. This assembly can then be used as a medium in which to quench reactive encounters by rapid evaporation of the adducts, as well as provide a universal means for acquiring highly resolved vibrational action spectra of the embedded species by photoinduced mass loss. Moreover, the spectroscopic measurements can be obtained with readily available, broadly tunable pulsed infrared lasers because absorption of a single photon is sufficient to induce evaporation. We discuss the implementation of these methods with a new type of hybrid photofragmentation mass spectrometer involving two stages of mass selection with two laser excitation regions interfaced to the cryogenic ion source. We illustrate several capabilities of the cryogenic ion spectrometer by presenting recent applications to peptides, a biomimetic catalyst, a large antibiotic molecule (vancomycin), and reaction intermediates pertinent to the chemistry of the ionosphere. First, we demonstrate how site-specific isotopic substitution can be used to identify bands due to local functional groups in a protonated tripeptide designed to stereoselectively catalyze bromination of biaryl substrates. This procedure directly reveals the particular H-bond donor and acceptor groups that enforce the folded structure of the bare ion as well as provide contact points for noncovalent interaction with substrates. We then show how photochemical hole-burning involving only vibrational excitations can be used in a double-resonance mode to systematically disentangle overlapping spectra that arise when several conformers of a dipeptide are prepared in the ion source. Finally, we highlight our ability to systematically capture reaction intermediates and spectroscopically characterize their structures. Through this method, we can identify the pathway for water-network-mediated, proton-coupled transformation of nitrosonium, NO(+) to HONO, a key reaction controlling the cations present in the ionosphere. Through this work, we reveal the critical role played by water molecules occupying the second solvation shell around the ion, where they stabilize the emergent product ion in a fashion reminiscent of the solvent coordinate responsible for the barrier to charge transfer in solution. Looking to the future, we predict that the capture and characterization of fleeting intermediate complexes in the homogeneous catalytic activation of small molecules like water, alkanes, and CO2 is a likely avenue rich with opportunity. PMID:23972279

Wolk, Arron B; Leavitt, Christopher M; Garand, Etienne; Johnson, Mark A

2014-01-21

424

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2011-04-01

425

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2013-04-01

426

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2012-04-01

427

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2010-04-01

428

Dynamics of cryogen deposition relative to heat extraction rate during cryogen spray cooling.  

E-print Network

is to investigate how delivery nozzle design influences the cooling rate of cryogen spray as used in skin laser injector valve without delivery nozzle [7,8]. In this paper, we investigate how changes in nozzle design treatments. Cryogen was sprayed through nozzles that consist of metal tubes with either a narrow or wide

Aguilar, Guillermo

429

On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains - Cryogenic system of EET  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental car based on electrodynamic levitation with superconducting magnets has been developed and manufactured by AEG, BBC, Siemens and other partners, together with Linde AG as the firm responsible for the onboard cryogenic system. This system has to cope with new conditions and cryogenic tasks. It can be characterized in principle by liquid helium heat exchanger units, compressors, transfer

S. Asztalos; W. Baldus; R. Kneuer; A. Stephan; K. Mendelssohn

1974-01-01

430

On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains - Cryogenic system of EET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work gives a general description of the cryogenic system of an experimental electrodynamic levitation car. Cooling of the magnet coils is provided by a forced LHe stream. The cryogenic system represents a compromise between the exclusive use of evaporation heat (LHe bath only) and a closed-cycle refrigerator. The system consists mainly of a LHe tank-heat exchanger unit, compressor,

S. Asztalos; W. Baldus; R. Kneuer; A. Stephan

1975-01-01

431

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

, ! waste heat recovery by heat exchange, mechanical I I power recovery, heat exchanger upgrading, increas~ng insulation, heat pumping, vapor recompression, I Escalation of fllel and l':quipmenr costs. ",~==~.--------==---~------~--= 201 I I ESL... the heat rejected from the overhead is used to reboil the bottoms with the ! aid of added mechanical work by the compressor. There are two variations on the basic heat ~ump in which one of the column fluids acts as the ref~ig? erant. Vapor recompression...

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01

432

Selected Topics in Column Generation  

E-print Network

Dec 2, 2002 ... Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and column generation, devised for linear programs, is a success ... To appear in Operations Research. ... damental idea, developing a strategy to extend a linear program columnwise as needed ...

2002-12-02

433

Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures  

E-print Network

with a BLH C3P1-V load cell. This entire system was operated within a vacuum chamber to minimize any convective heat transfer. A NRC VHJ-6 difFusion pump in series with an Alcatel Model 2033 roughing pump was used to evacuate the system and maintain a... of ice (frost) would form on the cryogenically cooled components. In addition to the vacuum chamber, a radiation shield was inserted to minimize any radiation heat losses. To maintain the shield at temperatures near that of the test column, the bottom...

Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

2012-06-07

434

Telescoping columns. [parabolic antenna support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extendable column is described which consists of several axially elongated rigid structural sections nested within one another. Each section includes a number of rotatably attached screws running along its length. The next inner section includes threaded lugs oriented to threadingly engage the screws. The column is extended or retracted upon rotation of the screws. The screws of each section are selectively rotated by a motor and an engagement mechanism.

Mazur, J. T. (inventor)

1980-01-01

435

27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety § 19.241 Operations bond—distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2010-04-01

436

27 CFR 19.133 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.133 Section 19.133...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Location and Use § 19.133 Use of distilled spirits plant premises. (a) General. No...

2010-04-01

437

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.204...

2010-04-01

438

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.203...

2010-04-01

439

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48...LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal...

2010-04-01

440

27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes...LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions...27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control...

2010-04-01

441

27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded...Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

442

27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single...

2010-04-01

443

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2013-04-01

444

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2014-04-01

445

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2012-04-01

446

40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621...10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

2013-07-01

447

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear...

2013-04-01

448

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2011-04-01

449

Active Costorage of Cryogenic Propellants for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term storage of cryogenic propellants is a critical requirement for NASA's effort to return to the moon. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen provide the highest specific impulse of any practical chemical propulsion system, and thus provides the greatest payload mass per unit of launch mass. Future manned missions will require vehicles with the flexibility to remain in orbit for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogenic liquids. For decades cryogenic scientific satellites have used cryogens to cool instruments. In many cases, the lifetime of the primary cryogen tank has been extended by intercepting much of the heat incident on the tank at an intermediate-temperature shield cooled either by a second cryogen tank or a mechanical cryocooler. For an LH2/LO2 propellant system, a combination of these ideas can be used, in which the shield around the LO2 tank is attached to, and at the same temperature as, the LO2 tank, but is actively cooled so as to remove all heat impinging on the tank and shield. This configuration eliminates liquid oxygen boil-off and cuts the liquid hydrogen boil-off to a small fraction of the unshielded rate. This paper studies the concept of active costorage as a means of long-term cryogenic propellant storage. The paper describes the design impact of an active costorage system for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This paper also compares the spacecraft level impact of the active costorage concept with a passive storage option in relation to two different scales of spacecraft that will be used for the lunar exploration effort, the CEV and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS). Spacecraft level studies are performed to investigate the impact of scaling of the costorage technologies for the different components of the Lunar Architecture and for different mission durations.

Canavan, Edgar R.; Boyle, Rob; Mustafi, Shuvo

2008-01-01

450

Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap  

E-print Network

Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

2014-03-20

451

A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target  

E-print Network

A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, $R \\le 0.003$, from $800-4,800\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(12-2\\,\\mu$m). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to $400-10,000\\,{\\rm cm}^{-1}$ $(25-1\\,\\mu$m) the observed performance gracefully degrades to $R \\le 0.02$ at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to $\\sim4\\,$K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials -- Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder -- are character...

Wollack, Edward J; Rinehart, Stephan A

2014-01-01

452

Electromechanical Materials for Cryogenic Use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical materials can be used in smart sensor and actuator devices. Yet none performing at low temperatures are available. To meet this need, Pb((MgNi)(1/3)Ta(2/3))03 was synthesized as an electrostrictive ceramic for applications in cryogenic environments. Employing the columbite precursor route, samples with 0% to 100% Ni substitution for Mg were prepared, but only samples with Ni-substitutions less than or equal to 20% yielded primarily the desired perovskite phase. For these compositions the temperature of highest permittivity decreased linearly with increasing Ni content to yield a minimum value of -124 C for 20% Ni-substitution. This composition showed good relaxor dielectric behavior with a maximum relative permittivity of 5890 at 1 kHz. Additionally, in samples with excess MgO, the magnitude of permittivity doubled. In this effort, Pb((MgNi)(1/3)Ta(2/3))03 (PMNiTa) was fabricated to lower its transition temperature by substituting Ni for Mg successively.

Leidinger, Peter; Pilgrim, Steven M.

1996-01-01

453

Effects of cryogenic treatment on wear behavior of D6 tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of cryogenic treatment on the wear behavior of D6 tool steel were studied. For this purpose, two temperatures were used: ?63°C as shallow cryogenic temperature and ?185°C as deep cryogenic temperature. The effects of cryogenic temperature (Shallow and deep), cryogenic time (kept at cryogenic temperature for 20 and 40h) and stabilization (kept at room temperature

A. Akhbarizadeh; A. Shafyei; M. A. Golozar

2009-01-01

454

Hybrid separation processes combining vacuum distillation with fractional crystallization, partial melting, and granulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical fundamentals of the combined processes of distillative crystallization (also called distillation crystallization\\u000a or distillative freezing) and distillative sweating (also called distillation sweating or distillation melting) are considered.\\u000a Results of the experimental study of the kinetics of separation of binary and ternary organic mixtures of various forms (liquids,\\u000a powders, continuous layers, and granules) are presented. The high efficiency of

S. K. Myasnikov; A. D. Uteshinsky; N. N. Kulov

2009-01-01

455

Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, E? = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) ? Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (<1 day). This allows multiple measurements to be made on the same column and thus the sediment biology to be monitored non-invasively over time (i.e. after an augmentation has been introduced) and minimizes long-lived radioactive waste. Different parameters can be measured, depending on the tracer type and delivery. A constant infusion of a conservative tracer, such as the positron emitter Br-76 (T1/2= 16.2 hr), measures the exclusion fraction (as a function of position in the column), while a bolus maps the flow velocity as a function of position. A tracer that interacts chemically with the contents of the column (e.g., [99m-Tc(VII)O4]- reduced to 99m-TcO2 by Fe(II) ) yields a map of the chemical environment (e.g., the distribution of Fe(II)). Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

2010-12-01

456

Status of the ESS cryogenic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

Weisend, J. G., II; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

2014-01-01

457

Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

2012-01-01

458

NASA's Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) Project's primary objective is to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens that will support the enabling of high performance cryogenic propulsion systems, lunar surface systems and economical ground operations. Such technologies can significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, reduce or even eliminate propellant tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, and simplify vehicle operations. This paper will present the status of the specific technologies that the CFM Project is developing. The two main areas of concentration are analysis models development and CFM hardware development. The project develops analysis tools and models based on thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, and existing flight/test data. These tools assist in the development of pressure/thermal control devices (such as the Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS), and Multi-layer insulation); with the ultimate goal being to develop a mature set of tools and models that can characterize the performance of the pressure/thermal control devices incorporated in the design of an entire CFM system with minimal cryogen loss. The project does hardware development and testing to verify our understanding of the physical principles involved, and to validate the performance of CFM components, subsystems and systems. This database provides information to anchor our analytical models. This paper describes some of the current activities of the NASA's Cryogenic Fluid Management Project.

Tramel, Terri L.; Motil, Susan M.

2008-01-01

459

Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

Lazarus, L.J.

1996-10-01

460

Cryogenic System for the Spallation Neutron Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a neutron-scattering facility being built at Oak Ridge, TN for the US Department of Energy. The SNS accelerator linac consists of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in cryostats (cryomodules). The linac cryomodules are cooled to 2.1 K by a 2300 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. As an SNS partner laboratory, Jefferson Lab is responsible for the installed integrated cryogenic system design for the SNS linac accelerator consisting of major subsystem equipment engineered and procured from industry. Jefferson Lab's work included developing the major vendor subsystem equipment procurement specifications, equipment procurement, and the integrated system engineering support of the field installation and commissioning. The major cryogenic system components include liquid nitrogen storage, gaseous helium storage, cryogen distribution transfer line system, 2.1-K cold box consisting of four stages of cold compressors, 4.5-K cold box, warm helium compressors with its associated oil removal, gas management, helium purification, gas impurity monitoring systems, and the supportive utilities of electrical power, cooling water and instrument air. The system overview, project organization, the important aspects, and the capabilities of the cryogenic system are described.

Arenius, D.; Chronis, W.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

2004-06-01

461

Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic  

E-print Network

Notes on Single-Particle Reconstruction in Cryogenic Electron Microscopy Hemant D. Tagare-dimensional structure of macromolecules. A more modern method is cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-em), which

Duncan, James S.

462

Long-Lived Linear-Motion Suspension For Cryogenic Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanism suspends optical component in cryogenic instrument in such way to allow component to translate smoothly along one axis, without vibration. Bearings located outside cooled instrument chamber for longer life. Thermal isolators separate bearings from cryogenic environment inside instrument chamber.

Packard, Douglas T.; Agronin, Michael L.

1995-01-01

463

49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

2010-10-01

464

49 CFR 173.320 - Cryogenic liquids; exceptions.  

...Cryogenic liquids; exceptions. (a) Atmospheric gases and helium, cryogenic liquids, in Dewar flasks, insulated cylinders...requirements of this subchapter do not apply to atmospheric gases and helium: (1) During loading and unloading operations...

2014-10-01

465

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

A mixed quantum state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of that state into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with a maximally entangled state state. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of that state every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question.

John Watrous

2003-12-15

466

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

467

Cryogenic neutron moderator on mesitylene pellets for IBR-2 reactor  

E-print Network

Cryogenic neutron moderator on mesitylene pellets for IBR-2 reactor Anan'ev V., Belyakov A mesitylene receiver 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 8 HeHe #12;Cryogenic transport pipeline for moderators of 2-3 and 7- 10 of the IBR-2M cryogenic moderator 1 2 3 5 4 1 ­ camera-imitator of cryogenic moderator, 2 ­thermal exchanger

Titov, Anatoly

468

Computer-aided analysis of energy consumption in ethanol-water distillation operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing computer programs have been used to evaluate the effects of various process parameters on the energy consumption of an ethanol distillation step. A savings of 250 kJ/mol ethanol produced is possible if the ethanol feed concentration is increased from 4 wt % to 8 wt %; further increases, however, result in only marginal additional savings. Preheating the feed to its saturated liquid condition is more advantageous than distilling the cold feed directly; the reboiler requires substantially less energy if the waste heat in the bottom flow is used to preheat the feed. About $45,000/y could be saved by a 38 ML/y plant by decreasing the operating reflux from 1.5 to 1.3 times the minimum reflux ratio. At ethanol concentrations above 15 wt %, about 40 kJ/mol ethanol produced could be saved by reducing the concentration of the ethanol feed to the dehydrating column to 92 wt %. Operating at 10 kPa (0.1 atm) instead of 100 kPa (1 atm) could save 125 kJ/mol ethanol produced, but an increase in noncondensible gases could lead to increased steam usage.

Nguyen, X. N.; Heyman, E. C.

1982-02-01

469

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

2009-04-30

470

Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

1977-01-01

471

Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (review)  

E-print Network

Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.

A. Buzulutskov

2011-12-28

472

Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S

2012-06-01

473

Performance of Power Converters at Cryogenic Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power converters capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures are anticipated to play an important role in the power system architecture of future NASA deep space missions. Design of such converters to survive cryogenic temperatures will improve the power system performance and reduce development and launch costs. Aerospace power systems are mainly a DC distribution network. Therefore, DC/DC and DC/AC converters provide the outputs needed to different loads at various power levels. Recently, research efforts have been performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to design and evaluate DC/DC converters that are capable of operating at cryogenic temperatures. This paper presents a summary of the research performed to evaluate the low temperature performance of five DC/DC converters. Various parameters were investigated as a function of temperature in the range of 20 to -196 C. Data pertaining to the output voltage regulation and efficiency of the converters is presented and discussed.

Elbuluk, Malik E.; Gerber, Scott; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

2001-01-01

474

Continuous Cryogenic He-3 Adsorption Pump Harry Charalambous, David Schuster  

E-print Network

Continuous Cryogenic He-3 Adsorption Pump Harry Charalambous, David Schuster 8/22/14 Abstract of the Pulse Tube Refrigerator as an Efficient and Reliable Cryocooler. Web. http://www.cryogenics and Technology. Development of the Pulse Tube Refrigerator as an Efficient and Reliable Cryocooler. Web. http://www.cryogenics

Lombardi, John R.

475

TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic  

E-print Network

TT2A Mercury Jet Experiment The Cryogenic System Roger Bennett and Yury Ivanyushenkov CCLRC "SPECIFICATION" of the cryogenic cycle is: 1. Initial fill of the magnet cryostat slowly over many hours -12 at CERN, December 2004, drawn by Peter Titus #12;Design and Costing of the Cryogenic System 1. The input

McDonald, Kirk

476

The effect of cryogenic cooling on grinding forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grinding forces are important parameters to judge the performance of any grinding process. Cryogenic cooling in grinding is a new concept to control the high grinding zone temperature without polluting the environment. The paper presents a hypothesis on the mechanics of grinding under cryogenic cooling. Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of cryogenic cooling on grinding forces

S. Paul; A. B. Chattopadhyay

1996-01-01

477

Dynamic Cryogenic Seals to Support Fueling of Fusion Tokomaks  

E-print Network

Dynamic Cryogenic Seals to Support Fueling of Fusion Tokomaks U. Naranjo and J. W. Leachman School in damaged products every year. Sealing at cryogenic temperatures is a substantially more difficult task than extruder in development at the WSU HYPER laboratory. The purpose of a cryogenic dynamic polymer seal

Collins, Gary S.

478

Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields  

E-print Network

Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields by Ramesh Gopalan A.B. (University: Chair Date Date Date University of California at Berkeley 1998 #12;Studies of Cryogenic Electron Plasmas in Magnetic Mirror Fields Copyright 1998 by Ramesh Gopalan #12;1 Abstract Studies of Cryogenic Electron

Fajans, Joel

479

THE SNS CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM: EXPERIENCES IN COLLABORATION [1  

E-print Network

WEAP013 THE SNS CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM: EXPERIENCES IN COLLABORATION [1] W. H. Strong, P. A. Gurd Abstract The cryogenic system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed by Jefferson Laboratory, and software tools. The cryogenic system is the first SNS system to be developed using SNS standards

480

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea)  

E-print Network

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea) and J. P. Eisenstein Condensed Matter contained in a cryogenic environment. Cyclotron emission from a two-dimensional electron gas 2DEG heated microwave to optical frequencies.2 In this article an all-cryogenic spectrometer is presented that bypasses

Eisenstein, Jim

481

Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy  

E-print Network

i Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems Executive Summary Cryogenic systems providing 100-1000 watts of cooling power at 65-80 K are required) and operate more efficiently (30+% of Carnot) and reliably than present day off the shelf cryogenic systems

482

Interaction of Cryogen Spray with Human Skin under Vacuum Pressures  

E-print Network

Interaction of Cryogen Spray with Human Skin under Vacuum Pressures Walfre Franco, Jie Liu vessels in port wine stains (PWS) birthmarks laser therapy. The release of cryogen spurts under vacuum is to study the time and space dependent thermal response of a skin phantom to cryogen sprays at different

Aguilar, Guillermo

483

Optical links for cryogenic focal plane array Alan R. Johnston  

E-print Network

Optical links for cryogenic focal plane array readout Alan R. Johnston Duncan T. H. Liu, MEMBER@jplopto.jpl.nasa.gov 1 Introduction Optical instruments employing cryogenic focal plane arrays must minimize power dissipation on the focal plane. Because cooler power efficiency is low at cryogenic temperatures, reduction

Fossum, Eric R.

484

Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy  

E-print Network

06/18/01 1 Cryogenic Roadmap U.S. Department of Energy Superconductivity Program for Electric pertaining to cryogenics. Appendix A is a tabulation of the steering committee members who participated by the steering committee and the 1997 and 1998 cryogenic workshop findings. However, there are added

485

49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section 173...and Packaging § 173.319 Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. (a) General requirements...tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be shipped unless it was...

2014-10-01

486

49 CFR 173.316 - Cryogenic liquids in cylinders.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cylinders. 173.316 Section 173...and Packaging § 173.316 Cryogenic liquids in cylinders. (a) General requirements...cylinder may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design service...

2014-10-01

487

49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. 173.318 Section...and Packaging § 173.318 Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks. (a) General requirements...tank may not be loaded with a cryogenic liquid colder than the design service...

2014-10-01

488

Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of

Ralph C. Niemann; Steven A. Zelipsky; Ronald R. Rezmer; Peter Smelser

1981-01-01

489

Development of dual solid cryogens for high reliability refrigeration system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High reliability solid cryogen refrigeration system consists of a container initially filled with a solid cryogen which is coupled thermally to an infrared detector by means of a link of high thermal conductivity extending from a heat exchanger within the cryogen container.

Caren, R. P.; Coston, R. M.

1967-01-01

490

Development of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Cryogenic Pressure Loader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targets for inertial fusion research and ignition at OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, LMJ, and future facilities rely on beta-radiation-driven layering of spherical cryogenic DT ice layers contained within plastic or metal shells. Plastic shells will be permeation filled at room temperature then cooled to cryogenic temperatures before removal of the overpressure. The cryogenic pressure loader (CPL) was recently developed

Peter S. Ebey; James M. Dole; James K. Hoffer; Joseph E. Nasise; Arthur Nobile; Robert L. Nolen; John D. Sheliak

2003-01-01

491

SiGe semiconductor devices for cryogenic power electronics - IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing power semiconductor devices based on SiGe, for operation at deep cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic power devices and circuits are of interest for space missions to extremely cold environments. There are also potential applications on Earth in commercial, industrial, and defense systems that incorporate cryogenics or superconductivity. We report results for heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). These are NPN-type with

R. R. Ward; W. J. Dawson; L. Zhu; R. K. Kirschman; G. Niu; R. M. Nelms; O. Mueller; M. J. Hennessy; E. K. Mueller; R. L. Patterson; J. E. Dickman; A. Hammoud

2006-01-01

492

Microstructure of cryogenic treated M2 tool steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic treatment has been claimed to improve wear resistance of certain steels and has been implemented in cutting tools, autos, barrels etc. Although it has been confirmed that cryogenic treatment can improve the service life of tools, the underling mechanism remains unclear. In this paper, we studied the microstructure changes of M2 tool steel before and after cryogenic treatment. We

J. Y Huang; Y. T Zhu; X. Z Liao; I. J Beyerlein; M. A Bourke; T. E Mitchell

2003-01-01

493

Performance evaluation of cryogenically treated tungsten carbide tools in turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study on the effects of cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide. Cryogenic treatment has been acknowledged by some as a means of extending the tool life of many cutting tool materials, but little is known about the mechanism behind it. Thus far, detailed studies pertaining to cryogenic treatment have been conducted only on tool steels. However, tungsten

A. Y. L. Yong; K. H. W. Seah; M. Rahman

2006-01-01

494

Deep Cryogenic Treatment Improves Wear Resistance of En 31 Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic treatment is an inexpensive supplementary process to conventional heat treatment, which improves the tribological properties of steels. A study has been made on the effect of cryogenic treatment on En 31 steels done at different stages of heat treatment. It is observed that through cryogenic treatment the wear can be decreased by a maximum of 75% depending on the

A. Joseph Vimal; A. Bensely; D. Mohan Lal; K. Srinivasan

2008-01-01

495

Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Objectives: 1) Store cryogenic propellants in a manner that maximizes their availability for use regardless of mission duration. 2) Efficiently transfer conditioned cryogenic propellant to an engine or tank situated in a microgravity environment. 3) Accurately monitor and gauge cryogenic propellants situated in a microgravity environment.

Chojnacki, Kent

2013-01-01

496

Cryogenic insulation standard data and methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although some standards exist for thermal insulation, few address the sub-ambient temperature range and cold-side temperatures below 100 K. Standards for cryogenic insulation systems require cryostat testing and data analysis that will allow the development of the tools needed by design engineers and thermal analysts for the design of practical cryogenic systems. Thus, this critically important information can provide reliable data and methodologies for industrial efficiency and energy conservation. Two Task Groups have been established in the area of cryogenic insulation systems Under ASTM International's Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation. These are WK29609 - New Standard for Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems and WK29608 - Standard Practice for Multilayer Insulation in Cryogenic Service. The Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Thermal Energy Laboratory of LeTourneau University are conducting Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) of selected insulation materials. Each lab carries out the measurements of thermal properties of these materials using identical flat-plate boil-off calorimeter instruments. Parallel testing will provide the comparisons necessary to validate the measurements and methodologies. Here we discuss test methods, some initial data in relation to the experimental approach, and the manner reporting the thermal performance data. This initial study of insulation materials for sub-ambient temperature applications is aimed at paving the way for further ILS comparative efforts that will produce standard data sets for several commercial materials. Discrepancies found between measurements will be used to improve the testing and data reduction techniques being developed as part of the future ASTM International standards.

Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.

2014-01-01

497

Cryogenic Quenching Process for Electronic Part Screening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures (less than 100 C) for extreme environments is not well controlled or developed from a product quality and reliability point of view. This is in contrast to the very rigorous and well-documented procedures to qualify electronic parts for mission use in the 55 to 125 C temperature range. A similarly rigorous methodology for screening and evaluating electronic parts needs to be developed so that mission planners can expect the same level of high reliability performance for parts operated at cryogenic temperatures. A formal methodology for screening and qualifying electronic parts at cryogenic temperatures has been proposed. The methodology focuses on the base physics of failure of the devices at cryogenic temperatures. All electronic part reliability is based on the bathtub curve, high amounts of initial failures (infant mortals), a long period of normal use (random failures), and then an increasing number of failures (end of life). Unique to this is the development of custom screening procedures to eliminate early failures at cold temperatures. The ability to screen out defects will specifically impact reliability at cold temperatures. Cryogenic reliability is limited by electron trap creation in the oxide and defect sites at conductor interfaces. Non-uniform conduction processes due to process marginalities will be magnified at cryogenic temperatures. Carrier mobilities change by orders of magnitude at cryogenic temperatures, significantly enhancing the effects of electric field. Marginal contacts, impurities in oxides, and defects in conductor/conductor interfaces can all be magnified at low temperatures. The novelty is the use of an ultra-low temperature, short-duration quenching process for defect screening. The quenching process is designed to identify those defects that will precisely (and negatively) affect long-term, cryogenic part operation. This quenching process occurs at a temperature that is at least 25 C colder than the coldest expected operating temperature. This quenching process is the opposite of the standard burn-in procedure. Normal burn-in raises the temperature (and voltage) to activate quickly any possible manufacturing defects remaining in the device that were not already rejected at a functional test step. The proposed inverse burn-in or quenching process is custom-tailored to the electronic device being used. The doping profiles, materials, minimum dimensions, interfaces, and thermal expansion coefficients are all taken into account in determining the ramp rate, dwell time, and temperature.

Sheldon, Douglas J.; Cressler, John

2011-01-01

498

Sorption cryogenic refrigeration - Status and future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation principles of sorption cryogenic refrigeration are discussed. Sorption refrigerators have virtually no wear-related moving parts, have negligible vibration, and offer extremely long life (at least ten years), making it possible to obtain efficient, long life and low vibration cooling to as low as 7 K for cryogenic sensors. The physisorption and chemisorption systems recommended for various cooling ranges down to 7 K are described in detail. For long-life cooling at 4-5 K temperatures, a hybrid chemisorption-mechanical refrigeration system is recommended.

Jones, Jack A.

1988-01-01

499

Adjustable expandable cryogenic piston and ring  

DOEpatents

The operation of a reciprocating expansion engine for cryogenic refrigeration is improved by changing the pistons and rings so that the piston can be operated from outside the engine to vary the groove in which the piston ring is located. This causes the ring, which is of a flexible material, to be squeezed so that its contact with the wall is subject to external control. This control may be made manually or it may be made automatically in response to instruments that sense the amount of blow-by of the cryogenic fluid and adjust for an optimum blow-by.

Mazur, Peter O. (Aurora, IL); Pallaver, Carl B. (Woodridge, IL)

1980-01-01

500

LRC Chromatography Columns for Laboratory Applications  

E-print Network

volumes up to 900 mL and bed heights up to 750 mm. Column tubes are made of borosilicate glass of Description Construction Column Tube [1] Borosilicate glass Pistons: 1 adjustable [2] and 1 fixed [3] EachLRC Chromatography Columns for Laboratory Applications Empty glass columns accommodate sorbent

Lebendiker, Mario