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Sample records for cryptosporidium source tracking

  1. Cryptosporidium source tracking in the Potomac River watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenli; Chen, Plato; Villegas, Eric N; Landy, Ronald B; Kanetsky, Charles; Cama, Vitaliano; Dearen, Theresa; Schultz, Cherie L; Orndorff, Kenneth G; Prelewicz, Gregory J; Brown, Miranda H; Young, Kim Roy; Xiao, Lihua

    2008-11-01

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base flow and 28 storm flow samples from five sites in the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes, as well as three upstream sites, each associated with a different type of land use. The uses, including urban wastewater, agricultural (cattle) wastewater, and wildlife, posed different risks in terms of the potential contribution of Cryptosporidium oocysts to the source water. Cryptosporidium was detected in 27 base flow water samples and 23 storm flow water samples. The most frequently detected species was C. andersoni (detected in 41 samples), while 14 other species or genotypes, almost all wildlife associated, were occasionally detected. The two common human-pathogenic species, C. hominis and C. parvum, were not detected. Although C. andersoni was common at all four sites influenced by agriculture, it was largely absent at the urban wastewater site. There were very few positive samples as determined by Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 at any site; only 8 of 90 samples analyzed (9%) were positive for Cryptosporidium as determined by microscopy. The genotyping results suggest that many of the Cryptosporidium oocysts in the water treatment plant source waters were from old calves and adult cattle and might not pose a significant risk to human health. PMID:18776033

  2. Cryptosporidium Source Tracking in the Potomac River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize the presence of Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as t...

  3. Cryptosporidium source tracking in the Potomac River watershed - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better characterize Cryptosporidium in the Potomac River watershed, a PCR-based genotyping tool was used to analyze 64 base-flow and 28 storm-flow samples from five sites within the watershed. These sites included two water treatment plant intakes as well as three upstream si...

  4. Assessment of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. as a Microbial Source Tracking Tool for Surface Water: Application in a Mixed-Use Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Huck, Peter M.; Schreier, Hans; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of host specificity, combined with genomic sequencing of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp., has demonstrated a microbial source tracking (MST) utility for these common waterborne microbes. To explore the source attribution potential of these pathogens, water samples were collected in a mixed rural-urban watershed in the Township of Langley, in southwestern British Columbia (BC), Canada, over a 2-year period. Cryptosporidium was detected in 63% of surface water samples at concentrations ranging from no positive detection (NPD) to 20,600 oocysts per 100 liters. Giardia was detected in 86% of surface water samples at concentrations ranging from NPD to 3,800 cysts per 100 liters of water. Sequencing at the 18S rRNA locus revealed that 50% of Cryptosporidium samples and 98% of Giardia samples contained species/genotypes (Cryptosporidium) or assemblages (Giardia) that are capable of infecting humans, based on current knowledge of host specificity and taxonomy. Cryptosporidium genotyping data were more promising for source tracking potential, due to the greater number of host-adapted (i.e., narrow-host-range) species/genotypes compared to Giardia, since 98% of Giardia isolates were zoonotic and the potential host could not be predicted. This report highlights the benefits of parasite genomic sequencing to complement Method 1623 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and shows that Cryptosporidium subtyping for MST purposes is superior to the use of Giardia subtyping, based on better detection limits for Cryptosporidium-positive samples than for Giardia-positive samples and on greater host specificity among Cryptosporidium species. These additional tools could be used for risk assessment in public health and watershed management decisions. PMID:24463970

  5. Development and Evaluation of Three Real-Time PCR Assays for Genotyping and Source Tracking Cryptosporidium spp. in Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Neumann, Norman F; Ruecker, Norma; Alderisio, Kerri A; Sturbaum, Gregory D; Villegas, Eric N; Chalmers, Rachel; Monis, Paul; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking source water can present a serious public health risk. To rapidly and effectively assess the source and human-infective potential of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water, sensitive detection and correct identification of oocysts to the species level (genotyping) are essential. In this study, we developed three real-time PCR genotyping assays, two targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (18S-LC1 and 18S-LC2 assays) and one targeting the 90-kDa heat shock protein (hsp90) gene (hsp90 assay), and evaluated the sensitivity and Cryptosporidium species detection range of these assays. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes and melt curve analysis, the 18S-LC1 and hsp90 assays could differentiate common human-pathogenic species (C. parvum, C. hominis, and C. meleagridis), while the 18S-LC2 assay was able to differentiate nonpathogenic species (such as C. andersoni) from human-pathogenic ones commonly found in source water. In sensitivity evaluations, the 18S-LC2 and hsp90 genotyping assays could detect as few as 1 Cryptosporidium oocyst per sample. Thus, the 18S-LC2 and hsp90 genotyping assays might be used in environmental monitoring, whereas the 18S-LC1 genotyping assay could be useful for genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in clinical specimens or wastewater samples. PMID:26092455

  6. Development and Evaluation of Three Real-Time PCR Assays for Genotyping and Source Tracking Cryptosporidium spp. in Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Neumann, Norman F.; Ruecker, Norma; Alderisio, Kerri A.; Sturbaum, Gregory D.; Villegas, Eric N.; Chalmers, Rachel; Monis, Paul; Feng, Yaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking source water can present a serious public health risk. To rapidly and effectively assess the source and human-infective potential of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water, sensitive detection and correct identification of oocysts to the species level (genotyping) are essential. In this study, we developed three real-time PCR genotyping assays, two targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (18S-LC1 and 18S-LC2 assays) and one targeting the 90-kDa heat shock protein (hsp90) gene (hsp90 assay), and evaluated the sensitivity and Cryptosporidium species detection range of these assays. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes and melt curve analysis, the 18S-LC1 and hsp90 assays could differentiate common human-pathogenic species (C. parvum, C. hominis, and C. meleagridis), while the 18S-LC2 assay was able to differentiate nonpathogenic species (such as C. andersoni) from human-pathogenic ones commonly found in source water. In sensitivity evaluations, the 18S-LC2 and hsp90 genotyping assays could detect as few as 1 Cryptosporidium oocyst per sample. Thus, the 18S-LC2 and hsp90 genotyping assays might be used in environmental monitoring, whereas the 18S-LC1 genotyping assay could be useful for genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in clinical specimens or wastewater samples. PMID:26092455

  7. Source tracking identifies deer and geese as vectors of human-infectious Cryptosporidium genotypes in an urban/suburban watershed.

    PubMed

    Jellison, Kristen L; Lynch, Amy E; Ziemann, Joseph M

    2009-06-15

    This study identified Cryptosporidium genotypes in the Wissahickon watershed from May 2005 to April 2008. We analyzed 129 samples from Wissahickon Creek, 83 effluent samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and 240 fecal droppings. Genotyping was based on the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. Oocysts were detected year-round, independent of wet weather events, in 22% of Wissahickon Creek samples, 5% of WWTP effluents, and 7% of fecal samples. Of the genotypes detected, 67% were human-infectious: 30% C. hominis or C. hominis-like, 12% C. parvum, 14% cervine genotype, 9% skunk genotype, and 1% chipmunk I genotype. Similar genotype profiles were detected in Wissahickon Creek each year, and human-infectious genotypes were detected year-round. Unusual genotypes detected in a deer (a C. hominis-like genotype) and geese (C. hominis-like genotypes, C. parvum, and muskrat genotype I) show that these animals are vectors of human-infectious genotypes in this watershed. Results suggest that deer, geese, and WWTPs are appropriate targets for source water protection in the Wissahickon watershed. PMID:19603633

  8. Molecular and phylogenetic approaches for assessing sources of Cryptosporidium contamination in water.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, Norma J; Matsune, Joanne C; Wilkes, Graham; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward; Edge, Thomas A; Sensen, Christoph W; Xiao, Lihua; Neumann, Norman F

    2012-10-15

    The high sequence diversity and heterogeneity observed within species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium requires phylogenetic approaches for the identification of novel sequences obtained from the environment. A long-term study on Cryptosporidium in the agriculturally-intensive South Nation River watershed in Ontario, Canada was undertaken, in which 60 sequence types were detected. Of these sequence types 33 were considered novel with no identical matches in GenBank. Detailed phylogenetic analysis identified that most sequences belonged to 17 previously described species: Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, muskrat I, muskrat II, deer mouse II, fox, vole, skunk, shrew, W12, W18, W19 and W25 genotypes. In addition, two new genotypes were identified, W27 and W28. C. andersoni and the muskrat II genotype were most frequently detected in the water samples. Species associated with livestock made up 39% of the total molecular detections, while wildlife associated species and genotypes accounted for 55% of the Cryptosporidium identified. The human pathogenic species C. hominis and C. parvum had an overall prevalence of 1.6% in the environment, indicating a small risk to humans from the Cryptosporidium present in the watershed. Phylogenetic analysis and knowledge of host-parasite relationships are fundamental in using Cryptosporidium as a source-tracking or human health risk assessment tool. PMID:22841595

  9. GENOTYPING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER SAMPLES AS A TOOL FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF CONTAMINATION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in environmental samples is largely made by the use of an immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Because IFA detects oocysts from all Cryptosporidium parasites, the species distribution and source of Cryptosporidium parasites in environmental...

  10. Cryptosporidium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of nearly 25 named species and numerous genotypes of Cryptosporidium, two are of special importance relative to human health and food safety: Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, the former with a predilection for humans and the latter a promiscuous species. Genetic tools have been es...

  11. ANIMAL SOURCE IDENTIFICATION USING A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM DNA CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the application of a particular molecular method to improve detection and differentiation of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium oocysts found in environmental samples. Of particular interest is the method's potential for determining the source anim...

  12. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SOURCE TRACKING TO ENHANCE SOURCE WATER PROTECTION IMPLEMENTATION IN THE POTOMAC RIVER WATERSHED: A REGIONAL APPLIED RESEARCH EFFORTS (RARE) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Potomac River watershed is a critical drinking water supply for the Washington DC metropolitan area. In 2004, the Drinking Water Source Protection Partnership (DWSPP) was formed to help coordinate efforts by local drinking water utilities and government agencies to protect th...

  13. DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have occurred with the most notable being the 1993 episode in Milwaukee. As a result, the past decade has seen a massive effort expended on the development of methods to detect Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in source and finish...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIES AND SOURCES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN STORM WATERS BY A SMALL SUBUNIT RRNA-BASED DIAGNOSTIC AND GENOTYPING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in environmental samples is largely made by the use of immunofluorescent assay (IFA). because IFA detects oocysts from all Cryptosporidium parasites, the species distribution and source of Cryptosporidium parasites in environmental sa...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND SOURCES IN RAW WASTEWATER USING A SMALL SUBUNIT RRNA-BASED PCR-RFLP TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  16. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined using sp...

  17. SEROLOGICAL RESPONSES TO CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIGENS AMONG USERS OF SURFACE VERSUS UNDERGROUND DRINKING WATER SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidium oocysts have been detected in source and treated drinking waters in the United States and elsewhere. Enhanced enteric disease surveillance, initiated following detection of oocysts, has not often detected elevated rates of infection or of symptoms compatible with...

  18. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  19. 40 CFR 141.211 - Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine whether water treatment at the (treatment plant name) is sufficient to adequately remove... source of your drinking water for Cryptosporidium in order to determine by (date) whether water treatment... conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin...

  20. 40 CFR 141.211 - Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determine whether water treatment at the (treatment plant name) is sufficient to adequately remove... source of your drinking water for Cryptosporidium in order to determine by (date) whether water treatment... conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin...

  1. 40 CFR 141.211 - Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine whether water treatment at the (treatment plant name) is sufficient to adequately remove... source of your drinking water for Cryptosporidium in order to determine by (date) whether water treatment... conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin...

  2. Cryptosporidium Taxonomy: Recent Advances and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Fayer, Ronald; Ryan, Una; Upton, Steve J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baïleyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources. PMID:14726456

  3. Investigating source water Cryptosporidium concentration, species and infectivity rates during rainfall-runoff in a multi-use catchment.

    PubMed

    Swaffer, Brooke A; Vial, Hayley M; King, Brendon J; Daly, Robert; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Monis, Paul T

    2014-12-15

    Protozoan pathogens present a significant human health concern, and prevention of contamination into potable networks remains a key focus for drinking water providers. Here, we monitored the change in Cryptosporidium concentration in source water during high flow events in a multi-use catchment. Furthermore, we investigated the diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes present in the source water, and delivered an oocyst infectivity fraction. There was a positive and significant correlation between Cryptosporidium concentration and flow (ρ = 0.756) and turbidity (ρ = 0.631) for all rainfall-runoff events, despite variable source water pathogen concentrations. Cell culture assays measured oocyst infectivity and suggested an overall source water infectious fraction of 3.1%. No infectious Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis were detected, although molecular testing detected C. parvum in 7% of the samples analysed using PCR-based molecular techniques. Twelve Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified using molecular techniques, and were reflective of the host animals typically found in remnant vegetation and agricultural areas. The inclusion of molecular approaches to identify Cryptosporidium species and genotypes highlighted the diversity of pathogens in water, which originated from various sources across the catchment. We suggest this mixing of runoff water from a range of landuses containing diverse Cryptosporidium hosts is a key explanation for the often-cited difficulty forming strong pathogen-indicator relationships. PMID:25306487

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND THE SOURCES IN RAW WASTEWATER USING A SMALL SUBUNIT RRNA-BASED PCR-RFLP TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  5. 40 CFR 141.211 - Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin classification or mean Cryptosporidium level. 141.211 Section 141.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  6. 40 CFR 141.211 - Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin classification or mean Cryptosporidium level. 141.211 Section 141.211 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  7. [Investigation of the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in different water sources in Mersin province, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Aslan, Gönül; Bayram, Gül; Otağ, Feza; Direkel, Sahin; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Ceber, Kemal; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoon that causes enteritis in human and animals. Contaminated water and food are the major sources for the transmission of oocysts via oral-fecal route. It is reported that the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis is higher in developing countries than developed countries because of inefficient sanitation and disinfection facilities for drinking water. The most frequently detected species is Cryptosporidium parvum leading to high morbidity in healthy subjects and also fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. The acid-fast staining method is widely used in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Nowadays, Cryptosporidium could easily be detected in water supplies and asymptomatic carriers by molecular techniques to obtain epidemiological data. In this study it was aimed to detect and identify Cryptosporidium oocysts in different water sources in Mersin province, Turkey. A total of 135 water samples (70 taps, 50 wells and 15 sewage) collected from city center (n= 25) and from Tarsus (n= 32), Mezitli (n= 33) and Karaduvar (n= 45) counties between March 2007 and May 2009 were included in the study. Water samples in 10 liter volumes, were filtered by 0.45 µm pore-sized membrane filter vacuum/ pressure pumping technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts in filtrates were detected by modified cold Kinyoun acid-fast stain (MCK) technique and also identified and typed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. MCK yielded three and PCR yielded seven positive results. All the strains were identified as C.parvum by PCR-RFLP method. All of the three MCK-positive samples were also found positive with PCR, however four PCR positive samples were MCK-negative. Thus, the prevalence of C.parvum was estimated as 5.2% (7/135) in our region. Of seven positive samples, one was a sewage water sample collected from the city center, while the remaining (two tap water, two well water and two sewage water samples

  8. Molecular typing of Cryptosporidium parvum associated with a diarrhoea outbreak identifies two sources of exposure

    PubMed Central

    MATTSSON, J. G.; INSULANDER, M.; LEBBAD, M.; BJÖRKMAN, C.; SVENUNGSSON, B.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with exposure to outdoor swimming-pool water affected an estimated 800–1000 individuals. PCR products were obtained from faecal specimens from 30 individuals who tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. RFLP and sequencing analyses showed that all individuals were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Among the infected individuals, five had just swum in an adjacent indoor pool during the same period, and had no identified contact with individuals linked to the outdoor pool. With the use of subgenotyping based on analysis of three mini- and microsatellite loci, MS1, TP14, and GP15, we could identify two sources of exposure. One subtype was associated with the outdoor pool and another with the indoor pool. These data demonstrate that the use of mini- and microsatellite loci as markers for molecular fingerprinting of C. parvum isolates are valuable in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks. PMID:17961283

  9. Sources and species of cryptosporidium oocysts in the Wachusett Reservoir watershed.

    PubMed

    Jellison, Kristen L; Hemond, Harold F; Schauer, David B

    2002-02-01

    Understanding the behavior of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment is critical to developing improved watershed management practices for protection of the public from waterborne cryptosporidiosis. Analytical methods of improved specificity and sensitivity are essential to this task. We developed a nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay that allows detection of a single oocyst in environmental samples and differentiates the human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum from other Cryptosporidium species. We tested our method on surface water and animal fecal samples from the Wachusett Reservoir watershed in central Massachusetts. We also directly compared results from our method with those from the immunofluorescence microscopy assay recommended in the Information Collection Rule. Our results suggest that immunofluorescence microscopy may not be a reliable indicator of public health risk for waterborne cryptosporidiosis. Molecular and environmental data identify both wildlife and dairy farms as sources of oocysts in the watershed, implicate times of cold water temperatures as high-risk periods for oocyst contamination of surface waters, and suggest that not all oocysts in the environment pose a threat to public health. PMID:11823192

  10. Serological responses to Cryptosporidium antigens among users of surface- vs. ground-water sources.

    PubMed

    Frost, F J; Kunde, T R; Muller, T B; Craun, G F; Katz, L M; Hibbard, A J; Calderon, R L

    2003-12-01

    Cryptosporidium oocysts are commonly detected in surface-derived drinking water. However, the public health significance of these findings is unclear. This study compared serological responses to two Cryptosporidium antigen groups for blood donors and college students using chlorinated and filtered river water vs. ground-water sources. The surface water received agricultural and domestic sewage discharges upstream. Participants from the surface-water city had a higher relative prevalence (RP) of a serological response to the 15/17-kDa antigen group (72.3 vs. 52.4%, RP = 1.36, P < 0.001) and to the 27-kDa antigen group (82.6 vs. 72.5%, RP = 1.14, P < 0.02). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that the people with a shorter duration of residence or drinking bottled water also had a lower seropositivity for each marker. Use of private wells was associated with a higher prevalence of response to the 15/17-kDa markers. Seroconversion to the 15/17-kDa antigen group was more common in the residents of the city using surface water. These findings are consistent with an increased risk of Cryptosporidium infection for users of surface-derived drinking water compared with users of municipal ground-water-derived drinking water. Users of private well water may also have an increased risk of infection. PMID:14959781

  11. Comparison of Method 1623 and Cell Culture-PCR for Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in Source Waters

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, Mark W.; Di Giovanni, George D.; Clancy, Jennifer L.; Bukhari, Zia; Bukhari, Shan; Rosen, Jeffrey S.; Sobrinho, Jose; Frey, Michelle M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Cryptosporidium occurrence in six watersheds by method 1623 and the integrated cell culture-PCR (CC-PCR) technique provided an opportunity to evaluate these two methods. The average recovery efficiencies were 58.5% for the CC-PCR technique and 72% for method 1623, but the values were not significantly different (P = 0.06). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 60 of 593 samples (10.1%) by method 1623. Infectious oocysts were detected in 22 of 560 samples (3.9%) by the CC-PCR technique. There was 87% agreement between the total numbers of samples positive as determined by method 1623 and CC-PCR for four of the sites. The other two sites had 16.3 and 24% correspondence between the methods. Infectious oocysts were detected in all of the watersheds. Overall, approximately 37% of the Cryptosporidium oocysts detected by the immunofluorescence method were viable and infectious. DNA sequence analysis of the Cryptosporidium parvum isolates detected by CC-PCR showed the presence of both the bovine and human genotypes. More than 90% of the C. parvum isolates were identified as having the bovine or bovine-like genotype. The estimates of the concentrations of infectious Cryptosporidium and the resulting daily and annual risks of infection compared well for the two methods. The results suggest that most surface water systems would require, on average, a 3-log reduction in source water Cryptosporidium levels to meet potable water goals. PMID:12571019

  12. Cryptosporidium (Crypto) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cryptosporidium Tracking in the United States CryptoNet Healthy Water Links Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global ... you requested has moved to Illness & Symptoms. Healthy Water Links Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global ...

  13. Cryptosporidium: Prevention - Immunocompromised Persons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cryptosporidium Tracking in the United States CryptoNet Healthy Water Links Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global ... diarrhea, have it tested for Crypto. Avoid swallowing water when swimming in the ocean, lakes, rivers, or ...

  14. Occurrence, source, and human infection potential of Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in drinking source water in Shanghai, China, during a pig carcass disposal incident.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Feng, Yaoyu; Huang, Chengchen; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-12-16

    In March 2013, thousands of domestic pig carcasses were found floating in the Huangpu River, a drinking source water in Shanghai, China. To investigate the impact of the pig carcass incident on microbial water quality, 178 river water samples were collected from the upper Huangpu River from March 2013 to March 2014. Samples were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation and examined for host-adapted Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by ploymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive PCR products were sequenced to determine Cryptosporidium species and E. bieneusi genotypes. A total of 67 (37.6%) and 56 (31.5%) samples were PCR-positive for Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi, respectively. The occurrence rates of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in March 2013 (83.3%; 41.7%) and May 2013 (73.5%; 44.1%) were significantly higher than rates in later sampling times. Among the 13 Cryptosporidium species/genotypes identified, C. andersoni and C. suis were the most common species, being found in 38 and 27 samples, respectively. Seventeen E. bieneusi genotypes were found, belonging to 11 established genotypes (EbpC, EbpA, D, CS-8, PtEb IX, Peru 8, Peru 11, PigEBITS4, EbpB, G, O) and six new ones (RWSH1 to RWSH6), most of which belonged to pig-adapted Groups 1d and 1e. EbpC was the most common genotype, being found in 37 samples. The distribution of Cryptosporidium species and E. bieneusi genotypes suggest that dead pigs contributed significantly to Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi contamination in the Huangpu River. Although most Cryptosporidium species found in river water were not major human pathogens, the majority of E. bieneusi genotypes detected were endemic in China. Data from this study should be useful in the development of strategies in addressing future contamination events in drinking water supplies. PMID:25383482

  15. Identifying host sources, human health risk and indicators of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a Canadian watershed influenced by urban and rural activities.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Michele I; Ong, Corinne S L; Prystajecky, Natalie A; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Huck, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia were characterized in a watershed in southern Ontario, Canada, over a 2½ year period. River samples were collected every two weeks, primarily near a municipal drinking water treatment plant intake. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently detected with an overall occurrence rate of 88 and 97%, respectively. Giardia concentrations were higher than Cryptosporidium, with median values of 80 cysts 100 L(-1) and 12 oocysts 100 L(-1), respectively. Although pathogens rarely show a significant relationship with fecal or water quality indicators, this study determined that Cryptosporidium, but not Giardia, was significantly correlated with Escherichia coli, turbidity and river flow. There was no correlation between the two types of protozoa, and only Giardia showed a seasonal trend with higher concentrations at cold water temperatures. Cryptosporidium genotyping of all samples found that farm animals and wildlife were an important contributor of oocysts in the watershed, and that Cryptosporidium strains/genotypes of medium to high risk for human infection (C. hominis, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum) were detected in 16% of samples. This study was able to identify Cryptosporidium host sources and human health risk, and to identify differences between Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in the watershed. PMID:22717756

  16. Identification of Species and Sources of Cryptosporidium Oocysts in Storm Waters with a Small-Subunit rRNA-Based Diagnostic and Genotyping Tool

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Alderisio, Kerri; Limor, Josef; Royer, Michael; Lal, Altaf A.

    2000-01-01

    The identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in environmental samples is largely made by the use of an immunofluorescent assay. In this study, we have used a small-subunit rRNA-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique to identify species and sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in 29 storm water samples collected from a stream in New York. A total of 12 genotypes were found in 27 positive samples; for 4 the species and probable origins were identified by sequence analysis, whereas the rest represent new genotypes from wildlife. Thus, this technique provides an alternative method for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium parasites in environmental samples. PMID:11097935

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia as foodborne zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Smith, H V; Cacciò, S M; Cook, N; Nichols, R A B; Tait, A

    2007-10-21

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal disease in humans, worldwide and are major causes of protozoan waterborne diseases. Both Cryptosporidium and Giardia have life cycles which are suited to waterborne and foodborne transmission. There are 16 'valid'Cryptosporidium species and a further 33+ genotypes described. Parasites which infect humans belong to the Giardia duodenalis "type", and at least seven G. duodenalis assemblages are recognised. Cryptosporidium parvum is the major zoonotic Cryptosporidium species, while G. duodenalis assemblages A and B have been found in humans and most mammalian orders. In depth studies to determine the role of non-human hosts in the transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia to humans are required. The use of harmonised methodology and standardised and validated molecular markers, together with sampling strategies that provide sufficient information about all contributors to the environmental (oo)cyst pool that cause contamination of food and water, are recommended. Standardised methods for detecting (oo)cysts in water are available, as are optimised, validated methods for detecting Cryptosporidium in soft fruit and salad vegetables. These provide valuable data on (oo)cyst occurrence, and can be used for species and subspecies typing using appropriate molecular tools. Given the zoonotic potential of these organisms, epidemiological, source and disease tracking investigations involve multidisciplinary teams. Here, the role of the veterinarian is paramount, particularly in understanding the requirement for adopting comprehensive sampling strategies for analysing both sporadic and outbreak samples from all potential non-human contributors. Comprehensive sampling strategies increase our understanding of parasite population biology and structure and this knowledge can be used to determine what level of discrimination is required between isolates. Genetic exchange is frequent in C. parvum populations, leading to

  18. Attentive Tracking of Sound Sources.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kevin J P; McDermott, Josh H

    2015-08-31

    Auditory scenes often contain concurrent sound sources, but listeners are typically interested in just one of these and must somehow select it for further processing. One challenge is that real-world sounds such as speech vary over time and as a consequence often cannot be separated or selected based on particular values of their features (e.g., high pitch). Here we show that human listeners can circumvent this challenge by tracking sounds with a movable focus of attention. We synthesized pairs of voices that changed in pitch and timbre over random, intertwined trajectories, lacking distinguishing features or linguistic information. Listeners were cued beforehand to attend to one of the voices. We measured their ability to extract this cued voice from the mixture by subsequently presenting the ending portion of one voice and asking whether it came from the cued voice. We found that listeners could perform this task but that performance was mediated by attention-listeners who performed best were also more sensitive to perturbations in the cued voice than in the uncued voice. Moreover, the task was impossible if the source trajectories did not maintain sufficient separation in feature space. The results suggest a locus of attention that can follow a sound's trajectory through a feature space, likely aiding selection and segregation amid similar distractors. PMID:26279234

  19. Integrated cryptosporidium assay to determine oocyst density, infectivity, and genotype for risk assessment of source and reuse water.

    PubMed

    King, Brendon; Fanok, Stella; Phillips, Renae; Swaffer, Brooke; Monis, Paul

    2015-05-15

    Cryptosporidium continues to be problematic for the water industry, with risk assessments often indicating that treatment barriers may fail under extreme conditions. However, risk analyses have historically used oocyst densities and not considered either oocyst infectivity or species/genotype, which can result in an overestimation of risk if the oocysts are not human infective. We describe an integrated assay for determining oocyst density, infectivity, and genotype from a single-sample concentrate, an important advance that overcomes the need for processing multiple-grab samples or splitting sample concentrates for separate analyses. The assay incorporates an oocyst recovery control and is compatible with standard primary concentration techniques. Oocysts were purified from primary concentrates using immunomagnetic separation prior to processing by an infectivity assay. Plate-based cell culture was used to detect infectious foci, with a monolayer washing protocol developed to allow recovery and enumeration of oocysts. A simple DNA extraction protocol was developed to allow typing of any wells containing infectious Cryptosporidium. Water samples from a variety of source water and wastewater matrices, including a semirural catchment, wastewater, an aquifer recharge site, and storm water, were analyzed using the assay. Results demonstrate that the assay can reliably determine oocyst densities, infectivity, and genotype from single-grab samples for a variety of water matrices and emphasize the varying nature of Cryptosporidium risk extant throughout source waters and wastewaters. This assay should therefore enable a more comprehensive understanding of Cryptosporidium risk for different water sources, assisting in the selection of appropriate risk mitigation measures. PMID:25769833

  20. Integrated Cryptosporidium Assay To Determine Oocyst Density, Infectivity, and Genotype for Risk Assessment of Source and Reuse Water

    PubMed Central

    King, Brendon; Fanok, Stella; Phillips, Renae; Swaffer, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium continues to be problematic for the water industry, with risk assessments often indicating that treatment barriers may fail under extreme conditions. However, risk analyses have historically used oocyst densities and not considered either oocyst infectivity or species/genotype, which can result in an overestimation of risk if the oocysts are not human infective. We describe an integrated assay for determining oocyst density, infectivity, and genotype from a single-sample concentrate, an important advance that overcomes the need for processing multiple-grab samples or splitting sample concentrates for separate analyses. The assay incorporates an oocyst recovery control and is compatible with standard primary concentration techniques. Oocysts were purified from primary concentrates using immunomagnetic separation prior to processing by an infectivity assay. Plate-based cell culture was used to detect infectious foci, with a monolayer washing protocol developed to allow recovery and enumeration of oocysts. A simple DNA extraction protocol was developed to allow typing of any wells containing infectious Cryptosporidium. Water samples from a variety of source water and wastewater matrices, including a semirural catchment, wastewater, an aquifer recharge site, and storm water, were analyzed using the assay. Results demonstrate that the assay can reliably determine oocyst densities, infectivity, and genotype from single-grab samples for a variety of water matrices and emphasize the varying nature of Cryptosporidium risk extant throughout source waters and wastewaters. This assay should therefore enable a more comprehensive understanding of Cryptosporidium risk for different water sources, assisting in the selection of appropriate risk mitigation measures. PMID:25769833

  1. THE FUTURE OF MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) is differentiated from traditional microbial water quality efforts by the need to identify the host species from which the bacteria originate, rather than necessarily identifying an individual point source. Despite recent advances in the developmen...

  2. Modeling Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ground and Surface Water Sources in Rural India: Associations with Latrines, Livestock, Damaged Wells, and Rainfall Patterns.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Miles E; Smith, Woutrina A; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-07-19

    Surface and groundwater contamination with fecal pathogens is a public health concern especially in low-income settings where these sources are used untreated. We modeled observed Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in community ponds (n = 94; 79% contaminated), deep tubewells (DTWs) (n = 107; 17%), and shallow tubewells (STWs) (n = 96; 19%) during the 2012 and 2013 monsoon seasons (June-August) in 60 villages in Puri District, India to understand sources and processes of contamination. Detection of Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in a tubewell was positively associated with damage to the well pad for DTWs, the amount of human loading into pour-flush latrine pits nearby (≤15 m) for STWs, and the village literacy rate (for Giardia in STWs). Pond concentration levels were positively associated with the number of people practicing open defecation within 50 m and the sheep population for Cryptosporidium, and with the village illiteracy rate for Giardia. Recent rainfall increased the risk of Cryptosporidium in STWs (an extreme event) and ponds (any), while increasing seasonal rainfall decreased the risk of Giardia in STWs and ponds. Full latrine coverage in this setting is expected to marginally reduce pond Cryptosporidium contamination (16%) while increasing local groundwater protozoal contamination (87-306%), with the largest increases predicted for Cryptosporidium in STWs. PMID:27310009

  3. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant percentage of surface waters I the U.S. do not meet the designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria as set forth by the Clean Water Act. Both point and non-point sources contribute to water pollution. In contrast to point sources such as sewage...

  4. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING: DIFFERENT USES AND APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods are used to determine the origin of fecal pollution impacting natural water systems. Several methods require the isolation of pure cultures in order to develop phenotypic or genotypic fingerprint libraries of both source and water bacterial...

  5. Total and infectious Cryptosporidium oocyst and total Giardia cyst concentrations from distinct agricultural and urban contamination sources in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lalancette, Cindy; Généreux, Mylène; Mailly, Jacinthe; Servais, Pierre; Côté, Caroline; Michaud, Aubert; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cyst concentrations are frequently used for assessing drinking water safety. The widely used USEPA Method 1623 provides total counts of (oo)cysts, but may not be accurate for human health risk characterization, since it does not provide infectivity information. The total counts and infectious fraction of Cryptosporidium oocysts and the total counts of Giardia cysts were assessed in major fecal pollution sources. Fresh calf and cow feces, their manure, and the discharge point were sampled in a small rural sub-watershed (n = 20, 21, 10, 10). Median concentrations for total (oo)cysts were higher in calves (333 oocysts g(-1); 111 cysts g(-1)) than in cows (52 oocysts g(-1); 7 cysts g(-1)). Infectious oocysts were found in 17 (7%) of the samples and none were found in manure or at the discharge point. Urban sources were sampled in the influent and effluent (n = 19, 18) of two wastewater treatment plants. Peak concentrations were 533 oocysts L(-1) and 9,010 cysts L(-1) for influents and 89 oocysts L(-1) and 472 cysts L(-1) for effluents. Infectious oocyst fractions varied from below the detection limit to 7-22% in the effluent and influent respectively. These infectious fractions are significantly lower than those currently used for quantitative microbial risk assessment estimates. PMID:22361710

  6. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING GUIDE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 13% of surface waters in the United States do not meet designated use criteria as determined by high densities of fecal indicator bacteria. Although some of the contamination is attributed to point sources such as confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) and wastew...

  7. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Miles E.; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A.; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R.; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  8. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Village Water Sources in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Miles E; Shrivastava, Arpit; Smith, Woutrina A; Sahu, Priyadarshi; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia are zoonotic enteric protozoa of significant health concern where sanitation, hygiene, and water supplies are inadequate. We examined 85 stool samples from diarrhea patients, 111 pooled fecal samples by species across seven domestic animal types, and water from tube wells (N = 207) and ponds (N = 94) across 60 villages in coastal Odisha, India, for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts to measure occurrence, concentration/shedding, and environmental loading rates. Oocysts/cysts were detected in 12% of diarrhea patients. Detection ranged from 0% to 35% for Cryptosporidium and 0% to 67% for Giardia across animal hosts. Animal loading estimates indicate the greatest contributors of environmental oocysts/cysts in the study region are cattle. Ponds were contaminated with both protozoa (oocysts: 37%, cysts: 74%), as were tube wells (oocysts: 10%, cysts: 14%). Future research should address the public health concern highlighted from these findings and investigate the role of domestic animals in diarrheal disease transmission in this and similar settings. PMID:26123963

  9. Transport of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Source-specific Indicator Organisms, and Standard Water Quality Constituents During Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Bourdeau, D.; Baker, R.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    Microbial and water-quality measurements are collected during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions in order to 1) identify risk of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other constituents, including microbial indicator organisms, entering surface waters from various land uses during periods of surface runoff; 2) optimize storm sampling procedures for these parameters; and 3) optimize strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. The investigation is focused on four isolated land uses: forested with free ranging wildlife, beaver influenced forested with free ranging wildlife, residential/commercial, and dairy farm grazing/pastureland using an upstream and downstream sampling strategy. Traditional water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms are measured as industry standard microbial analyses. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. Upon completion of the project, the final database will consist of wet weather transport data for a set of parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. A subset of the results to date will be presented, with focus placed on demonstrating the impact of beaver on constituent loadings over a variety of hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  10. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  11. Cryptosporidium sp. Infections in Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a Potential Source of Marine Waterborne Oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. PMID:16535658

  12. Photometer for tracking a moving light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A photometer that tracks a path of a moving light source with little or no motion of the photometer components. The system includes a non-moving, truncated paraboloid of revolution, having a paraboloid axis, a paraboloid axis, a small entrance aperture, a larger exit aperture and a light-reflecting inner surface, that receives and reflects light in a direction substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis. The system also includes a light processing filter to receive and process the redirected light, and to issue the processed, redirected light as processed light, and an array of light receiving elements, at least one of which receives and measures an associated intensity of a portion of the processed light. The system tracks a light source moving along a path and produces a corresponding curvilinear image of the light source path on the array of light receiving elements. Undesired light wavelengths from the light source may be removed by coating a selected portion of the reflecting inner surface or another light receiving surface with a coating that absorbs incident light in the undesired wavelength range.

  13. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Nishi, Letícia; Brustolin, Camila Fernanda; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Falavigna Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed. PMID:26422158

  14. A study of two U.S. Army installation drinking water sources and treatment systems for the removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.B.; Brokaw, J.K.; Brokaw, J.K.; Warrier, P.K.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides the results of a study of two U.S. Army installation drinking water sources and treatment systems for the removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Sampling was conducted monthly for one year commencing in late March 1994 and concluding at the end of February 1995. Results of this detailed study include examination of turbidity, particle counts, and total and fecal coliforms as well as the enumeration of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Our goal, in addition to determining the levels of these pathogens in both raw and product waters, was to determine if typical operating parameters would be helpful in identifying either elevated raw water protozoa or breakthrough of either pathogen in the product water from the treatment facilities. A data summary for the results of the protozoa enumeration is a Table 1. Our results indicate frequent contamination of the raw waters at both sites by either or both pathogens. Further, we observed sporadic breakthrough of low levels of Cryptosporidium in the filtered waters of both sites. The method employed to concentrate, purify and enumerate the pathogenic protozoa is also discussed and comparisons are made to the proposed Information Collection Rule (ICR) method for detection of these microorganisms.

  15. FECAL POLLUTION, PUBLIC HEALTH AND MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) seeks to provide information about sources of fecal water contamination. Without knowledge of sources, it is difficult to accurately model risk assessments, choose effective remediation strategies, or bring chronically polluted waters into complian...

  16. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal samples

    PubMed Central

    Mirhashemi, Marzieh Ezzaty; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances E.; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2015-01-01

    While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targeted at the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection. PMID:25662435

  17. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs

    PubMed Central

    Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  18. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    PubMed

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  19. Analysis of Solar Two Heliostat Tracking Error Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.A.; Stone, K.W.

    1999-01-28

    This paper explores the geometrical errors that reduce heliostat tracking accuracy at Solar Two. The basic heliostat control architecture is described. Then, the three dominant error sources are described and their effect on heliostat tracking is visually illustrated. The strategy currently used to minimize, but not truly correct, these error sources is also shown. Finally, a novel approach to minimizing error is presented.

  20. Use of Biological and Non-biological Surrogates for Evaluating Cryptosporidium Removal by Filtration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are currently facing increasing challenges in monitoring Cryptosporidium in source and treated water because of complex analytical techniques and associated health risks. Surrogates may be easier to analyze than Cryptosporidium, but they must also be reliab...

  1. Multi-source energy harvester for wildlife tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, You; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Liang, Changwei; McCabe, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Sufficient power supply to run GPS machinery and transmit data on a long-term basis remains to be the key challenge for wildlife tracking technology. Traditional way of replacing battery periodically is not only time and money consuming but also dangerous to live-trapping wild animals. In this paper, an innovative wildlife tracking device with multi-source energy harvester with advantage of high efficiency and reliability is investigated and developed. This multi-source energy harvester entails a solar energy harvester and an innovative rotational electromagnetic energy harvester is mounted on the "wildlife tracking collar" which will remarkably extend the duration of wild life tracking. A feedforward and feedback control of DC-DC converter circuit is adopted to passively realize the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) logic for the solar energy harvester. The rotational electromagnetic energy harvester can mechanically rectify the irregular bidirectional motion into unidirectional motion has been modeled and demonstrated.

  2. Sediment Source Tracking in the Georgia Piedmont

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary results on the source of suspended sediment in a southern Piedmont stream are presented. Nuclear fallout radionuclide 137Cs and three other natural tracers were used to estimate the relative contribution of bank and upland sediment sources. Tracer concentrations were determined in potent...

  3. THE EPA MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beach closures or violations of total maximum daily loads of fecal organisms in watersheds frequently generate a need to identify the major sources of contamination or, at least, determine whether the source is human or animal. A few years ago E. coli ribotyping was the only met...

  4. BACTERIAL SOURCE TRACKING IN MISSISSIPPI COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the proposed study is to apply secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) analysis to surface waters in eastern Mississippi and to clarify the source(s) of pollution entering the Wolf and Jordan River watersheds. The method would attempt to determine if bovine fe...

  5. Geoacoustic and source tracking using particle filtering: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S

    2010-07-01

    A particle filtering (PF) approach is presented for performing sequential geoacoustic inversion of a complex ocean acoustic environment using a moving acoustic source. This approach treats both the environmental parameters [e.g., water column sound speed profile (SSP), water depth, sediment and bottom parameters] at the source location and the source parameters (e.g., source depth, range and speed) as unknown random variables that evolve as the source moves. This allows real-time updating of the environment and accurate tracking of the moving source. As a sequential Monte Carlo technique that operates on nonlinear systems with non-Gaussian probability densities, the PF is an ideal algorithm to perform tracking of environmental and source parameters, and their uncertainties via the evolving posterior probability densities. The approach is demonstrated on both simulated data in a shallow water environment with a sloping bottom and experimental data collected during the SWellEx-96 experiment. PMID:20649203

  6. Application of leftover sample material from waterborne protozoa monitoring for the molecular detection of Bacteroidales and fecal source tracking markers.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Tran, Hiep; Ware, Michael W; Iker, Brandon; Griffin, Shannon; Egorov, Andrey; Edge, Thomas A; Newmann, Norman; Villegas, Eric N; Domingo, Jorge W Santo

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we examined the potential for detecting fecal bacteria and microbial source tracking markers in samples discarded during the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia using USEPA Method 1623. Recovery rates for different fecal bacteria were determined in sewage spiked samples and environmental waters using different group-specific and host-specific PCR assays. Bacteroidales DNA recovery ranged from 59 to 71% for aliquots of supernatant collected after the elution step. The recovery of human-specific Bacteroidales DNA from sewage spiked samples was 54% in the elution step. An additional 1-7% Bacteroidales DNA was recovered after the immunomagnetic separation step, while recovery from the pellet left after the immunomagnetic separation of protozoa parasites was substantially lower. Comparison of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from elution and immunomagnetic separation discarded samples indicated that the distribution of clones was not statistically different, suggesting that there were no recovery biases introduced by these steps. Human- and cow-specific Bacteroidales and fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., enterococci,) were also detected in the discarded fractions of environmental samples collected from different geographic locations. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated the potential application of leftover sample fractions that are currently discarded for the PCR detection of fecal bacterial indicators and molecular source tracking. PMID:21693138

  7. Molecular-Based Detection Systems for Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation describes on-going studies in collaboration with US EPA Region 2, 3, and the CDC on identifying sources of Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination in source waters using conventional and real-time PCR approaches.

  8. Tracking the sources of tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, T. M.; Churkina, G.; Coates, J.; Grote, R.; Mar, K.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Zhu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this set of studies we examine the attribution of tropospheric ozone to emissions of VOC using a tagging approach, whereby each VOC oxidation intermediate in model chemical mechanisms is tagged with the identity of its primary emitted compound, allowing modelled ozone production to be directly attributed to all emitted VOCs in the model. Using a global model we

  9. BACTERIAL SOURCE TRACKING (BST) INITIATIVE FOR THE GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will sponsor several meetings to enable scientists to discuss mutual problems and solutions regarding bacterial source tracking methods. Issues common to all the Gulf states include but are not limited to beach closures, TMDL analysis, longevity of indicator organism...

  10. Application of microarray technology for microbial source tracking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Typing of foodborne microorganisms for source tracking was radically improved with the implementation of molecular techniques. These assays were designed to detect genetic differences in lineages of foodborne organisms. Molecular techniques can detect the natural variability in the genome of a micro...

  11. Tracking closely spaced multiple sources via spectral-estimation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, W. F.

    1982-06-01

    Modern spectral-estimation techniques have achieved a level of performance that attracts interest in applications area such as the tracking of multiple spatial sources. In addition to the original "superresolution' capability, these techniques offer an apparent 'absence of sidelobes' characteristic and some reasonable solutions to the difficult radar coherent-source problem that involves a phase-dependent SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) penalty. This report reviews the situation briefly, and it discusses a few of the techniques that have been found useful, including natural or synthetic doppler shifts, non-Toeplitz forward-backward subaperture-shift processing, and recent eigenvalue/eigenvector analysis algorithms. The techniques are applied to multiple-source situations that include mixtures of coherent and noncoherent sources of unequal strengths, with either an 8-or a 12-element linear-array sampling aperture. The first test case involves the estimation of six sources, two of which are 95% correlated. The second test case involves a tracking-simulation display example of four moving sources: three are -10dB coherent sources 95% correlated, and the other is a strong 20-dB noncoherent source. These test cases demonstrate the remarkable improvements obtained with the recent estimation techniques, and they point to the possibilities for real-world applications.

  12. Cryptosporidium, organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite found in contaminated water. It has been increasingly recognized as the cause of outbreaks of diarrhea when water supplies become contaminated. In normal individuals, it is a ...

  13. PAIRED CITY CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SEROSURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1996, serological responses to two Cryptosporidium antigens were determined for 200 Las Vegas (LV), Nevada, and 200 Albuquerque, New Mexico, blood donors to evaluate associations between endemic infections, water exposures, and other risk factors. LV uses chlorinated filtered...

  14. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Neave, Matthew; Luter, Heidi; Padovan, Anna; Townsend, Simon; Schobben, Xavier; Gibb, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources. PMID:25224738

  15. COMPARISON OF RECURSIVE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES FOR POSITION TRACKING RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    K. MUSKE; J. HOWSE

    2000-09-01

    This paper compares the performance of recursive state estimation techniques for tracking the physical location of a radioactive source within a room based on radiation measurements obtained from a series of detectors at fixed locations. Specifically, the extended Kalman filter, algebraic observer, and nonlinear least squares techniques are investigated. The results of this study indicate that recursive least squares estimation significantly outperforms the other techniques due to the severe model nonlinearity.

  16. METHODS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. AND GIARDIA SP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been several waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis caused by infection with Giardia lamblia, and cryptosporidiosis, caused by infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. These outbreaks have created a need to detect these organisms in source and finished drinking water. The pr...

  17. Cryptosporidium Pathogenicity and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bouzid, Maha; Chalmers, Rachel M.; Tyler, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary importance that causes gastroenteritis in a variety of vertebrate hosts. Several studies have reported different degrees of pathogenicity and virulence among Cryptosporidium species and isolates of the same species as well as evidence of variation in host susceptibility to infection. The identification and validation of Cryptosporidium virulence factors have been hindered by the renowned difficulties pertaining to the in vitro culture and genetic manipulation of this parasite. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in identifying putative virulence factors for Cryptosporidium. This progress has been accelerated since the publication of the Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis genomes, with the characterization of over 25 putative virulence factors identified by using a variety of immunological and molecular techniques and which are proposed to be involved in aspects of host-pathogen interactions from adhesion and locomotion to invasion and proliferation. Progress has also been made in the contribution of host factors that are associated with variations in both the severity and risk of infection. Here we provide a review comprised of the current state of knowledge on Cryptosporidium infectivity, pathogenesis, and transmissibility in light of our contemporary understanding of microbial virulence. PMID:23297262

  18. Sound source tracking device for telematic spatial sound field reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Bruno

    This research describes an algorithm that localizes sound sources for use in telematic applications. The localization algorithm is based on amplitude differences between various channels of a microphone array of directional shotgun microphones. The amplitude differences will be used to locate multiple performers and reproduce their voices, which were recorded at close distance with lavalier microphones, spatially corrected using a loudspeaker rendering system. In order to track multiple sound sources in parallel the information gained from the lavalier microphones will be utilized to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio between each performer and the concurrent performers.

  19. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN CATTLE FROM OBSERVING TO UNDERSTANDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. However, virtually all reports have ...

  20. An open source mobile platform for psychophysiological self tracking.

    PubMed

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Pioggia, Giovanni; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Baldus, Giovanni; Corda, Daniele; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Self tracking is a recent trend in e-health that refers to the collection, elaboration and visualization of personal health data through ubiquitous computing tools such as mobile devices and wearable sensors. Here, we describe the design of a mobile self-tracking platform that has been specifically designed for clinical and research applications in the field of mental health. The smartphone-based application allows collecting a) self-reported feelings and activities from pre-programmed questionnaires; b) electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a wireless sensor platform worn by the user; c) movement activity information obtained from a tri-axis accelerometer embedded in the wearable platform. Physiological signals are further processed by the application and stored on the smartphone's memory. The mobile data collection platform is free and released under an open source licence to allow wider adoption by the research community (download at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/psychlog/). PMID:22356974

  1. Global modelling of Cryptosporidium in surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Lucie; Hofstra, Nynke

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Waterborne pathogens that cause diarrhoea, such as Cryptosporidium, pose a health risk all over the world. In many regions quantitative information on pathogens in surface water is unavailable. Our main objective is to model Cryptosporidium concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We present the GloWPa-Crypto model and use the model in a scenario analysis. A first exploration of global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface waters has been published by Hofstra et al. (2013). Further work has focused on modelling emissions of Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus to surface waters from human sources (Vermeulen et al 2015, Kiulia et al 2015). A global waterborne pathogen model can provide valuable insights by (1) providing quantitative information on pathogen levels in data-sparse regions, (2) identifying pathogen hotspots, (3) enabling future projections under global change scenarios and (4) supporting decision making. Material and Methods GloWPa-Crypto runs on a monthly time step and represents conditions for approximately the year 2010. The spatial resolution is a 0.5 x 0.5 degree latitude x longitude grid for the world. We use livestock maps (http://livestock.geo-wiki.org/) combined with literature estimates to calculate spatially explicit livestock Cryptosporidium emissions. For human Cryptosporidium emissions, we use UN population estimates, the WHO/UNICEF JMP sanitation country data and literature estimates of wastewater treatment. We combine our emissions model with a river routing model and data from the VIC hydrological model (http://vic.readthedocs.org/en/master/) to calculate concentrations in surface water. Cryptosporidium survival during transport depends on UV radiation and water temperature. We explore pathogen emissions and concentrations in 2050 with the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) 1 and 3. These scenarios describe plausible future trends in demographics, economic development and the degree of global integration. Results and

  2. 10 CFR 20.2207 - Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... manufactures, transfers, receives, disassembles, or disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report as specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section for each type of transaction. (a) Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2207 - Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manufactures, transfers, receives, disassembles, or disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report as specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section for each type of transaction. (a) Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source...

  4. 10 CFR 20.2207 - Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufactures, transfers, receives, disassembles, or disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report as specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section for each type of transaction. (a) Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source...

  5. 10 CFR 20.2207 - Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufactures, transfers, receives, disassembles, or disposes of a nationally tracked source shall complete and submit a National Source Tracking Transaction Report as specified in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section for each type of transaction. (a) Each licensee who manufactures a nationally tracked source...

  6. Recursive Estimation for the Tracking of Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Howse, J.W.; Muske, K.R.; Ticknor, L.O.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a recursive estimation algorithm used for tracking the physical location of radioactive sources in real-time as they are moved around in a facility. The al- gorithm is a nonlinear least squares estimation that mini- mizes the change in, the source location and the deviation between measurements and model predictions simultane- ously. The measurements used to estimate position consist of four count rates reported by four different gamma ray de tectors. There is an uncertainty in the source location due to the variance of the detected count rate. This work repre- sents part of a suite of tools which will partially automate security and safety assessments, allow some assessments to be done remotely, and provide additional sensor modalities with which to make assessments.

  7. An explanation of the Z-track sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M. J.; Halai, G. S.; Bałucińska-Church, M.

    2006-12-01

    We present an explanation of the Z-track phenomenon based on spectral fitting results of Rossi-XTE observations of the source GX 340+0 using the emission model previously shown to describe the dipping Low Mass X-ray Binaries. In our Z-track model, the soft apex is a quiescent state of the source with lowest luminosity. Moving away from this point by ascending the normal branch the strongly increasing luminosity of the Accretion Disc Corona (ADC) Comptonized emission L_ADC provides substantial evidence for a large increase of mass accretion rate dot M. There are major changes in the neutron star blackbody emission, kT increasing to high values, the blackbody radius R_BB decreasing, these changes continuing monotonically on both normal and horizontal branches. The blackbody flux increases by a factor of ten to three times the Eddington flux so that the physics of the horizontal branch is dominated by the high radiation pressure of the neutron star, which we propose disrupts the inner disc, and an increase of column density is detected. We further propose that the very strong radiation pressure is responsible for the launching of the jets detected in radio on the horizontal branch. On the flaring branch, we find that L_ADC is constant, suggesting no change in dot M so that flaring must consist of unstable nuclear burning. At the soft apex, the mass accretion rate per unit area on the neutron star dot m is minimum for the horizontal and normal branches and about equal to the theoretical upper limit for unstable burning. Thus it is possible that unstable burning begins as soon as the source arrives at this position, the onset of unstable burning being consistent with theory. The large increase in R_BB in flaring is reminiscent of radius expansion in X-ray bursts. Finally, in our model, dot M does not increase monotonically along the Z-track as often previously thought.

  8. Tracking Nuclear Sources published by Well Servicing Magazine

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working with academia, the U.S. Government, and commercial companies to apply advanced secure Web 2.0 technologies to the tracking and monitoring of nuclear sources in the international supply chain. You ask, 'What is Web 2.0?' There is no rigid agreement on what Web 2.0 is, but Tim O'Reilly says it best when he defines Web 2.0 as 'the recent web innovations that have facilitated communication, information sharing, interoperability and collaboration.'

  9. [Microbial source tracking of water fecal pollution: a review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guan-da; Deng, Ming-rong; Zhu, Hong-hui; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Chang-xiong; Liang, Hao-liang

    2010-12-01

    Livestock feces and domestic sewage are the one of the main factors inducing water pollution, while the identification of the pollution source is particularly important in pollution control and management. Because of this, microbial source tracking (MST) has recently been paid more and more attention by the related researchers around the world. In this paper, the research progress of two types of MST methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and existing problems in application were reviewed and discussed. It was considered that in the library- and culture-dependent MST methods, PCR genotyping based on repetitive sequences was most practicable, while in the library- and culture-independent MST methods, PCR-DGGE based on the gene of specificity in Escherichia coli had a very glaring sight. Future researches should be more focused on the library- and culture-independent MST, and the combination of library- and culture-dependent MST with library- and culture-independent MST could make the tracking results more credible. PMID:21443019

  10. Inversely tracking indoor airborne particles to locate their release sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tengfei (Tim); Li, Hongzhu; Wang, Shugang

    2012-08-01

    Airborne particles can have numerous adverse effects on human health. Knowing the release locations of airborne particulate sources is helpful in minimizing pollutant exposure. This paper describes a proposal to locate indoor particulate sources by two inverse models: the quasi-reversibility (QR) model and the zone prescription of contaminant sources with the Lagrangian-reversibility (LR) model. The QR model reverses the time marching direction of the Eulerian governing equation and replaces the second-order diffusion term with a fourth-order stabilization term. The zone prescription LR model traces individual particulate motion in a Lagrangian reference frame after reversing the flow field. The particle trajectories are solved backward to the initial release once the conservative forces acting on particles are reversed. The tracked particles are proposed to be placed at the zone boundary of the largest concentration contour within the domain at a given time, which is provided as the initially known information. By connecting all particles at t = 0, a zone is formed that can prescribe the actual contaminant source. This study finds that both models can accurately locate particulate sources released instantaneously at a spot. The QR model performs slightly better than the LR model but is much more computationally demanding.

  11. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 2nd edition of the book “Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis” has been greatly revised and expanded. Included are the following chapters and subject areas. Chapter 1 discusses general biological issues. It traces the history of discovery of the genus and species, updates the taxonomy, describ...

  12. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojuromi, Oladele T; Duan, Liping; Izquierdo, Fernando; Fenoy, Soledad M; Oyibo, Wellington A; Del Aguila, Carmen; Ashafa, Anofi O T; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi has improved our understanding of the transmission of both organisms in humans. In this study, to infer possible infection sources, Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in fecal specimens from 90 HIV-infected patients attending antiretroviral clinics in Lagos, Nigeria were detected and genotyped by PCR and DNA sequencing. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were identified in four and five patients, respectively, including the occurrence of subtype IeA11T3G3 of Cryptosporidium hominis in two patients, subtype IIcA5G3k of Cryptosporidium parvum in one patient, and Type IV of E. bieneusi in four patients. Among the remaining positive patients, one had mixed infection of Cryptosporidium meleagridis and C. hominis and one had mixed E. bieneusi genotypes. These data highlight a possible difference in major transmission routes (anthroponotic vs. zoonotic) between Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in HIV+ patients in the study area. PMID:26662459

  13. Using Microbial Source Tracking to Enhance Environmental Stewardship of Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sherry; Rose, Joan; Flood, Matthew; Aw, Tiong; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Large scale agriculture relies on the application of chemical fertilizers and animal manure. It is well known that nutrients in excess of a plant's uptake and soil retention capacity can travel to nearby waterways via surface run-off and groundwater pathways, indirectly fertilizing these aquatic ecosystems. It has not yet been possible to distinguish water quality impacts of fertilizer from those derived from human and animal waste sources. However, new microbial source tracking (MST) tools allow specific identification of fecal pollution. Our objective was to examine pollution risks at the regional scale using MST, mapping and classification and regression tree analysis. We present results Bovine M2 genetic marker data from three flow regimes (baseflow, snow melt, and post-planting rain). Key landscape characteristics were related to the presence of the bovine markers and appear to be related to fate and transport. Impacts at this regional watershed scale will be discussed. Our research aims to identify the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality by linking nutrient concentrations with fecal pollution sources. We hope that our research will provide guidance that will help improve water quality through agricultural best management practices to reduce pathogen contamination.

  14. Recommendations following a multi-laboratory comparison of microbial source tracking methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) methods are under development to provide resource managers with tools to identify sources of fecal contamination in water. Some of the most promising methods currently under development were recently evaluated in the Source Identification Protocol ...

  15. Microbial source tracking in a rural watershed dominated by cattle.

    PubMed

    Graves, A K; Hagedorn, C; Brooks, A; Hagedorn, R L; Martin, E

    2007-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA), frequency of sampling, and seasonality were evaluated in a rural Virginia watershed dominated by cattle. The selected watershed (Mill Creek) was 3767 ha in size, included two small communities (one sewered and one unsewered), and several farms that when combined contained over 3800 beef and dairy cattle. Monthly monitoring of fecal coliforms at two sampling sites in Mill Creek from January to December, 2001, revealed that the recreational standard (1000 colony forming units, CFUs/100 ml) was exceeded a total of eight times for a 33% violation rate at each site. In addition, stream samples were collected weekly for 4 consecutive weeks during seasonal high flows (March) and seasonal low flows (September-October), plus daily for 7 consecutive days within the weekly schedules for a combined total of 60 stream samples (30 at each of two sites). The recreational standard was exceeded once during seasonal high flow and nine times during seasonal low flow. Microbial source tracking (MST) was performed by ARA to assess the impact of cattle on water quality within the different sampling routines. The resistance patterns of 2880 water isolates and 1158 known source (host-origin) isolates were determined with seven antibiotics at 28 different concentrations. The 1158 isolate database was reduced to 562 unique isolates when clonal ARA patterns were removed. This database of 562 unique isolates had an average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 95.4%, and several statistical procedures confirmed the library as accurate and representative. Sixty-five percent of 50 challenge-set isolates from sources, but not samples, used in the library were correctly identified. The 562 unique pattern database was used to classify Escherichia coli isolates from water samples into six host source categories. The ARA results showed that cattle were the major source of pollution in the stream and cattle were the dominant source in over 60% of the water

  16. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  17. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER: THE CHALLENGE AND PROMISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the presence of host-adapted Cryptosporidium species and genotypes, molecular tools can help assess the source and hazardous potential of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. The development and use of molecular tools in the analysis of environmental samples have gone tho...

  18. Inactivation kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in swine waste lagoon and spray field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in humans, Cryptosporidium has become a public health concern. Commercial swine operations can be a source of this protozoan parasite. Although the species distribution of Cryptosporidium is likely dominated by C. suis, a fraction may be comprised of the zoo...

  19. Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and Cryptosporidium pestis: which name is valid?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The validity of the name Cryptosporidium tyzzeri has been questioned because this name was previously used for a Cryptosporidium species in chickens in the original description by E. E. Tyzzer in 1929 which was later given the name by N.D. Levine in 1961. To further complicate matters, this specie...

  20. Identifying fecal sources in a selected catchment reach using multiple source-tracking tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, J.R.; Stoeckel, D.M.; Lamendella, R.; Zelt, R.B.; Santo, Domingo J.W.; Walker, S.R.; Oerther, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Given known limitations of current microbial source-tracking (MST) tools, emphasis on small, simple study areas may enhance interpretations of fecal contamination sources in streams. In this study, three MST tools - Escherichia coli repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR), coliphage typing, and Bacteroidales 16S rDNA host-associated markers - were evaluated in a selected reach of Plum Creek in sooth-central Nebraska. Water-quality samples were collected from six sites. One reach was selected for MST evaluation based on observed patterns of E. coli contamination. Despite high E. coli concentrations, coliphages were detected only once among water samples, precluding their use as a MST tool in this setting. Rep-PCR classification of E. coli isolates from both water and sediment samples supported the hypothesis that cattle and wildlife were dominant sources of fecal contamination, with minor contributions by horses and humans. Conversely, neither ruminant nor human sources were detected by Bacteroidales markers in most water samples. In bed sediment, ruminant- and human-associated Bacteroidales markers were detected throughout the interval from 0 to 0.3 m, with detections independent of E. coli concentrations in the sediment. Although results by E. coli-based and Bacteroidales-based MST methods led to similar interpretations, detection of Bacteroidales markers in sediment more commonly than in water indicates that different tools to track fecal contamination (in this case, tools based on Bacteroidales DNA and E. coli isolates) may have varying relevance to the more specific goal of tracking the sources of E. coli in watersheds. This is the first report of simultaneous, toolbox approach application of a library-based and marker-based MST analyses to lowing surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  1. Microbial source tracking: a tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling-Lin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trace fecal indicators and food-borne pathogens to the point of origin has major ramifications for food industry, food regulatory agencies, and public health. Such information would enable food producers and processors to better understand sources of contamination and thereby take corrective actions to prevent transmission. Microbial source tracking (MST), which currently is largely focused on determining sources of fecal contamination in waterways, is also providing the scientific community tools for tracking both fecal bacteria and food-borne pathogens contamination in the food chain. Approaches to MST are commonly classified as library-dependent methods (LDMs) or library-independent methods (LIMs). These tools will have widespread applications, including the use for regulatory compliance, pollution remediation, and risk assessment. These tools will reduce the incidence of illness associated with food and water. Our aim in this review is to highlight the use of molecular MST methods in application to understanding the source and transmission of food-borne pathogens. Moreover, the future directions of MST research are also discussed. PMID:24345044

  2. Identification of source of faecal pollution of Tirumanimuttar River, Tamilnadu, India using microbial source tracking.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Prabhakaran, Perumal; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh; Sekar, Kuppusamy

    2012-10-01

    Efficient management of deteriorating water bodies can be achieved by determining the sources of faecal pollution. Resourceful techniques for discrimination of the sources of Escherichia coli in surface water have recently been developed, including the use of river water to facilitate faecal indicator surveillance, identification of sources of faecal contamination and employing relevant management practices to maintain water quality. This study was conducted to employ microbial source tracking (MST) techniques for the determination of the sources of faecal pollution based on a water quality investigation of the physico-chemical characteristics and coliform count point of the Tirumanimuttar River. To accomplish this, an MST library-based antibiotic resistance analysis, serotyping and the genomic tool rep-PCR techniques were applied, and the obtained results were analysed statistically. Among 135 and 70 E. coli isolates present in the library and water samples collected from the river and nearby well water sources, respectively, most showed intrinsic, high or moderate resistance to antibiotics. Isolates from human and pig faecal sources were 92% homologous with the samples from the river, whereas isolates from sewage and dairy cattle showed 89% and 80% homology, respectively. These findings indicated that the Tirumanimuttar River is subjected to stress from anthropogenic activities and runoff contaminated with agricultural and human faecal contamination. The sources of faecal pollution identified in this study may facilitate the monitoring and management of the Tirumanimuttar River. PMID:22016043

  3. Evaluating Cryptosporidium and Giardia concentrations in combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Arnone, Russell D; Walling, Joyce Perdek

    2006-06-01

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreaks occurred in the 1980s and the massive 1993 Milwaukee, WI outbreak affected more than 400,000 people, the concern over the public health risks linked to protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia has grown. Cryptosporidium and Giardia, found in streams, rivers, groundwater, and soil, form hardy, disinfection-resistant oocysts and cysts. Both organisms are recognized causative agents of gastrointestinal illnesses linked to the consumption of contaminated surface or groundwater. This study, the first in a planned series to estimate the urban contribution to the total Cryptosporidium and Giardia receiving-water loads, focused on combined sewer overflow (CSO). CSOs are discharges of mixed untreated sewage and stormwater released directly into receiving waters during rainfall. This engineered relief is necessary to accommodate hydraulic strain when the combined rain and sanitary flows exceed the system capacity. Limited comprehensive data are available assessing the CSO discharge contribution as a source of these two pathogens. Works by States et al. and Gibson et al. each found Cryptosporidium and much greater Giardia concentrations in CSOs draining parts of Pittsburgh, PA. This project estimated the relative detection frequency and concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in CSO. Analytical results were obtained using a modification of Method 1623, originally developed for much cleaner environmental samples. These data are useful for drinking water treatment plants located downstream of CSOs. It is also significant in determining the potential concentrations of parasites at treatment plant intakes and for assessing health risks for water contact and fishing activities. Commonly monitored indicator organisms (total coliform, fecal coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus, and fecal streptococcus), endospores, and selected physical and chemical parameters were analyzed to further describe the samples. CSO from urban

  4. Application of enteric viruses for fecal pollution source tracking in environmental waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) tools are used to identify sources of fecal pollution for accurately assessing public health risk and implementing best management practices (BMPs). This review focuses on the potential of enteric viruses for MST applications. Following host infect...

  5. 10 CFR 20.2207 - Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources. 20.2207 Section 20.2207 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2207 Reports of transactions involving nationally tracked sources. Each licensee who manufactures, transfers,...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 20 - Nationally Tracked Source Thresholds

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nationally Tracked Source Thresholds E Appendix E to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. E Appendix E to Part 20— Nationally Tracked Source Thresholds The Terabecquerel (TBq) values are...

  7. Tracking the Sources of Fecal Contaminations: an Interdisciplinary Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanneau, L.; Jarde, E.; Derrien, M.; Gruau, G.; Solecki, O.; Pourcher, A.; Marti, R.; Wéry, N.; Caprais, M.; Gourmelon, M.; Mieszkin, S.; Jadas-Hécart, A.; Communal, P.

    2011-12-01

    Fecal contaminations of inland and coastal waters induce risks to human health and economic losses. In order to improve water management, it is necessary to identify the sources of contamination, which implies the development of specific markers. In order to be considered as a valuable host-specific marker, one must (1) be source specific, (2) occur in high concentration in polluting matrices, (3) exhibit extra-intestinal persistence similar to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and (4) not grow out of the host. However, up to day no single marker has fulfilled all those criteria. Thus, it has been suggested to use a combination of markers in order to generate more reliable data. This has lead to the development of a Microbial Source Tracking (MST) toolbox including FIB and microbial and chemical specific markers in order to differentiate between human, bovine and porcine fecal contaminations. Those specific markers are, (1) genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages, (2) bacterial markers belonging to the Bacteroidales (human-specific HF183, ruminant-specific Rum-2-Bac and pig-specific Pig-2-Bac markers), to the Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and pig-specific Lactobacillus amylovorus, (3) fecal stanols and (4) caffeine. The development of this MST toolbox was composed of four steps, from the molecular scale to the watershed scale. At the molecular scale, the specificity and the concentration of those markers were studied in cattle and pig manures and in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and influents. At the microcosm scale, the transfer of bovine and porcine specific markers was investigated by rainfall simulations on agricultural plots amended with cattle or pig manure. Moreover, the relative persistence of FIB and human, porcine and bovine specific markers was investigated in freshwater and seawater microcosms inoculated with a WWTP influent, pig manure and cow manure. Finally, the aforementioned MST toolbox has been validated at the

  8. Microbial source tracking and transfer hydrodynamics in rural catchments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sinead; Bhreathnach, Niamh; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Jordan, Philip; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    In Ireland, bacterial pathogens from continual point source pollution and intermittent pollution from diffuse sources can impact both drinking water supplies and recreational waters. This poses a serious public health threat. Observing and establishing the source of faecal pollution is imperative for the protection of water quality and human health. Traditional culture methods to detect such pollution via faecal indicator bacteria have been widely utilised but do not decipher the source of pollution. To combat this, microbial source tracking, an important emerging molecular tool, is applied to detect host-specific markers in faecally contaminated waters. The aim of this study is to target ruminant and human-specific faecal Bacteroidales and Bacteroides 16S rRNA genes within rural river catchments in Ireland and investigate hydrological transfer dependencies. During storm events and non-storm periods, 1L untreated water samples, taken every 2 hours over a 48-hour time period at the spring (Cregduff) or outlet (Dunleer), and large (5-20L) untreated water samples were collected from two catchment sites. Cregduff is a spring emergence under a grassland karst landscape in Co. Mayo (west coast of Ireland) and Dunleer is a mixed landuse over till soils in Co. Louth (east coast). From a risk assessment point of view, the catchments are very different. Samples were filtered through 0.2µm nitrocellulose filters to concentrate bacterial cells which then underwent chemical extraction of total nucleic acids. Animal and human stool samples were also collected from the catchments to determine assay sensitivity and specificity following nucleic acid extraction. Aquifer response to seasonal events was assessed by monitoring coliforms and E. coli occurrence using the IDEXX Colisure® Quanti Tray®/2000 system in conjunction with chemical and hydrological parameters. Autoanalysers deployed at each catchment monitor multiple water parameters every 10 min such as phosphorus, nitrogen

  9. Source Tracking Mycobacterium ulcerans Infections in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Narh, Charles A.; Mosi, Lydia; Quaye, Charles; Dassi, Christelle; Konan, Daniele O.; Tay, Samuel C. K.; de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have associated Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) infection, Buruli ulcer (BU), with slow moving water bodies, there is still no definite mode of transmission. Ecological and transmission studies suggest Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing as a useful tool to differentiate MU strains from other Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM). Deciphering the genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates is seminal to determining reservoirs, vectors and transmission routes. In this study, we attempted to source-track MU infections to specific water bodies by matching VNTR profiles of MU in human samples to those in the environment. Environmental samples were collected from 10 water bodies in four BU endemic communities in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Four VNTR loci in MU Agy99 genome, were used to genotype environmental MU ecovars, and those from 14 confirmed BU patients within the same study area. Length polymorphism was confirmed with sequencing. MU was present in the 3 different types of water bodies, but significantly higher in biofilm samples. Four MU genotypes, designated W, X, Y and Z, were typed in both human and environmental samples. Other reported genotypes were only found in water bodies. Animal trapping identified 1 mouse with lesion characteristic of BU, which was confirmed as MU infection. Our findings suggest that patients may have been infected from community associated water bodies. Further, we present evidence that small mammals within endemic communities could be susceptible to MU infections. M. ulcerans transmission could involve several routes where humans have contact with risk environments, which may be further compounded by water bodies acting as vehicles for disseminating strains. PMID:25612300

  10. Microbial source tracking in a coastal California watershed reveals canines as controllable sources of fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Jared S; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2014-08-19

    Elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, trigger coastal beach advisories and signal public health risks. Solving FIB pollution in suburban coastal watersheds is challenging, as there are many potential sources. The Arroyo Burro watershed in Santa Barbara, CA is an example, with its popular, but chronically FIB-contaminated beach. To address, a microbial source tracking study was performed. Surface waters were sampled over 2 years, FIB were quantified, and DNA was analyzed for host-associated fecal markers. Surf zone FIB were only elevated when the coastal lagoon was discharging. Among the fecal sources into the lagoon, including upstream human sources and coastal birds, canines were the most important. Canine sources included input via upstream creek water, which decreased after creek-side residences were educated about proper pet waste disposal, and direct inputs to the lagoon and surf zone, where dog waste could have been tidally exchanged with the lagoon. Based on this study, canine waste can be an influential, yet controllable, fecal source to suburban coastal beaches. PMID:25055204

  11. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) in China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Luo, Nannan; Wang, Haiyan; Yu, Fuchang; Wang, Rongjun; Huang, Jianying; Zhang, Longxian

    2015-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are the most prevalent protist pathogens responsible for inducing human and animal diseases worldwide. The aim of the present work was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in pet chinchillas in China. One hundred forty fecal samples were collected from four cities: Beijing, Zhengzhou, Anyang and Guiyang. They were then examined with PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal RNA of E. bieneusi. The infection rates for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were 10.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Sequence analysis of SSU rRNA gene products identified two Cryptosporidium spp., Cryptosporidium ubiquitum (n=13) and Cryptosporidium parvum (n=1). Subtyping with the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene showed that all C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to zoonotic subtype family XIId, while the subtype of the C. parvum isolate could not be identified. Two E. bieneusi genotypes were identified in five samples, zoonotic genotypes BEB6 (n=3) and D (n=2). This is the first report of C. ubiquitum and C. parvum, and E. bieneusi in chinchillas. This result indicates that pet chinchillas may be a potential source of human infection with Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi. PMID:25988830

  12. Tools for investigating the environmental transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Huw V; Cacciò, Simone M; Tait, Andy; McLauchlin, Jim; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are major public health concerns. The role of water and food in the epidemiology of these diseases is now well recognized. Molecular techniques are available to determine the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and to distinguish human from non-human pathogens. Validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype that are present in heterologous mixtures should be applied to environmental samples to enable the monitoring and characterization of infection sources, disease tracking and the establishment of causative links to both waterborne and foodborne outbreaks. Meaningful interpretation of population structures and occurrence-prevalence baselines can be performed only by analysing a well-planned set of samples from all possible sources taken regularly over time, rather than focusing on outbreak investigations. For food, this includes such analyses in the country of origin. PMID:16503418

  13. Tracking Coherent Structures and Source Localization in Geophysical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgoston, Eric; Hsieh, Ani; Schwartz, Ira; Yecko, Philip

    There has been a steady increase in the deployment of autonomous underwater and surface vehicles for applications such as ocean monitoring, tracking of marine processes, and forecasting contaminant transport. The underwater environment poses unique challenges since robots must operate in a communication and localization-limited environment where their dynamics are tightly coupled with the environmental dynamics. This work presents current efforts in understanding the impact of geophysical fluid dynamics on underwater vehicle control and autonomy. The focus of the talk is on the use of collaborative vehicles to track Lagrangian coherent structures and to localize contaminant spills. Research supported by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research.

  14. A novel microbial source tracking microarray for pathogen detection and fecal source identification in environmental systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J; Nayak, Bina; Staley, Christopher; Sadowsky, Michael J; Weidhaas, Jennifer

    2015-06-16

    Pathogen detection and the identification of fecal contamination sources are challenging in environmental waters. Factors including pathogen diversity and ubiquity of fecal indicator bacteria hamper risk assessment and remediation of contamination sources. A custom microarray targeting pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa), microbial source tracking (MST) markers, and antibiotic resistance genes was tested against DNA obtained from whole genome amplification (WGA) of RNA and DNA from sewage and animal (avian, cattle, poultry, and swine) feces. Perfect and mismatch probes established the specificity of the microarray in sewage, and fluorescence decrease of positive probes over a 1:10 dilution series demonstrated semiquantitative measurement. Pathogens, including norovirus, Campylobacter fetus, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella enterica, and Giardia lamblia were detected in sewage, as well as MST markers and resistance genes to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Sensitivity (percentage true positives) of MST results in sewage and animal waste samples (21-33%) was lower than specificity (83-90%, percentage of true negatives). Next generation DNA sequencing revealed two dominant bacterial families that were common to all sample types: Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Five dominant phyla and 15 dominant families comprised 97% and 74%, respectively, of sequences from all fecal sources. Phyla and families not represented on the microarray are possible candidates for inclusion in subsequent array designs. PMID:25970344

  15. An open-source framework for testing tracking devices using Lego Mindstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomier, Julien; Ibanez, Luis; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Pace, Danielle; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present an open-source framework for testing tracking devices in surgical navigation applications. At the core of image-guided intervention systems is the tracking interface that handles communication with the tracking device and gathers tracking information. Given that the correctness of tracking information is critical for protecting patient safety and for ensuring the successful execution of an intervention, the tracking software component needs to be thoroughly tested on a regular basis. Furthermore, with widespread use of extreme programming methodology that emphasizes continuous and incremental testing of application components, testing design becomes critical. While it is easy to automate most of the testing process, it is often more difficult to test components that require manual intervention such as tracking device. Our framework consists of a robotic arm built from a set of Lego Mindstorms and an open-source toolkit written in C++ to control the robot movements and assess the accuracy of the tracking devices. The application program interface (API) is cross-platform and runs on Windows, Linux and MacOS. We applied this framework for the continuous testing of the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), an open-source toolkit for image-guided surgery and shown that regression testing on tracking devices can be performed at low cost and improve significantly the quality of the software.

  16. Bayesian geoacoustic inversion and source tracking for horizontal line array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollefsen, Dag

    The overall goal of this thesis is to develop non-linear Bayesian methods for three-dimensional tracking of a moving acoustic source in shallow water despite environmental uncertainty, with application to data from a horizontal line array (HLA) of hydrophones. As a precursor, Bayesian geoacoustic inversion is applied to estimate seabed model parameters and their uncertainties. A simulation study examines the effect of source and array factors on geoacoustic information content in matched-field inversion of HLA data, as quantified in terms of model parameter uncertainties. Bayesian geoacoustic inversion is applied to both controlled-source and ship-noise data from a HLA deployed on the seafloor in a shallow-water experiment conducted in the Barents Sea. A new approach is introduced to account for data error reduction due to averaging data over time-series subsegments (snapshots), based on empirically apportioning measurement and theory error, with effects on inversion results compared to those of existing approaches. It is further demonstrated that combining data from multiple, independent time-series segments (for a moving source) in the inversion can significantly reduce geoacoustic parameter uncertainties. Geoacoustic uncertainties are also shown to depend on ship range and orientation, with lowest uncertainties for short ranges and for the ship stern/propeller oriented toward the array. Sediment sound-speed profile and density estimates from controlled-source and ship-noise data inversions are found to be in good agreement with values from geophysical measurements. Two non-linear Bayesian matched-field inversion approaches are developed for three-dimensional source tracking despite environmental uncertainty. Focalization-tracking maximizes the posterior probability density (PPD) over track and environmental parameters. Synthetic test cases show that the algorithm substantially outperforms tracking with poor environmental estimates and generally obtains results

  17. Surveillance Systems for Waterborne Cryptosporidium: US EPA method 1523 and Beyond

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waterborne cryptosporidiosis remains a significant public health concern in countries around the world. Many species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium contaminate drinking water sources, but C. parvum and C. hominis remain the two predominant species known to cause waterborne dis...

  18. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. PMID:25959691

  19. Sourcing sediment loss to watercourses at catchment scale using a novel tracing-tracking framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Adrian; Zhang, Yusheng; Walling, Des; Black, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Although traditional sediment tracing approaches provide valuable information for characterising key generic sediment sources, Catchment Officers working as part of the England Catchment Sensitive Farming Delivery Initiative (ECSFDI) frequently require higher resolution evidence to assist better the targeting of mitigation options. Accordingly, a novel framework combining conventional sediment source fingerprinting and a dual signature tracking method has recently been used to improve the resolution of sediment source information for contrasting priority catchments. Conventional geochemical tracing incorporating revised mass balance modelling is used to provide information on the relative significance of generic sediment sources such as grassland or arable surface soils, damaged road verges and channel banks/subsurface sources and to provide a framework for the spatial extrapolation of tracking data. Particle tracking using fluorescent-magnetic grains is used to elucidate sediment loss from key components of the primary generic sources, characterised, for example, as poached gateways or cattle tracks and wider areas of general poaching damage in grass fields, wheeling or inter-wheeling areas in arable fields and poached or fluvial-eroded channel banks. The insertion of high-strength magnets in watercourses ensures that the tracking component links sediment loss from seeded areas to river channels as opposed to providing edge-of-field information. Uncertainty and prior information are explicitly recognised by the novel framework. Key words: sediment sources; catchment scale; fingerprinting; tracking; uncertainty; prior information

  20. System and method for tracking a signal source. [employing feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogavero, L. N.; Johnson, E. G.; Evans, J. M., Jr.; Albus, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A system for tracking moving signal sources is disclosed which is particularly adaptable for use in tracking stage performers. A miniature transmitter is attached to the person or object to be tracked and emits a detectable signal of a predetermined frequency. A plurality of detectors positioned in a preset pattern sense the signal and supply output information to a phase detector which applies signals representing the angular orientation of the transmitter to a computer. The computer provides command signals to a servo network which drives a device such as a motor driven mirror reflecting the beam of a spotlight, to track the moving transmitter.

  1. A COMPARISON OF ENUMERATION TECHNIQUES FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of methods have been used to enumerate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from source or drinking waters. The reliability of these counting methods varies, in part, with suspension density, sample purity, and other factors. Frequently, the method of determination of suspens...

  2. UTILITY OF SURROGATES FOR MEASURING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYST INFECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The water industry must assess whether Cryptosporidium oocysts detected in source and finished water are viable and/or infectious. Initial approaches measuring the infectious nature of C. parvum oocysts have focused on in vitro excystation and in vitro vital dye staining. Recen...

  3. UTILITY OF SURROGATES FOR MEASURING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS INFECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The water industry must assess whether Cryptosporidium oocysts detected in source and finished water are viable and/or infectious. Initial approaches measuring the infectious nature of C. parvum oocysts have focused on in vitro excystation and in vitro vital dye staining. Recen...

  4. Method and apparatus for acquisition and tracking of light sources in a transient event rich environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissh, Frank (Inventor); Flynn, David (Inventor); Fowski, Walter (Inventor); Abreu, Rene (Inventor); Miklus, Kenneth (Inventor); Bolin, Kenneth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for tracking a light source in a transient event rich environment locks on to a light source incident on a field-of-view 1 of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) array 6, validates the permanence of said light source and transmits data relating to the brilliance and location of said light source if said light source is determined to be permanent.

  5. The Cryptosporidium parvum Kinome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hundreds of millions of people are infected with cryptosporidiosis annually, with immunocompromised individuals suffering debilitating symptoms and children in socioeconomically challenged regions at risk of repeated infections. There is currently no effective drug available. In order to facilitate the pursuit of anti-cryptosporidiosis targets and compounds, our study spans the classification of the Cryptosporidium parvum kinome and the structural and biochemical characterization of representatives from the CDPK family and a MAP kinase. Results The C. parvum kinome comprises over 70 members, some of which may be promising drug targets. These C. parvum protein kinases include members in the AGC, Atypical, CaMK, CK1, CMGC, and TKL groups; however, almost 35% could only be classified as OPK (other protein kinases). In addition, about 25% of the kinases identified did not have any known orthologues outside of Cryptosporidium spp. Comparison of specific kinases with their Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii orthologues revealed some distinct characteristics within the C. parvum kinome, including potential targets and opportunities for drug design. Structural and biochemical analysis of 4 representatives of the CaMK group and a MAP kinase confirms features that may be exploited in inhibitor design. Indeed, screening CpCDPK1 against a library of kinase inhibitors yielded a set of the pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives (PP1-derivatives) with IC50 values of < 10 nM. The binding of a PP1-derivative is further described by an inhibitor-bound crystal structure of CpCDPK1. In addition, structural analysis of CpCDPK4 identified an unprecedented Zn-finger within the CDPK kinase domain that may have implications for its regulation. Conclusions Identification and comparison of the C. parvum protein kinases against other parasitic kinases shows how orthologue- and family-based research can be used to facilitate characterization of promising drug targets and the search

  6. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water resources of the Kuang River catchment, Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Mukhaidin, Nabila; Choy, Seow Huey; Smith, Gavin J D; Mendenhall, Ian H; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ziegler, Alan D

    2016-08-15

    A catchment-scale investigation of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Kuang River Basin was carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. Water samples were collected from the Kuang River and its tributaries as well as a major irrigation canal at the study site. We also investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection among dairy and beef cattle hosts. Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia were detected in all the rivers considered for this study, reflecting their ubiquity within the Kuang River Basin. The high prevalence of Cryptosporidium/Giardia in the upper Kuang River and Lai River is of a particular concern as both drain into the Mae Kuang Reservoir, a vital source of drinking-water to many local towns and villages at the research area. We did not, however, detected neither Cryptosporidium nor Giardia were in the irrigation canal. The frequency of Cryptosporidium/Giardia detection nearly doubled during the rainy season compared to the dry season, highlighting the importance of water as an agent of transport. In addition to the overland transport of these protozoa from their land sources (e.g. cattle manure, cess pits), Cryptosporidium/Giardia may also be re-suspended from the streambeds (a potentially important repository) into the water column of rivers during storm events. Faecal samples from dairy and beef cattle showed high infection rates from various intestinal parasites - 97% and 94%, respectively. However, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were only detected in beef cattle. The difference in management style between beef (freeranging) and dairy cattle (confined) may account for this disparity. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Cryptosporidium/Giardia-positive samples contained C. ryanae (non-zoonotic) as well as Giardia intestinalis assemblages B (zoonotic) and E (non-zoonotic). With only basic water treatment facilities afforded to them, the communities of the rural area relying on these water supplies are

  7. BACTERIA SOURCE TRACKING AND HOST SPECIES SPECIFICITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point and non-point pollution sources of fecal pollution on a watershed adversely impact the quality of drinking source waters and recreational waters. States are required to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and devise best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the pollu...

  8. DNA BASED MOLECULAR METHODS FOR BACTERIAL SOURCE TRACKING IN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Point and non-point pollution sources of fecal pollution on a watershed adversely impact the quality of drinking source waters and recreational waters. States are required to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) and devise best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the po...

  9. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Band, L.E.; Elliott, E.M.; Shields, C.A.; Kendall, C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of ?? 15N-NO3-, and ??18O-NO 3- indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between ??15N-NO3- and ??18O- NO3- in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ???50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between ??15N-NO3- and ??18O-NO3- in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from Wild Rodents and Insectivores in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juha; Kim, C-Yoon; Chang, Seo-Na; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Han, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Hanseul; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Park, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans. PMID:26797442

  11. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. Isolated From Immunocompromised Patients and Children

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Abdollah; Rashno, Zahra; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cryptosporidium is known to be one of the most important causes of diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients. Genotype characterization of Cryptosporidium species in each region would help in the treatment of this disease, as well as to locate the source of infection and to prevent the disease. Objectives: This current research was conducted in order to analyze the molecular characterization of isolated Cryptosporidium spp. in the Southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this survey, 390 fecal samples were collected from immunocompromised individuals and children under five-years-of-age. Parasitic infection was evaluated using wet mount preparation, formalin ether, a modified acid fast staining method and microscopic examination. Finally, a PCR-RFLP assay was performed on the extracted DNA collected from fecal samples that were positive for Cryptosporidium by the acid fast method. Results: Among the 390 fecal samples, 16 cases (4.1%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. Molecular and genotype characterization found the following protozoan species; 11 Cryptosporidium parvum (68.8%), 4 C. hominis (25%), and one case of C. meleagridis (6.2%). Conclusions: The present study emphasized the public health importance of Cryptosporidium spp. in the study area. In addition, it seems that zoonotic species are the most important causes of infection in the region. As far as we are aware this the first report of a C. meleagridis infection in Iran. PMID:25147696

  12. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from Wild Rodents and Insectivores in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Juha; Kim, C-Yoon; Chang, Seo-Na; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Han, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Hanseul; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Jong-Taek; Oh, Hong-Shik; Hur, Moonsuk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Park, Jae-Hak

    2015-12-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in wild rodents and insectivores of South Korea and to assess their potential role as a source of human cryptosporidiosis, a total of 199 wild rodents and insectivore specimens were collected from 10 regions of South Korea and screened for Cryptosporidium infection over a period of 2 years (2012-2013). A nested-PCR amplification of Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene fragment revealed an overall prevalence of 34.2% (68/199). The sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene locus of Cryptosporidium was performed from the fecal and cecum samples that tested positive by COWP amplification PCR. As a result, we identified 4 species/genotypes; chipmunk genotype I, cervine genotype I, C. muris, and a new genotype which is closely related to the bear genotype. The new genotype isolated from 12 Apodemus agrarius and 2 Apodemus chejuensis was not previously identified as known species or genotype, and therefore, it is supposed to be a novel genotype. In addition, the host spectrum of Cryptosporidium was extended to A. agrarius and Crosidura lasiura, which had not been reported before. In this study, we found that the Korean wild rodents and insectivores were infected with various Cryptosporidium spp. with large intra-genotypic variationa, indicating that they may function as potential reservoirs transmitting zoonotic Cryptosporidium to livestock and humans. PMID:26797442

  13. Effects of drinking-water filtration on Cryptosporidium seroepidemiology, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Colin N; Wagner, Adam P; Robertson, Chris; Smith, Huw V; Pollock, Kevin G J

    2014-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts is associated with production of protective antibodies. We investigated prevalence of antibodies against the 27-kDa Cryptosporidium oocyst antigen among blood donors in 2 areas of Scotland supplied by drinking water from different sources with different filtration standards: Glasgow (not filtered) and Dundee (filtered). During 2006-2009, seroprevalence and risk factor data were collected; this period includes 2007, when enhanced filtration was introduced to the Glasgow supply. A serologic response to the 27-kDa antigen was found for ≈75% of donors in the 2 cohorts combined. Mixed regression modeling indicated a 32% step-change reduction in seroprevalence of antibodies against Cryptosporidium among persons in the Glasgow area, which was associated with introduction of enhanced filtration treatment. Removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water reduces the risk for waterborne exposure, sporadic infections, and outbreaks. Paradoxically, however, oocyst removal might lower immunity and increase the risk for infection from other sources. PMID:24377436

  14. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in surface water supplies.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Norton, W D; Lee, R G

    1991-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for source waters of 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. The results showed that cysts and oocysts were widely dispersed in the aquatic environment. Giardia spp. were detected in 81% of the raw water samples. Cryptosporidium spp. were found in 87% of the raw water locations. Overall, Giardia or Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 97% of the raw water samples. Higher cyst and oocyst densities were associated with source waters receiving industrial or sewage effluents. Significant correlations were found between Giardia and Cryptosporidium densities and raw water quality parameters such as turbidity and total and fecal coliform levels. Statistical modeling suggests that cyst and oocyst densities could be predicted on the basis of watershed and water quality characteristics. The occurrence of high levels of Giardia cysts in raw water samples may require water utilities to apply treatment beyond that outlined in the Surface Water Treatment Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:1822675

  15. A Customized DNA Microarray for Microbial Source Tracking in Environmental Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is estimated that more than 160, 000 miles of rivers and streams in the United States are impaired due to the presence of waterborne pathogens. These pathogens typically originate from human and other animal fecal pollution sources; therefore, a rapid microbial source tracking...

  16. FECAL SOURCE TRACKING BY ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE ANALYSIS ON A WATERSHED EXHIBITING LOW RESISTANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ongoing development of microbial source tracking has made it possible to identify contamination sources with varying accuracy, depending on the method used. The purpose of this study was done to test the efficiency of the antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) method under low ...

  17. QUO VADIS SOURCE TRACKING? TOWARDS A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in microbial source tracking (MST) have largely been driven by the need to comply with water quality standards based on traditional indicator bacteria. Recently, a number of PCR-based, culture- and library-independent methods have been gaining popularity among source tra...

  18. An efficient central DOA tracking algorithm for multiple incoherently distributed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, Sonia Ben; Samet, Abdelaziz

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a new tracking method for the direction of arrival (DOA) parameters assuming multiple incoherently distributed (ID) sources. The new approach is based on a simple covariance fitting optimization technique exploiting the central and noncentral moments of the source angular power densities to estimate the central DOAs. The current estimates are treated as measurements provided to the Kalman filter that model the dynamic property of directional changes for the moving sources. Then, the covariance-fitting-based algorithm and the Kalman filtering theory are combined to formulate an adaptive tracking algorithm. Our algorithm is compared to the fast approximated power iteration-total least square-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT) algorithm using the TLS-ESPRIT method and the subspace updating via FAPI-algorithm. It will be shown that the proposed algorithm offers an excellent DOA tracking performance and outperforms the FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT method especially at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Moreover, the performances of the two methods increase as the SNR values increase. This increase is more prominent with the FAPI-TLS-ESPRIT method. However, their performances degrade when the number of sources increases. It will be also proved that our method depends on the form of the angular distribution function when tracking the central DOAs. Finally, it will be shown that the more the sources are spaced, the more the proposed method can exactly track the DOAs.

  19. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A; Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Gross, Ian G; Smith, Cyrus M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  20. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  1. Host responses to Cryptosporidium infection.

    PubMed

    Gookin, Jody L; Nordone, Shila K; Argenzio, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a clinically and economically important infection whose pathogenic effect begins with colonization of the intestinal epithelium. Despite intensive efforts, a consistently effective therapy for the infection has yet to be identified. Morbidity and mortality results from ongoing loss of absorptive epithelium, which leads to villous atrophy and malabsorption and release of inflammatory mediators that stimulate electrolyte secretion and diarrhea. With further clarification of the mechanisms underlying enterocyte malfunction in Cryptosporidium infection, it should be possible to design rational nutritional and pharmacologic therapies to enhance nutrient and water absorption, promote the clearance of infected enterocytes, and restore normal villus architecture and mucosal barrier function. PMID:11822801

  2. Degradation and Isotope Source Tracking of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Joshi, Sunendra R; Jaisi, Deb P

    2016-01-27

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup, and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been frequently reported to be present in soils and other environments and thus have heightened public concerns on their potential adverse effects. Understanding the fate of these compounds and differentiating them from other naturally occurring compounds require a toolbox of methods that can go beyond conventional methods. Here, we applied individual isotope labeling technique whereby each compound or mineral involved in the glyphosate and AMPA degradation reaction was either synthesized or chosen to have distinct (18)O/(16)O ratios so that the source of incorporated oxygen in the orthophosphate generated and corresponding isotope effect during C-P bond cleavage could be identified. Furthermore, we measured original isotope signatures of a few commercial glyphosate sources to identify their source-specific isotope signatures. Our degradation kinetics results showed that the rate of glyphosate degradation was higher than that of AMPA in all experimental conditions, and both the rate and extent of degradation were lowest under anoxic conditions. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)OP) of orthophosphate generated from glyphosate and AMPA degradation suggested that one external oxygen atom from ambient water, not from dissolved oxygen or mineral, was incorporated into orthophosphate with the other three oxygen atoms inherited from the parent molecule. Interestingly, δ(18)OP values of all commercial glyphosate products studied were found to be the lightest among all orthophosphates known so far. Furthermore, isotope composition was found to be unaffected due to variable degradation kinetics, light/dark, and oxic/anoxic conditions. These results highlight the importance of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a nonconventional tool to potentially distinguish glyphosate sources and products from other organophosphorus compounds

  3. Dipole source encoding and tracking by the goldfish auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Sheryl; Fay, Richard R.; Elepfandt, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In goldfish and other otophysans, the Weberian ossicles mechanically link the saccule of the inner ear to the anterior swimbladder chamber (ASB). These structures are correlated with enhanced sound-pressure sensitivity and greater sensitivity at high frequencies (600–2000 Hz). However, surprisingly little is known about the potential impact of the ASB on other otolithic organs and about how auditory responses are modulated by discrete sources that change their location or orientation with respect to the ASB. In this study, saccular and lagenar nerve fiber responses and conditioned behaviors of goldfish were measured to a small, low-frequency (50 Hz) vibrating sphere (dipole) source as a function of its location along the body and its orientation with respect to the ASB. Conditioned behaviors and saccular nerve fiber activity exhibited response characteristics nearly identical to those measured from a hydrophone in the same relative position as the ASB. By contrast, response patterns from lagena fibers could not be predicted by pressure inputs to the ASB. Deflation of the ASB abolished the characteristic spatial response pattern of saccular but not lagena fibers. These results show that: (1) the lagena is not driven by ASB-mediated pressure inputs to the ear; (2) the ASB–saccule pathway dominates behavioral responsiveness, operating effectively at frequencies as low as 50 Hz; and (3) behavioral and neural (saccular) responses are strongly modulated by the position and orientation of the dipole with respect to the ASB. PMID:20889834

  4. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections on two Ohio pig farms with different management systems.

    PubMed

    Xiao, L; Herd, R P; Bowman, G L

    1994-04-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in pigs was investigated by the use of a direct immunofluorescence assay on two Ohio farms with different management systems. Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections were detected only in weanlings on the farm with slotted and wire floors, but in both weanlings and nursing piglets on the farm with porous concrete floors. Giardia infection was also detected in sows on the latter farm. The farm with porous concrete floors had a significantly higher Cryptosporidium infection rate in nursing piglets and Giardia infection rates in weanlings than the farm with slotted and wire floors. Sows were implicated as the source of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections for nursing piglets. PMID:8073616

  5. A model for the Z-track sources based on spectral evolution along the Z-track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    We present an explanation of the Z-track phenomenon based on spectral fitting results of Rossi-XTE observations of the source GX 340+0 using the emission model previously shown to describe the dipping Low Mass X-ray Binaries. In our Z-track model, the Soft Apex is a quiescent state of the source with lowest luminosity. On the Normal Branch we propose that the mass accretion rate Ṁ increases strongly as shown by the increasing luminosity of the ADC Comptonized emission. On the Horizontal Branch, this luminosity then falls suggesting a return of Ṁ to lower values. There are major changes in the neutron star blackbody emission with kT increasing to high values, while the blackbody radius decreases, these changes continuing monotonically on both Normal and Horizontal Branches. We propose that the NB and HB are dominated by radiation pressure of the blackbody, the emitted flux on the neutron star surface rising to twice the Eddington value, which disrupts the inner disc and we suggest a mechanism for how this produces the observed reduction of emitting area on the neutron star. A measured increase of column density on the NB and HB provides direct evidence for the disruption. We propose that the Flaring Branch comprises unstable thermonuclear burning since the constancy of the Comptonized emission luminosity rules out a change of Ṁ. Thus in our model, Ṁ does not increase monotonically along the Z-track as previously thought. The large increase in blackbody radius on the FB is reminiscent of radius expansion in X-ray bursts. Finally, we propose that the very strong radiation pressure on NB and HB is responsible for the launching of the jets detected in radio. Jets are not detected on the FB as the opening in the disc above the neutron star is blocked by its expanding atmosphere.

  6. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INACTIVATION AND REMOVAL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench- and pilot-scale tests were performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment, ozonation and chlorine dioxide to remove and inactivate Cryptosporidium oocysts. The impacts of coagulant type, coagulant dose, raw water quality, filter loading rates and filter media w...

  7. The General Biology of Cryptosporidium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium infect all classes of vertebrate animals. Of the sixteen valid species and nearly forty genotypes, three species are responsible for the majority of economic losses to livestock and morbidity and mortality to humans. This chapter summari...

  8. RadTrac : A system for detecting, localizing, and tracking radioactive sources in real time.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.; Klann, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-10-01

    Within the homeland security and emergency response communities, there is a need for a low-profile system to detect and locate radioactive sources. RadTrac has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory as an integrated system for the detection, localization, identification, and tracking of radioactive sources in real time. The system is based on a network of radiation detectors and advanced signal-processing algorithms. Features include video surveillance, automated tracking, easy setup, and logging of all data and images. This paper describes the advanced algorithms that were developed and implemented for source detection, localization, and tracking in real time. In the physio-spatial integration approach to source localization, counts from multiple detectors are processed according to the underlying physics linking these counts to obtain the probability that a source is present at any point in space. This information is depicted in a probability density function map. This type of depiction allows the results to be presented in a simple, easy-to-understand manner. It also allows for many different complicated factors to be accounted for in a single image as each factor is computed as a probability density in space. These factors include spatial limitations, variable shielding, directional detectors, moving detectors, and different detector sizes and orientations. The utility and versatility of this approach is described in further detail. Advanced signal-processing algorithms have also been incorporated to improve real-time tracking and to increase signal-to-noise ratios including temporal linking and energy binning. Measurements aimed at demonstrating the sensitivity improvements through the use of advanced signal-processing techniques were performed and are presented. Results of tracking weak sources (<100 {micro}Ci {sup 137}Cs) using four fixed-position detectors are presented.

  9. MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING - WHERE ARE WE NOW AND WHERE ARE WE GOING?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial Source Tracking ? Where Are We Now and Where Are We Going?

    J. W. Santo-Domingo1, J. M. Simpson1, G. Scott2 and D. J. Reasoner1
    1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268
    2National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC 29412...

  10. Signal simulator model A-111. [signal source for Doppler tracking high data rate receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flattau, T.; Mellars, J.

    1974-01-01

    A signal simulator designed to function as a signal source for Doppler tracking high data rate receivers is described. The simulator produces modulated signals whose carrier frequency can be varied between 200 and 900 MHz at rates greater than 20 MHz/sec. The modulation is phase shift keying with data rate up to 300 megabits per second.

  11. New Performance Metrics for Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Microbial Source Tracking Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Binary sensitivity and specificity metrics are not adequate to describe the performance of quantitative microbial source tracking methods because the estimates depend on the amount of material tested and limit of detection. We introduce a new framework to compare the performance ...

  12. Performance of forty-one microbial source tracking methods: A twenty-seven lab evaluation study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last decade has seen development of numerous new microbial source tracking (MST) methodologies, but many of these have been tested in just a few laboratories with a limited number of fecal samples. This method evaluation study examined the specificity and sensitivity of 43 ...

  13. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  14. Active microcoil tracking in the lungs using a semisolid rubber as signal source.

    PubMed

    Alt, Stefan; Homagk, Ann-Kathrin; Umathum, Reiner; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2010-07-01

    A new method to localize and track medical devices in air-filled body cavities is proposed that uses active microcoils with a semisolid filling. In air spaces, e.g., the lung, microcoils require an independent signal source, which should be made of a biocompatible, solid and sterilizable material with a long shelf time. In a measurement of the T(1) and T*(2) and the relative spin density of several semisolid materials, latex was identified as a suitable material from which a prototype catheter was constructed with a microcoil at its tip. In a dual-echo tracking pulse sequence, the very short T*(2) of the rubber material allowed suppressing the background signal from surrounding tissue with a subtraction technique and additional dephasing gradients. With a roadmapping reconstruction, the microcoil's trajectory could be visualized on a previously acquired reference image set with a tracking rate of up to 60 Hz at a spatial resolution of better than 2mm. In a real-time tracking implementation, an image update rate of 4 Hz was achieved by combining the tracking with a fast real-time imaging sequence. Both methods were successfully applied in vivo to track the catheter in the lung of a pig. PMID:20572154

  15. Intensive exploitation of a karst aquifer leads to Cryptosporidium water supply contamination.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, S; Ratajczak, M; Gargala, G; Fournier, M; Berthe, T; Favennec, L; Dupont, J P

    2011-04-01

    Groundwater from karst aquifers is an important source of drinking water worldwide. Outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis linked to surface water and treated public water are regularly reported. Cryptosporidium oocysts are resistant to conventional drinking water disinfectants and are a major concern for the water industry. Here, we examined conditions associated with oocyst transport along a karstic hydrosystem, and the impact of intensive exploitation on Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination of the water supply. We studied a well-characterized karstic hydrosystem composed of a sinkhole, a spring and a wellbore. Thirty-six surface water and groundwater samples were analyzed for suspended particulate matter, turbidity, electrical conductivity, and Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cyst concentrations. (Oo)cysts were identified and counted by means of solid-phase cytometry (ChemScan RDI(®)), a highly sensitive method. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 78% of both surface water and groundwater samples, while Giardia cysts were found in respectively 22% and 8% of surface water and groundwater samples. Mean Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations were 29, 13 and 4/100 L at the sinkhole, spring and wellbore, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were transported from the sinkhole to the spring and the wellbore, with respective release rates of 45% and 14%, suggesting that oocysts are subject to storage and remobilization in karst conduits. Principal components analysis showed that Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations depended on variations in hydrological forcing factors. All water samples collected during intensive exploitation contained oocysts. Control of Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination during intensive exploitation is therefore necessary to ensure drinking water quality. PMID:21477840

  16. First investigations into the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Hungarian drinking water.

    PubMed

    Plutzer, J; Takó, M H; Márialigeti, K; Törökné, A; Karanis, P

    2007-12-01

    Safe drinking water is a top priority in preventing disease outbreaks and is of general concern to everyone. This study examines the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Hungarian drinking water supplies for the first time. A total of 76 raw and drinking water samples were examined using the U.S. EPA Method 1623. From these 15 of 34 (48.4%) raw water samples tested positive for Giardia and 7 (26.6%) for Cryptosporidium. Twelve of 45 (26.7%) drinking water samples were positive for Giardia and 6 (13.3%) for Cryptosporidium. Overall, Giardia cysts and/or Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 48% of the raw water samples and 35% of the drinking water samples. The highest levels in drinking water were found to be 3 oocysts/100 litres of Cryptosporidium and 63.6 cysts/100 litres for Giardia, enough to cause giardiasis. The highest levels in raw water were 1,030 cysts/100 litres for Giardia and 50 oocysts/100 litres for Cryptosporidium and higher oocyst densities were associated with source water receiving effluents from sewage treatment plants or originating from a forest environment. In addition to this monitoring, riverbank filtrated water and raw water from the River Danube in Budapest were monitored in order to ascertain protozoan removal efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF). A total of 157 samples, including 87 samples from the River Danube and 70 samples post RBF, were examined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected regularly in the river water but never in riverbank filtered water suggesting the effectiveness of RBF as a purification method. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the investigated water supplies may require the water utilities and water authorities in Hungary to apply additional monitoring and treatment and/or watershed controls. PMID:17878568

  17. Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M; Hill, David E; Gorman, Bryan L

    2010-09-01

    As a proof of concept tested in an operational context, the Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring (GRadSSTraM) Project successfully demonstrated that radio frequency identification (RFID) and Web 2.0* technologies can be deployed to track controlled shipments between the United States and the European Union. Between November 2009 and May 2010, a total of 19 shipments were successfully shipped from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and tracked to their delivery at England's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) by the United Kingdom Royal Mail. However, the project can only be viewed as a qualified success as notable shortcomings were observed. Although the origin and terminus of all RFID-enabled shipments were recorded and no shipments were lost, not all the waypoints between ORNL and NPL were incorporated into the pilot. Given limited resources, the project team was able to install RFID listeners/actuators at three waypoints between the two endpoints. Although it is likely that all shipments followed the same route between ORNL and NPL, it cannot be determined beyond question that all 19 shipments were routed on identical itineraries past the same three waypoints. The pilot also raises the distinct possibility that unattended RFID tracking alone, without positive confirmation that a tagged item has been properly recorded by an RFID reader, does not meet a rigorous standard for shipping controlled items. Indeed, the proof of concept test strongly suggests that a multifaceted approach to tracking may be called for, including tracking methods that are capable of reading and accepting multiple inputs for individual items [e.g., carrier-provided tracking numbers, Universal Product Codes (UPCs), and RFID tags]. For controlled items, another apparent requirement is a confirmation feature, human or otherwise, which can certify that an item's RFID tag, UPC, or tracking number has been recorded.

  18. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  19. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  20. Infection status of pigs with Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae-Ran

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the infection status of pigs with Cryptosporidium parvum, 589 fecal samples were collected from pigs raised at farm in Chungcheongbuk-do and Chungcheongnam-do. Of the 589 pig fecal samples, 62 (10.5%) were positive for C. parvum. The area showing the highest positive rate was Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (14.0%), and the lowest (0%) Salmi-myon, Chungcheongbuk-do. The positive rate of C. parvum in Judok-eup increased from 12.7% in the winter to 22.1% in the summer. The results of this study suggest that the pigs may be a source of human C. parvum infection. PMID:15060340

  1. Enhancing fecal coliform total maximum daily load models through bacterial source tracking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, K.E.; Moyer, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

  2. Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

    2004-12-01

    A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

  3. Rapid identification and source-tracking of Listeria monocytogenes using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Snehal; Gulati, Vandana; Fox, Edward M; Karpe, Avinash; Beale, David J; Sevior, Danielle; Bhave, Mrinal; Palombo, Enzo A

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen responsible for the sometimes fatal disease listeriosis. Public health concerns and stringent regulations associated with the presence of this pathogen in food and food processing environments underline the need for rapid and reliable detection and subtyping techniques. In the current study, the application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a single identification and source-tracking tool for a collection of L. monocytogenes isolates, obtained predominantly from dairy sources within Australia, was explored. The isolates were cultured on different growth media and analysed using MALDI-TOF MS at two incubation times (24 and 48 h). Whilst reliable genus-level identification was achieved from most media, identification at the species level was found to be dependent on culture conditions. Successful speciation was highest for isolates cultured on the chromogenic Agar Listeria Ottaviani Agosti agar (ALOA, 91% of isolates) and non-selective horse blood agar (HBA, 89%) for 24h. Chemometric statistical analysis of the MALDI-TOF MS data enabled source-tracking of L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from four different dairy sources. Strain-level discrimination was also observed to be influenced by culture conditions. In addition, t-test/analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify potential biomarker peaks that differentiated the isolates according to their source of isolation. Source-tracking using MALDI-TOF MS was compared and correlated with the gold standard pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. The discriminatory index and the congruence between both techniques were compared using the Simpsons Diversity Index and adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Overall, MALDI-TOF MS based source-tracking (using data obtained by culturing the isolates on HBA) and PFGE demonstrated good congruence with a Wallace coefficient of 0.71 and

  4. Possible zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium felis in a household

    PubMed Central

    Beser, Jessica; Toresson, Linda; Eitrem, Rickard; Troell, Karin; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Lebbad, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the risk of contracting cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium felis is considered to be relatively low, and most of the confirmed cases have been observed in immunocompromised patients. Both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission routes have been suggested. Here, we report a case of suspected zoonotic transmission of C. felis from a cat to a human. The cat developed diarrhea several months before such symptoms were displayed by its owner, a 37-year-old immunocompetent woman. The presence of identical C. felis SSU rRNA, HSP70, and COWP gene sequences was verified in both hosts. In conclusion, it is highly probable that the cat was the initial source of infection and not the opposite. Our results show that Cryptosporidium infection can be transmitted from pets to humans and that molecular analysis is needed to confirm the identity of the oocysts. PMID:26446304

  5. Genetic Diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Captive Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Ryan, Una M.; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Limor, Josef; Li, Lixia; Kombert, Mark; Junge, Randy; Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Zhou, Ling; Arrowood, Michael J.; Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, David; Lal, Altaf A.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium in reptiles was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. A total of 123 samples were analyzed, of which 48 snake samples, 24 lizard samples, and 3 tortoise samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. Nine different types of Cryptosporidium were found, including Cryptosporidium serpentis, Cryptosporidium desert monitor genotype, Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium parvum bovine and mouse genotypes, one C. serpentis-like parasite in a lizard, two new Cryptosporidium spp. in snakes, and one new Cryptosporidium sp. in tortoises. C. serpentis and the desert monitor genotype were the most common parasites and were found in both snakes and lizards, whereas the C. muris and C. parvum parasites detected were probably the result of ingestion of infected rodents. Sequence and biologic characterizations indicated that the desert monitor genotype was Cryptosporidium saurophilum. Two host-adapted C. serpentis genotypes were found in snakes and lizards. PMID:14766569

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in water bodies of Galicia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    animal health. These results demonstrate the wide distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the environment, the ineffectiveness of treatments in DWTPs and WWTPs in reducing/inactivating both protozoa and the need to monitor the presence, viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water bodies. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:20673950

  7. Tracking brachytherapy sources using emission imaging with one flat panel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Song Haijun; Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva; Yin Fangfang

    2009-04-15

    This work proposes to use the radiation from brachytherapy sources to track their dwell positions in three-dimensional (3D) space. The prototype device uses a single flat panel detector and a BB tray. The BBs are arranged in a defined pattern. The shadow of the BBs on the flat panel is analyzed to derive the 3D coordinates of the illumination source, i.e., the dwell position of the brachytherapy source. A kilovoltage x-ray source located 3.3 m away was used to align the center BB with the center pixel on the flat panel detector. For a test plan of 11 dwell positions, with an Ir-192 high dose rate unit, one projection was taken for each dwell point, and locations of the BB shadows were manually identified on the projection images. The 3D coordinates for the 11 dwell positions were reconstructed based on two BBs. The distances between dwell points were compared with the expected values. The average difference was 0.07 cm with a standard deviation of 0.15 cm. With automated BB shadow recognition in the future, this technique possesses the potential of tracking the 3D trajectory and the dwell times of a brachytherapy source in real time, enabling real time source position verification.

  8. Tracking brachytherapy sources using emission imaging with one flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Song, Haijun; Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2009-04-01

    This work proposes to use the radiation from brachytherapy sources to track their dwell positions in three-dimensional (3D) space. The prototype device uses a single flat panel detector and a BB tray. The BBs are arranged in a defined pattern. The shadow of the BBs on the flat panel is analyzed to derive the 3D coordinates of the illumination source, i.e., the dwell position of the brachytherapy source. A kilovoltage x-ray source located 3.3 m away was used to align the center BB with the center pixel on the flat panel detector. For a test plan of 11 dwell positions, with an Ir-192 high dose rate unit, one projection was taken for each dwell point, and locations of the BB shadows were manually identified on the projection images. The 3D coordinates for the 11 dwell positions were reconstructed based on two BBs. The distances between dwell points were compared with the expected values. The average difference was 0.07 cm with a standard deviation of 0.15 cm. With automated BB shadow recognition in the future, this technique possesses the potential of tracking the 3D trajectory and the dwell times of a brachytherapy source in real time, enabling real time source position verification. PMID:19472615

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in livestock animals and humans in the Ismailia province of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Yosra A; Krücken, Jürgen; Nöckler, Karsten; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Zessin, Karl-H

    2013-03-31

    The zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium was studied in one of the most densely populated provinces of Egypt regarding livestock and people. In a representative survey, faecal samples from cattle, buffalo and stool samples from diarrhoeic children (<10 years) were investigated. Parameters assumed to be related to cryptosporidiosis were recorded for animals and children. Animal samples (804) were examined by the Copro-antigen RIDA(®)QUICK test, followed by PCRs targeting the 18S rDNA and gp60 genes for antigen-positive and 10% randomly selected negative samples. All 165 human samples were tested by both methods. The overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium in ruminants was 32.2%, without significant difference between animal species. PCR identified 65.7% Cryptosporidium parvum, 11.8% Cryptosporidium ryanae, 4.1% Cryptosporidium bovis, and combinations of C. parvum plus C. ryanae (11.2%), C. parvum plus C. bovis (5.3%) and of C. parvum plus Cryptosporidium andersoni (1.8%), also without significant differences in species occurrence between cattle and buffalos. The human Cryptosporidium spp. prevalence was 49.1%, of which 60.5% were Cryptosporidium hominis, 38.2% C. parvum and 1.2% C. parvum plus C. bovis. Analysis of gp60 variants allocated C. parvum found in animals to the zoonotic subtype family IIa (18.9%, subtype IIaA15G1R1 only) and to IId (81.1%, mostly IIdA20G1). In humans 50% were classified as subtype family IIa (IIaA15G1R1 and IIaA15G2R1) and 50% were IIdA20G1. C. andersoni occurred only in cattle older than 1 year. In contrast, mono-infections with one of the three single Cryptosporidium species and the three combinations with C. parvum were more prevalent in cattle and buffaloes younger than 1 year, particularly in those younger than 3 months, and were predominantly subtype family IId. In human samples no Cryptosporidium were identified in children younger than 7 months. Neither place of residence nor the source of drinking-water had measurable

  10. Source tracking of leaky sewers: a novel approach combining fecal indicators in water and sediments.

    PubMed

    Guérineau, Hélène; Dorner, Sarah; Carrière, Annie; McQuaid, Natasha; Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Hajj-Mohamad, Mariam; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    In highly urbanized areas, surface water and groundwater are particularly vulnerable to sewer exfiltration. In this study, as an alternative to Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods, we propose a new method combining microbial and chemical fecal indicators (Escherichia coli (E. coli)) and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) analysis both in water and sediment samples and under different meteorological conditions. To illustrate the use of this method, wastewater exfiltration and subsequent infiltration were identified and quantified by a three-year field study in an urban canal. The gradients of concentrations observed suggest that several sources of fecal contamination of varying intensity may be present along the canal, including feces from resident animal populations, contaminated surface run-off along the banks and under bridge crossings, release from contaminated banks, entrainment of contaminated sediments, and most importantly sewage exfiltration. Calculated exfiltration-infiltration volumes varied between 0.6 and 15.7 m(3)/d per kilometer during dry weather, and between 1.1 and 19.5 m(3)/d per kilometer during wet weather. WWMPs were mainly diluted and degraded below detection limits in water. E. coli remains the best exfiltration indicator given a large volume of dilution and a high abundance in the wastewater source. WWMPs are effective for detecting cumulated contamination in sediments from a small volume source and are particularly important because E. coli on its own does not allow source tracking. PMID:24735912

  11. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  12. Source tracking aerosols released from land-applied class B biosolids during high-wind events.

    PubMed

    Baertsch, Carolina; Paez-Rubio, Tania; Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

    2007-07-01

    DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) methods were developed and used to specifically and sensitively track the unintended aerosolization of land-applied, anaerobically digested sewage sludge (biosolids) during high-wind events. Culture and phylogenetic analyses of bulk biosolids provided a basis for the development of three different MST methods. They included (i) culture- and 16S rRNA gene-based identification of Clostridium bifermentans, (ii) direct PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for an uncultured bacterium of the class Chloroflexi that is commonly present in anaerobically digested biosolids, and (iii) direct PCR amplification of a 16S rRNA gene of the phylum Euryarchaeota coupled with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to distinguish terminal fragments that are unique to biosolid-specific microorganisms. Each method was first validated with a broad group of bulk biosolids and soil samples to confirm the target's exclusive presence in biosolids and absence in soils. Positive responses were observed in 100% of bulk biosolid samples and in less than 11% of the bulk soils tested. Next, a sampling campaign was conducted in which all three methods were applied to aerosol samples taken upwind and downwind of fields that had recently been land applied with biosolids. When average wind speeds were greater than 5 m/s, source tracking results confirmed the presence of biosolids in 56% of the downwind samples versus 3% of the upwind samples. During these high-wind events, the biosolid concentration in downwind aerosols was between 0.1 and 2 microg/m3. The application of DNA-based source tracking to aerosol samples has confirmed that wind is a possible mechanism for the aerosolization and off-site transport of land-applied biosolids. PMID:17513591

  13. Source Tracking Aerosols Released from Land-Applied Class B Biosolids during High-Wind Events▿

    PubMed Central

    Baertsch, Carolina; Paez-Rubio, Tania; Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) methods were developed and used to specifically and sensitively track the unintended aerosolization of land-applied, anaerobically digested sewage sludge (biosolids) during high-wind events. Culture and phylogenetic analyses of bulk biosolids provided a basis for the development of three different MST methods. They included (i) culture- and 16S rRNA gene-based identification of Clostridium bifermentans, (ii) direct PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for an uncultured bacterium of the class Chloroflexi that is commonly present in anaerobically digested biosolids, and (iii) direct PCR amplification of a 16S rRNA gene of the phylum Euryarchaeota coupled with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to distinguish terminal fragments that are unique to biosolid-specific microorganisms. Each method was first validated with a broad group of bulk biosolids and soil samples to confirm the target's exclusive presence in biosolids and absence in soils. Positive responses were observed in 100% of bulk biosolid samples and in less than 11% of the bulk soils tested. Next, a sampling campaign was conducted in which all three methods were applied to aerosol samples taken upwind and downwind of fields that had recently been land applied with biosolids. When average wind speeds were greater than 5 m/s, source tracking results confirmed the presence of biosolids in 56% of the downwind samples versus 3% of the upwind samples. During these high-wind events, the biosolid concentration in downwind aerosols was between 0.1 and 2 μg/m3. The application of DNA-based source tracking to aerosol samples has confirmed that wind is a possible mechanism for the aerosolization and off-site transport of land-applied biosolids. PMID:17513591

  14. Tracking Dynamic Source Direction with a Novel Stationary Electronic Nose System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jie; Levy, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Arrays of chemical sensors, usually called electronic noses (ENose), are widely used in industry for classifying and identifying odours. They may also be used to locate the position and detect the direction of an emission source. Usually this task is performed by an ENose cooperating with a mobile vehicle, but when a source is instantaneous, or the surrounding terrain is hard for vehicles to traverse, an alternative approach is needed. Thus a three-step method for a stationary ENose with a novel structure to detect the direction of a dynamic source is presented in this paper. The method uses the ratio of measured concentration from different sensors (Cn / C1 where n=2, 4) as a discriminator. In addition, this method could easily be adapted to robotics as an optimized algorithm for path tracking to a source location. The paper presents the results of a simulation of the method.

  15. Fecal source tracking by antibiotic resistance analysis on a watershed exhibiting low resistance.

    PubMed

    Olivas, Yolanda; Faulkner, Barton R

    2008-04-01

    The ongoing development of microbial source tracking has made it possible to identify contamination sources with varying accuracy, depending on the method used. The purpose of this study was to test the efficiency of the antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) method under low resistance by tracking the fecal sources at Turkey Creek, Oklahoma exhibiting this condition. The resistance patterns of 772 water-isolates, tested with nine antibiotics, were analyzed by discriminant analysis (DA) utilizing a five-source library containing 2250 isolates. The library passed various representativeness tests; however, two of the pulled-sample tests suggested insufficient sampling. The resubstitution test of the library individual sources showed significant isolate misclassification with an average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 58%. These misclassifications were explained by low antibiotic resistance (Wilcoxon test P < 0.0001). Seasonal DA of stream E. coli isolates for the pooled sources human/livestock/deer indicated that in fall, the human source dominated (P < 0.0001) at a rate of 56%, and that human and livestock respective contributions in winter (35 and 39%), spring (43 and 40%), and summer (37 and 35%) were similar. Deer scored lower (17-28%) than human and livestock at every season. The DA was revised using results from a misclassification analysis to provide a perspective of the effect caused by low antibiotic resistance and a more realistic determination of the fecal source rates at Turkey Creek. The revision increased livestock rates by 13-14% (0.04

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum is not transmissible to fish, amphibians, or reptiles.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Fayer, R; Cranfield, M R

    1996-10-01

    A recent report suggested that an isolate of Cryptosporidium parvum had established infections in fish, amphibians, and reptiles and raises concern that animals other than mammals might be a potential source of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts. To test this possibility, viable C. parvum oocysts, infectious for neonatal BALB/c mice, were delivered by gastric intubation to bluegill sunfish, poison-dart frogs, African clawed frogs, bearded dragon lizards, and corn snakes. Histological sections of the stomach, jejunum, ileum, and cloaca prepared from tissues collected on days 7 and 14 postinoculation (PI) were negative for Cryptosporidium developmental stages. However, inoculum-derived oocysts were detectable by fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody in feces of inoculated animals from day 1 to day 12 PI in fish and frogs, and up to day 14 PI in lizards. Snakes did not defecate for 14 days PI. Impression smears taken at necropsy on days 7 and 14 PI revealed C. parvum oocysts in the lumen of the cloaca of 2 fish and 1 lizard on day 7 PI only. Because tissue stages of the pathogen were not found, it appears that C. parvum was not heterologously transmitted to lower vertebrates. Under certain circumstances, however, such as after the ingestion of C. parvum-infected prey, lower vertebrates may disseminate C. parvum oocysts in the environment. PMID:8885883

  17. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  18. Tracking magmatic intrusions in real-time by means of free-shaped volcanic source modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Camacho, Antonio G.; Scandura, Danila; González, Pablo J.; Mattia, Mario; Fernández, José

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays continuous measurements of geophysical parameters provide a general real-time view of current state of the volcano. Nonetheless, a current challenge is to localize and track in real-time the evolution of the magma source beneath the volcano. Here we present a new methodology to rapidly estimate magmatic sources from surface geodetic data and track their evolution in time without any a priori assumption about source geometry. Indeed, the proposed approach takes the advantages of fast calculation from the analytical models and adds the capability to model free-shape distributed sources. Assuming homogenous elastic conditions, the approach can determine general geometrical configurations of pressured and/or density source and/or sliding structures corresponding to prescribed values of anomalous density, pressure and slip. These source bodies are described as aggregation of elemental point sources for pressure, density and slip, and they fit the whole data (keeping some 3D regularity conditions). In this work we show an application of the methodology to model the real-time evolution of the volcanic source for 2008 eruption of Mount Etna (Italy). To this aim the High-Rate GPS data, coming from the Continuous GPS network, are processed in real-time to obtain sub-daily solutions for tracking the fast dynamics of the magma migration. In our test case we reproduced the real-time scenario of the eruption. Though the data of the test were processed after data collection, real-time operation was emulated. From the results, it is possible to extrapolate the dynamic of a deep and a shallow magma source and the dyke intrusion. In particular, results show at 5 am UTC a magma batch likely migrating towards the surface leaving behind a deflating volume at about 2 km bsl and a deep elongated body from 2 km bsl to 10 km bsl which runs along the High Vp Body and likely represents the deep conduit from where the magma rises up. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology is

  19. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients †

    PubMed Central

    Fidan, Barış; Umay, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs), including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-flight (TOF)-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments. PMID:26690441

  20. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Barış; Umay, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs), including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-flight (TOF)-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments. PMID:26690441

  1. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  2. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  3. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TIYO, Rogerio; de SOUZA, Carla Zangari; NISHI, Letícia; BRUSTOLIN, Camila Fernanda; RATTI, Bianca Altrão; FALAVIGNA GUILHERME, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidiumspp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardiaspp. or Cryptosporidiumspp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardiaspp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed. PMID:26422158

  4. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in irrigation water and associated sediments: implications for source tracking.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingeng; Hume, Michael E; Sternes, Keith L; Pillai, Suresh D

    2004-11-01

    Identifying the sources of fecal contaminants in surface water bodies such as rivers and lakes is of significant importance for environmental quality, food safety and regulatory purposes. Current DNA library-based source tracking approaches rely on the comparison of the genetic relatedness among the fecal contaminants. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli isolated from irrigation water and associated sediments using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and to evaluate the genetic stability of the E. coli PFGE patterns. The isolates were obtained over a 4-month period from specific locations within irrigation canals and sediments associated with the Rio Grande River along the Texas-Mexico border. Fifty E. coli isolates were genotyped using PFGE. Different E. coli genotypes were identified among samples collected in 11 different locations. Some isolates obtained over successive months showed similar genotypic patterns. In the laboratory experiment, the PFGE pattern of one E. coli strain changed during survival in irrigation water. The genetic relatedness of this strain changed from >95% to <83% over 8-week survival. These results imply that PFGE is of such extreme resolution that it may be a challenging task to rely solely on a PFGE-based source tracking DNA fingerprint library for large watersheds. PMID:15380980

  5. Assessment of equine fecal contamination: the search for alternative bacterial source-tracking targets.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joyce M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-01-01

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicated that upstream and downstream water samples were predominantly beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (35 and 19%, respectively), while the manure library consisted predominantly of Firmicutes (31%) and previously unidentified sequences (60%). Manure-specific eubacterial sequences were not detectable beyond 5 m downstream of the pile, suggesting either poor survival or high dilution rates. In contrast, Bacteroides and Prevotella sp. sequences were detected both in manure and downstream using group-specific primers. Novel sequences from Bacteroides and Prevotella analysis produced an equine-specific phylogenetic cluster as compared to previous data sets obtained for human and bovine samples. While these results suggest that some anaerobic fecal bacteria might be potential identifiers for use in source-tracking applications, a comprehensive examination of environmental sequences within these species should be performed before methods targeting these bacterial groups are applied to watersheds for development of microbial source-tracking protocols. PMID:19712347

  6. DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the advent and recognition of waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis great effort has been expended on development of methods for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Oocysts recovery rates using a method originally developed for detecting Giardia cysts ranged fr...

  7. AN EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM GENOTYPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of 11 previously described species differentiation and genotyping PCR protocols for detection of Cryptosporidium parasites. Genomic DNA from three species of Crytosporidium parasites (genotype 1 and genotype 2 of C. parvum, C. muris, a...

  8. Cryptosporidium meleagridis: Infectivity in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Akiyoshi, Donna E.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Most Cryptosporidium infections in humans are caused by C. parvum or C. hominis. However, genotyping techniques have identified infections caused by unusual Cryptosporidium species. Cryptosporidium meleagridis has been identified in ≤ 1% of persons with diarrhea, although prevalence is higher in developing nations. We examined the infectivity of C. meleagridis in healthy adults. Five volunteers were challenged with 105 C. meleagridis oocysts and monitored six weeks for fecal oocysts and clinical manifestations. Four volunteers had diarrhea; three had detectable fecal oocysts; and one infected volunteer remained asymptomatic. Fecal DNA from two volunteers was amplified by using a polymerase chain reaction specific for the Cryptosporidium small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleotide sequence of these amplicons was diagnostic for C. meleagridis. All infections were self-limited; oocysts were cleared within ≤ 12 days of challenge. These studies establish that healthy adults can be infected and become ill from ingestion of C. meleagridis oocysts. PMID:21813841

  9. INACTIVATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS WITH OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone inactivation rates for Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) oocysts were determined with an in-vitro excystation method based on excysted sporozoite counts. Results were consistent with published animal infectivity data for the same C. parvum strain. The inactivation kinetics...

  10. Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayer, R.; Santin, M.; Trout, J.M.; DeStefano, S.; Koenen, K.; Kaur, T.

    2006-01-01

    Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and ??-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  11. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  12. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  13. Microbial source tracking markers at three inland recreational lakes in Ohio, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2012-01-01

    During the 2011 recreational season, samples were collected for E. coli and microbial source tracking (MST) marker concentrations to begin to understand potential sources of fecal contamination at three inland recreational lakes in Ohio - Buckeye, Atwood, and Tappan Lakes. The results from 32 regular samples, 4 field blanks, and 7 field replicates collected at 5 sites are presented in this report. At the three lakes, the ruminant-associated marker was found most often (57-73 percent of samples) but at estimated quantities, followed by the dog-associated marker (30-43 percent of samples). The human-associated marker was found in 14 and 50 percent of samples from Atwood and Tappan Lakes, respectively, but was not found in any samples from the two Buckeye Lake sites. The gull-associated marker was detected in only two samples, both from Tappan Lake.

  14. Cryptosporidium Propidium Monoazide-PCR, a Molecular Biology-Based Technique for Genotyping Viable Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidium is an important waterborne protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea and death in the immunocompromised. Current methods to monitor for Cryptosporidium oocysts in water are microscopy-based USEPA Methods 1622 and 1623. These methods assess total levels o...

  15. Development of a multilocus sequence typing tool for Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although widely used in the characterization of the transmission of intestinal Cryptosporidium spp., genotyping tools are not available for C. muris and C. andersoni, two most common gastric Cryptosporidium spp. of mammals. In this study, we screened the C. muris whole genome sequencing data for mi...

  16. Chemical Source Tracking of Bacterial Contamination Using Micropollutants - A Karst Aquifer Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirlewagen, Johannes; Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Schiperski, Ferry; Stange, Claudia; Tiehm, Andreas; Scheytt, Traugott

    2015-04-01

    Karst aquifers are important drinking water resources in many parts of the world, though they are well known for their high vulnerability to contamination. Rainfall and snowmelt often trigger temporary contamination of karst water resources. Free-range animal breeding and application of manure on the one hand and sewage leakage or spillage on the other hand are usually regarded as main sources for fecal contamination. But distinction of their respective contributions is difficult. This study investigates the feasibility to track the origin of fecal contamination from the occurrences of indicator bacteria and chemical source indicators in karst spring water. The study site is the 45 km² rural catchment of the perennial karst spring Gallusquelle in SW-Germany (mean discharge: 0.5 m³/s). Overflow events of a stormwater detention basin (combined sewer system) are known to impact water quality at the spring. There is no free-range animal breeding in the catchment but intense application of manure. Following two heavy rainfall events with overflow of the stormwater detention basin, spring water was sampled over several days. Samples were analysed for indicator bacteria (total Coliform, E. coli, Enterococci) and 57 micropollutants, among them cyclamate and metazachlor. For the Gallusquelle catchment the artificial sweetener cyclamate and the herbicide metazachlor have been established as source specific indicators, the former for the sewer system and the latter for cropland. Though recharge in the Gallusquelle catchment is predominantly diffuse, there is a significant portion of direct recharge reflected by distinct breakthrough curves for cyclamate and metazachlor. The breakthrough of indicator bacteria coincides very well with the occurrence of both, cyclamate and metazachlor. However, indicator bacteria cannot be unambiguously tracked back to a specific source.

  17. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in sheep in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United Kingdom and Australia sheep have been implicated as sources of Cryptosporidium and Giardia that affect humans but no such studies have been conducted in North America. Therefore, a study was undertaken to investigate their prevalence in sheep on a farm in Maryland in which feces were c...

  18. APPLICATION OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY TO ANALYSE THE CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYST WALL AND SUTURE CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, associated with diarrheal disease in humans, livestock, companion animals, and wildlife, infects drinking water. Fecal contamination is the ultimate source of the oocyst, found in surface waters throughout the United States. The parasite has so far sho...

  19. Cryptosporidium parvum pig genotype II diagnosed in pigs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may represent a source of Cryptosporidium sp. infection to humans. The objective of this study was to identify the species present in pigs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and verify what risks pigs represent in transmission of human cryptosporidiosis, since there is no such informati...

  20. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n.sp. in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype is described. In published studies the cervine genotype was reported in wild and domesticated ruminants, rodents, carnivores, and primates including humans. Molecular data for C. ubiquitum have b...

  1. Evidence for a new species of Cryptosporidium infecting tortoises: Cryptosporidium ducismarci

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis affects the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract of humans as well as of a wide range of companion, farm, laboratory and wild animals. In the past few years, three independent studies have provided strong evidence for the existence of a distinct Cryptosporidium species affecting tortoises and likely circulating in other reptile species as well. A new Cryptosporidium genotype was firstly detected and genetically characterized in a marginated tortoise in Italy in 2007 and named Cryptosporidium sp. ex Testudo marginata CrIT-20. The phylogenetic analysis of this isolate indicated that this Cryptosporidium was unique and belonged to the intestinal clade. These findings were later on confirmed by the detection of genetic homologies of isolates from a python and a chameleon from Spain and by recent research in the United States. The latter study presented both the occurrence of intestinal lesions in a pancake tortoise and a Russian tortoise and the genetic characterization of the isolates, together with the first pictures of the endogenous stages of Cryptosporidium CrIT-20. Phylogenetic inference based on the sequences representing small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU) of these isolates confirmed the pathological findings because this Cryptosporidium was related to the intestinal group and supported previous results in T. marginata from Italy. The present scientific data on the Cryptosporidium CrIT-20 support its classification as a new species of Cryptosporidium causing intestinal diseases in tortoises. Although further morphological (i.e. exogenous stages) and biological aspects (i.e. complete host range) are yet to be elucidated, it is proposed that this Cryptosporidium is designated Cryptosporidium ducismarci. PMID:20338035

  2. Microbial Source Tracking Markers for Detection of Fecal Contamination in Environmental Waters: Relationships Between Pathogens and Human Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) describes a suite of methods and an investigative strategy designed to identify the dominant sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. The methods rely on the close association of certain fecal microorganisms with a particular host speci...

  3. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-04-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  4. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  5. Inactivation kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in a swine waste lagoon and spray field.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Liotta, Janice L; Bowman, Dwight D

    2013-04-01

    Because of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in humans, some Cryptosporidium spp. have become a public health concern. Commercial swine operations can be a source of this protozoan parasite. Although the species distribution of Cryptosporidium is likely dominated by Cryptosporidium suis , a fraction may be comprised of other Cryptosporidium species infectious to humans such as Cryptosporidium parvum . To better understand the survival dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp., oocysts associated with swine operations, 2 experiments were performed to determine die-off rates of C. parvum oocysts in a swine waste lagoon (2009 and 2010) and its spray field (2010 and 2011). Sentinel chambers containing a lagoon effluent suspension of C. parvum oocysts were submerged in the lagoon, and triplicate chambers were removed over time; oocysts were extracted and assayed for viability. For comparative purposes, inactivation rates of Ascaris suum eggs contained in sentinel chambers were also determined. For 2 spray field experiments, air-dried and sieved surface soil was placed in sentinel chambers, hydrated, and inoculated with a lagoon effluent suspension of C. parvum oocysts. Sentinel chambers and control oocysts in PBS contained in microcentrifuge tubes were buried 1.5 cm below the soil surface in 3 blocks. Triplicate chambers and controls were removed over time; oocysts were extracted and assayed for viability. Based on the first order decay equation, days to reach 99% die-off (T(99)) were determined. T(99)-values determined for the 2 lagoon experiments were 13.1 and 20.1 wk, respectively. A T(99)-value for C. parvum in the spray field was significantly longer at 38.0 wk than the control oocysts in PBS at 29.0 wk. The waste lagoon and spray field system of manure management at this large-scale farrowing operation appeared to reduce the load of C. parvum oocysts before they can be hydrologically transported off the operation and reduces their likelihood of contaminating surface waters

  6. Molecular Investigations of Bacteroides as Microbial Source Tracking Tools in Southeast Louisiana Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C. J.; Childers, G. W.; Engel, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial Source Tracking (MST) is a developing field that is gaining increased attention. MST refers to a host of techniques that discriminates among the origins of fecal material found in natural waters from different sources (e.g. human, livestock, and wildlife) by using microbial indicator species with specificity to only certain host organisms. The development of species-specific molecular markers would allow for better evaluation of public health risks and tracking of nutrient sources impacting a watershed. Although several MST methods have been reported with varying levels of success, few offer general applicability for natural waters due to spatial and temporal constraints associated with these methods. One group of molecular MST markers that show promise for broad environmental applications are molecular 16S rDNA probes for Bacteroides. This method is based on 16S rDNA detection directly from environmental samples without the need for a preliminary cultivation step. In this study we have expanded previous sampling efforts to compile a database of over 1000 partial 16S rRNA Bacteroides genes retrieved from the fecal material of 15 different host species (human, cat, dog, pig, kangaroo). To characterize survival of Bacteroides outside of the host, survival time of the Bacteroides marker was compared to that of E.coli under varying natural environmental conditions (temperature and salinity). Bacteroides displayed a survival curve with shouldering and tailing similar to that of E.coli, but log reduction times differed with treatment. In summary, MST marker stability was identified within host species and the overall Bacteroides community structure correlated to host diet, suggesting that detection of a Bacteroides community could confidently identify fecal contamination point sources. Natural water samples from southeast Louisiana were collected for MST including the Tangipahoa River watershed where the source of fecal contamination has been hotly debated. The

  7. Modeling increased riverine nitrogen export: Source tracking and integrated watershed-coast management.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Yan, Weijin; Chen, Nengwang; Peng, Benrong; Hong, Huasheng; Zhuo, Guihua

    2015-12-30

    The global NEWS model was calibrated and then used to quantify the long term trend of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export from two tributaries of Jiulong River (SE China). Anthropogenic N inputs contributed 61-92% of river DIN yield which increased from 337 in 1980s to 1662 kg N km(-2) yr(-1) in 2000s for the North River, and from 653 to 3097 kg N km(-2) yr(-1) for the West River. North River and West River contributed 55% and 45% respectively of DIN loading to the estuary. Rapid development and poor management driven by national policies were responsible for increasing riverine N export. Scenario analysis and source tracking suggest that reductions of anthropogenic N inputs of at least 30% in the North River (emphasis on fertilizer and manure) and 50% in the West River (emphasis on fertilizer) could significantly improve water quality and mitigate eutrophication in both river and coastal waters. PMID:26517942

  8. Computer analysis of nuclear track emulsion exposed to thermal neutrons and Cf source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambřozová, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Kamanin, D. V.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Majling, L.; Marey, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-02-01

    Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE) in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of α-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a Cf-252 source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range α-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. Splittings induced by thermal neutrons are studied in boron-enriched emulsion. Use of the image recognition program ”ImageJ” for obtaining characteristics of individual events and for events from the large scan area is presented.

  9. Identifying the origin of waterbird carcasses in Lake Michigan using a neural network source tracking model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Ge, Zhongfu; Fara, Luke J.; Houdek, Steven C.; Lubinski, B.

    2016-01-01

    Avian botulism type E is responsible for extensive waterbird mortality on the Great Lakes, yet the actual site of toxin exposure remains unclear. Beached carcasses are often used to describe the spatial aspects of botulism mortality outbreaks, but lack specificity of offshore toxin source locations. We detail methodology for developing a neural network model used for predicting waterbird carcass motions in response to wind, wave, and current forcing, in lieu of a complex analytical relationship. This empirically trained model uses current velocity, wind velocity, significant wave height, and wave peak period in Lake Michigan simulated by the Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System. A detailed procedure is further developed to use the model for back-tracing waterbird carcasses found on beaches in various parts of Lake Michigan, which was validated using drift data for radiomarked common loon (Gavia immer) carcasses deployed at a variety of locations in northern Lake Michigan during September and October of 2013. The back-tracing model was further used on 22 non-radiomarked common loon carcasses found along the shoreline of northern Lake Michigan in October and November of 2012. The model-estimated origins of those cases pointed to some common source locations offshore that coincide with concentrations of common loons observed during aerial surveys. The neural network source tracking model provides a promising approach for identifying locations of botulinum neurotoxin type E intoxication and, in turn, contributes to developing an understanding of the dynamics of toxin production and possible trophic transfer pathways.

  10. Microbial source tracking and spatial analysis of E. coli contaminated private well waters in southeastern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Krolik, Julia; Evans, Gerald; Belanger, Paul; Maier, Allison; Hall, Geoffrey; Joyce, Alan; Guimont, Stephanie; Pelot, Amanda; Majury, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Private water supplies, which are the primary source of drinking water for rural communities in developed countries, are at risk of becoming fecally contaminated. It is important to identify the source of contamination in order to better understand and address this human health risk. Microbial source tracking methods using human, bovine and general Bacteroidales markers were performed on 716 well water samples from southeastern Ontario, which had previously tested positive for Escherichia coli. The results were then geospatially analyzed in order to elucidate contamination patterns. Markers for human feces were found in nearly half (49%) of all samples tested, and a statistically significant spatial cluster was observed. A quarter of the samples tested positive for only general Bacteroidales markers (25.7%) and relatively few bovine specific marker positives (12.6%) were found. These findings are fundamental to the understanding of pathogen dynamics and risk in the context of drinking well water and will inform future research regarding host-specific pathogens in private well water samples. PMID:24937229

  11. Use of Bacteroidales Microbial Source Tracking To Monitor Fecal Contamination in Fresh Produce Production

    PubMed Central

    Ravaliya, Kruti; Garcia, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Bartz, Faith E.; Leon, Juan S.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, fresh and minimally processed produce items have been associated with an increasing proportion of food-borne illnesses. Most pathogens associated with fresh produce are enteric (fecal) in origin, and contamination can occur anywhere along the farm-to-fork chain. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool developed in the environmental microbiology field to identify and quantify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination. This study investigated the utility of an MST method based on Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences as a means of identifying potential fecal contamination, and its source, in the fresh produce production environment. The method was applied to rinses of fresh produce, source and irrigation waters, and harvester hand rinses collected over the course of 1 year from nine farms (growing tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cantaloupe) in Northern Mexico. Of 174 samples, 39% were positive for a universal Bacteroidales marker (AllBac), including 66% of samples from cantaloupe farms (3.6 log10 genome equivalence copies [GEC]/100 ml), 31% of samples from tomato farms (1.7 log10 GEC/100 ml), and 18% of samples from jalapeño farms (1.5 log10 GEC/100 ml). Of 68 AllBac-positive samples, 46% were positive for one of three human-specific markers, and none were positive for a bovine-specific marker. There was no statistically significant correlation between Bacteroidales and generic Escherichia coli across all samples. This study provides evidence that Bacteroidales markers may serve as alternative indicators for fecal contamination in fresh produce production, allowing for determination of both general contamination and that derived from the human host. PMID:24212583

  12. Use of Bacteroidales microbial source tracking to monitor fecal contamination in fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Ravaliya, Kruti; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Garcia, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Bartz, Faith E; Leon, Juan S; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, fresh and minimally processed produce items have been associated with an increasing proportion of food-borne illnesses. Most pathogens associated with fresh produce are enteric (fecal) in origin, and contamination can occur anywhere along the farm-to-fork chain. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool developed in the environmental microbiology field to identify and quantify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination. This study investigated the utility of an MST method based on Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences as a means of identifying potential fecal contamination, and its source, in the fresh produce production environment. The method was applied to rinses of fresh produce, source and irrigation waters, and harvester hand rinses collected over the course of 1 year from nine farms (growing tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cantaloupe) in Northern Mexico. Of 174 samples, 39% were positive for a universal Bacteroidales marker (AllBac), including 66% of samples from cantaloupe farms (3.6 log10 genome equivalence copies [GEC]/100 ml), 31% of samples from tomato farms (1.7 log10 GEC/100 ml), and 18% of samples from jalapeño farms (1.5 log10 GEC/100 ml). Of 68 AllBac-positive samples, 46% were positive for one of three human-specific markers, and none were positive for a bovine-specific marker. There was no statistically significant correlation between Bacteroidales and generic Escherichia coli across all samples. This study provides evidence that Bacteroidales markers may serve as alternative indicators for fecal contamination in fresh produce production, allowing for determination of both general contamination and that derived from the human host. PMID:24212583

  13. Recommendations following a multi-laboratory comparison of microbial source tracking methods.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jill R; Boehm, Alexandria B; Dubinsky, Eric A; Fong, Theng-Theng; Goodwin, Kelly D; Griffith, John F; Noble, Rachel T; Shanks, Orin C; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2013-11-15

    Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were evaluated in the Source Identification Protocol Project (SIPP), in which 27 laboratories compared methods to identify host sources of fecal pollution from blinded water samples containing either one or two different fecal types collected from California. This paper details lessons learned from the SIPP study and makes recommendations to further advance the field of MST. Overall, results from the SIPP study demonstrated that methods are available that can correctly identify whether particular host sources including humans, cows and birds have contributed to contamination in a body of water. However, differences between laboratory protocols and data processing affected results and complicated interpretation of MST method performance in some cases. This was an issue particularly for samples that tested positive (non-zero Ct values) but below the limits of quantification or detection of a PCR assay. Although false positives were observed, such samples in the SIPP study often contained the fecal pollution source that was being targeted, i.e., the samples were true positives. Given these results, and the fact that MST often requires detection of targets present in low concentrations, we propose that such samples be reported and identified in a unique category to facilitate data analysis and method comparisons. Important data can be lost when such samples are simply reported as positive or negative. Actionable thresholds were not derived in the SIPP study due to limitations that included geographic scope, age of samples, and difficulties interpreting low concentrations of target in environmental samples. Nevertheless, the results of the study support the use of MST for water management, especially to prioritize impaired waters in need of remediation. Future integration of MST data into quantitative microbial risk assessments and other models could allow managers to more efficiently protect public health based on site conditions

  14. Microbial Source Tracking as a Tool for TMDL Development, Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Little Blue River in Jackson County, Missouri has been listed by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources as impaired by bacteria for the protection of aquatic life and contact recreation from urban point and nonpoint sources. The Clean Water Act requires that a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) be developed. Over a 5-year period, 108 base-flow, 87 stormflow, 48 fecal source, and 12 sewage influent samples were collected and analyzed for E. coli and Bacteroides general and host-associated microbial source tracking (MST) genetic markers. Less than half of the main-stem base-flow samples exceeded the E. coli state standard, whereas, all of the stormflow samples exceeded the standard during the recreation season (April through October). Both E. coli and MST markers were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in stormflow samples. Only 14 percent of samples with E. coli detections greater than the Missouri state standard of 206 colonies per 100 milliliters had the human-associated Bacteroides marker as the only identified marker; therefore, Little Blue River TMDL development may require a broader scope beyond the municipal separate storm sewer system if bacteria sources are to be identified and addressed. Fecal samples showed a greater specificity with the human-associated marker than the dog- or ruminant-associated Bacteroides markers; however, false positives were at least one order of magnitude lower than true positives. MST data may be a useful tool for identifying probable sources of contamination and directing TMDL strategies.

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary

  16. Using SWAT, Bacteroidales microbial source tracking markers, and fecal indicator bacteria to predict waterborne pathogen occurrence in an agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Edge, Thomas; Fall, Claudia; Gannon, Victor; Jokinen, Cassandra; Marti, Romain; Neumann, Norman; Ruecker, Norma; Wilkes, Graham; Lapen, David R

    2013-10-15

    Developing the capability to predict pathogens in surface water is important for reducing the risk that such organisms pose to human health. In this study, three primary data source scenarios (measured stream flow and water quality, modelled stream flow and water quality, and host-associated Bacteroidales) are investigated within a Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART) framework for classifying pathogen (Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia) presence and absence (P/A) for a 178 km(2) agricultural watershed. To provide modelled data, a Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict stream flow, total suspended solids (TSS), total N and total P, and fecal indicator bacteria loads; however, the model was only successful for flow and total N and total P simulations, and did not accurately simulate TSS and indicator bacteria transport. Also, the SWAT model was not sensitive to an observed reduction in the cattle population within the watershed that may have resulted in significant reduction in E. coli concentrations and Salmonella detections. Results show that when combined with air temperature and precipitation, SWAT modelled stream flow and total P concentrations were useful for classifying pathogen P/A using CART methodology. From a suite of host-associated Bacteroidales markers used as independent variables in CART analysis, the ruminant marker was found to be the best initial classifier of pathogen P/A. Of the measured sources of independent variables, air temperature, precipitation, stream flow, and total P were found to be the most important variables for classifying pathogen P/A. Results indicate a close relationship between cattle pollution and pathogen occurrence in this watershed, and an especially strong link between the cattle population and Salmonella detections. PMID:24079968

  17. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford`s mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  18. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  19. Contribution of cattle farms towards river contamination with Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in Sungai Langat Basin.

    PubMed

    Farizawati, S; Lim, Y A L; Ahmad, R A; Fatimah, C T N I; Siti-Nor, Y

    2005-12-01

    A study to determine the contribution of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts from cattle farms was carried out at the Langat Basin. This study investigated the contribution of cattle farms, located near Sungai Langat and Sungai Semenyih, towards river contamination with these cysts and oocysts. The findings showed that out of 24 samples of water taken from Sungai Semenyih, 4.2% was positive for Giardia cysts with a concentration of 1.3 cysts/L and 20.8% were positive with Cryptosporidium oocysts with a range of 0.7 - 2.7 oocysts/L. At Sungai Langat, from the 43 samples taken, 23.3% were positive for Giardia cysts with a range of 1.5 - 9 cysts/L whereas 11.6% were positive with Cryptosporidium oocysts with a range of 2.5 - 240 oocysts/L. Isolation of cysts and oocysts in bovine faecal materials revealed that 14.6% of faecal samples were positive for Giardia cysts which had a range of 75 - 1.3x104 cysts/g and 25% were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts with a range of 50 - 3.9x105 oocysts/g. From the cattle wastewater, 98% were positive with oocysts and 6.7% with cysts. The concentrations were between 20 - 3.1x103 oocysts/mL for Cryptosporidium and 4 - 75 cysts/mL for Giardia. Given that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia are high amongst the cattle and the positive findings of the (oo)cysts in the river samples, it could be deduced that there is a very high possibility of the cattle farms contaminating the river with Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Viability study of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the surrounding soil and pond within the cattle farm showed that the viability of Cryptosporidium oocysts decreased with time. It was estimated that it will take 52 days for all the oocysts from both environment to be non-viable. With a viability rate of approximately 2 months in a cattle farm setup, river water contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts has a high chance of acting as an agent of transmission. As cattle farms are also inhabited by

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A; Ash, A

    2016-06-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are ubiquitous enteric protozoan pathogens of vertebrates. Although recognised as the aetiological agents of disease in humans and domestic animals for many years, fundamental questions concerning their ecology have been unresolved. Molecular tools have helped to better understand their genetic diversity and in so doing have helped to resolve questions about their transmission patterns and associated impacts on public health. However, the value of molecular tools is often complicated by questions concerning their applications, interpretation of results and terminology. Taxonomic issues have, until recently, made it difficult to determine the epidemiology of infections with both Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Similarly, improved understanding of their respective phylogenetic relationships has helped to resolve questions about zoonotic potential and distribution in wildlife. In the case of Cryptosporidium, imaging technologies have complemented phylogenetic studies in demonstrating the parasite's affinities with gregarine protozoa and have further supported its extracellular developmental capability and potential role as an environmental pathogen. PMID:26458528

  1. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in ancient Peruvians.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ynes R; Bonavia, Duccio

    2003-06-01

    Twenty-two coprolites of human origin, collected from excavations along the north-central coast of Peru, were examined using fluorescent microscopy for the presence of fecal parasites, with emphasis on Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., and Cyclospora sp. Three samples were positive. One coprolite dated between ca. 2,375 and 1,525 BC contained Giardia sp. cysts. This coprolite corresponded to the Peruvian preceramic period. Another positive coprolite ca. AD 770-830 corresponded to Epoch 3 of the Middle Horizon and contained Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The third positive coprolite (corresponding to the Middle Horizon. ca. AD 500-900) contained Giardia sp. cysts. This report demonstrates that Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. were present in Peruvian coastal populations for at least 4,300 and 1,100 BP. PMID:12880276

  2. Examining Signal Decomposition in Ge Tracking Detectors through Source-Based Coincidence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromaz, M.; Campbell, C. M.; Clark, R. M.; Crawford, H. L.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Wiens, A.; Riley, L.; Taniuchi, R.

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a gamma-ray tracking detector, such as those used in the GRETINA spectrometer, is dependent on its ability to accurately locate multiple interaction points in the Ge crystal. Interactions are located by observing both net and induced charge as a function of time on the detector's segmented contact. As multiple interactions are likely, linear combinations of basis signals, a set of simulated signals with unit charge deposited on a grid that spans the detector volume, are fit against the observed signal yielding the interaction positions. While the location of the primary interaction point was found to be good (σpos <= 2 mm) the location of secondary, lower energy interactions appear less reliable. To investigate this issue, we carried out a series of source-based coincidence measurements. These employed a collimated source and a secondary detector by which we could select single interaction events. Given these events originate from known positions, we can take them in combination to directly test the efficacy of the signal decomposition procedure. We will present a description of the method and preliminary results with a GRETINA quad detector. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CHI1231.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Block Acquisition and Tracking Algorithms Using an Open Source GPS Receiver Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Ganesh K.; Akopian, David; Heckler, Gregory W.; Winternitz, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    Location technologies have many applications in wireless communications, military and space missions, etc. US Global Positioning System (GPS) and other existing and emerging Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are expected to provide accurate location information to enable such applications. While GNSS systems perform very well in strong signal conditions, their operation in many urban, indoor, and space applications is not robust or even impossible due to weak signals and strong distortions. The search for less costly, faster and more sensitive receivers is still in progress. As the research community addresses more and more complicated phenomena there exists a demand on flexible multimode reference receivers, associated SDKs, and development platforms which may accelerate and facilitate the research. One of such concepts is the software GPS/GNSS receiver (GPS SDR) which permits a facilitated access to algorithmic libraries and a possibility to integrate more advanced algorithms without hardware and essential software updates. The GNU-SDR and GPS-SDR open source receiver platforms are such popular examples. This paper evaluates the performance of recently proposed block-corelator techniques for acquisition and tracking of GPS signals using open source GPS-SDR platform.

  4. BacWGSTdb, a database for genotyping and source tracking bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zhi; Feng, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has become one of the routine methods in molecular epidemiological practice. In this study, we present BacWGSTdb (http://bacdb.org/BacWGSTdb), a bacterial whole genome sequence typing database which is designed for clinicians, clinical microbiologists and hospital epidemiologists. This database borrows the population structure from the current multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme and adopts a hierarchical data structure: species, clonal complex and isolates. When users upload the pre-assembled genome sequences to BacWGSTdb, it offers the functionality of bacterial genotyping at both traditional MLST and whole-genome levels. More importantly, users are told which isolates in the public database are phylogenetically close to the query isolate, along with their clinical information such as host, isolation source, disease, collection time and geographical location. In this way, BacWGSTdb offers a rapid and convenient platform for worldwide users to address a variety of clinical microbiological issues such as source tracking bacterial pathogens. PMID:26433226

  5. Survival kinetics of Cryptosporidium oocysts in swine facility wastes of the Southern Piedmont and Coastal Plain watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium infections remain a major concern relative to the nation’s drinking water, hence its citation in the 2006 Priorities for Research "understand the source, fate and transports of pathogens ...; with special emphasis on …Cryptosporidium….”. The role of pigs as a source of oocysts enter...

  6. The EnzymeTracker: an open-source laboratory information management system for sample tracking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many laboratories, researchers store experimental data on their own workstation using spreadsheets. However, this approach poses a number of problems, ranging from sharing issues to inefficient data-mining. Standard spreadsheets are also error-prone, as data do not undergo any validation process. To overcome spreadsheets inherent limitations, a number of proprietary systems have been developed, which laboratories need to pay expensive license fees for. Those costs are usually prohibitive for most laboratories and prevent scientists from benefiting from more sophisticated data management systems. Results In this paper, we propose the EnzymeTracker, a web-based laboratory information management system for sample tracking, as an open-source and flexible alternative that aims at facilitating entry, mining and sharing of experimental biological data. The EnzymeTracker features online spreadsheets and tools for monitoring numerous experiments conducted by several collaborators to identify and characterize samples. It also provides libraries of shared data such as protocols, and administration tools for data access control using OpenID and user/team management. Our system relies on a database management system for efficient data indexing and management and a user-friendly AJAX interface that can be accessed over the Internet. The EnzymeTracker facilitates data entry by dynamically suggesting entries and providing smart data-mining tools to effectively retrieve data. Our system features a number of tools to visualize and annotate experimental data, and export highly customizable reports. It also supports QR matrix barcoding to facilitate sample tracking. Conclusions The EnzymeTracker was designed to be easy to use and offers many benefits over spreadsheets, thus presenting the characteristics required to facilitate acceptance by the scientific community. It has been successfully used for 20 months on a daily basis by over 50 scientists. The EnzymeTracker is

  7. Estimating true human and animal host source contribution in quantitative microbial source tracking using the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Silkie, Sarah S; Nelson, Kara L; Wuertz, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Cultivation- and library-independent, quantitative PCR-based methods have become the method of choice in microbial source tracking. However, these qPCR assays are not 100% specific and sensitive for the target sequence in their respective hosts' genome. The factors that can lead to false positive and false negative information in qPCR results are well defined. It is highly desirable to have a way of removing such false information to estimate the true concentration of host-specific genetic markers and help guide the interpretation of environmental monitoring studies. Here we propose a statistical model based on the Law of Total Probability to predict the true concentration of these markers. The distributions of the probabilities of obtaining false information are estimated from representative fecal samples of known origin. Measurement error is derived from the sample precision error of replicated qPCR reactions. Then, the Monte Carlo method is applied to sample from these distributions of probabilities and measurement error. The set of equations given by the Law of Total Probability allows one to calculate the distribution of true concentrations, from which their expected value, confidence interval and other statistical characteristics can be easily evaluated. The output distributions of predicted true concentrations can then be used as input to watershed-wide total maximum daily load determinations, quantitative microbial risk assessment and other environmental models. This model was validated by both statistical simulations and real world samples. It was able to correct the intrinsic false information associated with qPCR assays and output the distribution of true concentrations of Bacteroidales for each animal host group. Model performance was strongly affected by the precision error. It could perform reliably and precisely when the standard deviation of the precision error was small (≤ 0.1). Further improvement on the precision of sample processing and q

  8. Cryptosporidium parvum scavenges LDL-derived cholesterol and micellar cholesterol internalized into enterocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenman, Karen; Wanyiri, Jane W.; Bhat, Najma; Ward, Honorine D.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are responsible for devastating diarrhea in immunodeficient individuals. In the intestinal tract, the developmental stages of the parasite are confined to the apical surfaces of epithelial cells. Upon invasion, Cryptosporidium incorporates the microvillous membrane of the enterocyte to form the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and sequesters itself from the host cytoplasm by rearranging the host cytoskeleton. Cryptosporidium parvum has minimal anabolic capabilities and relies on transporters and salvage pathways to meet its basic metabolic requirements. The cholesterol salvage pathway is crucial for the development of protozoan parasites. In this study, we have examined the sources of cholesterol from C. parvum infecting enterocytes. We illustrated that the intracellular stages of Cryptosporidium as well as the oocysts shed by the host, contain cholesterol. Incubation of infected enterocytes in lipoprotein-free medium impairs parasite development and results in substantial decrease in cholesterol content associated with the PV. Among lipoproteins, LDL constitutes an important source of cholesterol for Cryptosporidium. Dietary cholesterol incorporated into micelles is internalized into enterocytes by the NPC1L1 transporter. We showed that C. parvum also obtains cholesterol from micelles in enterocytes. Pharmacological blockade of NPC1L1 function by ezetimibe or moderate down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression decreases parasite infectivity. These observations indicate that, despite its dual sequestration from the intestinal lumen and the host cytoplasm, C. parvum can, in fact, obtain cholesterol both from the gut’s lumen and the host cell. This study highlights the evolutionary advantages for epicellular pathogens to access to nutrients from the outside and inside of the host cell. PMID:23311949

  9. Performance of forty-one microbial source tracking methods: a twenty-seven lab evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Alexandria B; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Griffith, John F; Holden, Patricia A; Jay, Jenny A; Shanks, Orin C; Wang, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B

    2013-11-15

    The last decade has seen development of numerous new microbial source tracking (MST) methodologies, but many of these have been tested in just a few laboratories with a limited number of fecal samples. This method evaluation study examined the specificity and sensitivity of 41 MST methodologies by analyzing data generated in 27 laboratories. MST methodologies that targeted human, cow, ruminant, dog, gull, pig, horse, and sheep were tested against sewage, septage, human, cow, dog, deer, pig, chicken, pigeon, gull, horse, and goose fecal samples. Each laboratory received 64 blind samples containing a single source (singletons) or two sources (doubletons), as well as diluted singleton samples to assess method sensitivity. Laboratories utilized their own protocols when performing the methods and data were deposited in a central database before samples were unblinded. Between one and seven laboratories tested each method. The most sensitive and specific assays, based on an analysis of presence/absence of each marker in target and non-target fecal samples, were HF183 endpoint and HF183SYBR (human), CF193 and Rum2Bac (ruminant), CowM2 and CowM3 (cow), BacCan (dog), Gull2SYBR and LeeSeaGull (gull), PF163 and pigmtDNA (pig), HoF597 (horse), PhyloChip (pig, horse, chicken, deer), Universal 16S TRFLP (deer), and Bacteroidales 16S TRFLP (pig, horse, chicken, deer); all had sensitivity and specificity higher than 80% in all or the majority of laboratories. When the abundance of MST markers in target and non-target fecal samples was examined, some assays that performed well in the binary analysis were found to not be sensitive enough as median concentrations fell below a minimum abundance criterion (set at 50 copies per colony forming units of enterococci) in target fecal samples. Similarly, some assays that cross-reacted with non-target fecal sources in the binary analysis were found to perform well in a quantitative analysis because the cross-reaction occurred at very low

  10. Source Tracking of Nitrous Oxide using A Quantum Cascade Laser System in the Field and Laboratory Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Nitrification and denitrification are two major biological pathways that are responsible for soil emissions of N2O. However, source tracking of in-situ or laboratory N2O production is still challenging to...

  11. Evaluation of the repeatability and reproducibility of a suite of qPCR based microbial source tracking methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many PCR-based methods for microbial source tracking (MST) have been developed and validated within individual research laboratories. Inter-laboratory validation of these methods, however, has been minimal, and the effects of protocol standardization regimes have not been thor...

  12. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacterial Populations and Bovine-Associated Source-Tracking Markers in Freshly Deposited Cow Pats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source-tracking (MST) markers is critical to developing pathogen fate and transport models. Although pathogen survival in water microcosms and manure-amended soils is well documented, little is known about...

  13. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus-and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  14. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  15. Environmental ecology of Cryptosporidium and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Rose, J B

    1997-01-01

    Cryptosporidium has become the most important contaminant found in drinking water and is associated with a high risk of waterborne disease particularly for the immunocompromised. There have been 12 documented waterborne outbreaks in North America since 1985; in two of these (Milwaukee and Las Vegas) mortality rates in the immunocompromised ranged from 52% to 68%. The immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) using epifluorescence microscopy has been used to examine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in sewage (1 to 120 oocysts/liter), filtered secondary treated wastewater (0.01 to 0.13 oocysts/liter), surface waters (0.001 to 107 oocysts/liter), groundwater (0.004 to 0.922 oocysts/liter) and treated drinking water (0.001 to 0.72 oocysts/liter). New rules are being developed (Information Collection Rule and Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule) to obtain more occurrence data for drinking water systems for use with new risk assessment models. Public health officials should consider a communication program to physicians treating the immunocompromised, nursing homes, develop a plan to evaluate cases of cryptosporidiosis in the community, and contribute to the development of public policies that limit contamination of source waters, improve water treatment, and protect public health. PMID:9143715

  16. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. PMID:26298247

  17. Common occurrence of Cryptosporidium hominis in horses and donkeys.

    PubMed

    Jian, Fuchun; Liu, Aiqin; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Qi, Meng; Zhao, Wei; Shi, Yadong; Wang, Jianling; Wei, Jiujian; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Extensive genetic variation is observed within the genus Cryptosporidium and the distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in humans and animals appears to vary by geography and host species. To better understand the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys, we characterized five horse-derived and 82 donkey-derived Cryptosporidium isolates from five provinces or autonomous regions (Sichuan, Gansu, Henan, Inner Mongolia and Shandong) in China at the species/genotype and subtype levels. Three Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the analysis of the SSU rRNA gene, including Cryptosporidium parvum (n=22), the Cryptosporidium horse genotype (n=4), and Cryptosporidium hominis (n=61). The identification of C. hominis was confirmed by sequence analysis of the HSP70 and actin genes. Subtyping using sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene identified 21 C. parvum isolates as subtype IIdA19G1, the four horse genotype isolates as subtypes VIaA15G4 (n=2) and VIaA11G3 (n=2), and the 61 C. hominis isolates as IkA16G1 (n=59) and IkA16 (n=2). The common finding of C. hominis reaffirms the heterogeneity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys and is possibly a reflection of endemic transmission of C. hominis in these animals. Data of the study suggest that horses and donkeys as companion animals may potentially transmit Cryptosporidium infections to humans. PMID:27264727

  18. Source tracking of an anthrax outbreak in northeastern China using complete genome analysis and MLVA genotyping.

    PubMed

    Li, S; An, X; Huang, Y; Pei, G; Cao, D; Mi, Z; Gu, Z; Zhao, X; Li, J; Gu, G; Tong, Y

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, an etiological agent behind zoonotic diseases worldwide. B. anthracis is also one of the most dangerous bioterrorism agents. An anthrax outbreak took place in Liaoning Province in northeastern China in August 2012. It resulted in seven human infections and dozens of dead cows. One B. anthracis strain, named Han, was isolated from a dead cow. This strain showed minor pathogenicity in mice and was suspected to be derived from the locally administered vaccine strain, Vac. In order to determine if the Han isolate was derived from the vaccine strain Vac and to track the source of the anthrax outbreak and, so, exclude the possibility of terrorism attack, a complete genome sequencing of these two B. anthracis strains was conducted. With the genome sequencing data, canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and whole-genome SNP screening were performed. The results indicate that the Han strain was markedly different from the Vac strain. Further analysis by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that Han clustered with previously reported Chinese strains. The result of MLVA15 confirmed that the Han strain is a naturally occurring isolate instead of an engineered agent deliberately distributed by terrorists or other parties. In conclusion, our method used in this study not only facilitates epidemiological studies but also made it easier to distinguish naturally occurring outbreaks from intentionally released pathogens. PMID:25073769

  19. Relationship of human-associated microbial source tracking markers with Enterococci in Gulf of Mexico waters.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Katrina V; Brownell, Miriam; Wang, Shiao Y; Lepo, Joe Eugene; Mott, Joanna; Nathaniel, Rajkumar; Kilgen, Marilyn; Hellein, Kristen N; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Harwood, Valerie J

    2013-03-01

    Human and ecosystem health can be damaged by fecal contamination of recreational waters. Microbial source tracking (MST) can be used to specifically detect domestic sewage containing human waste, thereby informing both risk assessment and remediation strategies. Previously, an inter-laboratory collaboration developed standardized PCR methods for a bacterial, an archaeal, and a viral indicator of human sewage. Here we present results for two subsequent years of field testing in fresh and salt water by five laboratories across the U.S. Gulf Coast (two in Florida and one each in Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas) using common standard operating procedures (SOPs) developed previously. Culturable enterococci were enumerated by membrane filtration, and PCR was used to detect three MST markers targeting domestic sewage: human-associated Bacteroides (HF183), Methanobrevibacter smithii and human polyomaviruses BK and JC (HPyVs). Detection of sewage markers in surface waters was significantly associated with higher enterococci levels and with exceedance of the recreational water quality standard in four or three regions, respectively. Sewage markers were frequently co-detected in single samples, e.g., M. smithii and HF183 were co-detected in 81% of Louisiana samples, and HPyVs and M. smithii were co-detected in over 40% of southwest Florida and Mississippi samples. This study demonstrates the robustness and inter-laboratory transferability of these three markers for the detection of pollution from domestic sewage in the waters impacting the Gulf of Mexico over a coastal range of over 1000 miles. PMID:23260177

  20. Bacterial source tracking guides management of boat head waste in a coastal resort area.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; Haltom, Mary I; Song, Bongkeun; Tavares, Mary E; Dellies, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of water bodies causes a public health problem and economic loss. To control such contamination management actions need to be guided by sound science. From 2007-2009 a study was undertaken to determine the sources of fecal bacteria contamination to the marine waters adjoining the Town of Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA. The research effort included sampling for fecal coliform and Enterococcus bacteria, sampling for optical brighteners, dye studies, and use of molecular bacterial source tracking techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group. Of the 96 samples collected from nine locations during the study, the water contact standard for Enterococcus was exceeded on 13 occasions. The T-RFLP fingerprint analyses demonstrated that the most widespread source of fecal contamination was human, occurring in 38% of the samples, with secondary ruminant and avian sources also detected. Optical brightener concentrations were low, reflecting a lack of sewage line leakage or spills. A lack of sewer leaks and lack of septic systems in the town pointed toward discharge from boat heads into the marine waters as the major cause of fecal contamination; this was supported by dye studies. Based on these data, the Town initiated action to have the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declare the coastal waters (out to 3 nautical miles), the nearby Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and its tributaries a no-discharge zone (NDZ) to alleviate the human fecal pollution. The Town garnered supporting resolutions from other local communities who jointly petitioned the North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources. This State regulatory agency supported the local government resolutions and sent an application for an NDZ to the EPA in April 2009. The EPA concurred, and in February 2010 the coastal waters of New Hanover County, NC, became the

  1. Tracking influential haze source areas in North China using an adjoint model, GRAPES-CUACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, X. Q.; Zhai, S. X.; Jin, M.; Gong, S. L.; Wang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Based upon the adjoint theory, the adjoint of the aerosol module in the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) was developed and tested for its correctness. Through statistic comparison, BC (black carbon aerosol) concentrations simulated by GRAPES-CUACE were generally consistent with observations from Nanjiao (one urban observation station) and Shangdianzi (one rural observation station) stations. To track the most influential emission-sources regions and the most influential time intervals for the high BC concentration during the simulation period, the adjoint model was adopted to simulate the sensitivity of average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) with respect to BC emission amount over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions were selected based on administrative division and sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint model was used to quantify the effects of emission-sources reduction in different time intervals over different regions by one independent simulation. Effects of different emission reduction strategies based on adjoint sensitivity information show that the more influential regions (regions with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions, and the influence effectiveness of sensitivity-oriented regions was greater than the administrative divisions. The influence of emissions on the objective function decreases sharply approximately for the pollutants emitted 17-18 h ago in this episode. Therefore, controlling critical emission regions during critical time intervals on the basis of adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative specified regions during an experiential time period.

  2. RELIABILITY OF SURROGATES FOR DETERMINING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing of field-scale bag filtration systems yielded results indicating that 4-6-um polystyrene microspheres can be used as a reliable surrogate for determining Cryptosporidium oocyst removal in bag filtration process. A nearly perfect linear correlation was observed between log...

  3. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in brazilian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces were collected from 125 sheep between January and December 2007, on ten farms in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium. Ninety samples were collected from lambs 2 to 6 months of age, and 35 were from sheep over 12 months of age. All samples were...

  4. Experimental infection of piglets with cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Tzipori, S; McCartney, E; Lawson, G H; Rowland, A C; Campbell, I

    1981-11-01

    Piglets from five litters were doses orally with cryptosporidium originally derived from diarrhoeic calves. The piglets were either nursed by the sow, artificially reared after sucking colostrum, or weaned on to creep feed. Colostrum-fed, artificially reared piglets obtained from two litters and exposed in the first week of life developed clinical signs of inappetence, vomiting and diarrhoea and shed oocysts in the faeces. Histologically the parasite was observed throughout the small and large intestine attached to epithelial cell surfaces and its presence was associated with extensive mucosal damage, particularly in the posterior small intestine, stunting and fusion of villi, immaturity of villous epithelial cells and oedema with increased cellularity of the lamina propria. Piglets from two other litters, both sucking and colostrum-fed artificially reared, exhibited similar but milder clinical signs. Histological lesions were less severe and cryptosporidium infection less extensive. When weaned piglets were exposed they remained clinically healthy although histologically there was evidence of cryptosporidium attachment in the small intestine and minor mucosal damage. There appears to be a good correlation between the extent of intestinal infection, the degree of mucosal damage and the severity of clinical disease induced by cryptosporidium in piglets. PMID:7342229

  5. Molecular Genotyping of Viable Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidium is a chlorination-resistant protozoan parasite that causes a self-limiting diarrheal disease in the immunocompetent or severe chronic diarrhea in the immunocompromised. Two species, C. parvum and C. hominis, cause most cases of cryptosporidiosis in humans, while C...

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF 'CRYPTOSPORIDIUM' OOCYSTS IN RIVER WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water samples were collected from four rivers in Washington State and two rivers in California and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Oocyst-sized particles were concentrated from 20-liter samples of water by membrane filtration, centrifugation, and differentia...

  7. Infectivity of the cervine genotype of Cryptosporidium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease of humans and animals caused by parasites in the genus Cryptosporidium, a genus comprising 19 valid species and 40 genotypes. Most human infections are caused by C. hominis and C. parvum. To a lesser extent infections with C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. canis, ...

  8. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium andersoni in Brazilian cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces were collected from 68 cattle, 1 to 12 mo of age, on 12 farms in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. All samples were subjected to molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) of the 18S rRNA. F...

  9. Development of a sensitive method to extract and detect low numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts from adult cattle faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Wells, B; Thomson, S; Ensor, H; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2016-08-30

    Cryptosporidium transmission studies to date have concluded that adult cattle are not a significant source of oocysts contributing to clinical cryptosporidiosis in calves on farm. However current methods of sample processing have been optimised for calf faecal samples and may be less sensitive when used on adult samples due to lower numbers of oocysts and larger size of samples. A modified and novel method of oocyst extraction and concentration was developed and applied in an experiment involving spiking adult cattle faecal samples with known concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The results showed an increased sensitivity of detection from 100oocysts/g of faecal sample using conventional protocols to 5oocysts/g using the newly developed method. As it is important to be able to accurately assess the contribution of adult ruminants to the transmission of Cryptosporidium, both on farm and in the environment, the development of the techniques described here is likely to make an important contribution to Cryptosporidium transmission studies in future and in subsequent control strategies aimed at the reduction of Cryptosporidium infection in calves on farm. PMID:27523933

  10. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel J.; Oloya, James; Ezeamama, Amara E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line. Conclusions/Significance These results refute assertions that