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Sample records for crystal batio3 nanotube

  1. Facile synthesis of BaTiO3 nanotubes and their microwave absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao-Feng; Zhang, Li; Natsuki, Toshiaki; Fu, Ya-Qin; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2012-04-01

    Uniform BaTiO(3) nanotubes were synthesized via a simple wet chemical route at low temperature (50 °C). The as-synthesized BaTiO(3) nanotubes were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the BaTiO(3) nanotubes formed a cubic phase with an average diameter of ~10 nm and wall thickness of 3 nm at room temperature. The composition of the mixed solvent (ethanol and deionized water) was a key factor in the formation of these nanotubes; we discuss possible synthetic mechanisms. The microwave absorption properties of the BaTiO(3) nanotubes were studied at microwave frequencies between 0.5 and 15 GHz. The minimum reflection loss of the BaTiO(3) nanotubes/paraffin wax composite (BaTiO(3) nanotubes weight fraction = 70%) reached 21.8 dB (~99.99% absorption) at 15 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth less than -10 dB is from 13.3 to 15 GHz. The excellent absorption property of BaTiO(3) nanotubes at high frequency indicates that these nanotubes could be promising microwave-absorbing materials. PMID:22409350

  2. Preparation and characterization of highly crystallized BaTiO3 layer on Ni nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yanan; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Hui; Li, Longtu

    2015-01-01

    A uniform polycrystalline BaTiO3 layer is coated on Ni nanoparticles by an economic and effective one-step sol-precipitation method for future applications in next-generation multilayer ceramic capacitors. Using NaOH to provide strong alkaline conditions, a highly crystallized BaTiO3 layer is obtained with high efficiency. The influence of the BaTiO3 coating amount on the properties of Ni powders is examined. Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy show that the BaTiO3 layer is continuous and uniform. X-ray photoelectron spectra of the Ba, O states show that a strong bonding was formed between the coating layer and the Ni surfaces. Through this bonding, BaTiO3 can heterogeneously nucleate and crystallize on the Ni surfaces. This polycrystalline BaTiO3 layer is very effective in protecting Ni from oxidation as well as increasing the shrinkage onset temperature of Ni nanoparticles. Moreover, these properties can be further improved by increasing the BaTiO3 coating amount.

  3. Nanostructural evolution of one-dimensional BaTiO3 structures by hydrothermal conversion of vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tabares, J. A.; Bejtka, K.; Lamberti, A.; Garino, N.; Bianco, S.; Quaglio, M.; Pirri, C. F.; Chiodoni, A.

    2016-03-01

    The use of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays as templates for hydrothermal conversion of one-dimensional barium titanate (BaTiO3) structures is considered a promising synthesis approach, even though the formation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Herein we report a nanostructural study by means of XRD and (HR)TEM of high aspect ratio TiO2-NTs hydrothermally converted into BaTiO3. The nanostructure shows two different and well-defined regions: at the top the conversion involves complete dissolution of NTs and subsequent precipitation of BaTiO3 crystals by homogeneous nucleation, followed by the growth of dendritic structures by aggregation and oriented attachment mechanisms. Instead, at the bottom, the low liquid/solid ratio, due to the limited amount of Ba solution that infiltrates the NTs, leads to the rapid crystallization of such a solution into BaTiO3, thus allowing the NTs to act as a template for the formation of highly oriented one-dimensional nanostructures. The in-depth analysis of the structural transformations that take place during the formation of the rod-like arrays of BaTiO3 could help elucidate the conversion mechanism, thus paving the way for the optimization of the synthesis process in view of new applications in energy harvesting devices, where easy and low temperature processing, controlled composition, morphology and functional properties are required.The use of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays as templates for hydrothermal conversion of one-dimensional barium titanate (BaTiO3) structures is considered a promising synthesis approach, even though the formation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Herein we report a nanostructural study by means of XRD and (HR)TEM of high aspect ratio TiO2-NTs hydrothermally converted into BaTiO3. The nanostructure shows two different and well-defined regions: at the top the conversion involves complete dissolution of NTs and subsequent precipitation of BaTiO3 crystals by homogeneous nucleation, followed by the

  4. Effect of oxygen partial pressure and anneal temperature on BaTiO3 thin film crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, De-gui; Fu, Xiuhua; Liu, Dong-mei; Pan, Yong-gang; Yang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    BaTiO3 film is deposited on single crystal MgO substrate with pulsed laser deposition, and its crystal structure and surface roughness are characterized by X-ray diffraction instrument and atomic force microscope. BaTiO3 film crystal quality is analyzed under three different oxygen partial pressure and three different annealing temperatures. The result shows that when the oxygen partial pressure is 15Pa, crystal surface (001) and (002) diffraction peak of BaTiO3 thin films have higher intensity. It indicated that the film has a good c-axis orientation. When the annealing temperature is 800°C, the intensity of diffraction peak is the maximum, and peak shape is sharper. BaTiO3 crystal film is obtained with highly preferred orientation, and film density is improved. Thus the film has less surface roughness and good crystalline state.

  5. Submerged arc discharge technique to explore novel non-carbon nanotubes: Syntheses of nanotubes from ZnO and BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime

    2014-04-01

    A unique reaction field using arc discharge in water can create novel nanostructures, where an extreme temperature drop is observed in bubbles around a hot arc plasma zone. Here, a Mo anode had a hole at its tip, into which ZnO or BaTiO3 powder was stuffed. The cathode received film products on its surface. It was revealed that BaTiO3 nanotubes were firstly synthesized as novel nanotubes when BaTiO3 powder was stuffed in the anode hole. When ZnO powder was stuffed in the anode hole, narrow ZnO nanotubes were synthesized. The diameter of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized was the smallest ever reported.

  6. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 phase of orthorhombic crystal structure contained in nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S.; Jana, A.; Kundu, T. K.

    2007-09-01

    Ferroelectric BaTiO3 phase of a Pnma orthorhombic crystal structure is synthesized from a chemical method using a polymer complex of Ba2+ and Ti4+ with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). After burning out the polymer at temperature as high as 550 °C in air for 2 h results in an average 15 nm crystallite BaTiO3 size, with lattice parameters a =0.6435 nm, b =0.5306 nm, c =0.8854 nm, and density 5.124 g/cm3. The relationship between dielectric constant ɛr and temperature showed a single Curie transition temperature TC=131 °C, with as large a ɛr value as 263 at TC. A low value of dissipation factor tan δ, as small as 0.033 at room temperature (frequency f =1 kHz), with good insulating properties made the sample promising for use in uncooled infrared detectors and thermal imaging applications. The ɛr value is nearly independent of f value up to 100 kHz. A spectrum of sharp EPR signals of g values 2.21 to 1.88 characterizes three major kinds of VBa-, VTi3-, and Ti3+-Vo2+ paramagnetic species present in the imperfections.

  7. Mesoscale flux-closure domain formation in single-crystal BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, R G P; McGilly, L J; Sharma, P; Gruverman, A; Gregg, J M

    2011-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, Charles Kittel predicted that quadrant domains should spontaneously form in small ferromagnetic platelets. He expected that the direction of magnetization within each quadrant should lie parallel to the platelet surface, minimizing demagnetizing fields,and that magnetic moments should be configured into an overall closed loop, or flux-closure arrangement. Although now a ubiquitous observation in ferromagnets, obvious flux-closure patterns have been somewhat elusive in ferroelectric materials. This is despite the analogous behaviour between these two ferroic subgroups and the recent prediction of dipole closure states by atomistic simulations research. Here we show Piezoresponse Force Microscopy images of mesoscopic dipole closure patterns in free-standing, single-crystal lamellae of BaTiO(3). Formation of these patterns is a dynamical process resulting from system relaxation after the BaTiO(3) has been poled with a uniform electric field. The flux-closure states are composed of shape conserving 90° stripe domains which minimize disclination stresses. PMID:21792183

  8. 90-degree polarization switching in BaTiO3 crystals without domain wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. W.; Scott, J. F.; Fang, D. N.; Li, F. X.

    2013-12-01

    We report 90° polarization switching in a BaTiO3 crystal without domain wall (DW) motion by prefabricating samples with interlocking domains via compression. During electric re-poling of the depoled and aged crystals, 90° domain nucleation still exists, but 90° DW motion is inhibited by the strong constraints from surrounding domains, leading to DW-free 90° polarization switching. The measured coercive field of 500 V/mm for the DW-free 90° switching is close to the intrinsic values and much larger than that of 80 V/mm via 90° DW motion. Compared to the rather difficult domain-free 180° polarization switching in ultrathin films, 90° DW-free switching is easier.

  9. Lattice dynamics of crystals with tetragonal BaTiO3 structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, J. D.; Katiyar, R. S.

    1988-02-01

    A lattice-dynamical formalism using the rigid-ion model due to Born and Huang is applied to the ferroelectric crystals PbTiO3 and BaTiO3, in the tetragonal phase. The model includes short-range interactions of axially symmetric type between various ions in the primitive cell and long-range Coulomb interactions. The stability conditions are worked out in the manner described by Katiyar and are used to determine several first-order derivative potential constants for the crystals. The number of potential constants was further reduced by considering the variation of radial force constants with the ion-ion distance, as given by the exponential formalism of Born and Mayer. Zone-center phonons and a few of the low-frequency zone-boundary phonons were used for the nonlinear least-squares fitting. In general, we obtained excellent agreement between the calculated and observed frequencies. The resulting parameters showed that the short-range interaction between the nearest titanium and oxygen is approximately 1 order of magnitude stronger than the interactions between the lead and oxygen or between the oxygens. The calculations showed that the lowest transverse-optic mode of E symmetry in PbTiO3 has eigenvectors similar to those predicted by Last, whereas in BaTiO3 the ionic movement in the lowest optic E mode can be approximated by the description of Slater. The phonon dispersion curves for various directions of the wave vector q were computed. These results are in good agreement with the inelastic neutron measurements by Shirane et al. A calculation of the oblique phonons near the zone center is presented and compared with the available experimental data. These calculations show that the long-range Coulomb forces dominate the anisotropic forces in these crystals. A theoretical approach for computing the elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties is presented and the proposed model applied for calculating these constants. The results are compared with the

  10. Acoustic Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in BaTiO3 Single Crystals Using Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huarong; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Chinna Venkadasamy; Villora, Encarnacion G.; Takekawa, Shunji; Kitamura, Kenji; Yin, Qingrui

    2007-01-01

    An “alternating-force-modulated” atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the acoustic mode, generated by launching acoustic waves on the piezoelectric transducer that is attached to the cantilever, was used to visualize the ferroelectric domains in barium titanate (BaTiO3) single crystals by detecting acoustic vibrations generated by the tip and transmitted through the sample placed beneath it to the transducer. The acoustic signal was found to reflect locally elastic microstructures at low frequencies, while high-frequency acoustic images revealed strip like domain configurations of internal substructures in BaTiO3 single crystals. The underlying acoustic imaging mechanism using the AFM was discussed in terms of the interaction between the excited acoustic wave and ferroelectric domains.

  11. Morphogenesis mechanisms in the solvothermal synthesis of BaTiO3 from titanate nanorods and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bogicevic, Christine; Thorner, Gentien; Karolak, Fabienne; Haghi-Ashtiani, Paul; Kiat, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-28

    A rich variety of single crystalline BaTiO3 (BT) nanostructures have been synthesized by two different routes using titanate nanorods and nanotubes as precursors. Free standing, mixed or agglomerated nanotori, solid or hollow nanospheres and nanocubes were obtained. A careful analysis of the shape evolution of the resulting BT nano-objects obtained with both types of precursors and different parameters (precursor composition and shape, temperature, Ba/Ti molar ratio) allowed an improved understanding of the nanostructure formation. The morphogenesis models at play such as Ostwald ripening and the Kirkendall effect have been identified. Other mechanisms hereafter called the self and merging rebuilding processes and a tentative Turing-reaction-diffusion-model are proposed to explain the formation of these obtained nanoparticles. PMID:25630867

  12. Composites of hybrids BaTiO3/carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride with high dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Benhui; Bai, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    High dielectric composites were prepared based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hybrids BaTiO3-carbon nanotubes (H-BT-CNTs) with a special structure. The hybrids that BT was a core and CNTs grew outside were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. Due to the special structure, composite’s dielectric permittivity reached 1777 at 100 Hz and 80 at 1 MHz, while loss tangent maintained as 6 at 100 Hz and 0.56 at 1 MHz, respectively. Moreover, dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity of composite were further enhanced after annealing process at moderate temperature. These improved properties were originated from the reformation of conductive network and BT-CNTs structure inside PVDF matrix.

  13. Morphogenesis mechanisms in the solvothermal synthesis of BaTiO3 from titanate nanorods and nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogicevic, Christine; Thorner, Gentien; Karolak, Fabienne; Haghi-Ashtiani, Paul; Kiat, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-01

    A rich variety of single crystalline BaTiO3 (BT) nanostructures have been synthesized by two different routes using titanate nanorods and nanotubes as precursors. Free standing, mixed or agglomerated nanotori, solid or hollow nanospheres and nanocubes were obtained. A careful analysis of the shape evolution of the resulting BT nano-objects obtained with both types of precursors and different parameters (precursor composition and shape, temperature, Ba/Ti molar ratio) allowed an improved understanding of the nanostructure formation. The morphogenesis models at play such as Ostwald ripening and the Kirkendall effect have been identified. Other mechanisms hereafter called the self and merging rebuilding processes and a tentative Turing-reaction-diffusion-model are proposed to explain the formation of these obtained nanoparticles.A rich variety of single crystalline BaTiO3 (BT) nanostructures have been synthesized by two different routes using titanate nanorods and nanotubes as precursors. Free standing, mixed or agglomerated nanotori, solid or hollow nanospheres and nanocubes were obtained. A careful analysis of the shape evolution of the resulting BT nano-objects obtained with both types of precursors and different parameters (precursor composition and shape, temperature, Ba/Ti molar ratio) allowed an improved understanding of the nanostructure formation. The morphogenesis models at play such as Ostwald ripening and the Kirkendall effect have been identified. Other mechanisms hereafter called the self and merging rebuilding processes and a tentative Turing-reaction-diffusion-model are proposed to explain the formation of these obtained nanoparticles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Derivation of the reaction-diffusion-model coefficients. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06266c

  14. In situ observation of reversible domain switching in aged Mn-doped BaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. X.; Ren, X.

    2005-05-01

    Very recently, a giant recoverable electrostrain effect has been found in aged Fe-doped BaTiO3 single crystals; this effect is based on a defect-mediated reversible domain-switching mechanism. However, the reversible domain-switching process itself is yet to be directly verified. In the present study, we performed in situ domain observation during electric field cycling for an aged Mn-doped BaTiO3 single crystal and simultaneously measured its polarization (P) -field (E) hysteresis loop. In addition, the electrostrain behavior of the sample was also characterized. Such experimentation made it possible to correlate the mesoscopic domain-switching behavior with the macroscopic properties. It was found that the aged sample shows a remarkable reversible domain switching during electric field cycling; it corresponds very well to a “double” hysteresis loop and a giant recoverable electrostrain effect (with a maximum strain of 0.4%). This provides direct mesoscopic evidence for our reversible domain-switching mechanism. By contrast, an unaged sample shows irreversible domain-switching behavior during electric field cycling; it corresponds to a normal hysteresis loop and a butterfly-type irrecoverable electrostrain behavior. This indicates that the reversible domain switching in the aged sample is related to point-defect migration during aging. We further found that the large recoverable strain is available over a wide frequency range. This is important for the application of this electrostrain effect.

  15. Effect of rhodium doping on the growth and characteristics of BaTiO 3 single crystals grown by step-cooling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeswaran, S.; Giridharan, N. V.; Varatharajan, R.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2004-06-01

    Single crystals of Rh-doped BaTiO 3 have been grown by high-temperature solution growth technique. The dopant has significant effect on the growth parameters and crystal properties. Bulk single crystals of dimensions 5×5×4 mm 3 have been grown with optimized growth conditions. Layer growth and vein-like structure patterns, indicative of 2D-nucleation mechanism, have been observed on the grown crystals. The dopant level in the grown crystals was estimated by EDX analysis. The crystals possess tetragonal structure and the tetragonality decreases for higher dopant concentration. Rh doping in BaTiO 3 leads to decrease in dielectric constant and Curie temperature ( Tc) values.

  16. Sheets of Vertically Aligned BaTiO3 Nanotubes Reduce Cell Proliferation but Not Viability of NIH-3T3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Marianna; Giannaccini, Martina; Sibillano, Teresa; Giannini, Cinzia; Liu, Dun; Wang, Zhigang; Baù, Andrea; Dente, Luciana; Cuschieri, Alfred; Raffa, Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    All biomaterials initiate a tissue response when implanted in living tissues. Ultimately this reaction causes fibrous encapsulation and hence isolation of the material, leading to failure of the intended therapeutic effect of the implant. There has been extensive bioengineering research aimed at overcoming or delaying the onset of encapsulation. Nanotechnology has the potential to address this problem by virtue of the ability of some nanomaterials to modulate interactions with cells, thereby inducing specific biological responses to implanted foreign materials. To this effect in the present study, we have characterised the growth of fibroblasts on nano-structured sheets constituted by BaTiO3, a material extensively used in biomedical applications. We found that sheets of vertically aligned BaTiO3 nanotubes inhibit cell cycle progression - without impairing cell viability - of NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells. We postulate that the 3D organization of the material surface acts by increasing the availability of adhesion sites, promoting cell attachment and inhibition of cell proliferation. This finding could be of relevance for biomedical applications designed to prevent or minimize fibrous encasement by uncontrolled proliferation of fibroblastic cells with loss of material-tissue interface underpinning long-term function of implants. PMID:25506693

  17. Growth and characterization of high-performance photorefractive BaTiO3 crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warde, C.; Garrett, M. H.; Chang, J. Y.; Jenssen, H. P.; Tuller, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Barium titanate has been used for many nonlinear optical applications primarily because it has high grain and high self-pumped phase conjugate reflectivities. However, barium titanate has had a relatively slow response time, and thus low sensitivity. Therefore, it has not been suited to real-time operations. In this report we will describe the modifications in crystal growth, doping, reduction, and poling that have produced barium titanate crystals with the fastest photorefractive response time reported to date, approximately 21 microseconds with a beam-coupling gain coefficient of 38.7 cm(exp -1) and the highest sensitivity reported to date of 3.44 cm(exp 3)/kJ. The sensitivity of these barium titanate crystals is comparable to or greater than other photorefractive oxides. We will show, for the first time, beam-coupling in barium titanate at video frame rates. We infer from response time measurements that barium titanate has a phonon limited mobility. Also, photorefractive response time measurements as a function of the crystallographic orientation and grating wave vector for our cobalt-doped oxygen reduced crystals indicate that their faster response time arise because of an increase in the free carrier lifetime.

  18. Inhomogeneity issues in the growth of Na 1/2Bi 1/2TiO 3-BaTiO 3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubesh Babu, J.; Madeswaran, G.; He, Ming; Zhang, D. F.; Chen, X. L.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2008-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric single crystals of Na 1/2Bi 1/2TiO 3-BaTiO 3 (NBT-BT) have been grown by flux and zone melting techniques. Growth was carried out by employing two flux systems: (a) Bi 2O 3 and (b) Bi 2O 3 and Na 2CO 3 fluxes. In order to avoid the serious problem of composition variations suffered in flux growth technique, metal strip heated zone melting (MSHZM) technique was employed for the growth of NBT-BT crystals. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis was carried out for the grown crystals and the composition variations in the crystals obtained from flux and MSHZM techniques were analyzed. Results reveal that the composition variations suffered in the flux-grown crystals have been avoided by adopting the zone melting technique.

  19. Elastic excitations in BaTiO3 single crystals and ceramics: Mobile domain boundaries and polar nanoregions observed by resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Carpenter, Michael A.; Nataf, Guillaume F.; Picht, Gunnar; Webber, Kyle; Weerasinghe, Jeevaka; Lisenkov, S.; Bellaiche, L.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic properties of elastic domain walls in BaTiO3 were investigated using resonance ultrasonic spectroscopy (RUS). The sequence of phase transitions is characterized by minima in the temperature dependence of RUS resonance frequencies and changes in Q factors (resonance damping). Damping is related to the friction of mobile twin boundaries (90° ferroelectric walls) and distorted polar nanoregions (PNRs) in the cubic phase. Damping is largest in the tetragonal phase of ceramic materials but very low in single crystals. Damping is also small in the low-temperature phases of the ceramic sample and slightly increases with decreasing temperature in the single crystal. The phase angle between the real and imaginary part of the dynamic response function changes drastically in the cubic and tetragonal phases and remains constant in the orthorhombic phase. Other phases show a moderate dependence of the phase angle on temperature showing systematic changes of twin microstructures. Mobile twin boundaries (or sections of twin boundaries such as kinks inside twin walls) contribute strongly to the energy dissipation of the forced oscillation while the reduction in effective modulus due to relaxing twin domains is weak. Single crystals and ceramics show strong precursor softening in the cubic phase related to polar nanoregions (PNRs). The effective modulus decreases when the transition point of the cubic-tetragonal transformation is approached from above. The precursor softening follows temperature dependence very similar to recent results from Brillouin scattering. Between the Burns temperature (≈586 K) and Tc at 405 K, we found a good fit of the squared RUS frequency [˜Δ (C11-C12)] to a Vogel-Fulcher process with an activation energy of ˜0.2 eV. Finally, some first-principles-based effective Hamiltonian computations were carried out in BaTiO3 single domains to explain some of these observations in terms of the dynamics of the soft mode and central mode.

  20. One — dimensional laser beam steering using frequency detuning in two — wave mixing with a BaTiO 3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmsaktu, K. S.; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2000-06-01

    We demonstrate a method of one-dimensional laser beam deflection using frequency detuning in two-wave mixing. Energy exchange between the interfering beams in a photo-refractive BaTiO 3 crystal has been used for deflection of a pump beam into predetermined probe beam directions. A one-dimensional array of several beams is generated from a single probe beam, employing a piezo-mirror and beam splitter combination. Probe beams so produced are detuned by exciting the piezo-mirror with a periodic near-saw-tooth voltage so as to produce running fringes. However, stable holographic gratings are recorded by matching the frequency of the probe beam with that of a pump beam reflected from another vibrating piezo-mirror, thereby controlling the direction of beam deflection.

  1. Preparation of BaTiO3/Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O/Au Complexes: Their Photocatalytic and Antipathogenic Effect.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Nam, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Lee-Han; Jung, Dongwoon

    2016-05-01

    BaTiO3/Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O/Au complexes were prepared from CuCl2, HAuCl4 solution, and BaTiO3 by the solution method. BaTiO3 particles were dispersed in a CuCl2 solution, and the BaTiO3/CuO complex was produced through crystallization of CuO onto the BaTiO3 surface by hydrolysis of CuCl2 in the first stage. After the reaction, CuO was reduced to Cu2O by treatment with glucose, thereby yielding the BaTiO3/Cu2O complex. The BaTiO3/Cu2O/Au complex was prepared by treating the BaTiO3/Cu2O particles with HAuCl4. Under visible light, the obtained BaTiO3/Cu2O0/Au complex showed higher photocatalytic activity than the Degussa P-25sample. In addition, the BaTiO3/Cu2O complex showed excellent antipathogenic effect. PMID:27483887

  2. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the BaTiO3-KNbO3-SiO2 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. Y.; Yang, Y. S.; Choi, H. W.

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the non-isothermal formation kinetics of nanocrystals from the BaTiO3-KNbO3-SiO2 (BKSO) glass at temperatures from room temperature to 800 °C. The thermal characteristics and the structural transformations of the BKSO glass have been studied by means of a differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization of BKSO glass is found to accompany a single-step occurrence of a tetragonal Ba3TiNb4O15 nanocrystal structure. During the crystallization, a nanocrystals with a size of ˜40 nm at the initial stage grow with increasing temperature and reach a size of ˜120 nm by the time the crystallization finishes. We use the non-isothermal model of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov to characterize the kinetics of the crystallization process for the BKSO glass. The Avrami exponent of 3.5 indicates that the crystallization mechanisms is an increasing nucleation rate with diffusion-controlled growth. In the view of applications, providing information on how to control the size of nanograins systematically by simply controlling the annealing temperature of the glass state, as described in this study, should be useful.

  3. Crystallization and electrical characteristics of 0.95 (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05 BaTiO3 thin films under different annealing temperature and atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Diao, Chien-Chen; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Lin, Jing-Jenn

    2011-12-01

    0.95 (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05 BaTiO3 +1 wt% Bi2O3 (NBT-BT3) ceramic is used as target to deposit the NBT-BT3 thin films. The excess 1wt% Bi2O3 is used to compensate the vaporization of Bi2O3 during the sintering and annealing processes. NBT-BT3 thin films are successfully deposited using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputter method and crystallized subsequently using a conventional furnace annealing (CFA) process. The annealed process is conducted in air and in oxygen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 600-800 degrees C for 60 min. As compared with the as-deposited NBT-BT3 thin films, the CFA-treated process has improved the grain growth and crystallization. We will show that the annealing atmosphere is the more important parameter to influence the grain growth and crystallization of NBT-BT3 thin films than the annealing temperature. The influences of CFA-treated temperature and atmosphere on the electrical characteristics of NBT-BT3 thin films, including the polarization characteristics (Pr, Ps, and Ec values), the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves, and the leakage current density-electric field (J-E) curves, are also investigated in this study. PMID:22408948

  4. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P.; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Shimamura, K.; Maglione, M.

    2014-04-01

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba0.850Ca0.150)(Ti0.900Zr0.100)O3 ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO2-ZrO2 solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba0.857Ca0.143)(Ti0.928Zr0.072)O3 to (Ba0.953Ca0.047)(Ti0.427Zr0.573)O3. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba0.838Ca0.162)(Ti0.854Zr0.146)O3 composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d31 and k31 of 93 pC.N-1 and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K).

  5. Influencing Factor Investigation on Dynamic Hydrothermal Growth of Gapped Hollow BaTiO3 Nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiabing; Shi, Haiyue; Yang, Jing; Li, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Deliang

    2015-08-01

    Gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres with an apparent diameter of 93 ± 19 nm (shell thickness of 10-20 nm) were synthesized via a dynamic hydrothermal process using TiO2 sols and Ba2+ ions as the Ti and Ba sources in alkaline aqueous solutions. The phases and morphologies of the BaTiO3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and Raman spectra. The effects of the hydrothermal temperatures and durations, NaOH concentrations, and Ba/Ti ratios on the formation of gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres were systematically investigated. The optimum conditions for forming gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres are hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 10-20 h under a continuous magnetic stirring with NaOH concentrations of about 1 mol/L and molar Ba/Ti ratios of 1.2-1.5. The formation mechanism of the gapped hollow BaTiO3 nanospheres is understood as the combination of the orientated attachment and reversed crystal growth.

  6. Structural properties of composites of polyvinylidene fluoride and mechanically activated BaTiO3 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, V. P.; Pavlović, V. B.; Vlahović, B.; Božanić, D. K.; Pajović, J. D.; Dojčilović, R.; Djoković, V.

    2013-11-01

    Nanocomposites of electroactive ceramics and ferroelectric polymers exploit favorable features of the matrix polymer and the nanostructured filler to produce new functional materials for pressure and IR sensors. In this study, the influence of mechanical activation of barium titanate (BaTiO3) particles on the structural properties of BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposites was investigated. Nanocomposite films were prepared by the solution casting method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that mechanically activated fillers promote the formation of a ferroelectric β-phase during crystallization of PVDF.

  7. Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation of BaTiO3 thin films on Ni metal foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Rajashekhar, A.; Ko, S. W.; Qu, W.; Motyka, M.; Podraza, N.; Clark, T.; Randall, C. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2016-01-01

    Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation for reduced, crystallized BaTiO3 thin films on Ni-foils was investigated. It was found that the BaTiO3 can be re-oxidized at an oxygen partial pressure of ˜50 mTorr and substrate temperature of 350 °C without forming a NiOx interface layer between the film and base metal foil. The dielectric permittivity of re-oxidized films was >1000 with loss tangent values <2% at 100 Hz, 30 mVrms excitation signal. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that BaTiO3 thin films can be re-oxidized to an oxygen stoichiometry close to ˜3 (e.g., stoichiometric). High resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of NiOx formation between the BaTiO3 and the Ni foil upon excimer laser re-oxidation. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on laser re-oxidized [001]C and [111]C BaTiO3 single crystals indicate that the re-oxidation of BaTiO3 single crystals is augmented by photo-excitation of the ozone, as well as laser pulse induced temperature and local stress gradients.

  8. Nanoscale BaTiO3 MOSCAP formation for ferroelectric field effect transistor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponath, Patrick; Posadas, Agham; Schmidt, Michael; Hurley, Paul; Duffy, Ray; Demkov, Alex

    Titanates are an important class of materials with many interesting functional properties and applications for non-volatile memory, i.e. BaTiO3, which is a promising candidate for the realization of a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. However, the difficulty of chemically etching titanates has hindered their commercial use in device manufacturing so far. Here, we report a technique to circumvent this problem. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we grew compressively strained ferroelectric BaTiO3, within photolithographically defined openings of a sacrificial SiO2 layer on germanium (001) with Pt as a top electrode. Etching away the sacrificial SiO2 can reveal isolated nanoscale gate stacks circumventing the need to etch the titanate thin film. Using X-ray diffraction we find that the BaTiO3 film is tetragonal with the longer c-axis being out of plane, which is a requirement for the ferroelectric field effect transistor. The crystal quality of the BaTiO3 films grown in the openings is confirmed using RHEED and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Focused ion beam etching of the Pt layer is then used to electrically isolate a Pt/BaTiO3/SrTiO3/Ge stack to perform electrical measurements.

  9. Lead-free BaTiO3 nanowires-based flexible nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Bae, Soo Bin; Yang, Seong Ho; Lee, Hyung Ik; Lee, Kisu; Lee, Seung Jun

    2014-07-01

    We have synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) via a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature and developed a lead-free, flexible nanocomposite generator (NCG) device by a simple, low-cost, and scalable spin-coating method. The hydrothermally grown BaTiO3 NWs are mixed in a polymer matrix without a toxic dispersion enhancer to produce a piezoelectric nanocomposite (p-NC). During periodical and regular bending and unbending motions, the NCG device fabricated by utilizing a BaTiO3 NWs-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite successfully harvests the output voltage of ~7.0 V and current signals of ~360 nA, which are utilized to drive a liquid crystal display (LCD). We also characterized the instantaneous power (~1.2 μW) of the NCG device by calculating the load voltage and current through the connected external resistance.We have synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) via a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature and developed a lead-free, flexible nanocomposite generator (NCG) device by a simple, low-cost, and scalable spin-coating method. The hydrothermally grown BaTiO3 NWs are mixed in a polymer matrix without a toxic dispersion enhancer to produce a piezoelectric nanocomposite (p-NC). During periodical and regular bending and unbending motions, the NCG device fabricated by utilizing a BaTiO3 NWs-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite successfully harvests the output voltage of ~7.0 V and current signals of ~360 nA, which are utilized to drive a liquid crystal display (LCD). We also characterized the instantaneous power (~1.2 μW) of the NCG device by calculating the load voltage and current through the connected external resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PDF materials involve the linear superposition test results (Fig. S1) and the durability test results (Fig. S2) of BaTiO3 NWs-based NCG device. A video file (Video S1) shows the power up of an LCD screen by the NCG device without any external energy source. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr

  10. Preferentially oriented BaTiO3 thin films deposited on silicon with thin intermediate buffer layers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films are prepared by conventional 2-methoxy ethanol-based chemical solution deposition. We report highly c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 thin films grown on silicon substrates, coated with a lanthanum oxynitrate buffer layer of 8.9 nm. The influence of the intermediate buffer layer on the crystallization of BaTiO3 film is investigated. The annealing temperature and buffer layer sintering conditions are optimized to obtain good crystal growth. X-ray diffraction measurements show the growth of highly oriented BaTiO3 thin films having a single perovskite phase with tetragonal geometry. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies indicate the presence of smooth, crack-free, uniform layers, with densely packed crystal grains on the silicon surface. A BaTiO3 film of 150-nm thickness, deposited on a buffer layer of 7.2 nm, shows a dielectric constant of 270, remnant polarization (2Pr) of 5 μC/cm2, and coercive field (Ec) of 60 kV/cm. PMID:23391429

  11. Phase composition identification and microstructure of BaTiO3-containing sodium-aluminoborosilicate glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harizanova, Ruzha; Abrashev, Miroslav; Avramova, Ivalina; Vladislavova, Liliya; Bocker, Christian; Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Avdeev, Georgi; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Bulk glasses with a composition 20.1Na2O/23.1BaO/23.0TiO2/7.6B2O3/17.4SiO2/3Al2O3/5.8Fe2O3 containing less than 30 mol% glass-forming oxides are synthesized. Information on the valency of the glass constituents is obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and it is concluded that all species are predominantly present in their oxidized state. Glassy samples are annealed above the glass transition temperature which leads to the crystallization of BaTiO3 for all time-temperature applied schedules. The phase composition of the glass-ceramics is studied by x-ray diffraction and the formation of cubic BaTiO3 is suggested. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of solely cubic BaTiO3. The microstructures of all annealed samples are similar and consist of globular interconnected particles in which nanosized BaTiO3 crystals grow randomly. The mean size of the spherical formations increases with the increasing annealing time from 200 to 600 nm. Electron microscopy suggests that during the annealing process first phase separation and then crystallization of BaTiO3 occurs.

  12. Microstructure evolution and electrical characterization of Lanthanum doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billah, Masum; Ahmed, A.; Rahman, Md. Miftaur; Mahbub, Rubbayat; Gafur, M. A.; Bashar, M. Shahriar

    2016-07-01

    In the current work, we investigated the structural and dielectric properties of Lanthanum oxide (La2O3) doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics and established a correlation between them. Solid state sintering method was used to dope BaTiO3 with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mole% La2O3 under different sintering parameters. The raw materials used were La2O3 nano powder of ~80nm grain size and 99.995% purity and BaTiO3 nano powder of 100nm grain size and 99.99% purity. Grain size distribution and morphology of fracture surface of sintered pellets were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the formation of desired crystal structure. The research result reveal that grain size and electrical properties of BaTiO3 ceramic significantly enhanced for small amount of doping (up to 0.5 mole% La2O3) and then decreased with increasing doping concentration. Desired grain growth (0.80-1.3 µm) and high densification (<90% theoretical density) were found by proper combination of temperature, sintering parameters and doping concentration. We found the resultant stable value of dielectric constant was 10000-12000 at 100-300 Hz in the temperature range of 30°-50° C for 0.5 mole% La2O3 with corresponding shift of curie temperature around 30° C. So overall this research showed that proper La3+ concentration can control the grain size, increase density, lower curie temperature and hence significantly improve the electrical properties of BaTiO3 ceramics.

  13. The Effect of Polarization on Local Electronic Structure in Ferroelectric Nano-Domains in BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Erie; Perez, Carlos; Bonnell, Dawn; MSE Team

    Novel ferroelectric BaTiO3 applications ranging from sensors to nanogenerators require a detailed understanding of atomic interactions at surfaces. Single crystals provide a platform that allows the exploitation of surface physical and chemical properties that can be readily transferred to other ABO3 perovskites. The processes that result in the atomic and electronic structures of surfaces in tandem with polarization of domains are necessary steps towards understanding BaTiO3. Here we treat BaTiO3 surface using sputtering-annealing cycles that yield the (6x1) reconstruction. We demonstrate that it is possible to pole a thin BaTiO3 single crystal in ultra high vacuum using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We determine that we can prepare BaTiO3 using in-situ annealing that allows us to control the size of poled region to 40nm. We pole in constant-current mode in STM by applying a bias of less than 10 V between tip and sample for 100ms. STM and scanning tunneling spectroscopy characterization allow us to map topography and local density of states, respectively. For a given unique pulse, the poled domains show a fluctuating electronic occupation of conduction bands and shifting of valence band. We will also discuss the effect of polarization on molecular adsorption.

  14. Engineered Unique Elastic Modes at a BaTiO3/(2 ×1 )-Ge (001 ) Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumah, D. P.; Dogan, M.; Ngai, J. H.; Qiu, D.; Zhang, Z.; Su, D.; Specht, E. D.; Ismail-Beigi, S.; Ahn, C. H.; Walker, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    The strong interaction at an interface between a substrate and thin film leads to epitaxy and provides a means of inducing structural changes in the epitaxial film. These induced material phases often exhibit technologically relevant electronic, magnetic, and functional properties. The 2 ×1 surface of a Ge(001) substrate applies a unique type of epitaxial constraint on thin films of the perovskite oxide BaTiO3 where a change in bonding and symmetry at the interface leads to a non-bulk-like crystal structure of the BaTiO3 . While the complex crystal structure is predicted using first-principles theory, it is further shown that the details of the structure are a consequence of hidden phases found in the bulk elastic response of the BaTiO3 induced by the symmetry of forces exerted by the germanium substrate.

  15. Engineered unique elastic modes at a BaTiO3/2x1-Ge(001) interface

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kumah, D. P.; Dogan, M.; Ngai, J. H.; Qiu, D.; Zhang, Z.; Su, D.; Specht, E. D.; Ismail-Beigi, S.; Ahn, C. H.; Walker, F. J.

    2016-03-07

    Here, the strong interaction at an interface between a substrate and thin film leads to epitaxy and provides a means of inducing structural changes in the epitaxial film. These induced material phases often exhibit technologically relevant electronic, magnetic, and functional properties. The 2×1 surface of a Ge(001) substrate applies a unique type of epitaxial constraint on thin films of the perovskite oxide BaTiO3 where a change in bonding and symmetry at the interface leads to a non-bulk-like crystal structure of the BaTiO3. While the complex crystal structure is predicted using first-principles theory, it is further shown that the details ofmore » the structure are a consequence of hidden phases found in the bulk elastic response of the BaTiO3 induced by the symmetry of forces exerted by the germanium substrate.« less

  16. Polarization sensitive surface band structure of doped BaTiO3(001).

    PubMed

    Rault, J E; Dionot, J; Mathieu, C; Feyer, V; Schneider, C M; Geneste, G; Barrett, N

    2013-09-20

    We present a spatial and wave-vector resolved study of the electronic structure of micron sized ferroelectric domains at the surface of a BaTiO(3)(001) single crystal. The n-type doping of the BaTiO(3) is controlled by in situ vacuum and oxygen annealing, providing experimental evidence of a surface paraelectric-ferroelectric transition below a critical doping level. Real space imaging of photoemission threshold, core level and valence band spectra show contrast due to domain polarization. Reciprocal space imaging of the electronic structure using linearly polarized light provides unambiguous evidence for the presence of both in- and out-of-plane polarization with two- and fourfold symmetry, respectively. The results agree well with first principles calculations. PMID:24093301

  17. Stress effect on Raman spectra of Ce-doped BaTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. S.; Shen, Z. X.; Tang, S. H.; Shi, W. S.; Cui, D. F.; Chen, Z. H.

    2000-08-01

    Ce-doped BaTiO3 (BTO:Ce) thin films prepared on MgO (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at oxygen pressure of 1.2×10-3 and 17 Pa have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The film deposited at lower oxygen pressure has a larger lattice parameter in the direction normal to the substrate surface, and the film has smaller grains and a smoother surface. The polarized Raman peaks of both as-deposited films show blue shifts and linewidth broadening in comparison to those of the BaTiO3 single crystal. The blue shifts are attributed to tensile stresses in the films. Our results indicate that the grain size increases and the tensile stress relaxes with annealing. We have shown that quantum confinement and oxygen vacancies are not the dominant factors for the observed Raman spectral changes.

  18. Metastable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases and electric field induced irreversible phase transformation at room temperature in the lead-free classical ferroelectric BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; Khatua, Dipak Kumar; Loukya, B.; Datta, Ranjan; Fitch, Andy N.; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-03-01

    For decades it has been a well-known fact that among the few ferroelectric compounds in the perovskite family, namely, BaTiO3, KNbO3, PbTiO3, and Na1 /2Bi1 /2TiO3 , the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 are considerably higher than the others in polycrystalline form at room temperature. Further, similar to ferroelectric alloys exhibiting morphotropic phase boundary, single crystals of BaTiO3 exhibit anomalously large piezoelectric response when poled away from the direction of spontaneous polarization at room temperature. These anomalous features in BaTiO3 remained unexplained so far from the structural standpoint. In this work, we have used high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction, atomic resolution aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with a powder poling technique, to reveal that at 300 K (i) the equilibrium state of BaTiO3 is characterized by coexistence of metastable monoclinic Pm and orthorhombic (Amm2) phases along with the tetragonal phase, and (ii) strong electric field switches the polarization direction from the [001] direction towards the [101] direction. These results suggest that BaTiO3 at room temperature is within an instability regime, and that this instability is the fundamental factor responsible for the anomalous dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 as compared to the other homologous ferroelectric perovskite compounds at room temperature. Pure BaTiO3 at room temperature is therefore more akin to lead-based ferroelectric alloys close to the morphotropic phase boundary where polarization rotation and field induced ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transformations play a fundamental role in influencing the dielectric and piezoelectric behavior.

  19. Phase evolution in sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped BaTiO3 nanocrystallites: structural, magnetic and ferroelectric characterisation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Dimple P; Roy, Mainak; Maiti, Nandita; Tyagi, Avesh K

    2016-04-14

    The properties of nanomaterials are highly dependent on their size, morphology, crystal phase, etc., which in turn depend on the method of synthesis. We report here the electrical and magnetic characterisation of sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped nano BaTiO3 samples. The dopant ion concentration has been optimized and the coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity has been observed in the sample. With increase in Fe(3+) doping from 0 to 20 mol%, a gradual phase change from tetragonal to hexagonal occurred in these sonochemically synthesized BaTiO3 nanomaterials. Below 15 mol% Fe concentration the material displays ferroelectric behaviour with the absence of any magnetic ordering, while at an Fe concentration of ∼15 mol% the material exhibits both room temperature ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity. Ferromagnetism as well as relaxor type behaviour has been observed in the BaTiO3:Fe(3+)(20%) sample. We have studied the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering in these sonochemically synthesized Fe(3+) doped BaTiO3 nanomaterials and have tried to correlate the results with their crystal structure and morphology. The origin of ferromagnetism in these materials has been attributed to both intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. PMID:27003320

  20. Strain-induced magnetic domain wall control by voltage in hybrid piezoelectric BaTiO3 ferrimagnetic TbFe structures

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Olivier; Weil, Raphael; Rohart, Stanislas; Mougin, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the voltage dependence of the magnetization reversal of a thin amorphous ferromagnetic TbFe film grown on a ferroelectric and piezoelectric BaTiO3 single crystal. Magneto-optical measurements, at macroscopic scale or in a microscope, demonstrate how the ferroelectric BaTiO3 polarisation history influences the properties of the perpendicularly magnetized TbFe film. Unpolarised and twinned regions are obtained when the sample is zero voltage cooled whereas flat and saturated regions are obtained when the sample is voltage cooled through the ferroelectric ordering temperature of the BaTiO3 crystal, as supported by atomic force microscopy experiments. The two steps involved in the TbFe magnetization reversal, namely nucleation and propagation of magnetic domain walls, depend on the polarisation history. Nucleation is associated to coupling through strains with the piezoelectric BaTiO3 crystal and propagation to pinning with the ferroelastic surface patterns visible in the BaTiO3 topography. PMID:26987937

  1. Strain-induced magnetic domain wall control by voltage in hybrid piezoelectric BaTiO3 ferrimagnetic TbFe structures.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Olivier; Weil, Raphael; Rohart, Stanislas; Mougin, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the voltage dependence of the magnetization reversal of a thin amorphous ferromagnetic TbFe film grown on a ferroelectric and piezoelectric BaTiO3 single crystal. Magneto-optical measurements, at macroscopic scale or in a microscope, demonstrate how the ferroelectric BaTiO3 polarisation history influences the properties of the perpendicularly magnetized TbFe film. Unpolarised and twinned regions are obtained when the sample is zero voltage cooled whereas flat and saturated regions are obtained when the sample is voltage cooled through the ferroelectric ordering temperature of the BaTiO3 crystal, as supported by atomic force microscopy experiments. The two steps involved in the TbFe magnetization reversal, namely nucleation and propagation of magnetic domain walls, depend on the polarisation history. Nucleation is associated to coupling through strains with the piezoelectric BaTiO3 crystal and propagation to pinning with the ferroelastic surface patterns visible in the BaTiO3 topography. PMID:26987937

  2. Strain-induced magnetic domain wall control by voltage in hybrid piezoelectric BaTiO3 ferrimagnetic TbFe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Olivier; Weil, Raphael; Rohart, Stanislas; Mougin, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on the voltage dependence of the magnetization reversal of a thin amorphous ferromagnetic TbFe film grown on a ferroelectric and piezoelectric BaTiO3 single crystal. Magneto-optical measurements, at macroscopic scale or in a microscope, demonstrate how the ferroelectric BaTiO3 polarisation history influences the properties of the perpendicularly magnetized TbFe film. Unpolarised and twinned regions are obtained when the sample is zero voltage cooled whereas flat and saturated regions are obtained when the sample is voltage cooled through the ferroelectric ordering temperature of the BaTiO3 crystal, as supported by atomic force microscopy experiments. The two steps involved in the TbFe magnetization reversal, namely nucleation and propagation of magnetic domain walls, depend on the polarisation history. Nucleation is associated to coupling through strains with the piezoelectric BaTiO3 crystal and propagation to pinning with the ferroelastic surface patterns visible in the BaTiO3 topography.

  3. Thin film processing of photorefractive BaTiO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Paul R.; Potember, Richard S.

    1991-01-01

    The principle objectives of this ongoing research involve the preparation and characterization of polycrystalline single-domain thin films of BaTiO3 for photorefractive applications. These films must be continuous, free of cracks, and of high optical quality. The two methods proposed are sputtering and sol-gel related processing.

  4. Ferroelectric-like metallic state in electron doped BaTiO3

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, J.; Doi, A.; Okuyama, D.; Morikawa, D.; Arima, T.; Okada, K. N.; Kaneko, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Uchiyama, H.; Ishikawa, D.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report that a ferroelectric-like metallic state with reduced anisotropy of polarization is created by the doping of conduction electrons into BaTiO3, on the bases of x-ray/electron diffraction and infrared spectroscopic experiments. The crystal structure is heterogeneous in nanometer-scale, as enabled by the reduced polarization anisotropy. The enhanced infrared intensity of soft phonon along with the resistivity reduction suggests the presence of unusual electron-phonon coupling, which may be responsible for the emergent ferroelectric structure compatible with metallic state. PMID:26289749

  5. Giant bulk photovoltaic effect in thin ferroelectric BaTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, A.; Matveyev, Yu.; Maksimova, K.; Gaynutdinov, R.; Tolstikhina, A.; Fridkin, V.

    2014-10-01

    The voltage generated in a noncentrosymmetric crystal due to the bulk photovoltaic effect (BPE) can greatly exceed the energy gap, however, the light energy conversion efficiency is extremely low. Here we show that the BPE is remarkably enhanced in the case of thin films. The measurements of the BPE in heteroepitaxial single domain ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films reveal the enhancement of both photoinduced electric field and conversion efficiencies of the BPE by more than 4 orders of magnitude. Besides the fundamental aspect, our results indicate the potential for the use of the BPE in photovoltaic applications.

  6. High Performance Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerators based on BaTiO3 Nanofibers in Different Alignment Modes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu

    2016-06-22

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators, harvesting energy from mechanical stimuli in our living environments, hold great promise to power sustainable self-sufficient micro/nanosystems and mobile/portable electronics. BaTiO3 as a lead-free material with high piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant has been widely examined to realize nanogenerators, capacitors, sensors, etc. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based flexible composites including BaTiO3 nanofibers with different alignment modes were manufactured and their piezoelectric performance was examined. For the study, BaTiO3 nanofibers were prepared by an electrospinning technique utilizing a sol-gel precursor and following calcination process, and they were then aligned vertically or horizontally or randomly in PDMS matrix-based nanogenerators. The morphological structures of BaTiO3 nanofibers and their nanogenerators were analyzed by using SEM images. The crystal structures of the nanogenerators before and after poling were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the nanogenerators were investigated as a function of the nanofiber alignment mode. The nanogenerator with BaTiO3 nanofibers aligned vertically in the PDMS matrix sheet achieved high piezoelectric performance of an output power of 0.1841 μW with maximum voltage of 2.67 V and current of 261.40 nA under a low mechanical stress of 0.002 MPa, in addition to a high dielectric constant of 40.23 at 100 Hz. The harvested energy could thus power a commercial LED directly or be stored into capacitors after rectification. PMID:27237223

  7. Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Joshua; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Lee, Sangkwon; Yan, Haoquan; Choi, Heon-Jin; Yang, Peidong

    2003-04-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 (ref. 1), there have been significant research efforts to synthesize nanometre-scale tubular forms of various solids. The formation of tubular nanostructure generally requires a layered or anisotropic crystal structure. There are reports of nanotubes made from silica, alumina, silicon and metals that do not have a layered crystal structure; they are synthesized by using carbon nanotubes and porous membranes as templates, or by thin-film rolling. These nanotubes, however, are either amorphous, polycrystalline or exist only in ultrahigh vacuum. The growth of single-crystal semiconductor hollow nanotubes would be advantageous in potential nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics and biochemical-sensing applications. Here we report an `epitaxial casting' approach for the synthesis of single-crystal GaN nanotubes with inner diameters of 30-200nm and wall thicknesses of 5-50nm. Hexagonal ZnO nanowires were used as templates for the epitaxial overgrowth of thin GaN layers in a chemical vapour deposition system. The ZnO nanowire templates were subsequently removed by thermal reduction and evaporation, resulting in ordered arrays of GaN nanotubes on the substrates. This templating process should be applicable to many other semiconductor systems.

  8. Nanostructural evolution of one-dimensional BaTiO₃ structures by hydrothermal conversion of vertically aligned TiO₂ nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Tabares, J A; Bejtka, K; Lamberti, A; Garino, N; Bianco, S; Quaglio, M; Pirri, C F; Chiodoni, A

    2016-03-28

    The use of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays as templates for hydrothermal conversion of one-dimensional barium titanate (BaTiO3) structures is considered a promising synthesis approach, even though the formation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Herein we report a nanostructural study by means of XRD and (HR)TEM of high aspect ratio TiO2-NTs hydrothermally converted into BaTiO3. The nanostructure shows two different and well-defined regions: at the top the conversion involves complete dissolution of NTs and subsequent precipitation of BaTiO3 crystals by homogeneous nucleation, followed by the growth of dendritic structures by aggregation and oriented attachment mechanisms. Instead, at the bottom, the low liquid/solid ratio, due to the limited amount of Ba solution that infiltrates the NTs, leads to the rapid crystallization of such a solution into BaTiO3, thus allowing the NTs to act as a template for the formation of highly oriented one-dimensional nanostructures. The in-depth analysis of the structural transformations that take place during the formation of the rod-like arrays of BaTiO3 could help elucidate the conversion mechanism, thus paving the way for the optimization of the synthesis process in view of new applications in energy harvesting devices, where easy and low temperature processing, controlled composition, morphology and functional properties are required. PMID:26955909

  9. Growth of BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films by using aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite thick films were grown by using aerosol deposition at room temperature with BaTiO3 and PVDF powders. To produce a uniform composition in ceramic and polymer composite films, which show a substantial difference in specific gravity, we used PVDF-coated BaTiO3 powders as the starting materials. An examination of the microstructure confirmed that the BaTiO3 were well distributed in the PVDF matrix in the form of a 0 - 3 compound. The crystallite size in the BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films was 5 ˜ 50 times higher than that in pure BaTiO3 thick films. PVDF plays a role in suppressing the fragmentation of BaTiO3 powder during the aerosol deposition process and in controlling the relative permittivity.

  10. Polarisation dependence of Schottky barrier heights at ferroelectric BaTiO3 / RuO2 interfaces: influence of substrate orientation and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubmann, Andreas H.; Li, Shunyi; Zhukov, Sergey; von Seggern, Heinz; Klein, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to examine the change in Schottky barrier height Δ {Φ\\text{B}} at BaTiO3/RuO2 interfaces upon polarisation reversal for [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] oriented BaTiO3 single crystals. Compared to previous measurements on BaTiO3/RuO2 interfaces (Chen and Klein 2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 094105), the crystals exhibit a significantly reduced dependence of barrier height on polarisation direction. This is connected to a much higher polarisation of the present cystals, which is comparable to the accepted bulk polarisation of BaTiO3 of 26~μ \\text{C}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} and which exhibit the expected dependence on crystal orientation. This indicates a much higher crystal quality in the present experiments, which is also confirmed by a Kolmogorov–Avrami–Ishibashi like polarisation switching dynamics. It is observed that Δ {Φ\\text{B}} is reduced for the [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] orientation and scales with polarisation as long as crystals from the same batch are used. The fact, that a poor polarisation hysteresis behaviour relates to a high polarisation dependence of Schottky barrier height, indicates that the electrode’s ability to screen ferroelectric polarisation charges depends sensitively on crystal and/or interface quality.

  11. Surface reaction characteristics at low temperature synthesis BaTiO 3 particles by barium hydroxide aqueous solution and titanium tetraisopropoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Min

    2011-05-01

    Well-crystallized cubic phase BaTiO 3 particles were prepared by heating the mixture of barium hydroxide aqueous solution and titania derived from the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) at 328 K, 348 K or 368 K for 24 h. The morphology and size of obtained particles depended on the reaction temperature and the Ba(OH) 2/TTIP molar ratio. By the direct hydrolytic reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide, the high surface area titania (TiO 2) was obtained. The surface adsorption characteristics of the titania particles had been studied with different electric charges OH - ions or H + ions. The formation mechanism and kinetics of BaTiO 3 were examined by measuring the concentration of [Ba 2+] ions in the solution during the heating process. The experimental results showed that the heterogeneous nucleation of BaTiO 3 occurred on the titania surface, according to the Avrami's equation.

  12. Formation of BaTiO 3 from Citrate Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, M.; Rao, M. Subba

    1994-12-01

    On thermal decomposition barium bis(citrato)oxotitanate (IV) citrate heptahydrate produces stoichiometric BaTiO3 fine powders at about 650°C. Thermal decomposition of the precursor proceeds through three major stages, viz. (i) dehydration, (ii) decomposition of the citrate to form an oxycarbonate intermediate Ba2Ti2O5CO3, and (iii) decomposition of the intermediate carbonate to form BaTiO3. Spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques are presently employed to characterize the precursor and the intermediates isolated at various stages. As-prepared BaTiO3 is a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases. The primary particle size of the powder is on the order of 100 nm, as revealed by the TEM technique. Calcining the powders above 800°C results in the formation of complete tetragonal phase with improved crystallinity. The resultant powders are sinter active to give dense monophasic ceramic compacts having densities in the range 95-99% of the theoretical value. Depending on the processing conditions, the dielectric constant (εr) varies from 1600 to 3000 at 1 kHz, while the dielectric loss, tan δ, ranges from 0.003 to 0.009 at 300 K.

  13. Nanoparticle-Sintered BaTiO3 Thin Films and Its Orientation Control by Solid Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasone, Fumi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Suzuki, Toshimasa; Mizuno, Youichi; Chazono, Hirokazu; Imai, Hiroaki

    2008-11-01

    A novel powder-sintering thin-film process using nanocrystals of sol-gel-derived BaTiO3 without sintering additives yields a highly densified microstructure containing columnar grains at low temperatures of 800 °C. The BaTiO3 thin film fabricated on a (111)-oriented Pt/TiO2/Al2O3 substrate shows high crystallinity and a relatively high dielectric constant of 635 at 10 kHz with a low loss tangent of 0.007. Furthermore, the controllability of the crystallographic orientations of thin films by solid phase epitaxy is demonstrated on the basis of the optimization of surface nucleation and the subsequent grain growth on epitaxially grown platinum electrodes and single-crystal SrTiO3 substrates.

  14. Liquid crystal-carbon nanotubes mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa-Nita, V.; Kralj, S.

    2010-01-01

    The self-organizing properties of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) can be used to align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed in them. In the previous paper [P. van der Schoot, V. Popa-Nita, and S. Kralj, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 4512 (2008)], we have considered the weak anchoring limit of the nematic LC molecules at the nanotube's surface, where the CNT alignment is caused by the anisotropic interfacial tension of the nanotubes in the nematic host fluid. In this paper, we present the theoretical results obtained for strong enough anchoring at the CNT-LC interface for which the nematic ordering around nanotube is apparently distorted. Consequently, relatively strong long-range and anisotropic interactions can emerge within the system. In order to get insight into the impact of LC ordering on the alignment of nanotubes we treat the two mixture components on the same footing and combine Landau-de Gennes free energy for the thermotropic ordering of the liquid crystal and Doi free energy for lyotropic nematic ordering of carbon nanotubes caused by their mutually excluded volume. The phase ordering of the binary mixture is analyzed as a function of the volume fraction of the carbon nanotubes, the strength of coupling, and the temperature. We find that the degree of ordering of the nanorods can be tuned by raising or lowering the temperature or by increasing or decreasing their concentration.

  15. BaTiO3 supercages: unusual oriented nanoparticle aggregation and continuous ordering transition in morphology.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hietala, Sami; Tian, Xuelin

    2015-01-27

    Here we report the organic-free mesocrystalline superstructured cages of BaTiO3, i.e., the BaTiO3 supercages, which are synthesized by a one-step templateless and additive-free route using molten hydrated salt as the reaction medium. An unusual three-dimensional oriented aggregation of primary BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the medium of high ionic strength, which normally favors random aggregation, is identified to take place at the early stage of the synthesis. The spherical BaTiO3 aggregates further experience a remarkable continuous ordering transition in morphology, consisting of nanoparticle faceting and nanosheet formation steps. This ordering transition in conjunction with Ostwald ripening-induced solid evacuation leads to the formation of unique supercage structure of BaTiO3. Benefiting from their structure, the BaTiO3 supercages exhibit improved microwave absorption property. PMID:25514033

  16. Polarization and lattice strains in epitaxial BaTiO3 films grown by high-pressure sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petraru, A.; Pertsev, N. A.; Kohlstedt, H.; Poppe, U.; Waser, R.; Solbach, A.; Klemradt, U.

    2007-06-01

    High-quality BaTiO3 films with thicknesses ranging from 2.9to175nm were grown epitaxially on SrRuO3-covered (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates by high-pressure sputtering. The crystal structure of these films was studied by conventional and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters were determined as a function of film thickness by x-ray reciprocal space mapping around the asymmetric (1¯03) Bragg reflection. BaTiO3 films were found to be fully strained by the SrTiO3 substrate up to a thickness of about 30nm. Ferroelectric capacitors were then fabricated by depositing SrRuO3 top electrodes, and the polarization-voltage hysteresis loops were recorded at the frequencies 1-30kHz. The observed thickness effect on the lattice parameters and polarization in BaTiO3 films was analyzed in the light of strain and depolarizing-field effects using the nonlinear thermodynamics theory. The theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with the measured thickness dependences, although the maximum experimental values of the spontaneous polarization and the out-of-plane lattice parameter exceed the theoretical estimates (43μC /cm2 vs 35μC/cm2 and 4.166Å vs 4.143Å). Possible origins of the revealed discrepancy between theory and experiment are discussed.

  17. Thin film processing of photorefractive BaTiO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    During the period covered by this report, October 11, 1991 through October 10, 1992, the research has progressed in a number of different areas. The sol-gel technique was initially studied and experimentally evaluated for depositing films of BaTiO3. The difficulties with the precursors and the poor quality of the films deposited lead to the investigation of pulsed laser deposition as an alternative approach. The development of the pulsed laser deposition technique has resulted in continuous improvements to the quality of deposited films of BaTiO3. The initial depositions of BaTiO3 resulted in amorphous films, however, as the pulsed laser deposition technique continued to evolve, films were deposited in the polycrystalline state, then the textured polycrystalline state, and most recently heteroepitaxial films have also been successfully deposited on cubic (100) oriented SrTiO3 substrates. A technique for poling samples at room temperature and in air is also undergoing development with some very preliminary but positive results. The analytical techniques, which include x-ray diffraction, ferroelectric analysis, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray compositional analysis, optical and polarized light microscopy, and surface profilometry have been enhanced to allow for more detailed evaluation of the samples. In the area of optical characterization, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been incorporated into the experimental configuration. Now data can also be acquired within various temporal domains resulting in more detailed information on the optical response of the samples and on their photorefractive sensitivity. The recent establishment of collaborative efforts with two departments at Johns Hopkins University and the Army Research Lab at Fort Belvoir has also produced preliminary results using the metallo-organic decomposition technique as an alternative method for thin film processing of BaTiO3. RF and DC sputtering is another film deposition approach that should be initiated in the near future. Other techniques for optical characterization, which may even allow for intragrannular (within single grains) investigations, are also being considered.

  18. Electro-optic and dielectric properties of photorefractive BaTiO3 and KNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgonik, Marko; Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Günter, Peter

    1995-08-01

    Recently determined complete sets of materials parameters describing the dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, elasto-optic, and electro-optic properties of BaTiO3 and KNbO3 crystals at room temperature are used to calculate the effective electro-optic coefficients and dielectric constants required for describing photorefractive phenomena. We show a substantial deviation of the new values from the electro-optic coefficients for homogeneously applied electric fields that were used previously in describing the photorefractive effects. We derive angular dependences of the effective electro-optic coefficients and the effective dielectric constants relevant for grating recording in both crystals and verify them experimentally.

  19. Modified structural and frequency dependent impedance formalism of nanoscale BaTiO3 due to Tb inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-05-01

    We report the effect of Tb-doping on the structural and high frequency impedance response of the nanoscale BaTiO3 (BT) systems. While exhibiting a mixed phase crystal structure, the nano-BT systems are found to evolve with edges, and facets. The interplanar spacing of crystal lattice fringes is ~0.25 nm. The Cole-Cole plots, in the impedance formalism, have demonstrated semicircles which are the characteristic feature of grain boundary resistance of several MΩ. A lowering of ac conductivity with doping was believed to be due to the manifestation of oxygen vacancies and vacancy ordering.

  20. Voltage generation from individual BaTiO(3) nanowires under periodic tensile mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyu; Hu, Jie; Suryavanshi, Abhijit P; Yum, Kyungsuk; Yu, Min-Feng

    2007-10-01

    Direct tensile mechanical loading of an individual single-crystal BaTiO(3) nanowire was realized to reveal the direct piezoelectric effect in the nanowire. Periodic voltage generation from the nanowire was produced by a periodically varying tensile mechanical strain applied with a precision mechanical testing stage. The measured voltage generation from the nanowire was found to be directly proportional to the applied strain rate and was successfully modeled through the consideration of an equivalent circuit for a piezoelectric nanowire under low-frequency operation. The study, besides demonstrating a controlled experimental method for the study of direct piezoelectric effect in nanostructures, implies also the use of such perovskite piezoelectric nanowires for efficient energy-harvesting applications. PMID:17894515

  1. Characterization of LiF/CuO-Codoped BaTiO3 for Embedded Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoungho

    2015-03-01

    Sintering additives for BaTiO3 were studied in order to facilitate the use of BaTiO3 as a material for embedded decoupling capacitors in high-density multilayered low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) modules for mobile communication systems and three-dimensional (3D) printing modules. Among the studied additives, the CuO/LiF mixture was the most promising sintering additive for cofiring BaTiO3 with a commercial low-permittivity ( ɛ r) LTCC sheet (MLS-22, NEG Co.). The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 was successfully controlled by adjusting the CuO/LiF amount and ratio and the sintering temperature. BaTiO3 codoped with 10 wt.% LiF/CuO (1:1 ratio) and sintered at 860°C for 30 min showed 95% sintering density. The room-temperature permittivity ( ɛ r) of LiF/CuO-codoped BaTiO3 was 1620 at 1 MHz, and the temperature coefficient of capacitance satisfied the X5R specification. After cofiring this LiF/CuO-codoped BaTiO3 ceramic with an MLS-22 sheet at 860°C, there was no crack formation at the layer boundary. Also a chemical compatibility test revealed that there were no severe reactions between the LiF/CuO-codoped BaTiO3 and an Ag electrode.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Oxygen Vacancy Formation in Zr-Doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Yuji; Takano, Kosuke; Kojima, Takashi; Kuwabara, Akihide; Moriwake, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    One of the most serious problems for the development of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is that their electrical resistance decreases under long-term DC voltage. Oxygen vacancy migration in BaTiO3 is thought to be one cause of this deterioration. In this study, to understand this mechanism, quantitative analysis of the oxygen vacancy formation energy [Ef(VO)] in Zr-doped and undoped BaTiO3 was performed. The Ef(VO) of Zr-doped BaTiO3 was higher than that of undoped BaTiO3 because the valence of Ti in undoped BaTiO3 easily changed from +4 to +3 owing to oxygen vacancy formation, compared with that in Zr-doped BaTiO3. We also prepared undoped (BaTiO3) and Zr-doped (BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3) ceramic samples sintered under reducing atmosphere (T = 1573 K pO2 = 10-13 MPa). BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3 remained an insulator, but BaTiO3 showed semiconducting behavior. This experimental result corresponds well to theoretical results of first-principles calculations.

  3. Local structural investigation of Eu3+-doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabuffetti, Federico A.; Culver, Sean P.; Lee, John S.; Brutchey, Richard L.

    2014-02-01

    A structural investigation of sub-15 nm xEu:BaTiO3 nanocrystals (x = 0-5 mol%) was conducted to determine the distribution of the Eu3+ ion in the BaTiO3 lattice. Pair distribution function analysis of X-ray total scattering data (PDF), steady-state photoluminescence, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES/EXAFS) were employed to interrogate the crystal structure of the nanocrystals and the local atomic environment of the Eu3+ ion. The solubility limit of the Eu3+ ion in the nanocrystalline BaTiO3 host synthesized via the vapor diffusion sol-gel method was estimated to be ~4 mol%. A contraction of the perovskite unit cell volume was observed upon incorporation of 1 mol% of europium, while an expansion was observed for nominal concentrations between 1 and 3 mol%. The average Eu-O distance and europium coordination number decreased from 2.46 Å and 9.9 to 2.42 Å and 8.6 for europium concentrations of 1 and 5 mol%, respectively. Structural trends were found to be consistent with the substitution of Eu3+ for Ba2+via creation of a Ti4+ vacancy at low europium concentrations (<1 mol%), and with the substitution of Eu3+ for both Ba2+ and Ti4+ at high europium concentrations (1-3 mol%). The significance of accounting for local structural distortions to rationalize the distribution of lanthanide ions in the perovskite host is highlighted.A structural investigation of sub-15 nm xEu:BaTiO3 nanocrystals (x = 0-5 mol%) was conducted to determine the distribution of the Eu3+ ion in the BaTiO3 lattice. Pair distribution function analysis of X-ray total scattering data (PDF), steady-state photoluminescence, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES/EXAFS) were employed to interrogate the crystal structure of the nanocrystals and the local atomic environment of the Eu3+ ion. The solubility limit of the Eu3+ ion in the nanocrystalline BaTiO3 host synthesized via the vapor diffusion sol-gel method was estimated to be ~4 mol%. A contraction of the perovskite unit cell volume was

  4. Dielectric response of polystyrene - BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkova, Tatyana N.; Sysoev, Oleg I.; Belov, Pavel A.; Emelianov, Nikita A.; Velyaev, Yury O.; Mandalawi, Wissam M. Al; Korotkov, Leonid N.

    2016-07-01

    The series of composite materials based on polystyrene and non-ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles ((1-x)PS-xBT, where the volume concentration x = 0-1.0) was prepared. Their dielectric properties were studied within the temperature range 20-160 °C at the frequency of 100 kHz. It is found that an increase in the barium titanate concentration leads to increase of the both dielectric permittivity (ɛ) and dielectric losses (tgδ). The concentration dependence of ɛ can be described by the modified Kerner model. It was found that the glass transition in polystyrene matrix is diffused and its temperature is increased with concentration x.

  5. Effect of oxygen vacancy on the dielectric relaxation of BaTiO3 thin films in a quenched state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sheng-Hong; Yuan, Jin-Kai; Gonon, Patrice; Bai, Jinbo; Pairis, Sébastien; Sylvestre, Alain

    2012-05-01

    A thermal treatment below the crystallization temperature followed by rapid cooling down was adopted onto as-deposited BaTiO3 (BTO) amorphous films to freeze the microstructure activated at annealed temperature. A large increase of dielectric constant from 19 to 329 was observed at 0.1 Hz for the BTO film annealed at 600 °C for 60 min. Subsequently, three separated dielectric relaxations were exploited as a function of the frequency and temperature. Such dielectric responses were analyzed in terms of the activation energy. The evolution of oxygen vacancy with temperature can be invoked as being responsible for the observed dielectric relaxations.

  6. Multiferroic properties of nanocrystalline BaTiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalam, R. V. K.; Ray, Nirat; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sundaresan, A.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the Multiferroics [H. Schmid, Ferroelectrics 162 (1994) 317] form a rare class of materials that exhibit magneto-electric coupling arising from the coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity, with potential for many technological applications [J.F. Scott, Nat. Mater. 6 (2007) 256; N.A. Spaldin, M. Fiebig, Science 309 (2005) 391]. Over the last decade, an active research on multiferroics has resulted in the identification of a few routes that lead to multiferroicity in bulk materials [C. Ederer, N.A. Spaldin, Nat. Mater. 3 (2004) 849; D.V. Efremov, J. van den Brink, D.I. Khomskii, Nat. Mater. 3 (2004) 853; N. Hur, S. Park, P.A. Sharma, J.S. Ahn, S. Guha, S.W. Cheong, Nature 429 (2004) 392]. While ferroelectricity in a classic ferroelectric such as BaTiO 3 is expected to diminish with the reducing particle size, [C.H. Ahn, K.M. Rabe, J.M. Triscone, Science 303 (2004) 488; J. Junquera, P. Ghosez, Nature 422 (2003) 506] ferromagnetism cannot occur in its bulk form [N.A. Hill, J. Phys. Chem. B 104 (2000) 6694]. Here, we use a combination of experiment and first-principles simulations to demonstrate that multiferroic nature emerges in intermediate size nanocrystalline BaTiO 3, ferromagnetism arising from the oxygen vacancies at the surface and ferroelectricity from the core. A strong coupling between a surface polar phonon and spin is shown to result in a magnetocapacitance effect observed at room temperature, which can open up possibilities of new electro-magneto-mechanical devices at the nano-scale.

  7. Characterization of hollow BaTiO3 nanofibers and intense visible photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woong Lee, Kui; Siva Kumar, Koppala; Heo, Gaeun; Seong, Maeng-Je; Yoon, Jong-Won

    2013-10-01

    BaTiO3 hollow nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and then subsequent calcination of as-spun nanofibers with a heating rate of 2.5 °C/min. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results indicated that the heating rate had a significant effect on the morphology of the BaTiO3 hollow nanofibers. The X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and TEM results indicate the prepared BaTiO3 hollow nanofibers have tetragonal phases. From the results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, in the amorphous BaTiO3 nanofiber, peaks at 457.2 eV for Ti 2p3/2 were also found, which corresponded to the Ti3+ ions. However, in the crystalline BaTiO3 nanofibers, peaks of Ti 2p3/2 showed the Ti4+ ions. Intense visible photoluminescence was observed in the amorphous BaTiO3 nanofiber, which is calcined below a temperature of 500 °C. The observed intense photoluminescence was ascribed to a multiphonon process with localized states within the band gap of the highly disordered states. In the crystalline BaTiO3 hollow fiber, low intensity of photoluminescence showed at the visible region, which is originated from an intrinsic Ba defect.

  8. Absence of low-temperature phase transitions in epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenne, D. A.; Xi, X. X.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, L. Q.; Soukiassian, A.; Zhu, M. H.; James, A. R.; Lettieri, J.; Schlom, D. G.; Tian, W.; Pan, X. Q.

    2004-05-01

    We have studied phase transitions in epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films by Raman spectroscopy. The films are found to remain in a single ferroelectric phase over the temperature range from 5 to 325 K. The low-temperature phase transitions characteristic of bulk BaTiO3 (tetragonal-orthorhombic-rhombohedral) are absent in the films. X-ray diffraction shows that the BaTiO3 films are under tensile strain due to the thermal expansion mismatch with the buffer layer. A phase-field calculation of the phase diagram and domain structures in BaTiO3 thin films predicts, without any priori assumption, that an orthorhombic phase with in-plane polarization is the thermodynamically stable phase for such values of tensile strain and temperature, consistent with the experimental Raman results.

  9. In situ growth BaTiO3 nanocubes and their superlattice from an aqueous process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Feng; Mimura, Kenichi; Kato, Kazumi; Imai, Hiroaki; Wada, Satoshi; Haneda, Hajime; Kuwabara, Makoto

    2012-02-01

    Ordered aggregated BaTiO3 nanocubes with a narrow size distribution were obtained in an aqueous process by using bis(ammonium lactate) titanium dihydroxide (TALH) as Ti source in the presence of oleic acid and tert-butylamine. Kinetics of the formation of BaTiO3 nanocubes indicated that an in situ growth mechanism was dominant and the superlattice of nanocubes formed in situ through the growth of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in Ti-based hydrous gel. The size and morphology of nanocubes were controlled by tuning the concentration and molar ratio of surfactants. A novel growth model dependant on the structure of Ti precursor for the formation and morphology control of BaTiO3 nanocubes and their superlattice was demonstrated.Ordered aggregated BaTiO3 nanocubes with a narrow size distribution were obtained in an aqueous process by using bis(ammonium lactate) titanium dihydroxide (TALH) as Ti source in the presence of oleic acid and tert-butylamine. Kinetics of the formation of BaTiO3 nanocubes indicated that an in situ growth mechanism was dominant and the superlattice of nanocubes formed in situ through the growth of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in Ti-based hydrous gel. The size and morphology of nanocubes were controlled by tuning the concentration and molar ratio of surfactants. A novel growth model dependant on the structure of Ti precursor for the formation and morphology control of BaTiO3 nanocubes and their superlattice was demonstrated. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11594h

  10. Both High Reliability and Giant Electrocaloric Strength in BaTiO3 Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Han, Xi; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng; Qiao, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    BaTiO3 has a giant electrocaloric strength, |ΔT|/|ΔE|, because of a large latent heat and a sharp phase transition. The electrocaloric strength of a new single crystal, as giant as 0.48 K·cm/kV, is twice larger than the previous best result, but it remarkably decreased to 0.18 K·cm/kV after several times of thermal cycles accompanied by alternating electric fields, because the field-induced phase transition and domain switching resulted in numerous defects such as microcracks. The ceramics prepared from nano-sized powders showed a high electrocaloric strength of 0.14 K·cm/kV, comparable to the single crystals experienced electrocaloric cycles, because of its unique microstructure after proper sintering process. Moreover, its properties did not change under the combined effects of thermal cycles and alternating electric fields, i.e. it has both large electrocaloric effect and good reliability, which are desirable for practical applications. PMID:24100662

  11. Probing the Metal-Insulator Transition in BaTiO3 by Electrostatic Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y.; Shoron, Omor F.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    The metal-to-insulator transition in BaTiO3 is investigated using electrostatic doping, which avoids effects from disorder and strain that would accompany chemical doping. SmTiO3/BaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures are doped with a constant sheet carrier density of 3 ×1014 cm-2 that is introduced via the polar SmTiO3/BaTiO3 interface. Below a critical BaTiO3 thickness, the structures exhibit metallic behavior with high carrier mobilities at low temperatures, similar to SmTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. Above this thickness, data indicate that the BaTiO3 layer becomes ferroelectric. The BaTiO3 lattice parameters increase to a value consistent with a strained, tetragonal unit cell, the structures are insulating below ˜125 K , and the mobility drops by more than an order of magnitude, indicating self-trapping of carriers. The results shed light on the interplay between charge carriers and ferroelectricity.

  12. Rietveld refined structural and room temperature vibrational properties of BaTiO3 doped La0.67Ba0.33MnO3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, M. A.; Sheikh, M. W.; Malla, M. S.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    The composites of (1-x) La0.67Ba0.33MnO3 (LBMO) + xBaTiO3 (BTO) (x = 0, 0.25 and 1.0) were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction method. Rietveld refinement was employed to characterize the structural information of the prepared ceramics. The result of the Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction of La0.67Ba0.33MnO3 and BaTiO3 shows that these compounds crystallize in rhombohedral (R3c) and tetragonal (P4mm), respectively. The structural parameters and the reliability factors for the LBMO-BTO composite ceramics were successfully determined by the Rietveld refinement. At room temperature, Raman active phonon modes predicted by the group theory were observed only in BaTiO3 and composite sample. Pure LBMO does not show any Raman active Phonon mode at room temperature.

  13. On stoichiometry and intermixing at the spinel/perovskite interface in CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Duchamp, Martial; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Alford, Neil McN

    2015-01-01

    The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces. PMID:25406863

  14. Structural and morphological transformations of BaTiO3 nanocrystals in thin layers of borate oxide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedrov, V. V.; Shmyt'ko, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of thin layers (2-15 μm) of some oxide glass melts on BaTiO3 nanocrystallites has been investigated using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It has been shown that lead borate and sodium borate glass melts bring about the dissolution of BaTiO3 nanocrystallites and the subsequent crystallization in glasses of lead titanate PbTiO3 and sodium titanate Na2TiO3, respectively. It has been found that thin layers of melts of these glasses have a strong orientation effect on crystallites of the PbTiO3 and Na2TiO3 compounds newly synthesized from barium titanate. The orientation effect exerted by these glass layers results in the formation of a pronounced texture of the perovskite crystallites with the texture axes oriented along the [100] and [001] directions parallel to the surface normal of the substrate for lead titanate and the orientation of the planes of the film surface for the sodium titanium oxide.

  15. Ultrafast magneto-optical spectroscopy of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, Brenden A.; Bishop, Michael; McGill, Stephen A.; Zhou, Yuon; Chopra, Anuj; Maurya, Deepam; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Priya, Shashank; Khodaparast, Giti A.

    2015-09-01

    Ultrafast optical spectroscopy can provide insight into fundamental microscopic interactions, dynamics and the coupling of several degrees of freedom. Pump/ probe studies can reveal the answer to questions like "What are the achievable switching speeds in multiferroics?", "What is the influence of the crystallographic orientation and domain states on the available switching states?", and "What is the effect of the hetrostructure on promoting the coupling between the varying field excitations?". In this presentation, we report on two color (400/800nm) ultrafast pump-probe differential reflectance spectroscopy of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 structures to probe the coupling between optical and acoustic phonons to spin waves. The data presented here is a combination of different transient reflectivity measurements to probe both the carrier and spin dynamics. The (001)-BiFeO3-BaTiO3 thin films were prepared using pulsed laser deposition on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates using La0.70 Sr0.30MnO3 bottom electrodes. Crystal orientation and topography were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. . Our results are important to developing devices on the basis of this material system. This work was supported by the AFOSR through grant FA9550-14-1-0376,NSF-Career Award DMR-0846834, and the Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science.

  16. cc domains with intrinsic screening and absence of closure domains in atomically ordered BaTiO3 in UHV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Kaku, S.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-03-01

    cc domains have been observed in ordinary environments, where extraneous screening hampers rigorous comparison with theories. Indeed, recent theories predict closure domains in the absence of extraneous screening. Therefore, we performed simultaneous topographic, electrostatic and piezoelectric imaging of atomically clean, free surface of BaTiO3 single crystal by AFM operated in ultra high vacuum (UHV).footnotetextS. Kaku et al., J.Kor.Phys.Soc.55,799(2009) BaTiO3 surface retains stoichiometry in UHV because of the absence of volatile elements (Pb, Bi, Li) and low TC The surface cleanness is confirmed by the detection of chemical bonding. Three imaging methods verified the assignment of ac and cc domains, which is consistent with conventional theory and experiments. These ac and cc domains change reversibly by weak electric field of 2kV/cm at RT. In addition, the temperature dependence of the domains agrees with convention theories. These observations prove the absence of dominating control of defects and impurities on the observed domains. The sole deviation is the reduction of the potential difference to 1/30 of the conventional theories. The described intrinsic nature of the domains indicates an intrinsic screening in cc domains, which is consistent with the intrinsic surface carrier layer on ferroelectrics.footnotetextWatanabe et al. PRL86332(2001), PRB57,789(1998)

  17. Properties of polycarbonate containing BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, J. F.; Fontanella, J. J.; Edmondson, C. A.; Wintersgill, M. C.; Wolak, M. A.; Westgate, M. A.; Lomax, E. A.; Lomax, P. Q.; Bogle, X.; Rúa, A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    The real part of the relative permittivity, ɛ', and dielectric loss, tan δ, have been determined at audio frequencies at temperatures from about 5 K to 350 K for nano-composites composed of BaTiO3 nanoparticles and polycarbonate. The room temperature breakdown strength was also measured and thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy studies were carried out. For some films the nanoparticles were surface-treated (STNP) while for others they were not (UNP). For concentrations of UNP greater than about 3.4 vol. %, ɛ' is much larger than expected on the basis of laws of mixing. On the other hand, ɛ' for materials made using STNP is well-behaved. Correspondingly, increased loss (ɛ″ or tan δ) in the vicinity of room temperature is observed for the materials made from UNP. The anomalously large values of relative permittivity and increased loss are attributed to the presence of large aggregates in the materials made using the UNP. For both UNP-and STNP-based materials, the breakdown strength is found to decrease as nanoparticle concentration increases. The breakdown strength for the materials made using STNP is found to be larger for all concentrations than for those containing UNP despite the presence of large aggregates in some of the STNP-based materials. This shows that breakdown is strongly affected by the nanoparticle surfaces and/or the interface layer. It is also found that the breakdown strength for materials made using UNP increases as particle size increases. Finally, variable temperature and pressure proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements were made to assess the effect of nanoparticle inclusion on polymer motion, and the effects were found to be very minor.

  18. Ferroelectricity in (BaTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)m Superlattices Containing as Few as one BaTiO3 Layer (n=1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlom, Darrell

    2007-03-01

    The question of how thin a ferroelectric can be and still be ferroelectric has been the source of an intensive research effort over the past decade. Several studies, both theoretical and experimental, have concluded that with appropriate boundary conditions ferroelectricity can exist in superlattices containing BaTiO3 or PbTiO3 layers as thin as one unit cell. In this talk I will show the results of experiment and theory for BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on three different substrates: TiO2-terminated (001) SrTiO3, (110) DyScO3, and (110) GdScO3. With the aid of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), precise single-monolayer doses of BaO, SrO, and TiO2 were deposited sequentially to create commensurate BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with a variety of periodicities. The superlattices consist of an n unit-cell-thick slab of BaTiO3 followed by an m unit-cell-thick slab of SrTiO3, which are designated [(BaTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)m]q, where q is the number of times the bilayer is repeated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements exhibit clear superlattice peaks and the narrowest rocking curves ever reported for oxide superlattices. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals nearly atomically abrupt interfaces. UV Raman results show that the BaTiO3 in these [(BaTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)m]q superlattices is tetragonal and the SrTiO3 is polar due to strain. Temperature-dependent UV Raman and XRD reveal the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition temperature (TC). Our results* demonstrate (1) that [(BaTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)m]q superlattices containing as few as one strained BaTiO3 layer (n=1) are ferroelectric and (2) the sensitivity of TC to the boundary conditions. Comparisons to ab initio and phase-field modeling of the properties of these [(BaTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)m]q ferroelectric superlattices will be made and the importance of strain demonstrated. In addition to probing finite size effects and the importance of mechanical boundary conditions, these heterostructures may be relevant for novel phonon devices, including mirrors, filters, and cavities for coherent phonon generation and control. * D.A. Tenne, A. Bruchhausen, N.D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Fainstein, R.S. Katiyar, A. Cantarero, A. Soukiassian, V. Vaithyanathan, J.H. Haeni, W. Tian, D.G. Schlom, K.J. Choi, D.M. Kim, C.B. Eom, H.P. Sun, X.Q. Pan, Y.L. Li, L.Q. Chen, Q.X. Jia, S.M. Nakhmanson, K.M. Rabe, and X.X. Xi, ``Probing Nanoscale Ferroelectricity by Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy,'' Science 313 (2006) 1614-1616.

  19. Improved ferroelectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties of dense BaTiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraskar, Bharat G.; Kakade, S. G.; James, A. R.; Kambale, R. C.; Kolekar, Y. D.

    2016-05-01

    The ferroelectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties of BaTiO3 (BT) dense ceramic synthesized by solid-state reaction were investigated. X-ray diffraction study confirmed tetragonal crystal structure having c/a ~1.0144. The dense microstructure was evidenced from morphological studies with an average grain size ~7.8 µm. Temperature dependent dielectric measurement showed the maximum values of dielectric constant, ɛr = 5617 at Curie temperature, Tc = 125 °C. The saturation and remnant polarization, Psat. = 24.13 µC/cm2 and Pr =10.42 µC/cm2 achieved respectively for the first time with lower coercive field of Ec=2.047 kV/cm. The polarization current density-electric field measurement exhibits the peaking characteristics, confirms the saturation state of polarization for BT. The strain-electric field measurements revealed the "sprout" shape nature instead of typical "butterfly loop". This shows the excellent converse piezoelectric response with remnant strain ~ 0.212% and converse piezoelectric constant d*33 ~376.35 pm/V. The intrinsic electrostrictive coefficient was deduced from the variation of strain with polarization with electrostrictive coefficient Q33~ 0.03493m4/C2.

  20. In situ stress measurements during pulsed laser deposition of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 atomic layers on Pt(0 0 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premper, J.; Sander, D.; Kirschner, J.

    2015-04-01

    We apply the cantilever deflection technique to measure stress in nm thin BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 films during pulsed laser deposition on a Pt(0 0 1) single crystal cantilever substrate. We find a compressive film stress of -4.2 GPa for BaTiO3 on Pt(0 0 1) (misfit = -2.3%), whereas the deposition of SrTiO3 (misfit = +0.4%) induces a tensile stress of +1.5 GPa. The stress measurements are augmented by in situ low energy electron diffraction experiments which indicate an epitaxial order of the films. We apply continuum elasticity to calculate film stress. We conclude that sign and magnitude of the measured stress are due to the epitaxial misfit between film and substrate, which is -2.3% and +0.4% for BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, respectively. We identify that in addition to misfit also the oxygen partial pressure during PLD film growth influences film stress. PLD growth in an oxygen-free environment leads to factor of two increased tensile stress in SrTiO3 on Pt(0 0 1) as compared to growth at pO2 =10-4 mbar. The role of film stoichiometry for film stress is discussed.

  1. Synthesis and Microwave Absorption Properties of BaTiO3-polypyrrole Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiao-ling; Zhang, Cun-rui; Li, Jian-qiang

    2010-10-01

    BaTiO3 powders are prepared by sol-gel method by cotton template. Polypyrrole is prepared by chemical oxidation route in the emulsion polymerization system. Then BaTiO3-polypyrrole composites with different mixture ratios are prepared by as-prepared material. The structure, morphology, and properties of the composites are characterized with Infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and net-wok analyzer. The complex permittivity and reflection loss of the composites are measured at different microwave frequencies in S-band and C-band (0.03-6 GHz) employing vector network analyzer model PNA 3629D vector. The effect of the mass ratio of BaTiO3 to polypyrrole on the microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. A possible microwave absorbing mechanism of BaTiO3-polypyrrole composite is proposed. The BaTiO3-polypyrrole composite can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference and reduction of radar signature.

  2. BaTiO3 and polypropylene nanocomposites for capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Daxuan; Tang, Longxiang; Zhu, Lei; Lee, Je; Case Western Reserve University Collaboration; Agiltron, Inc Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    A novel strategy to uniformly disperse 70-nm BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles in a dielectric polypropylene (PP) matrix is developed in order to achieve high dielectric constant and high energy density for capacitor applications. By modifying BaTiO3 surface with a bis-phosphonic acid-terminated polyhedral oligomeric selsisquioxane (POSS), a nanocomposite with BaTiO3@POSS uniformly dispersed in PP matrix was achieved. The nanocomposite film containing a high nanoparticle content of 30 vol.% exhibited a high dielectric constant of 32 and a breakdown voltage of 220 MV/m, but with a high energy loss. Improvement of this nanocomposite by understanding the interfacial polarization is carried out in this work. The dielectric constant difference between BaTiO3 and PP can generate interfacial polarization and subsequent internal conduction in BaTiO3 particles upon bipolar polarization. Reduction of this internal conduction mechanism will significantly reduce the hysteresis loss in polymer nanodielectrics.

  3. Sintering and Microstructure of BaTiO3 Nano Particles Synthesized by Molten Salt Method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Shin, Hyo-Soon; Yeo, Dong-Hun; Ha, Gook-Hyun; Nahm, Sahn

    2016-05-01

    In order to establish thinner dielectric layers in thick film electronic components such as MLCC (Multilayer ceramic capacitor), BaTiO3 nanoparticles have been utilized. However, studies on the synthesis of nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm, the characteristics of the BaTiO3 powder, and the powder's sintering are lacking. Therefore, this paper aims to synthesize BaTiO3 particles smaller than 20 nm by using the molten salt method and evaluate the microstructure and dielectric properties by varying the sintering temperature from 750 degrees C to 1200 degrees C. Through the molten salt method and by using KOH-KCl mixed salt, 20 nm BaTiO3 powder was synthesized at a low temperature of 150 degrees C. Sintering the pellets formed from the synthesized 20 nm BaTiO3 nano powder led to the observation of an unusual phenomenon where the particles grew to approximate sizes below 850 degrees C where densification progressed. At sintering temperatures above 950 degrees C, particles that expanded into rod shapes were observed and these particles were identified to be unreacted TiO2 based on the results of the EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) analysis and phase analysis results. PMID:27483905

  4. On stoichiometry and intermixing at the spinel/perovskite interface in CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Duchamp, Martial; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Alford, Neil Mcn.

    2014-11-01

    The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces.The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface

  5. Experimental and first principle studies on electronic structure of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeo, Archna; Ghosh, Haranath; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Kamal, C.; Ganguli, Tapas; Phase, D. M.; Deb, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    We have carried out photoemission experiments to obtain valence band spectra of various crystallographic symmetries of BaTiO3 system which arise as a function of temperature. We also present results of a detailed first principle study of these symmetries of BaTiO3 using generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation potential. Here we present theoretical results of density of states obtained from DFT based simulations to compare with the experimental valence band spectra. Further, we also perform calculations using post density functional approaches like GGA + U method as well as non-local hybrid exchange-correlation potentials like PBE0, B3LYP, HSE in order to understand the extent of effect of correlation on band gaps of different available crystallographic symmetries (5 in number) of BaTiO3.

  6. Photovoltaic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films RF sputter deposited on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharmadhikari, V. S.; Grannemann, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of BaTiO3 have been successfully deposited on n-type silicon substrates at temperatures above 500 C by RF sputtering in an O2/Ar atmosphere. Analysis by X-ray diffraction patterns show that films deposited at room temperature are amorphous. At temperatures above 500 C, crystalline BaTiO3 films with a tetragonal structure are obtained. The polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops and a broad peak in the dielectric constant versus temperature curve at Curie point indicate that the RF sputtered BaTiO3 films are ferroelectric. An anomalous photovoltaic effect is observed in these thin films which is related to the remanent polarization of the material. The results on open-circuit and short-circuit measurements provide an important basis for a better understanding of the role of photovoltaic field, photovoltaic current, and the pyroelectric properties in photoferroelectric domain switching.

  7. Interfacial reactions and microstructure of BaTiO 3 films prepared using fluoride precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Shinobu; Schneller, Theodor; Waser, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial reactions of BaF 2 and TiO 2 were investigated in preparing BaTiO 3 thin films using a fluoride precursor method. Trifluoroacetate solutions were prepared from barium acetate, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, CF 3COOH) with additives such as water and acetylacetone. The solutions were deposited on platinized Si wafers by spin-coating, were pyrolysed at 400 °C in air and were finally heated typically at 700 °C in a water vapor atmosphere. The perovskite BaTiO 3 phase was obtained although a small portion of BaF 2 remained unreacted. Thus, the films were characterized as the mixture of BaTiO 3, BaF 2, and amorphous TiO 2. Influence of the solution chemistry on the phase evolution and microstructure was examined in order to discuss the reaction pathway of the perovskite phase.

  8. BaTiO3-SrTiO3 multilayer thin film electro-optic waveguide modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jussi; Seneviratne, Dilan; Sun, Rong; Stolfi, Michael; Tuller, Harry L.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Lantto, Vilho

    2006-12-01

    Mach-Zehnder electro-optic waveguide modulators were fabricated based on BaTiO3 (BTO )-SrTiO3 (STO) multilayer thin film stacks grown on single crystal MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of a BTO-STO superlattice with periodicity of 11unit cells. Strip-loaded waveguides were formed by patterning a SixNy film deposited onto the BTO-STO stack while Al electrodes of 3mm length and 13μm separation were fabricated in the vicinity of the active waveguide arm of the Mach-Zehnder modulator. An effective electro-optic coefficient of 73pm/V at 1550nm wavelength was determined for the deposited BTO-STO superlattice by measuring the output intensity as a function of applied electric field.

  9. Experimental study and theoretical prediction of dielectric permittivity in BaTiO3/polyimide nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ben-Hui; Zha, Jun-Wei; Wang, Dong-Rui; Zhao, Jun; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2012-02-01

    Theoretical models were used to predict dielectric permittivities of the thermosetting polyimide (PI) matrix nanocomposite films loading with BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles prepared by the alkoxide route. The observed dielectric permittivities are in good agreement with calculated values using Jayasundere equation and effective medium theory when the interactions of nanoparticle-nanoparticle and nanoparticle-polymer are considered. Additionally, temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity of the BT/PI nanocomposite films at 103 Hz was also studied for both heating from -50 to 150 °C and cooling from 150 to -50 °C. The transformation in crystal phase of BT and changes of free volume in PI were considered to be the main factors influencing the dielectric permittivities of the BT/PI nanocomposite films.

  10. Microstructure defects mediated charge transport in Nb-doped epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Jing, Xiaosai; Alexe, Marin; Dai, Jiyan; Qin, Minghui; Wu, Sujuan; Zeng, Min; Gao, Jinwei; Lu, Xubing; Liu, J.-M.

    2016-05-01

    Nb-doped BaTiO3 (BNTO) films were deposited on MgO substrates at different substrate temperatures by pulsed laser deposition. The temperature dependence of their resistivity, carrier mobility and carrier concentration were systematically investigated. It reveals that the BNTO films deposited at lower temperature show higher resistivity and lower carrier mobility, and only show semiconductor characteristics at measurement temperatures ranging from 10 to 400 K. There is a metal-semiconductor transition at about 20 K for the films grown at relatively higher temperature. The intrinsic mechanism responsible for the different charge transport behavior was revealed by microstructure studies. Low crystal quality and high density of microstructure defects, observed for BNTO films grown at low temperatures, are, in particular, massively affecting the charge transport behavior of the BNTO films. The mediated charge transport of the microstructure defects is dominated by the thermal excitation process.

  11. Dielectric response of BaZrO3/BaTiO3 superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jiang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We use the first-principles-based molecular dynamic approach to simulate dipolar dynamics of BaZrO3/BaTiO3 superlattice, and obtain its dielectric response. The dielectric response is decomposed into its compositional, as well as the in-plane and out-of-plane parts, which are then discussed in the context of chemical ordering of Zr/Ti ions. We reveal that, while the in-plane dielectric response of BaZrO3/BaTiO3 superlattice also shows dispersion over probing frequency, it shall not be categorized as relaxor.

  12. Effect of surface moisture on dielectric behavior of ultrafine BaTiO3 particulates.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mountvala, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of adsorbed H2O on the dielectric properties of ultrafine BaTiO3 particulates of varying particle size and environmental history were determined. The dielectric behavior depends strongly on surface hydration. No particle size dependence of dielectric constant was found for dehydroxylated surfaces in ultrafine particulate (unsintered) BaTiO3 materials. For equivalent particle sizes, the ac conductivity is sensitive to surface morphology. Reactions with H2O vapor appear to account for the variations in dielectric properties. Surface dehydration was effectively accomplished by washing as-received powders in isopropanol.

  13. Reflectance Profile of BaTiO3 on Multilayer Antireflection Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaomerlioglu, Filiz

    2011-05-01

    Antireflection (AR) coating systems are very important technology for optoelectronic devices. The optical characteristics of the system can be regulated by external electric or thermal field, and designed broadband ultra low reflection coating systems. It is investigated optical properties of multilayer AR coatings based on different ferroelectric materials to reduce reflectance in other studies. In this study, reflectance profile of BaTiO3 on multilayer AR coating systems has been developed in the visible region. It has been used ZnSe and ZrO2 as multilayer AR coatings, and BaTiO3 as the substrate. Fortran program has been simulated on Fresnell equations base.

  14. Optical Study of Liquid Crystal Doped with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharde, Rita A.; Thakare, Sangeeta Y.

    2014-11-01

    Liquid crystalline materials have been useful for display devices i.e watches, calculators, automobile dashboards, televisions, multi media projectors etc. as well as in electro tunable lasers, optical fibers and lenses. Carbon nanotube is chosen as the main experimental factor in this study as it has been observed that Carbon Nano Tube influence the existing properties of liquid crystal host and with the doping of CNT can enhance1 the properties of LC. The combination of carbon nanotube (CNT) and liquid crystal (LC) materials show considerable interest in the scientific community due to unique physical properties of CNT in liquid crystal. Dispersion of CNTs in LCs can provide us a cheap, simple, versatile and effective means of controlling nanotube orientation on macroscopic scale with no restrictions on nanotube type. LCs have the long range orientational order rendering them to be anisotropic phases. If CNTs can be well dispersed in LC matrix, they will align with their long axes along the LC director to minimize distortions of the LC director field and the free energy. In this paper, we doped liquid crystal (Cholesteryl Nonanoate) by a small amount of multiwall carbon nanotube 0.05% and 0.1% wt. We found that by adding carbon nanotube to liquid crystals the melting point of the mixture is decreased but TNI is increased. It has been also observed that with incereas in concentration of carbon nanotube into liquid crystal shows conciderable effect on LC. The prepared samples were characterized using various techniques to study structural, thermal and optical properties i.e PMS, FPSS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR measurements, and DTA.

  15. Densification mechanism of BaTiO3 films on Cu substrates fabricated by aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hong-Ki; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2015-05-01

    In order to achieve the aerosol deposition (AD) process as a thin film deposition process, the densification mechanism of the AD process was investigated. BaTiO3 films with thicknesses of 0.2, 0.5, and 2 μm on Cu substrates were fabricated using the AD process at room temperature in order to investigate the densification mechanism according to the increased the film thickness; we also investigated the resulting properties, including the microstructure, the electrical properties, and the hardness. As a result, we confirmed that the enhanced hammering effect (which is a densification procedure that works by continuous impaction of ceramic particles onto pre-impacted particles), formed dense BaTiO3 films with greater hardness and decreased leakage current characteristics. Furthermore, we concluded that the BaTiO3 particles, which were sufficiently fractured due to the hammering effect, were important in fabricating the dense BaTiO3 thin films. Therefore, we suggested the two-step deposition method (deposition and etching).[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Do Kim, Keum; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization – voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization. PMID:26742878

  17. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Kim, Keum Do; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization - voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization. PMID:26742878

  18. Mn-Doped BaTiO3 Thin Film Sintered Using Nanocrystals and Its Dielectric Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Nakasone, Fumi; Suzuki, Toshimasa; Mizuno, Youichi; Imai, Hiroaki

    2009-11-01

    BaTiO3 thin films homogeneously doped with Mn were prepared by a novel powder-sintering thin-film process. Mn-doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals 5-7 nm in diameter were synthesized by a sol-gel method and sintered to form a highly densified microstructure containing columnar grains epitaxially grown on a (111)-oriented Pt/TiO2/Al2O3 substrate at a low temperature of 800 °C. On the basis of the results of various structural analyses, Mn was suggested to act as an acceptor in the perovskite structure of BaTiO3, which was also supported by the experimental finding indicating that the leakage current density was significantly improved compared with that of a nondoped BaTiO3 thin film. Moreover, the dielectric constant of the Mn-doped BaTiO3 thin film, 728 at 10 kHz with a loss tangent of 1.3%, was higher than that of the nondoped BaTiO3 thin film, probably owing to the electrostrictive effect induced by in-plane tensile stress. These results clearly indicate the feasibility of using doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals in the powder-sintering thin-film process for improving dielectric properties.

  19. Structure and Catalytic Activity of Cr-Doped BaTiO3 Nanocatalysts Synthesized by Conventional Oxalate and Microwave Assisted Hydrothermal Methods.

    PubMed

    Srilakshmi, Chilukoti; Saraf, Rohit; Prashanth, V; Rao, G Mohan; Shivakumara, C

    2016-05-16

    In the present study synthesis of BaTi1-xCrxO3 nanocatalysts (x = 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) by conventional oxalate and microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis methods was carried out to investigate the effect of synthesis methods on the physicochemical and catalytic properties of nanocatalysts. These catalysts were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 physisortion, and total acidity by pyridine adsorption method. Their catalytic performance was evaluated for the reduction of nitrobenzene using hydrazine hydrate as the hydrogen source. Structural parameters refined by Rietveld analysis using XRD powder data indicate that BaTi1-xCrxO3 conventional catalysts were crystallized in the tetragonal BaTiO3 structure with space group P4mm, and microwave catalysts crystallized in pure cubic BaTiO3 structure with space group Pm3̅m. TEM analysis of the catalysts reveal spherical morphology of the particles, and these are uniformly dispersed in microwave catalysts whereas agglomeration of the particles was observed in conventional catalysts. Particle size of the microwave catalysts is found to be 20-35 nm compared to conventional catalysts (30-48 nm). XPS studies reveal that Cr is present in the 3+ and 6+ mixed valence state in all the catalysts. Microwave synthesized catalysts showed a 4-10-fold increase in surface area and pore volume compared to conventional catalysts. Acidity of the BaTiO3 catalysts improved with Cr dopant in the catalysts, and this could be due to an increase in the number of Lewis acid sites with an increase in Cr content of all the catalysts. Catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline studies reveals that BaTiO3 synthesized by microwave is very active and showed 99.3% nitrobenzene conversion with 98.2% aniline yield. The presence of Cr in the catalysts facilitates a faster reduction reaction in all the

  20. Large electrostrain and high optical temperature sensitivity in BaTiO3-(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 multifunctional ferroelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Chai, Xiaona; Wang, Xusheng; Xu, Chao-Nan; Gu, Yihao; Zhao, Haifeng; Yao, Xi

    2016-08-01

    Ferroelectric (1 -x)BaTiO3-x(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 ceramics with ferroelectric and up-conversion luminescent multifunctions were designed and fabricated by a solid state reaction process. Their structure, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, up-conversion photoluminescence and relative optical temperature sensing properties were investigated systematically. Crystal structure analysis and Rietveld refinements based on the powder X-ray diffraction data show that the ceramics crystallized in the tetragonal perovskite space group P4mm at room temperature. Enhanced electrical properties and strong green up-conversion luminescence with thermally coupled green emission bands centered at 523 and 553 nm were observed. For a typical sample x equals 0.05, a large electrostrain of 0.279% was obtained under a 70 kV cm(-1) electric field that is comparable to that of the PZT4. Meanwhile, the excellent optical temperature sensitivity (0.0063 K(-1) at 480 K) is higher than that of Er-doped BaTiO3 nanocrystal materials. The results suggest that the BaTiO3-(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 material should be an attractive material for piezoelectric actuator and temperature sensing device applications. PMID:27244098

  1. Friction imprint effect in mechanically cleaved BaTiO3 (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Christian J.; Ebeling, Daniel; Solares, Santiago D.; Cannara, Rachel J.

    2014-09-01

    Adsorption, chemisorption, and reconstruction at the surfaces of ferroelectric materials can all contribute toward the pinning of ferroelectric polarization, which is called the electrical imprint effect. Here, we show that the opposite is also true: freshly cleaved, atomically flat surfaces of (001) oriented BaTiO3 exhibit a persistent change in surface chemistry that is driven by ferroelectric polarization. This surface modification is explored using lateral force microscopy (LFM), while the ferroelectric polarization is probed using piezoresponse force microscopy. We find that immediately after cleaving BaTiO3, LFM reveals friction contrast between ferroelectric domains. We also find that this surface modification remains after the ferroelectric domain distribution is modified, resulting in an imprint of the original ferroelectric domain distribution on the sample surface. This friction imprint effect has implications for surface patterning as well as ferroelectric device operation and failure.

  2. Thickness dependent charge transport in ferroelectric BaTiO3 heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pooja; Rout, P. K.; Singh, Manju; Rakshit, R. K.; Dogra, Anjana

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) film thickness on the charge transport mechanism in pulsed laser deposited epitaxial metal-ferroelectric semiconductor junctions. The current (I)-voltage (V) measurements across the junctions comprising of 20-500 nm thick BaTiO3 and conducting bottom electrode (Nb: SrTiO3 substrate or La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 buffer layer) demonstrate the space charge limited conduction. Further analysis indicates a reduction in the ratio of free to trapped carriers with increasing thickness in spite of decreasing trap density. Such behaviour arises the deepening of the shallow trap levels (<0.65 eV) below conduction band with increasing thickness. Moreover, the observed hysteresis in I-V curves implies a bipolar resistive switching behaviour, which can be explained in terms of charge trapping and de-trapping process.

  3. Effect of BaTiO3 Nanopowder Concentration on Rheological Behaviour of Ceramic Inkjet Inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrpal, R.; Dulina, I.; Ragulya, A.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between rheological properties of ceramic inkjet inks based on BaTiO3 nanopowder and solid phase concentration has been investigated. In the ink volume takes place the formation periodic colloidal structures (PCS). The determining factor of structure formation is powder-dispersant ratio. Structural constitution of in the system with the low pigment concentration represented as PCS2, that contains solid particles in deflocculated that stabilized by the presence of adsorption-solvate layers. Dilatant structure formation for such inks explained by constrained conditions of the interaction. Samples with high BaTiO3 concentration have been classified as PKS1. Dilatant properties of the PKS1 resulted in particles rearrangement under the influence of the flow. In the region of some values powder-dispersant ratio take place conversation PKS2 to PKS1 and ink structure transformation from monodisperse to aggregate state.

  4. XMCD studies of thin Co films on BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welke, M.; Gräfe, J.; Govind, R. K.; Babu, V. H.; Trautmann, M.; Schindler, K.-M.; Denecke, R.

    2015-08-01

    Different layer thicknesses of cobalt ranging from 2.6 Å (1.5 ML) up to 55 Å (30.5 ML) deposited on ferroelectric BaTiO3 have been studied regarding their magnetic behavior. The layers have been characterized using XMCD spectroscopy at remanent magnetization. After careful data analysis the magnetic moments of the cobalt could be determined using the sum rule formalism. There is a sudden and abrupt onset in magnetism starting at thicknesses of 9 Å (5 ML) of cobalt for measurements at 120 K and of 10 Å (5.5 ML) if measured at room temperature. Initial island growth and subsequent coalescence of Co on BaTiO3 is suggested to explain the sudden onset. In that context, no magnetically dead layers are observed.

  5. Crystal orbital study on the double walls made of nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Weiye; Li, Yuliang; Huang, Yuanhe

    2015-01-15

    The structure stabilities and electronic properties are investigated by using ab initio self-consistent-field crystal orbital method based on density functional theory for the one-dimensional (1D) double-wall nanotubes made of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes. It is found that formation of the combined systems is energetically favorable when the distance between the two constituents is around the Van der Waals scope. The obtained band structures show that all the combined systems are semiconductors with nonzero energy gaps. The frontier energy bands (the highest occupied band and the lowest unoccupied band) of double-wall nanotubes are mainly derived from the corresponding carbon nanotubes. The mobilities of charge carriers are calculated to be within the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the hybrid double-wall nanotubes. Young’s moduli are also calculated for the combined systems. For the comparison, geometrical and electronic properties of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes are also calculated and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Structures and band structures of the optimum 1D Double walls nanotubes. The optimized structures are 3-gon SiO2@(15,0), 5-gon SiO2@(17,0), 6-gon SiO2@(18,0) and 7-gon SiO2@(19,0). - Highlights: • The structure and electronic properties of the 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are studied using SCF-CO method. • The encapsulation of 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2} tubes inside zigzag carbon nanotubes can be energetically favorable. • The 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are all semiconductors. • The mobility of charge carriers and Young’s moduli are calculated.

  6. Grain Growth Kinetics of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals During Calcining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao-lan; He, Xi; Yang, Hai-ping; Qu, Yi-xin; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2008-06-01

    BaTiO3 nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method using barium acetate (Ba(CH3COO)2) and tetra-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as raw materials. Xerogel precursors and products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the calcination temperature and duration on the lattice constant, the lattice distortion, and the grain size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals was discussed based on the XRD results. The grain growth kinetics of BaTiO3 nanocrystals during the calcination process were simulated with a conventional grain growth model which only takes into account diffusion, and an isothermal model proposed by Qu and Song, which takes into account both diffusion and surface reactions. Using these models, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the rate constant were estimated. The simulation results indicate that the isothermal model is superior to the conventional one in describing the grain growth process, implying that both diffusion and surface reactions play important roles in the grain growth process.

  7. Comprehensive examination of dopants and defects in BaTiO3 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Pilania, G.; Rossetti, G. A., Jr.; Slenes, K.; Ramprasad, R.

    2013-04-01

    An extensive assessment of the physicochemical factors that control the behavior of dopant-related defects in BaTiO3 has been performed using high-throughput first-principles computations. Dopants spanning the Periodic Table—44 in total—including K-As, Rb-Sb, and Cs-Bi were considered, and have allowed us to reveal previously unknown correlations, chemical trends, and the interplay between stability, chemistry, and electrical activity. We quantitatively show that the most important factor that determines dopant stability in BaTiO3 is the dopant ionic size (followed by its oxidation state). Moreover, we are also able to identify definitively dopants that are O vacancy formers and suppressors, and those that would lead to p-type versus n-type conduction. Our results are in agreement with available experimental data (with no violations thus far), and point to an attractive computational route to dopant selection in BaTiO3 as well as in other materials.

  8. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and dielectric evolution of BaTiO3. Part I—improvement of insulation resistance with reoxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. Y.; Dickey, E. C.; Randall, C. A.; Barber, D. E.; Pinceloup, P.; Henderson, M. A.; Hill, R. A.; Beeson, J. J.; Skamser, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    Impedance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are used to correlate local electrical properties with the microstructure and microchemistry of BaTiO3 in Ni-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors. High densities of linear defects and some grains with structural modulations are observed in BaTiO3 grains in the as-cofired capacitors. The modulated structure is formed on {111} planes of the BaTiO3. Both types of structural defects are associated with high concentrations of oxygen vacancies. In particular, the oxygen content in the BaTiO3 grains that are in direct contact with the internal Ni electrodes is less uniform with a systematic decrease in oxygen content towards the electrode. In the capacitors that are reoxidized in a higher oxygen partial pressure at lower temperature, the BaTiO3 grains are almost free of linear defects and structural modulations and the oxygen content is homogeneous throughout the BaTiO3 active layers. A concomitant improvement in the total insulation resistance is observed.

  9. Solid-state synthesis of Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure: preparation and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Pengrong; Fan, Huiqing; Wang, Xin

    2013-06-01

    In this work, Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure were prepared through a solid milling and annealing process. It was found that Bi3+ dissolved in the BaTiO3 lattice and the chemical bond was constructed between the interface of Bi2O3 and BaTiO3 after annealing process. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible absorption spectra were used to characterize the Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure. Furthermore, UV-induced catalytic activities of the Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure was studied by a degradation reaction of methyl orange (MO) dye. The band gap of the Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure was estimated to be 3.0 eV. Compared with pure Bi2O3 powders, the Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure had a much higher catalytic activity. An excellent performance of the photocatalytic property of the Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure is ascribed to high mobility of species and effective separation of photogenerated carriers driven by the photoinduced potential difference generated at the Bi2O3/BaTiO3 junction interface, demonstrating that the Bi2O3/BaTiO3 heterostructure is a promising candidate as a photocatalyst.

  10. Ultrafast Anisotropic Optical Response and Coherent Acoustic Phonon Generation in Polycrystalline BaTiO3 -BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, B. A.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Gyu Kang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Song, H.-C.; Priya, S.

    Ultrafast optical spectroscopy can provide insight into fundamental microscopic interactions, dynamics and the coupling of several degrees of freedom. Pump/ probe studies can reveal the answer to questions like ``What are the achievable switching speeds in multiferroics?'', ``What is the influence of the crystallographic orientation and domain states on the available switching states?'', and ``What is the effect of the hetrostructure on promoting the coupling between the varying field excitations?''. In this presentation, we report on two color (400/800nm) ultrafast pump-probe differential reflectance spectroscopy of BiFeO3 - BaTiO3 structures. The (001) - BiFeO 3 - BaTiO 3 thin films were prepared using pulsed laser deposition on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates using LSMO bottom electrodes. Crystal orientation and topography were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The films were found to exhibit perovskite phase and in our study, we introduce the first observation of photoexcited strain waves, with the frequencies in the GHz range. Supported by the AFOSR through Grant FA9550-14-1-0376.

  11. Effects of Microstructure on the Curie Temperature in BaTiO3-Ho2O3-MgO-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Hagiwara, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Mizuno, Youichi; Kishi, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    In response to the demand for multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with stable capacitance in a wide temperature range, a material with high Curie temperature (Tc) has recently been being developed. In this study, we investigated the effects of microstructure on the Tc for the BaTiO3-Ho2O3-MgO-SiO2 system with various Ho and Si contents. As the Ho/Si ratio increased, the secondary phase (Pyrochlore) increased; further, the tetragonality of the BaTiO3 phase at 125 °C increased, and the Tc shifted toward higher temperatures. A transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (TEM-EDS) analysis revealed that the core-shell structure is the key to understand this Tc shift: a thin shell with a high concentration of Ho was the most promising microstructure for a high-Tc material in this composition system. We discussed the mechanism of the Tc shift from the viewpoints of both microstructure and crystal structure.

  12. Crystalline structures, thermal properties and crystallizing mechanism of polyamide 6 nanotubes in confined space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoru; Peng, Zhi; Yang, Chao; Han, Ping; Song, Guojun; Cong, Longliang

    2016-09-01

    The polyamide 6 (PA6) nanotubes were prepared by infiltrating the anodic aluminum oxide templates with polymer solution. Crystalline regions in the nanotube walls were detected by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were employed to investigate crystallization, crystal faces and thermodynamics. It was found that the crystals were transformed from α-form in bulk to γ-form in nanotubes. It was made a detailed analysis in this article. Moreover, schematic diagram for the crystallizing mechanism of PA6 nanotubes was given to explain PA6 molecules how to crystallize in the nano-pores.

  13. Composite-hydroxide-mediated approach an effective synthesis route for BaTiO3 functional nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Taj Muhammad; Zakria, M.; Shakoor, Rana. I.; Hussain, Shabbir

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes synthesis of the functional BaTiO3 (BT) nanostructures by composite-hydroxide-mediated (CHM) approach. The effect of processing temperature on the nucleation and the optical, structural properties is investigated. The nanostructures prepared at various temperatures (180, 220 and 250 °C) are thermally stable and nucleate in different morphologies, which shows a temperature-dependent mechanism of the CHM approach. The nanostructures are cubic in nature with an average particle size in the range of 97-250 nm. The local crystal structure investigated by Raman spectroscopy reveals a certain degree of tetragonality on atomic scale in the local phase structure. The micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate formation of the nanocuboids at 180 and 220 °C with larger particle size. At 250 °C, the product shows ball-like spherical morphology. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirms the existence of Ba, Ti and O elements in the product, which indicates a chemically pure product. Further signature on the formation, purity and chemical bonding is obtained from FT-IR spectroscopy. Based on these experimental results, size, morphology manipulation and possible growth mechanisms are proposed with CHM at low temperature and without surfactant.

  14. Optical Second Harmonic Generation in the BaTiO3 phase of magnetically aligned multiferroic nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperi, Katia

    Multiferroic materials enable the exploration of electrical control of magnetic properties and vice versa. Their increasing interest is especially due to their potential applications in the industry of information storage. Thanks to recent progress in nanotechnology, they have also been found to have many other applications such as transducers and sensors, and they already occupy a unique place in the biomedical field. The objective of this project is to study multiferroic nanofibers made of cobalt ferrite CoFe2O 4 (CFO) and barium titanate BaTiO3 (BTO) with a specific focus in the characterization of the ferroelectric phase. We researched the state of knowledge concerning the size effects on phase transition for nanoparticles and polycrystals BTO. The ferroelectric phase transition of BTO occurs when it changes from a tetragonal (anisotropic) crystal structure to a cubic (isotropic) structure. This change suggests that optical second harmonic generation (SHG) is a good measurement technique for monitoring the phase transition of the BTO half of the nanofibers. We designed and prepared a temperature dependent SHG experiment on magnetically aligned fibers in transmission with the possibility to investigate the polarization dependence of the signal. We also prepared interdigital electrodes on glass for the future study of the fibers in an external electric field.

  15. Magnetic properties of mixed spinel BaTiO3-NiFe2O4 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Babusona; Dalal, Biswajit; Dev Ashok, Vishal; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Mitra, Amitava; De, S. K.

    2014-03-01

    Solid solution of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) and barium titanate (BaTiO3), (100-x)BaTiO3-(x) NiFe2O4 has been prepared by solid state reaction. Compressive strain is developed in NiFe2O4 due to mutual structural interaction across the interface of NiFe2O4 and BaTiO3 phases. Quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photo electron spectrum suggest mixed spinel structure of NiFe2O4. A systematic study of composition dependence of composite indicates BaTiO3 causes a random distribution of Fe and Ni cations among octahedral and tetrahedral sites during non-equilibrium growth of NiFe2O4. The degree of inversion decreases monotonically from 0.97 to 0.75 with increase of BaTiO3 content. Temperature dependence of magnetization has been analyzed by four sublattice model to describe complex magnetic exchange interactions in mixed spinel phase. Curie temperature and saturation magnetization decrease with increase of BaTiO3 concentration. Enhancement of strain and larger occupancy of Ni2+ at tetrahedral site increase coercivity up to 200 Oe. Magnetostructual coupling induced by BaTiO3 improves coercivity in NiFe2O4. An increase in the demagnetization and homogeneity in magnetization process in NiFe2O4 is observed due to the interaction with diamagnetic BaTiO3.

  16. Conformal BaTiO3 Films with High Piezoelectric Coupling through an Optimized Hydrothermal Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Bowland, Christopher C; Patterson, Brendan A; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2016-08-24

    Two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric films have vast applications due to their dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties that meet the requirements of sensors, nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (NVFeRAM) devices, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). However, the small surface area of these 2D ferroelectric films has limited their ability to achieve higher memory storage density in NVFeRAM devices and more sensitive sensors and transducer. Thus, conformally deposited ferroelectric films have been actively studied for these applications in order to create three-dimensional (3D) structures, which lead to a larger surface area. Most of the current methods developed for the conformal deposition of ferroelectric films, such as metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD), are limited by high temperatures and unstable and toxic organic precursors. In this paper, an innovative fabrication method for barium titanate (BaTiO3) textured films with 3D architectures is introduced to alleviate these issues. This fabrication method is based on converting conformally grown rutile TiO2 nanowire arrays into BaTiO3 textured films using a simple two-step hydrothermal process which allows for thickness-controlled growth of conformal films on patterned silicon wafers coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Moreover, the processing parameters have been optimized to achieve a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient of 100 pm/V. This high piezoelectric response along with high relative dielectric constant (εr = 1600) of the conformally grown textured BaTiO3 films demonstrates their potential application in sensors, NVFeRAM, and MEMS. PMID:27487556

  17. Tuning polarization states and interface properties of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure by metal capping layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Ming; Shen, Lei; Wu, Qing Yun; Xu, Lei; Feng, Yuan Ping; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2016-04-01

    How to tune two-dimensional electron gas at interface of heterostructures is becoming an important question for both fundamental physics and electronic applications. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we find that the polarization state of BaTiO3 in metal capped BaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures changes dramatically, depending on the termination of BaTiO3 and the different metal layers (M =Al , Fe, Pt Au). Most interestingly, for Pt on the BaO-terminated BaTiO3/SrTiO3, interface conductivity can be tuned. With a paraelectric state in BaTiO3, Pt_BaTiO 3 /SrTiO3 remains insulating at interface, while when BaTiO3 is ferroelectric, a hole- or electron-conducting BaTiO3/SrTiO3 interface can be realized, depending on its polarization direction in BaTiO3. This conducting interface and the top Pt layer screen the depolarization field, and thus stabilize the ferroelectricity in BaTiO3. Our result provides important clues for the reversibly tunable conductivity at oxide interfaces.

  18. Origins of enhanced electromechanical coupling in ferroelectric BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Diallo, Souleymane; Delaire, Olivier; Calder, Stuart; Christianson, Andrew; Wang, Xun-Li; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    The origins of enhanced piezoelectric coupling along non-polar crystallographic directions in ferroelectric BaTiO3 are investigated using in situ neutron spectroscopy. It is observed that an electric field applied away from the equilibrium polarization direction causes a stiffening of the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon branch and consequently increases interaction between the TA and the transverse optic (TO) soft mode for a range of wave vectors extending from the Brillouin zone center. This provides a direct lattice dynamics mechanism for enhanced electromechanical coupling, and could act as a guide for designing improved piezoelectric materials.

  19. The structural properties of BaTiO3: TiO2: PMMA composite films at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Subhrangsu; Singh, S.; Singh, S. M.; Rajput, Nikhil; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    Present works based on the performance of the composite films of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared by simple solution casting technique. Different wt. % compositions of BaTiO3 have been selected to find out the best optimized condition for further investigations. The structural properties have been carried out at room temperature using X-ray crystallography (XRD). The average crystallite size of the BaTiO3 particles in the composite films has been found to be lies in between ˜ 20 -70 nm. It has been found that the peak intensities increase with increasing the wt. % of BaTiO3 in the composite films at room temperature (RT). The XRD analysis revealed that the addition of TiO2 has played a crucial role to enhance the crystalline nature of the composite films at room temperature. Efforts have been made to correlate the results with investigated XRD results of pure BaTiO3 and its composites as observed by other workers at room temperature.

  20. The Structure of BaTiO3 and BaTiO3-YBa2Cu3O7-δ Thin Films Studied by X-Ray Triple-Axis Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, W. X.; Cui, S. F.; Wu, L. S.; Mai, Z. H.; Li, C. L.; Cui, D. F.; Chen, Z. H.

    The structures of BaTiO3 thin films and BaTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-δ bilayer films grown on SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 substrates, respectively by pulsed laser deposition, have been investigated by X-ray triple-axis diffraction. The orientation, the interface mismatch and strain status, and the in-plane and perpendicular lattice constants of the epilayers have been determined by reciprocal space map analysis. The results show that both the lattice constants and the structural imperfections of the BaTiO3 layers are relevant to the oxygen partial pressure. The a⊥/a‖ increases while the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curves decreases with the decrease in the partial oxygen pressure.

  1. Influence of nanogold additives on phase formation, microstructure and dielectric properties of perovskite BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2015-06-01

    The formation of perovskite phase, microstructure and dielectric properties of nanogold-modified barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics was examined as a function of gold nanoparticle contents by employing a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, Archimedes principle and dielectric measurement techniques. These ceramics were fabricated from a simple mixed-oxide method. The amount of gold nanoparticles was found to be one of the key factors controlling densification, grain growth and dielectric response in BaTiO3 ceramics. It was found that under suitable amount of nanogold addition (4 mol%), highly dense perovskite BaTiO3 ceramics with homogeneous microstructures of refined grains (~0.5-3.1 μm) and excellence dielectric properties can be produced.

  2. Emergence of Long-Range Order in BaTiO_{3} from Local Symmetry-Breaking Distortions.

    PubMed

    Senn, M S; Keen, D A; Lucas, T C A; Hriljac, J A; Goodwin, A L

    2016-05-20

    By using a symmetry motivated basis to evaluate local distortions against pair distribution function data, we show without prior bias, that the off-center Ti displacements in the archetypal ferroelectric BaTiO_{3} are zone centered and rhombohedral-like across its known ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. We construct a simple Monte Carlo model that captures our main experimental findings and demonstrate how the rich crystallographic phase diagram of BaTiO_{3} emerges from correlations of local symmetry-breaking distortions alone. Our results strongly support the order-disorder picture for these phase transitions, but can also be reconciled with the soft-mode theory of BaTiO_{3} that is supported by some spectroscopic techniques. PMID:27258883

  3. Emergence of Long-Range Order in BaTiO3 from Local Symmetry-Breaking Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, M. S.; Keen, D. A.; Lucas, T. C. A.; Hriljac, J. A.; Goodwin, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    By using a symmetry motivated basis to evaluate local distortions against pair distribution function data, we show without prior bias, that the off-center Ti displacements in the archetypal ferroelectric BaTiO3 are zone centered and rhombohedral-like across its known ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. We construct a simple Monte Carlo model that captures our main experimental findings and demonstrate how the rich crystallographic phase diagram of BaTiO3 emerges from correlations of local symmetry-breaking distortions alone. Our results strongly support the order-disorder picture for these phase transitions, but can also be reconciled with the soft-mode theory of BaTiO3 that is supported by some spectroscopic techniques.

  4. Oxygen Octahedral Rotations in BaTiO3/CaTiO3 Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgriff, Margaret; Chen, Pice; Corey, Nathaniel; Wu, Xifan; Mehta, Apurva; Tajiri, Hiroo; Lee, Ho Nyung; Evans, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Complex oxide superlattices have a wide range of electronic and magnetic properties, which are affected by the structure of the interfaces between different components of the superlattice. The magnitude, coherence, and electric field response of oxygen displacements in three different BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattice compositions are measured using x-ray diffraction. The displacements are greater in compositions with more consecutive CaTiO3 layers. The pattern of layer-by-layer alternating displacements is coherent over less than two superlattice unit cells. The net in-phase rotation of the oxygen octahedra gives rise to an x-ray reflection at (3/2 1/2 1). Density functional theory calculations for a 2(BaTiO3) /4(CaTiO3) composition predict a decrease in displacements of oxygen octahedra between barium and calcium layers when an electric field is applied, causing an intensity increase in this reflection. We found the intensity of this reflection for this composition increases by 1.6% when a 12.5 V pulse is applied, a weaker response than the 11% increase predicted. When a 20 V pulse is applied, the reflection intensity actually decreases by 3%, indicating a more complicated response.

  5. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  6. Memristive behavior in BaTiO 3 thin films integrated with semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Prater, John; Narayan, Jay

    BaTiO3 has been studied for emerging non-volatile memory applications. However, most of the previous work has focused on this material when it was deposited on insulting oxide substrates such as SrTiO3. Unfortunately, this substrate is not suitable for CMOS-based microelectronics applications. This motivated us to carry out the present work. We have studied the resistive switching behavior in BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (BTO/LSMO) heterostructures integrated with Si (100) using pulsed laser deposition1,2. I-V measurements were conducted on BTO (500nm)/LSMO (25nm) devices at 200K, with the compliance current of 10mA. Here, Pt was used as a top electrode and LSMO served as bottom electrode. A few important observations are noted: (a) broad hysteresis in forward and reverse voltage sweeps -ideal for memory applications, (b) the ratio of high resistance to low resistance state is ~600 -important for switching devices, (c) the device is stable at least up to 50 cycles. However, we found that hysteretic behavior was collapsed after 36 cycles upon oxygen annealing of the device at 1 atmospheric pressure, 200o C for 1 hour, inferring the important role of oxygen vacancies in the resistive switching behavior of BTO/LSMO device. The comprehensive experimental data will be presented and discussed.1,2.

  7. Interface enhanced functionalities in BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xifan

    2014-03-01

    Interface engineering of oxide thin films has led to the development of many intriguing physical properties and new functionalities, in which the oxygen rotation and tilting take an crucial role. The oxygen octahedral tilt has been considered to be a coherent motion in the oxide thin-films, based on which the tilt is often neglected in the modeling of ABO3 superlattices. However, combined with state-of-art experimental high-resolution electron microscopic image, our first-principles results clearly show that oxygen octahedral tilt should be more appropriately defined by the tilting angles of two individual pyramids. Each pyramid will tilt rather independently as a function of its local chemical environment. Considering the oxygen octahedral rotation at the same time, the new picture of oxygen octahedral tilting will induce a novel interface effect, in which an unstable structure in bulk CaTiO3 will be stabilized at the interface in BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattice. This novel interface effect induces large polarizations both in-plane and out-of-plane with a corresponding enhanced piezoelectricity. The above scenario successfully explains the recent experimental discoveries in BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattices by H. Lee's and P. Evan's groups respectively.

  8. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  9. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  10. Layer by layer growth of BaTiO 3 thin films with extremely smooth surfaces by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. S.; Ma, K.; Cui, D. F.; Peng, Z. Q.; Zhou, Y. L.; Lu, H. B.; Chen, Z. H.; Li, L.; Yang, G. Z.

    1997-05-01

    Using pure ozone-assisted laser molecular beam epitaxy, we have grown c-axis-oriented single crystal BaTiO 3 thin films on SrTiO 3 substrates at temperatures ( Ts) of 400-750°C and under ambient gas pressures of 5 × 10 -5 to 1 × 10 -1 Pa, respectively. Stripy reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns and regular RHEED intensity oscillations reveal the smooth surface and layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of the films. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the films are free of pinholes, grain boundaries and outgrowths on the surface. In addition, we found a strong dependence of the film lattice constant c on Ts, which might be related to the strain in the film.

  11. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  12. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  13. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  14. Effects of oxygen vacancies and grain sizes on the dielectric response of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youn-Kyu; Hoshina, Takuya; Takeda, Hiroaki; Teranishi, Takeshi; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2010-11-01

    The effects of grain size and oxygen vacancies on the dielectric responses of BaTiO3 ceramics were investigated using wideband dielectric spectroscopy. Both dipole and ionic polarizations were enhanced by the reduction in grain size down to 2.5 μm. The annealing in low oxygen partial pressure markedly suppressed the dipole polarization possibly due to the domain-wall clamping by oxygen vacancies. To explain the dielectric response of BaTiO3 ceramics, a complex structure including gradient lattice strain layers (GLSL) were proposed as a model of 90° domain structure.

  15. Formation of secondary phase at grain boundary of flash-sintered BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Uehashi, Akinori; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2014-11-01

    Recently, Raj et.al. have developed a very unique sintering technique, called flash-sintering [1]. According to their report, fully densified ZrO2-3mol%Y2O3 ceramic bulks were successfully obtained only at 800°C for 5sec. Considering the conventional sintering condition around 1500°C for a few hours necessary to obtain ZrO2-3mol%Y2O3 ceramic bulks, their sintering technique is very attracting from a viewpoint of sintering temperature, soaking time and further the physical phenomena. The flash-sintering is a technique that green compacts were heating under application of high electric field. When furnace temperature reaches at a critical temperature, the electric current abruptly increases and the compact sinters near full density with a very high shrinkage rate. So far, a few studies about flash-sintering were reported for Y2O3 [2], SrTiO3, MgO-Al2O3. To understand the detail mechanism of flash-sintering, more case studies must be necessary. In this study, we focused BaTiO3 widely used for electro-ceramics, which has not been investigated from a viewpoint of flash-sintering.Green compacts were prepared from BaTiO3 raw powders (0.1-m, 99.9%, SAKAI chemical industry Co. Ltd., Lot. No.1308607) after uniaxially pressed at 100MPa into a rectangular shape with 2x10x30mm(3). The green compacts were suspended into a box type furnace by Pt-wires with Pt-based paste. Then, the furnace temperature was raised at 300°C/h under application of electric field ranged from 25V/cm to 350V/cm with monitoring the specimen current. After sintering, the shrinkages, microstructure of the sintered compacts were investigated.Sintering rates at all electric fields were found to be accelerated by applying electric field in BaTiO3. The appearance of abrupt current increment was confirmed over the application of 75V/cm. For example, a density of green compact reached about 90% relative density of BaTiO3 only at 1020°C for 1min at 100V/cm. However, the final shrinkages were revealed to decrease with an increase in electric fields, which is very different from the case of ZrO2-3mol%Y2O3 and Y2O3 ceramics. This fact means that application of high electric fields does not effectively operate for enhancement of shrinkage rates in the case of BaTiO3. In contrast, only gradual current increment was observed at 25V/cm, which is categorized in field-assisted sintering (FAST) process. The density of the green compact at 25V/cm was more than 95%.To investigate the mechanism of the decrease in a total shrinkage with electric fields, the microstructure of flash-sintered compact was observed. As a result, it was found that discharge occurs during flash-sintering process, indicating that the input power due to high electric fields does not work effectively. A typical example of the microstructure near the discharge area is shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 is a TEM bright field image taken from BaTiO3 flash-sintered at 100V/cm. As seen in the image, the formation of a secondary phase along the grain boundary can be clearly seen. Diffractometric and EDS analysis have revealed that the secondary phase is BaTi4O9, one of compounds between BaO and TiO2 system. By discharging, grain boundaries partially melt and a part of Ba vaporizes to form BaTi4O9 with cooling. To investigate flash-sintering behaviors, it was concluded that FAST process play an important role to enhance the shrinklage rate in the case of BaTiO3.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i19/DFU048F1F1DFU048F1Fig. 1.TEM bright field image of a secondary phase and the electron diffraction pattern taken from the secondary phase. PMID:25359812

  16. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakanth, S.; Hamad, Syed; Venugopal Rao, S.; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-01

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO3 samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000oC and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650oC-800oC. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ˜ 1019-1020/cm3 range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×1020/cm3 near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO3 is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing applications.

  17. Aligned Carbon Nanotube Thin Films from Liquid Crystal Polyelectrolyte Inks.

    PubMed

    Tune, Daniel D; Blanch, Adam J; Shearer, Cameron J; Moore, Katherine E; Pfohl, Moritz; Shapter, Joseph G; Flavel, Benjamin S

    2015-11-25

    Single walled carbon nanotube thin films are fabricated by solution shearing from high concentration sodium nanotubide polyelectrolyte inks. The solutions are produced by simple stirring of the nanotubes with elemental sodium in dimethylacetamide, and the nanotubes are thus not subject to any sonication-induced damage. At such elevated concentrations (∼4 mg mL(-1)), the solutions exist in the liquid crystal phase and during deposition this order is transferred to the films, which are well aligned in the direction of shear with a 2D nematic order parameter of ∼0.7 determined by polarized absorption measurements. Compared to similarly formed films made from superacids, the polyelectrolyte films contain smaller bundles and a much narrower distribution of bundle diameters. After p-doping with an organic oxidizer, the films exhibit a very high DC electrical to optical conductivity ratio of σ(DC)/σ(OP) ∼ 35, corresponding to a calculated DC conductivity of over 7000 S cm(-1). When very thin (T550 ∼ 96%), smooth (RMS roughness, R(q) ∼ 2.2 nm), and highly aligned films made via this new route are used as the front electrodes of carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells, the power conversion efficiency is almost an order of magnitude greater than that obtained when using the much rougher (R(q) ∼ 20-30 nm) and less conductive (peak σ(DC)/σ(OP) ∼ 2.5) films formed by common vacuum filtration of the same starting material, and having the same transmittance. PMID:26511159

  18. Structural study and ferroelectricity of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazet, L.; Bachelet, R.; Louahadj, L.; Albertini, D.; Gautier, B.; Cours, R.; Schamm-Chardon, S.; Saint-Girons, G.; Dubourdieu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Integration of epitaxial complex ferroelectric oxides such as BaTiO3 on semiconductor substrates depends on the ability to finely control their structure and properties, which are strongly correlated. The epitaxial growth of thin BaTiO3 films with high interfacial quality still remains scarcely investigated on semiconductors; a systematic investigation of processing conditions is missing although they determine the cationic composition, the oxygen content, and the microstructure, which, in turn, play a major role on the ferroelectric properties. We report here the study of various relevant deposition parameters in molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO3 thin films on silicon substrates. The films were grown using a 4 nm-thick epitaxial SrTiO3 buffer layer. We show that the tetragonality of the BaTiO3 films, the crystalline domain orientations, and SiO2 interfacial layer regrowth strongly depend on the oxygen partial pressure and temperature during the growth and on the post-deposition anneal. The ferroelectricity of the films, probed using piezoresponse force microscopy, is obtained in controlled temperature and oxygen pressure conditions with a polarization perpendicular to the surface.

  19. Enhancement of ferroelectric Curie temperature in BaTiO3 films via strain-induced defect dipole alignment.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Anoop R; Breckenfeld, Eric; Chen, Zuhuang; Lee, Sungki; Martin, Lane W

    2014-09-01

    The combination of epitaxial strain and defect engineering facilitates the tuning of the transition temperature of BaTiO3 to >800 °C. Advances in thin-film deposition enable the utilization of both the electric and elastic dipoles of defects to extend the epitaxial strain to new levels, inducing unprecedented functionality and temperature stability in ferroelectrics. PMID:25099557

  20. Rapid-Thermal-Processed BaTiO3 Thin Films Deposited by Liquid-Source Misted Chemical Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Chan, Shih-Hsiung; Chiang, Ming-Chung; Huang, Tiao-Yuan; Sze, Simon

    1998-03-01

    BaTiO3 thin films deposited on the RuO2(250 nm)/Ru(20 nm)/TiN(200 nm)/Ti(20 nm)/(100)Si substrates by liquid-source misted chemical deposition are reported. The rapid thermal processing (RTP) technique was used for post deposition annealing. It was found that the strain was released and grain size increased for BaTiO3 films treated at high RTP temperature or for long RTP time. The interface between BaTiO3 and the bottom electrode was still sharp for the RTP-treated sample at 950°C. The leakage current density decreases as the RTP temperature increases. It can be decreased to 2.09 nA/cm2 under a supply voltage of 1.5 V. The dielectric constant can be increased up to 250 measured at 100 kHz for the sample treated by RTP at 950°C. The improvements in the BaTiO3 characteristics are due to the fact that RTP can enhance the crystallinity, relax the strain, alleviate the impurities in the films and does not result in significant interdiffusion of the materials.

  1. Fe modified BaTiO3: Influence of doping on ferroelectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Bisen, Supriya; Jarabana, Kanaka Mahalakshmi; Mishra, Niyati

    2015-06-01

    We have investigate the ferroelectric property of Fe modified Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) with possible tetragonal structure via solid state route was prepared. Modified sample of BaTi1-xFexO3 (x=0.01, 0.02) were structural characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) using a Bruker D8 Advance XRD instruments, the value of 2θ is in between 20° to 80°. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using a Bruker, vertex instruments has been performs to obtain Ti-O bonding in the modified sample; the region of wavenumber is from 4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1. P-E hysteresis loop measurements have been traced for different applied voltage- 100V, 300V and 500V.

  2. Dielectric response of Cu/amorphous BaTiO3/Cu capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; El Kamel, F.

    2007-04-01

    Cu/amorphous BaTiO3/Cu capacitors were tested for their dielectric properties in the 0.1Hz -100kHz range, from room temperature to 350°C. The amorphous barium titanate dielectric layer was deposited by rf sputtering on water-cooled copper electrodes. The room-temperature dielectric constant is around 18 and the dissipation factor is 3×10-3 at 100kHz. When increasing temperature the dielectric response displays an important frequency dispersion with the appearance of a marked loss peak at low frequencies. This dispersion is ascribed to electrode polarization effects, as evidenced by measurements performed on various film thicknesses and by using different electrodes. The electrode polarization phenomenon is discussed using a simple space charge model and is shown to be related to mobile oxygen vacancies.

  3. Molecular-dynamics simulation of threshold displacement energies in BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, E.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Piñera, I.; Leyva, A.

    2015-09-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations were used to calculate threshold displacement energies for each atom type in BaTiO3 perovskite. A primary knock-on atom with an energy range between 10 and 300 eV in principal crystallographic directions at 300 K was introduced. A statistical approach has been applied calculating displacement probability curves along main crystallographic directions. For each sublattice, the simulation was repeated from different initial conditions to estimate the uncertainty in the threshold displacement energy calculated values. The threshold displacement energies vary considerably with crystallographic direction and sublattice. The weighted average threshold displacement energies are 40 eV for oxygen, 64 eV for barium and 97 eV for titanium atoms. These values are comparable to ab initio calculated and experimentally derived values in perovskites. These results are proposed as threshold displacement energies, ideal for simulation programs that use atomic displacement calculation algorithms.

  4. Stress-induced phase transition in ferroelectric domain walls of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepkova, V.; Marton, P.; Hlinka, J.

    2012-05-01

    The seminal paper by Zhirnov (1958 Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 35 1175-80) explained why the structure of domain walls in ferroelectrics and ferromagnets is drastically different. Here we show that the antiparallel ferroelectric walls in rhombohedral ferroelectric BaTiO3 can be switched between the Ising-like state (typical for ferroelectrics) and a Bloch-like state (unusual for ferroelectric walls but typical for magnetic ones). Phase-field simulations using a Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire model suggest that this symmetry-breaking transition can be induced by a compressive epitaxial stress. The strain-tunable chiral properties of these domain walls promise a range of novel phenomena in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films.

  5. Electric dipole sheets in BaTiO3/BaZrO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhijun; Xu, Bin; Li, Fei; Wang, Dawei; Jia, C.-L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional electric dipole sheets in the superlattice made of BaTiO3 and BaZrO3 using first-principles-based Monte Carlo simulations and density functional calculations. Electric dipole domains and complex patterns are observed and complex dipole structures with various symmetries (e.g., P m a 2 ,C m c m , and P m c 21 ) are further confirmed by density functional calculations, which are found to be almost degenerate in energy with the ferroelectric ground state of the A m m 2 symmetry, therefore strongly resembling magnetic sheets. More complex dipole patterns, including vortices and antivortices, are also observed, which may constitute the intermediate states that overcome the high-energy barrier of different polarization orientations previously predicted by A. I. Lebedev [Phys. Solid State 55, 1198 (2013), 10.1134/S1063783413060218]. We also show that such system possesses large electrostrictive effects that may be technologically important.

  6. Influence of defects on ferroelectric and electrocaloric properties of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünebohm, Anna; Nishimatsu, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    We report modifications of the ferroelectric and electrocaloric properties of BaTiO3 by defects. For this purpose, we have combined ab initio based molecular dynamics simulations with a simple model for defects. We find that different kinds of defects modify the ferroelectric transition temperatures and polarization, reduce the thermal hysteresis of the transition, and are no obstacle for a large caloric response. For a locally reduced polarization, the ferroelectric transition temperature and the adiabatic response are slightly reduced. For polar defects, an intriguing picture emerges. The transition temperature is increased by polar defects and the temperature range of the large caloric response is broadened. Even more remarkable, we find an inverse caloric effect in a broad temperature range.

  7. Negative Capacitance in BaTiO3/BiFeO3 Bilayer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Fei; Li, Wei-Li; Zhang, Tian-Dong; Yu, Yang; Han, Ren-Lu; Fei, Wei-Dong

    2016-08-31

    Negative capacitances provide an approach to reduce heat generations in field-effect transistors during the switch processes, which contributes to further miniaturization of the conventional integrated circuits. Although there are many studies about negative capacitances using ferroelectric materials, the direct observation of stable ferroelectric negative capacitances has rarely been reported. Here, we put forward a dc bias assistant model in bilayer capacitors, where one ferroelectric layer with large dielectric constant and the other ferroelectric layer with small dielectric constant are needed. Negative capacitances can be obtained when external dc bias electric fields are larger than a critical value. Based on the model, BaTiO3/BiFeO3 bilayer capacitors are chosen as study objects, and negative capacitances are observed directly. Additionally, the upward self-polarization effect in the ferroelectric layer reduces the critical electric field, which may provide a method for realizing zero and/or small dc bias assistant negative capacitances. PMID:27502999

  8. Magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Zn and Mn co-doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshari Das, Sangram; Kumar Roul, Binod

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports an approach to obtaining multiferroic properties in co-doped (Zn:Mn) BaTiO3 near room temperature. Interestingly, an unusual magnetic hysteresis loop is observed in the co-doped compositions in which the central portion of the loop is squeezed. However, in the composition Ba0.9Zn0.1Ti0.9Mn0.1O3, a broad magnetic hysteresis loop is observed. Such a magnetic effect is attributed to the coexistence of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic exchange interactions in the system. The observation of the above type of magnetic properties is likely to be due to the presence of exchange interactions between Mn ions. A lossy-type of ferroelectric hysteresis loop is also observed in co-doped ceramic compositions near room temperature. Author S. K. Das supported financially by CSIR, New Delhi (Grant No. 09/750 (0005)/2009-EMR-I).

  9. Liquid crystal nanocomposites produced by mixtures of hydrogen bonded achiral liquid crystals and functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katranchev, B.; Petrov, M.; Keskinova, E.; Naradikian, H.; Rafailov, P. M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Spassov, T.

    2014-12-01

    The liquid crystalline (LC) nature of alkyloxybenzoic acids is preserved after adding of any mesogenic or non-mesogenic compound through hydrogen bonding. However, this noncovalent interaction provokes a sizable effect on the physical properties as, e. g. melting point and mesomorphic states. In the present work we investigate nanocomposites, prepared by mixture of the eighth homologue of p-n-alkyloxybenzoic acids (8OBA) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with the purpose to modify the optical properties of the liquid crystal. We exercise optical control on the LC system by inserting SWCNT specially functionalized by carboxylic groups. Since the liquid crystalline state combines order and mobility at the molecular (nanoscale) level, molecular modification can lead to different macroscopical nanocomposite symmetry. The thermal properties of the functionalized nanocomposite are confirmed by DSC analyses. The mechanism of the interaction between surface-treated nanoparticles (functionalized nanotubes) and the liquid crystal 8OBA bent- dimer molecules is briefly discussed.

  10. Impedance spectroscopy of V2O5-Bi2O3-BaTiO3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-syadi, Aref M.; Yousef, El Sayed; El-Desoky, M. M.; Al-Assiri, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The glasses within composition as: (80 - x)V2O5/20Bi2O3/xBaTiO3 with x = 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mol% have been prepared. The glass transition (Tg) increases with increasing BaTiO3 content. Synthesized glasses ceramic containing BaTi4O9, Ba3TiV4O15 nanoparticles of the order of 25-35 nm and 30-46 nm, respectively were estimated using XRD. The dielectric properties over wide ranges of frequencies and temperatures were investigated as a function of BaTiO3 content by impedance spectroscopy measurements. The hopping frequency, ωh, dielectric constant, ɛ', activation energies for the DC conduction, Eσ, the relaxation process, Ec, and stretched exponential parameter β of the glasses samples have been estimated. The, ωh,β, decrease from 51.63 to 0.31 × 106 (s-1), 0.84 to 0.79 with increasing BaTiO3 respectively. Otherwise, the Eσ, increase from 0.279 to 0.306 eV with increasing BaTiO3. The value of dielectric constant equal 9.5·103 for the 2.5BaTiO3/77.5V2O5/20Bi2O3 glasses-ceramic at 330 K for 1 KHz which is ten times larger than that of same glasses composition. Finally the relaxation properties of the investigated glasses are presented in the electric modulus formalism, where the relaxation time and the respective activation energy were determined.

  11. Processing and Characterization of Carbonate-Free BaTiO3 Nanoscale Particles Obtained by a Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Wet Chemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiri, Rouholah; Moghtada, Abdolmajid; Shahrouzianfar, Ali

    2015-08-01

    This work highlights an innovative one-step synthesis pathway for obtaining tailor-made carbonate-free BaTiO3 nanocrystals at low temperature. The work also tries to characterize the processing of the nanocrystals. Well-defined and stoichiometric BaTiO3 nanocrystals were prepared sonochemically at 323 K (50 °C) in only 45 minutes, which were rather easy to manipulate. The particle size distribution was rather narrow. The results indicated that the size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals can be tailored by changing the reactants concentration. The kinetic of BaTiO3 formation was more rapid for the precursor solutions with higher BaCl2 concentration. The particle size was also very sensitive to the Ba/Ti ratio of the precursor solution and ultrasonication conditions. The as-dried precipitates were generally composed of loose agglomerates resulting from the assembly of several BaTiO3 nanocrystals during drying stage of the preparation. This agglomeration can be potentially used for self-assembling of the obtained BaTiO3 nanocrystals in miniaturization of multilayer ceramic capacitors and for the development of other nano-devices organized by BaTiO3 nanocrystals.

  12. Effects of starting powder and thermal treatment on the aerosol deposited BaTiO3 thin films toward less leakage currents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To prepare high-density integrated capacitors with low leakage currents, 0.2-μm-thick BaTiO3 thin films were successfully deposited on integrated semiconductor substrates at room temperature by the aerosol deposition (AD) method. In this study, the effects of starting powder size were considered in an effort to remove macroscopic defects. A surface morphology of 25.3 nm and an interface roughness of less than 50 nm were obtained using BT-03B starting powder. The nano-crystalline thin films achieved after deposition were annealed at various temperatures to promote crystallization and densification. Moreover, the influence of rapid thermal annealing process on the surface morphology and crystal growth was evaluated. As the annealing temperature increased from room temperature to 650°C, the root mean square (RMS) roughness decreased from 25.3 to 14.3 nm. However, the surface was transformed into rough performance at 750°C, which agreed well with the surface microstructure trend. Moreover, the crystal growth also reveals the changes in surface morphology via surface energy analysis. PMID:25246860

  13. Some Aspects of the Failure Mechanisms in BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David Donhang; Sampson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to gain insight into possible failure mechanisms in BaTiO3-based ceramic capacitors that may be associated with the reliability degradation that accompanies a reduction in dielectric thickness, as reported by Intel Corporation in 2010. The volumetric efficiency (microF/cm3) of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) has been shown to not increase limitlessly due to the grain size effect on the dielectric constant of ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 material. The reliability of an MLCC has been discussed with respect to its structure. The MLCCs with higher numbers of dielectric layers will pose more challenges for the reliability of dielectric material, which is the case for most base-metal-electrode (BME) capacitors. A number of MLCCs manufactured using both precious-metal-electrode (PME) and BME technology, with 25 V rating and various chip sizes and capacitances, were tested at accelerated stress levels. Most of these MLCCs had a failure behavior with two mixed failure modes: the well-known rapid dielectric wearout, and so-called 'early failures." The two failure modes can be distinguished when the testing data were presented and normalized at use-level using a 2-parameter Weibull plot. The early failures had a slope parameter of Beta >1, indicating that the early failures are not infant mortalities. Early failures are triggered due to external electrical overstress and become dominant as dielectric layer thickness decreases, accompanied by a dramatic reduction in reliability. This indicates that early failures are the main cause of the reliability degradation in MLCCs as dielectric layer thickness decreases. All of the early failures are characterized by an avalanche-like breakdown leakage current. The failures have been attributed to the extrinsic minor construction defects introduced during fabrication of the capacitors. A reliability model including dielectric thickness and extrinsic defect feature size is proposed in this presentation. The model can be used to explain the Intel-reported reliability degradation in MLCCs with respect to the reduction of dielectric thickness. It can also be used to estimate the reliability of a MLCC based on its construction and microstructure parameters such as dielectric thickness, average grain size, and number of dielectric layers. Measures for preventing early failures are also discussed in this document.

  14. Solid state NMR of SiO 2 nanotube coated ammonium tartrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, A. R.; Schueneman, G. T.; Novak, B. M.

    1999-04-01

    Ammonium tartrate crystal and SiO 2 nanotube coated ammonium tartrate crystal were studied by 13C CP/MAS NMR, and the structure of two samples were verified using the 13C NMR spectrum. The spin-lattice relaxation times for the carbons in the rotating frame, T1 ρ, have been measured as a function of temperature. All relaxation times of the carbons in the two materials undergo slow motions, i.e. motions on the slow side of the T1 ρ minimum. From these relaxation times, we determine the activation energy for the ammonium tartrate crystal and SiO 2 nanotube coated ammonium tartrate crystal, respectively. The activation energies for the SiO 2 nanotube coated ammonium tartrate crystal were found to be generally higher than those of ammonium tartrate crystal. We think that the higher activation energy for the hydrocarbon in the SiO 2 nanotube coated ammonium tartrate crystal is because of the bonding between the oxygen in the SiO 2 nanotube and the hydroxyl group of the ammonium tartrate crystal.

  15. Single-crystalline BaTiO3 films grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yuya; Takahashi, Kei S.; Tokura, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    Thin BaTiO3 films were grown on GdScO3 (110) substrates by metalorganic gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as a volatile precursor that provides a wide growth window of the supplied TTIP/Ba ratio for automatic adjustment of the film composition. Within the growth window, compressively strained films can be grown with excellent crystalline quality, whereas films grown outside of the growth window are relaxed with inferior crystallinity. This growth method will provide a way to study the intrinsic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films and their heterostructures by precise control of the stoichiometry, structure, and purity.

  16. Electrical Properties of BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors Sintered with Plasma-Treated Glass Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Dae-Yong; Lee, Soon-il; Lee, Heun-Young; Kim, Min-Kee; Yoon, Jung-Rag

    2013-10-01

    The influence of glass power morphology on the electrical and microstructural properties of BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) was investigated to enhance the reliability of MLCCs. For a sintering additive, glass particles of different sizes and shapes were prepared by jet-milling and RF plasma treatment. Plasma treatment decreased the glass particle size and transformed the irregular shape of glass particles into homogeneous spherical shapes. It was found that MLCCs sintered with plasma-treated glass powder have a more homogeneous microstructure, a clear core-shell structure, a more stable capacitance against voltage and temperature changes, and a higher degradation resistance. It is inferred that nanosized spherical glass powder prepared by plasma treatment helps so-called magic dopants such as rare-earth elements to be distributed homogeneously around the BaTiO3 particles.

  17. Structural evidence for enhanced polarization in a commensurate short-period BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Jiang, J. C.; Pan, X. Q.; Haeni, J. H.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, L. Q.; Schlom, D. G.; Neaton, J. B.; Rabe, K. M.; Jia, Q. X.

    2006-08-01

    A short-period (BaTiO3)6/(SrTiO3)5 superlattice was characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The superlattice is epitaxially oriented with the c axes of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 normal to the (001) surface of the SrTiO3 substrate. Despite the large in-plane lattice mismatch between BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 (˜2.2%), the superlattice interfaces were found to be nearly commensurate. The crystallographic c /a ratio of the superlattice was measured and the results agree quantitatively with first-principles calculations and phase-field modeling. The agreement supports the validity of the enhanced spontaneous polarization predicted for short-period BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices.

  18. Strong flux pinning enhancement in YBa2Cu3O7-x films by embedded BaZrO3 and BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Fa-Zhu; Gu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Teng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Qu, Fei; Qiu, Qing-Quan; Dai, Shao-Tao; Peng, Xing-Yu

    2013-07-01

    YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films with embedded BaZrO3 and BaTiO3 nanoparticles were fabricated by metalorganic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). Both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that these BaZrO3 and BaTiO3 nanoparticles had random orientations and were distributed stochastically in the YBCO matrix. The unique combined microstructure enhances the critical current density (Jc) of the BaZrO3/BaTiO3 doped-YBCO films, while keeping the critical transition temperature (Tc) close to that in the pure YBCO films. These results indicate that BaZrO3 and BaTiO3 nanoparticles provide strong flux pinning in YBCO films.

  19. Performance analysis of resistive switching devices based on BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, Natasa; Kojic, Tijana; Vukmirovic, Jelena; Tripkovic, Djordjije; Bajac, Branimir; Srdic, Vladimir; Stojanovic, Goran

    2016-03-01

    Resitive switching devices, memristors, have recenty attracted much attention due to promising performances and potential applications in the field of logic and memory devices. Here, we present thin film BaTiO3 based memristor fabricated using ink-jet printing technique. Active material is a single layer barium titanate film with thickness of ̴100 nm, sandwitched between metal electodes. Printing parameters were optimized aiming to achieve stable drop flow and uniform printed layer. Current-voltage characteristics show typical memristive behavior with pinched hysteresis loop crossed at the origin, with marked differences between High Resistive State (HRS) and Low Resistive State (LRS). Obtained resistive states are stable during numerous switching processes. The device also shows unipolar switching effect for negative voltage impulses. Variable voltage impulse amplitudes leads to the shifting of the energy levels of electode contacts resulting in changing of the overall current through the device. Structural charcterization have been performed using XRD analysis and SEM micrography. High-temperature current-voltage measurements combined with transport parameter analysis using Hall efect measurement system (HMS 3000) and Impedance Analyzer AC measurements allows deeper insigth into conduction mechanism of ferroelectric memristors.

  20. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  1. Virus-directed design of a flexible BaTiO3 nanogenerator.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Insu; Park, Kwi-Il; Oh, Mi Hwa; Paik, Haemin; Hwang, Geon-Tae; No, Kwangsoo; Nam, Yoon Sung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2013-12-23

    Biotemplated synthesis of functional nanomaterials has received increasing attention for applications in energy, catalysis, bioimaging, and other technologies. This approach is justified by the unique abilities of biological systems to guide sophisticated assembly and organization of molecules and materials into distinctive nanoscale morphologies that exhibit physicochemical properties highly desirable for specific purposes. Here, we present a high-performance, flexible nanogenerator using anisotropic BaTiO3 (BTO) nanocrystals synthesized on an M13 viral template through the genetically programmed self-assembly of metal ion precursors. The filamentous viral template realizes the formation of a highly entangled, well-dispersed network of anisotropic BTO nanostructures with high crystallinity and piezoelectricity. Even without the use of additional structural stabilizers, our virus-enabled flexible nanogenerator exhibits a high electrical output up to ∼300 nA and ∼6 V, indicating the importance of nanoscale structures for device performances. This study shows the biotemplating approach as a facile method to design and fabricate nanoscale materials particularly suitable for flexible energy harvesting applications. PMID:24229091

  2. A New Synthesis Strategy For High-Quality Fe / BaTiO3 Multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Rojas, G.; Skomski, R.; Bode, M.; Bhattacharya, A.; Santos, T.; Guisinger, N.; Gruverman, A.; Lu, H.; Enders, A.

    2010-03-01

    Ultrathin film BaTiO3/Nb-SrTiO3 (BTO/STO) and Fe/BTO nanostructures were investigated with variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) under ultrahigh vacuum. BTO films of 8 -- 13 unit cells thickness were grown by ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on STO, and transferred through air into the STM chamber. Atomically flat, clean and unreconstructed films were recovered after annealing them in 1x10-4 mBar oxygen at 970K. Fe nanoclusters were deposited on the BTO by noble gas buffer layer assisted growth, and further studied by LEED and STM. The sharp 1x1 LEED images after cluster deposition show that the clusters are crystalline, suggesting that the interface oxidation is minimal. This synthesis route has thus the potential to fabricate ordered, atomically flat interfaces by suppressing interface mixing and Fe oxidation, which is a significant advantage over MBE deposition of Fe on BTO. The samples obtained are currently used as model system for the study of interface contributions to the magnetoelectric effect in multiferroics.

  3. BaTiO3/PVDF Nanocomposite Film with High Energy Storage Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    A gradated multilayer BaTiO3/poly(vinylidenefluoride) thin film structure is presented to achieve both a higher breakdown strength and a superior energy-storage capability. Key to the process is the sequential deposition of uniform dispersions of the single component source, which generate a blended PVDF-BTO-PVDF structure prior to full evaporation of solvent, and thermal treatment of the dielectric. The result is like sandwich structure with partial 0-3 character. The central layer designed to provide the high electric displacement, is composed of high volume fraction 6-10 nm BTO nanocrystals produced by a TEG-sol method. The outer layers of the structure are predominantly PVDF, with a significantly lower volume fraction of BTO, taking advantage of the higher dielectric strength for pure PVDF at the electrode-nanocomposite interface. The film is mechanically flexible, and can be removed from the substrate, with total thicknesses in the range 1.2 - 1.5 μm. Parallel plate capacitance devices improved dielectric performances, compared to reported values for BTO-PVDF 0-3 nanocomposites, with a maximal discharged energy density of 19.4J/cm3 and dielectric breakdown strengths of up to 495 kV/mm.

  4. Chemical and microstructural characterization of rf-sputtered BaTiO3 nano-capacitors with Ni electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reck, James N.; Cortez, Rebecca; Xie, S.; Zhang, Ming; O'Keefe, Matthew; Dogan, Fatih

    2012-05-01

    Chemical and microstructural evaluation techniques have been used to characterize sputter deposited 100-150 nm thick BaTiO3 nano-capacitors with 30 nm thick Ni electrodes fabricated on Si/SiO2 wafers. More than 99% of devices had resistance > 20 MΩ. Electrodes were found to have a roughness, Ra, of about 0.66 ± 0.04 nm, and the BaTiO3 had a Ra value of 1.3 ± 0.12 nm. Characterization of the BaTiO3 film chemistry with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) showed the films had excess oxygen and Ba:Ti ratios ranging from 0.78 to 1.1, depending on sputtering conditions. X-ray diffraction showed a broad peak between approximately 20° and 35° 2θ, indicating the films were either amorphous or contained grain sizes less than 5 nm. Focused ion beam images confirmed the presence of smooth, conformal films, with no visible signs of macro-defects such as pin-holes, cracks, or pores. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of a nearly amorphous film with limited short range order. No correlation was found between the chemical and microstructural studies with the dielectric permittivity (280-1000), loss (0.02-0.09), and/or resistivity (8.7 × 1010-1.5 × 1012 Ω cm) values.

  5. Non-linear second harmonic generation (SHG) studies of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, Eftihia; Lee, Che-Hui; Wu, Pingping; Wung Bark, Chung; Jang, Ho Won; Folkman, Chad; Hyub Baek, Seung; Park, J. W.; Biegalski, Mike; Tenne, Dmitri; Schlom, Darrell; Chen, Long-Qing; Eom, Chang-Beom; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2010-03-01

    Theoretical phase-field simulations predict that certain types of superlattices consisting of alternating (BaTiO3)n/(SrTiO3)n layers have novel vortex domain wall configurations which give rise to exceptionally high polarization tunability combined with negligible polarization hysteresis. Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) was used to probe the phase and transition temperatures of multilayer (BaTiO3)m/(SrTiO3)n superlattices, as a function of epitaxial strain. In addition, in-plane electro-optic measurements were carried out. The experimental results are in excellent agreement both with theoretical predictions, as well as the temperature-strain phase diagram obtained experimentally from UV Raman studies. The ferroelectric, in-plane SHG signal, from the tensile strained SrTiO3 layers reveals an mm2 point group symmetry, whereas the point group symmetry of the compressively strained BaTiO3 layers, was determined to be 4mm.

  6. Spin-Coating and Characterization of Multiferroic MFe2O4 (M=Co, Ni) / BaTiO3 Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Norman; Roth, Robert; Syrowatka, Frank; Steimecke, Matthias; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.

    2016-01-01

    Bilayer films of MFe2O4 (M=Co, Ni) and BaTiO3 were prepared by spin coating of N,N-dimethylformamide/acetic acid solutions on platinum coated silicon wafers. Five coating steps were applied to get the desired thickness of 150 nm for both the ferrite and perovskite layer. XRD, IR and Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of phase-pure ferrite spinels and BaTiO3. Smooth surfaces with roughnesses in the order of 3 to 5 nm were found in AFM investigations. Saturation magnetization of 347 emu cm-3 for the CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 and 188 emu cm-3 for the NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer, respectively were found. For the CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer a strong magnetic anisotropy was observed with coercivity fields of 5.1 kOe and 3.3 kOe (applied magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to film surface), while for the NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer this effect is less pronounced. Saturated polarization hysteresis loops prove the presence of ferroelectricity in both systems.

  7. Large piezoelectric response of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 polycrystalline films induced by the low-symmetry phase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y F; Li, W L; Zhang, T D; Wang, W; Cao, W P; Liu, X L; Fei, W D

    2015-05-01

    BaTiO3, BiFeO3 and BiFeO3/BaTiO3 polycrystalline films were prepared by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. The phase structure, converse piezoelectric coefficient and domain structure of BaTiO3, BiFeO3 and BiFeO3/BaTiO3 thin films are characterized by XRD and PFM, respectively. The converse piezoelectric coefficient d33 of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 thin films is 119.5 pm V(-1), which is comparable to that of lead-based piezoelectric films. The large piezoelectric response of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 thin films is ascribed to the low-symmetry T-like phase BiFeO3, because the spontaneous polarization vector of T-like phase (with monoclinic symmetry) BiFeO3 can rotate easily under external field. In addition, the reduced leakage current and major domains with upward polarization are also attributed to the large piezoelectricity. PMID:25866266

  8. Pseudo Jahn-Teller origin of ferroelectric instability in BaTiO3 type perovskites: The Green's function approach and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polinger, V.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; Bersuker, I. B.

    2015-01-01

    The local origin of dipolar distortions in ABO3 perovskite crystals is reexamined by means of a novel approach, the Green's function method augmented by DFT computations. The ferroelectric distortions are shown to be induced by the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE). The latter involves vibronic hybridization (admixture) of the ground state to same-spin opposite-parity excited electronic bands. Similar to numerous molecular calculations, the PJT approach provides a deeper insight into the nature of chemical bonding in the octahedral cluster [BO6] and, in particular, reveals the local origin of its polar instability. This allows predicting directly which transition ions can create ferroelectricity. In particular, the necessary conditions are established when an ABO3 perovskite crystal with an electronic dn configuration of the complex ion [BO6] can possess both proper ferroelectric and magnetic properties. Distinguished from the variety of cluster approaches to local properties, the Green's function method includes the influence of the local vibronic-coupling perturbation on the whole crystal via the inter-cell interaction responsible for creation of electronic and vibrational bands. Calculated Green's functions combined with the corresponding numeric estimates for the nine electronic bands, their density of states, and the local adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) confirm the eight-minimum form of this surface and feasibility of the PJT origin of the polar instability in BaTiO3. We show also that multicenter long-range dipole-dipole interactions critically depend on the PJTE largely determining the magnitude of the local dipoles. DFT calculations for the bulk crystal and its clusters confirm that the dipolar distortions are of local origin, but become possible only when their influence on (relaxation of) the whole lattice is taken into account. The results are shown to be in full qualitative and semiquantitative agreement with the experimental data for this

  9. Correlation of lattice defects and thermal processing in the crystallization of titania nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, Pegah M.; Yung, Daniel; Panaitescu, Eugen; Heiman, Don; Menon, Latika; Budil, David; Lewis, Laura H.

    2014-12-01

    Titania nanotubes have the potential to be employed in a wide range of energy-related applications such as solar energy-harvesting devices and hydrogen production. As the functionality of titania nanostructures is critically affected by their morphology and crystallinity, it is necessary to understand and control these factors in order to engineer useful materials for green applications. In this study, electrochemically-synthesized titania nanotube arrays were thermally processed in inert and reducing environments to isolate the role of post-synthesis processing conditions on the crystallization behavior, electronic structure and morphology development in titania nanotubes, correlated with the nanotube functionality. Structural and calorimetric studies revealed that as-synthesized amorphous nanotubes crystallize to form the anatase structure in a three-stage process that is facilitated by the creation of structural defects. It is concluded that processing in a reducing gas atmosphere versus in an inert environment provides a larger unit cell volume and a higher concentration of Ti3+ associated with oxygen vacancies, thereby reducing the activation energy of crystallization. Further, post-synthesis annealing in either reducing or inert atmospheres produces pronounced morphological changes, confirming that the nanotube arrays thermally transform into a porous morphology consisting of a fragmented tubular architecture surrounded by a network of connected nanoparticles. This study links explicit data concerning morphology, crystallization and defects, and shows that the annealing gas environment determines the details of the crystal structure, the electronic structure and the morphology of titania nanotubes. These factors, in turn, impact the charge transport and consequently the functionality of these nanotubes as photocatalysts.

  10. Orientational coupling enhancement in a carbon nanotube dispersed liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Basu, Rajratan; Iannacchione, Germano S

    2010-05-01

    We present a detailed study of a dilute suspension of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal (LC) by probing the dielectric properties as a function of applied ac voltage and frequency. In principle, to minimize the elastic distortion in the nematic matrix, the monodispersed CNTs follow the nematic director without disturbing the director field significantly. A strong anchoring energy due to π-π electron stacking between LC-CNT molecules results in an increase in the dielectric anisotropy for the hybrid system, indicating a significant enhancement in the orientational order parameter. The frequency-dependent dielectric anisotropy for the composite system reveals the intrinsic frequency response of the LC-CNT anchoring mechanism. As a matter of consequence, the extracted value of splay elastic constant suggests that LC-CNT anchoring has an impact on the structural modification of the hybrid LC+CNT system. This strong anchoring energy stabilizes local pseudonematic domains, giving rise to a nonzero dielectric anisotropy in the isotropic phase that also shows an intrinsic frequency response. PMID:20866245

  11. Orientational coupling enhancement in a carbon nanotube dispersed liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Rajratan; Iannacchione, Germano S.

    2010-05-01

    We present a detailed study of a dilute suspension of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB) liquid crystal (LC) by probing the dielectric properties as a function of applied ac voltage and frequency. In principle, to minimize the elastic distortion in the nematic matrix, the monodispersed CNTs follow the nematic director without disturbing the director field significantly. A strong anchoring energy due to π-π electron stacking between LC-CNT molecules results in an increase in the dielectric anisotropy for the hybrid system, indicating a significant enhancement in the orientational order parameter. The frequency-dependent dielectric anisotropy for the composite system reveals the intrinsic frequency response of the LC-CNT anchoring mechanism. As a matter of consequence, the extracted value of splay elastic constant suggests that LC-CNT anchoring has an impact on the structural modification of the hybrid LC+CNT system. This strong anchoring energy stabilizes local pseudonematic domains, giving rise to a nonzero dielectric anisotropy in the isotropic phase that also shows an intrinsic frequency response.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Liquid Crystals: Nematic Droplets and Coarsening Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behabtu, Natnael; Senyuk, Bohdan; Smalyukh, Ivan; Pasquali, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    On a fundamental basis, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a new model molecule to explore the dynamics and phases of rigid rods and test theories. Their large aspect ratio (100 to 100,000) and persistence length (˜ 100 microns) allow exploring the physics of nematic phases with high Frank elastic constant. Moreover, understanding of CNT liquid crystals is key to their rational processing into ordered materials such as fibers. Here we report the formation of elongated nematic droplets of CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid. In nematic droplets, a continuous transition from a homogeneous to bipolar nematic director field is expected theoretically, as a function of droplet volume; yet, experimental determination of such transition has been elusive. We show that CNT nematic droplets display such transition. We study the coarsening dynamics of positive and negative nematic droplets and observe that two or more droplets merge by matching their nematic director. Merging scenarios that lead to defect formation are not observed. Negative tactoids (isotropic phase in liquid crystalline continuum) merge through attractive forces induced by the nematic director distortion with quadrupolar symmetry.

  13. Growth and electric properties of (100)-oriented Mn-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 thin film by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengchao; Wang, Feifei; Leung, Chung Ming; Tang, Yanxue; Wang, Tao; Yao, Qirong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2014-06-01

    Mn-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 (BNBMT) thin film with the composition near the morphotropic phase boundary was grown on (La0.6Sr0.4)CoO3-electroded SrTiO3 single-crystal substrate by using pulsed laser deposition method. Ascribed to the crystal structure and lattice similarity, (100)-oriented BNBMT film with pure single-phase perovskite structure was obtained through carefully controlling the growth conditions. Enhanced ferroelectric and dielectric properties were obtained with large remanent polarization P r of ˜21 μC/cm2, coercive field E c of ˜7.4 kV/mm and dielectric constant of ˜750 at 1 kHz. The excellent global electrical properties of the BNBMT film are promising for environmentally friendly ferroelectric devices.

  14. Enhancement of the Electrical Properties in BaTiO3/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 Ferroelectric Superlattices.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Wang, Zhanjie

    2016-03-01

    In this study, BaTiO3/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (BTO/PZT) ferroelectric superlattices have been grown on the Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) single-crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition, and their electrical properties were investigated in detail. The leakage current was reduced significantly in the BTO/PZT superlattices, and the conduction mechanism could be interpreted as the bulk-limited mechanism. In addition, a more symmetric hysteresis loop was observed in the BTO/PZT superlattices compared with the pure PZT and BTO films. The BTO/PZT superlattices with the modulation thickness of 9.8 nm showed remarkably improved dielectric properties with dielectric constant and loss of 684 and 0.02, respectively, measured at the frequency of 10 kHz. Based on these experimental results, it can be considered that the BTO/PZT interfaces play a very important role for the enhanced electrical properties of the BTO/PZT superlattices. PMID:26913563

  15. Shrinkage Behavior and Diffusion in Ni-based Internal Electrodes with Additional Amount and Particle Size of BaTiO3 Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ji-Hun; Joo, Dongwon; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2008-02-01

    The effect of additional amount and particle size of BaTiO3 additive on shrinkage behavior and inter-diffusion in Ni-based internal electrodes has been investigated, in order to reduce the large shrinkage mismatch between the internal electrode and the dielectric layer and to control the thermal and/or residual stresses in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). Ni powder of 100-500 nm and two kinds of BaTiO3 powders of 100 and 200 nm were used as matrix and additive, respectively. The Ni and BaTiO3 powders were mixed with volume ratios of 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, respectively, and then cold-isostatic pressed. The shrinkage of starting materials and each composite was measured in a range of 700-1300 °C with 150 °C interval in H2/Ar atmosphere, using ASTM standard method. Diffusion phenomena at interface of Ni/BaTiO3 composites with 85:15 and 90:10 volume ratios were investigated using SEM, EDX, and TEM. The particle size affects the shrinkage behavior in relatively low temperatures below 1000 °C, showing a turning point at that temperature. The final shrinkage of composites is matched with that of bulk BaTiO3 of smaller particle size, independent of additional amount of BaTiO3 additive. A reaction layer of about 1000 nm wide is observed at the interface between the Ni and BaTiO3 powders in the composite of 85:15 volume ratio. The quantitative amount of elemental Ni diffused into the BaTiO3 is about 9.7 mass% in the composite of 90:10 volume ratio, without another phase seen in the Ni.

  16. Effect of BaTiO3 impurity on the NaNO2 structure in (0.9)NaNO2 + (0.1)BaTiO3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naberezhnov, A. A.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Stukova, E. V.; Borisov, S. A.; Simkin, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature evolution of the crystalline structure of the composite based on the ferroelectric mixture 0.9NaNO2 + 0.1BaTiO3 is analyzed using the neutron diffraction method. It is shown that the values of the order parameter of NaNO2 in the composite in the temperature range 360-430 K is smaller as compared to the bulk substance, which may indicate the coexistence of the ferroelectric and incommensurate phases of sodium nitrite in this interval.

  17. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier; Otón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low. PMID:25821679

  18. The peculiar electrical response of liquid crystal-carbon nanotube systems as seen by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Vergaz, R.; Algorri, J. F.; Geday, M. A.; Otón, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Conductive nanoparticles, especially elongated ones such as carbon nanotubes, dramatically modify the electrical behavior of liquid crystal cells. These nanoparticles are known to reorient with liquid crystals in electric fields, causing significant variations of conductivity at minute concentrations of tens or hundreds ppm. The above notwithstanding, impedance spectroscopy of doped cells in the frequency range customarily employed by liquid crystal devices, 100 Hz-10 kHz, shows a relatively simple resistor/capacitor response where the components of the cell can be univocally assigned to single components of the electrical equivalent circuit. However, widening the frequency range up to 1 MHz or beyond reveals a complex behavior that cannot be explained with the same simple EEC. Moreover, the system impedance varies with the application of electric fields, their effect remaining after removing the field. Carbon nanotubes are reoriented together with liquid crystal reorientation when applying voltage, but barely reoriented back upon liquid crystal relaxation once the voltage is removed. Results demonstrate a remarkable variation in the impedance of the dielectric blend formed by liquid crystal and carbon nanotubes, the irreversible orientation of the carbon nanotubes and possible permanent contacts between electrodes.

  19. Space charge limited transient currents and oxygen vacancy mobility in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kamel, F.; Gonon, P.; Ortega, L.; Jomni, F.; Yangui, B.

    2006-05-01

    Time-dependent transient currents were studied at elevated temperatures (200-220 °C) in amorphous barium titanate thin film capacitors. Current transients display a peak whose time position varies with applied voltage and temperature. The response is analyzed through space charge limited current transient theories. Extracted drift mobilities are in the 10-11-10-12 cm2 V-1 s-1 range and show an activation energy of 1 eV. The phenomena are associated with oxygen vacancies migration in BaTiO3.

  20. High-density capacitors based on amorphous BaTiO3 layers grown under hydrogen containing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; El Kamel, F.

    2007-06-01

    Addition of hydrogen (H2) during the sputter deposition of BaTiO3 amorphous thin films drastically modifies their dielectric properties. Films grown under hydrogen containing atmospheres display large capacitances (several μF /cm2 for 1μm thick films), that are hundred times higher than capacitances measured for films grown without hydrogen. This is explained by the formation of a double-layer capacitor which arises from mobile protons (protonic conduction with an activation energy around 0.3eV). These films could find applications for the elaboration of integrated supercapacitors.

  1. Origins of large enhancement in electromechanical coupling for nonpolar directions in ferroelectric BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanick, A.; Diallo, S. O.; Delaire, O.; Calder, S.; Christianson, A. D.; Wang, X.-L.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    The origins of enhanced piezoelectric coupling along nonpolar crystallographic directions in ferroelectric BaTiO3 are investigated using in situ neutron spectroscopy. It is observed that an electric field applied away from the equilibrium polarization direction causes a stiffening of the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon branch and consequently increases interaction between the TA and the transverse optic soft mode for a range of wave vectors extending from the Brillouin zone center. This provides a direct lattice dynamics mechanism for enhanced electromechanical coupling, and could act as a guide for designing improved piezoelectric materials.

  2. Band gap narrowing in BaTiO3 nanoparticles facilitated by multiple mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakanth, S.; James Raju, K. C.

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, BaTiO3 nanoparticles of four different size ranges were prepared by sol-gel method. The optical band gap of these particles at some size ranges has come down to 2.53 eV from 3.2 eV, resulting in substantial increase in optical absorption by these ferroelectric nanoparticles making them potential candidates for light energy harvesting. XRD results show the presence of higher compressive strain in 23 nm and 54 nm size particles, they exhibit a higher band gap narrowing, whereas tensile strain is observed in 31 nm and 34 nm particles, and they do not show the marginal band gap narrowing. The 23 nm and 54 nm particles also show a coupling of free carriers to phonons by increasing the intensity of LO phonon mode at 715 cm-1. The higher surface charge density is expected in case of enhanced surface optical Raman modes (638 cm-1) contained in 31 and 34 nm size particles. In addition to this, the red shift in an LO mode Raman spectral line at 305 cm-1 with decrease in particle size depicts the presence of phonon confinement in it. The enhanced optical absorption in 23 nm and 54 nm size particles with a narrowed band gap of 3 eV and 2.53 eV is due to exchange correlation interactions between the carriers present in these particles. In 31 nm and 34 nm range particles, the absorption got bleached exhibiting increased band gaps of 3.08 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively. It is due to filling up of conduction band resulting from weakening of exchange correlation interactions between the charge carriers. Hence, it is concluded that the band gap narrowing in the nanoparticles of average size 23 nm/54 nm is a consequence of multiple effects like strain, electron-phonon interaction, and exchange correlation interactions between the carriers which is subdued in some other size ranges like 31 nm/34 nm.

  3. Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 composite with BaTiO3 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiasheng; Han, Shumin; Wang, Zhibin; Ke, Dandan; Liu, Jingjing; Ma, Mingzhen

    2016-04-19

    The 2LiBH4-MgH2 + 20 wt% BaTiO3 composite was prepared by ball-milling LiBH4, MgH2 and BaTiO3, and the effect of BaTiO3 on the hydrogen storage properties of the composite was investigated. TG-DSC results show that the onset dehydrogenation temperature of the composite is 299 °C, which is 124 °C lower than that of 2LiBH4-MgH2, and the dehydrogenation amount of the composite increases from 6.86 wt% to 7.48 wt% at 500 °C. Kinetic tests show that the dehydrogenation amount of 2LiBH4-MgH2 + 20 wt% BaTiO3 reaches 1.5 wt% within 400 seconds, almost 10 times that of 2LiBH4-MgH2. BaTiO3 reacts with LiBH4 during the dehydrogenation of the composite and generates BaB6 and TiO2. BaB6 is beneficial to lower the stability of LiBH4, while TiO2 has a catalytic effect in improving the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics of the reaction between Mg and LiBH4. PMID:26990634

  4. Study of the electronic structure and half-metallicity of CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Jun-Nan; Huang, Jian-Qi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the electronic structure, magnetic properties and half-metallicity of the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice are investigated by employing the first-principle calculation based on density functional theory within the GGA or GGA + U exchange-correlation functional. The CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice is constructed by the cubic CaMnO3 and the tetragonal ferroelectric BaTiO3 growing alternately along (0 0 1) direction. The cubic CaMnO3 presents a robust half-metallicity and a metastable ferromagnetic phase. Its magnetic moment is an integral number of 3.000 μB per unit cell. However, the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice has a stable ferromagnetic phase, for which the magnetic moment is 12.000 μB per unit cell. It also retains the robust half-metallicity which mainly results from the strong hybridization between Mn and O atoms. The results show that the constructed CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice exhibits superior magnetoelectric properties. It may provide a theoretical reference for the design and preparation of new multiferroic materials.

  5. Ultrafast Room-Temperature Crystallization of TiO2 Nanotubes Exploiting Water-Vapor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Andrea; Chiodoni, Angelica; Shahzad, Nadia; Bianco, Stefano; Quaglio, Marzia; Pirri, Candido F.

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript a near-room temperature crystallization process of anodic nanotubes from amorphous TiO2 to anatase phase with a fast 30 minutes treatment is reported for the first time. This method involves the exposure of as-grown TiO2 nanotubes to water vapor flow in ambient atmosphere. The water vapor-crystallized samples are deeply investigated in order to gain a whole understanding of their structural, physical and chemical properties. The photocatalytic activity of the converted material is tested by dye degradation experiment and the obtained performance confirms the highly promising properties of this low-temperature processed material. PMID:25589038

  6. Controlled Confinement of Half-metallic 2D Electron Gas in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6/BaTiO3 Heterostructures: A First-principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Baidya, Santu; Waghmare, Umesh; Paramekanti, Arun

    Using density functional theory calculations, we establish that the half-metallicity of bulk Ba2FeReO6 survives down i to 1 nm thickness in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6/BaTiO3 heterostructures grown along the (001) and (111) directions. The confinement of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in this quantum well structure arises from the suppressed hybridization between Re/Fe d states and unoccupied Ti d states, and it is further strengthened by polar fields for the (111) direction. This mechanism, distinct from the polar catastrophe, leads to an order of magnitude stronger confinement of the 2D electron gas than that at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. We further show low-energy bands of (111) heterostructure display nontrivial topological character. Our work opens up the possibility of realizing ultra-thin spintronic devices. Journal Ref: Phys. Rev. B 92, 161106(R) (2015) S.B. and T.S.D thank Department of Science and Technology, India for the support through Thematic Unit of Excellence. AP was supported by NSERC (Canada).

  7. Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaoming; King, Benjamin C.; Loomis, James; Campo, Eva M.; Hegseth, John; Cohn, Robert W.; Terentjev, Eugene; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2014-09-01

    Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions. On excitation by NIR photons, with application of small or large pre-strains, significant expansion or contraction of the sample occurs, respectively, that is continuously reversible and three orders of magnitude larger than in pristine polymer. Schlieren textures were noted in these LC composites confirming long range macroscopic nematic order of nanotubes within the composites. Order parameters of LC films ranged from Soptical = 0.51-0.58 from dichroic measurements. Film concentrations, elastic modulus and photomechanical stress were all seen to be related to the nematic order parameter. For the same nanotube concentration, the photomechanical stress was almost three times larger for the self-assembled LC nanotube actuator compared to actuator based on randomly oriented carbon nanotubes. Investigation into the kinetics of photomechanical actuation showed variation in stretching exponent β with pre-strains, concentration and orientation of nanotubes. Maximum photomechanical stress of ˜0.5 MPa W-1 and energy conversion of ˜0.0045% was achieved for these layered composites. The combination of properties, namely, optical anisotropy, reversible mechanical response to NIR excitation and flexible energy conversion all in one system accompanied with low cost makes nanotube LC elastomers important for soft photochromic actuation, energy conversion and photo-origami applications.

  8. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; Won, C. J.; Hur, N.; Llobet, A.

    2011-08-29

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing δ. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-δ. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (δ=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (δ=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reducedmore » BaTiO3-δ is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.« less

  9. AES study on the chemical composition of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films RF sputter-deposited on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharmadhikari, V. S.; Grannemann, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    AES depth profiling data are presented for thin films of BaTiO3 deposited on silicon by RF sputtering. By profiling the sputtered BaTiO3/silicon structures, it was possible to study the chemical composition and the interface characteristics of thin films deposited on silicon at different substrate temperatures. All the films showed that external surface layers were present, up to a few tens of angstroms thick, the chemical composition of which differed from that of the main layer. The main layer had stable composition, whereas the intermediate film-substrate interface consisted of reduced TiO(2-x) oxides. The thickness of this intermediate layer was a function of substrate temperature. All the films showed an excess of barium at the interface. These results are important in the context of ferroelectric phenomena observed in BaTiO3 thin films.

  10. Resistive switching properties of epitaxial BaTiO(3-δ) thin films tuned by after-growth oxygen cooling pressure.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yooun; Kan, Daisuke; Shimakawa, Yuichi; Seidel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BaTiO3-δ, i.e. oxygen-deficient barium titanate (BaTiO3), thin films grown on GdScO3(110) substrates with SrRuO3 conductive electrodes by pulsed laser deposition are studied by X-ray diffraction and conductive AFM to characterize their structure and nanoscale electronic properties. Bias- and time-dependent resistive switching measurements reveal a strong dependence on the oxygen vacancy concentration, which can be tuned by after-growth oxygen cooling conditions of thin films. The results indicate that the resistive switching properties of BaTiO3-δ can be enhanced by controlling oxygen deficiency and provide new insight for potential non-volatile resistive random-access memory (RRAM) applications. PMID:26603263

  11. Electrical and reliability characteristics of Mn-doped nano BaTiO3-based ceramics for ultrathin multilayer ceramic capacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Huiling; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shaopeng; Tian, Zhibin; Li, Longtu

    2012-12-01

    Nano BaTiO3-based dielectric ceramics were prepared by chemical coating approach, which are promising for ultrathin multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) applications. The doping effects of Mn element on the microstructures and dielectric properties of the ceramics were investigated. The degradation test and impedance spectroscopy were employed to study the resistance degradation and the conduction mechanism of Mn-doped nano-BaTiO3 ceramic samples. It has been found that the reliability characteristics greatly depended on the Mn-doped content. Moreover, the BaTiO3 ceramic with grain size in nanoscale is more sensitive to the Mn-doped content than that in sub-micron scale. The addition of 0.3 mol. % Mn is beneficial for improving the reliability of the nano BaTiO3-based ceramics, which is an important parameter for MLCC applications. However, further increasing the addition amount will deteriorate the performance of the ceramic samples.

  12. Strain-induced insulator–metal transition in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (001) surface: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yang; Chang-An, Wang; Cong, Liu; Ming-Hui, Qin; Xu-Bing, Lu; Xing-Sen, Gao; Min, Zeng; Jun-Ming, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The electronic properties of TiO2-terminated BaTiO3 (001) surface subjected to biaxial strain have been studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The Ti ions are always inward shifted either at compressive or tension strains, while the inward shift of the Ba ions occurs only for high compressive strain, implying an enhanced electric dipole moment in the case of high compressive strain. In particular, an insulator–metal transition is predicted at a compressive biaxial strain of 0.0475. These changes present a very interesting possibility for engineering the electronic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 (001) surface. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 1574091, 51272078, and 51431006), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province of China (Grant No. 2015A030313375), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province of China (Grant No. 2015B090927006), and the Program for International Innovation Cooperation Platform of Guangzhou City, China (Grant No. 2014J4500016).

  13. Facile synthesis of submicron BaTiO 3 crystallites by a liquid-solid reaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong Cai; Wang, Gen Lin; Li, Kun Wei; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Xiao Ya; Wang, Hao

    2006-05-01

    Uniform, submicron BaTiO 3 crystallites in tetragonal structure were synthesized by a novel low-temperature liquid-solid reaction method mainly via two simple steps: firstly, BaO 2·H 2O 2 submicron particles of about 130-450 nm were precipitated from the reaction of BaCl 2 and H 2O 2 in a slightly alkaline (pH 8) aqueous solution under the ambient condition; secondly, tetragonal phase BaTiO 3 submicrocrystals with the size in the range of 180 to 400 nm could be produced by subjecting the as-prepared BaO 2·H 2O 2 and commercial TiO 2 submicron particles to thermal treatment in air at 700 °C for 10 h. The as-obtained products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Controlled extrinsic magnetoelectric coupling in BaTiO3/Ni nanocomposites: Effect of compaction pressure on interfacial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosseau, C.; Castel, V.; Potel, M.

    2010-07-01

    The dynamical control of the dielectric response in magnetoelectric (ME) nanocomposites (NCs) renders an entire additional degree of freedom to the functionality of miniaturized magnetoelectronics and spintronics devices. In composite materials, the ME effect is realized by using the concept of product properties. Through the investigation of the microwave properties of a series of BaTiO3/Ni NCs fabricated by compaction of nanopowders, we present experimental evidence that the compaction (uniaxial) pressure in the range 33-230 MPa affects significantly the ME features. The Ni loading was varied from zero (BaTiO3 only) to 63 vol %. Our findings revealed that the ME coupling coefficient exhibits a large enhancement for specific values of the Ni volume fraction and compaction pressure. The coupling effects in the NCs were studied by looking at the relationships among the crystallite orientation and the magnetic properties. The magnetization curves for different directions of the applied magnetic field cannot be superimposed. We suggest that the average magnetization measurements on these NCs under compressive stress are dominated by strain anisotropy rather than magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Overall, these observations are considered to be evidence of stress-induced microstructural changes under pressure which strongly affect the elastic interaction between the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases in these NCs. These results have a potential technological impact for designing precise tunable ME NCs for microwave devices such as tunable phase shifters, resonators, and delay lines.

  15. Enhanced piezoelectricity in plastically deformed nearly amorphous Bi12TiO20-BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Zhao, Minglei; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Lihai; Su, Wenbin; Gai, Zhigang; Wang, Chunming; Li, Jichao; Zhang, Jialiang

    2016-07-01

    Bulk Bi12TiO20-BaTiO3 (BTO-BT) nanocomposites are fabricated through the high-temperature interfacial reaction between nanometer-sized BaTiO3 particles and melting Bi12TiO20. Although the obtained BTO-BT nanocomposites are nearly amorphous and display very weak ferroelectricity, they exhibit relatively strong piezoelectricity without undergoing the electrical poling process. The volume fraction of crystalline Bi12TiO20 is reduced to less than 10%, and the piezoelectric constant d33 is enhanced to 13 pC/N. Only the presence of the macroscopic polar amorphous phases can explain this unusual thermal stable piezoelectricity. Combining the results from X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal annealing, it can be confirmed that the formation of macroscopic polar amorphous phases is closely related to the inhomogeneous plastic deformation of the amorphous Bi12TiO20 during the sintering process. These results highlight the key role of plastically deformed amorphous Bi12TiO20 in the Bi12TiO20-based polar composites, and the temperature gradient driven coupling between the plastic strain gradient and polarization in amorphous phases is the main poling mechanism for this special type of bulk polar material.

  16. Magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 composite nanofibers via electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bi; Lu, Ruie; Gao, Kun; Yang, Yaodong; Wang, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in Pb-based multiferroic composites has been widely investigated due to the excellent piezoelectric property of lead zirconate titanate (PZT). In this letter, we report a strategy to create a hybrid Pb-free ferroelectric and ferromagnetic material and detect its ME coupling at the nanoscale. Hybrid Pb-free multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 (BTO-CFO) composite nanofibers (NFs) were generated by sol-gel electrospinning. The perovskite structure of BTO and the spinel structure of CFO nanograins were homogenously distributed in the composite NFs and verified by bright-field transmission electron microscopy observations along the perovskite [111] zone axis. Multiferroicity was confirmed by amplitude-voltage butterfly curves and magnetic hysteresis loops. ME coupling was observed in terms of a singularity on a dM/dT curve at the ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC) of BaTiO3. The lateral ME coefficient was investigated by the evolution of the piezoresponse under an external magnetic field of 1000 Oe and was estimated to be α31 =0.78× 104 \\text{mV cm}-1 \\text{Oe}-1 . These findings could enable the creation of nanoscale Pb-free multiferroic composite devices.

  17. Yellow-orange upconversion emission in Eu3+-Yb3+ codoped BaTiO3 phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Astha; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Kumar, Kaushal

    2014-06-01

    The Eu3+-Yb3+ codoped BaTiO3 phosphor is prepared via co-precipitation method and its upconversion emission is studied by 980 nm diode laser excitation. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the prepared sample showed the tetragonal BaTiO3 phase. The co-doped phosphor showed sharp upconversion emission bands peaking at ∼592, ∼614, ∼ 654, ∼704 and ∼796 nm due to the 5D0 → 7F1, 5D0 → 7F2, 5D0 → 7F3, 5D0 → 7F4 and 5D0 → 7F6 transitions, respectively of Eu3+ ions. The sharp band at 489 nm is assigned to the 2F5/2 → 2F7/2 transition of Yb3+ ion while the broad band around 505 nm is assigned to the defect states present in the sample. Based on the available experimental data, the process involved in the UC emissions has been explored and elaborated.

  18. Influence of tetragonal platelets on the dielectric permittivity of 0.964 Na1 /2Bi1 /2TiO3-0.036 BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pforr, Florian; Major, Márton; Donner, Wolfgang; Stuhr, Uwe; Roessli, Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    We study the temperature-dependent evolution of the octahedral tilt order in a lead-free relaxor ferroelectric and its impact on the ferroelectric properties. Using diffuse neutron scattering on a 0.964 Na1 /2Bi1 /2TiO3-0.036 BaTiO3 single crystal, we suggest a model for the temperature-dependent nanostructure of this perovskite that features chemically pinned tetragonal platelets embedded in the rhombohedral matrix, often separated by a cubic intermediate phase. Our results show a clear correlation between the squared thickness of the tetragonal platelets and the dielectric permittivity. This is interpreted as a sign for increased polarizability of the strained and distorted lattice at the center of the tetragonal platelets.

  19. Enhanced piezoelectric properties of BaZrO3-substituted 0.67BiFeO3-0.33BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Lee, M. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, M.-H.; Song, T. K.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, W.-J.; Kumar, S.

    2015-04-01

    Lead-free ceramics with compositions of (1- x)[0.67Bi1.05FeO3-0.33BaTiO3]- xBaZrO3 ( x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05) [BF-BT-BZ x] have been prepared through a conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of BZ substitution on the crystal structural, microstructural, piezoelectric, and electrical properties of the ceramics were investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that all ceramics were formed with a mixed structure of rhombohedral and tetragonal perovskite phases. For x = 0.03, good ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were observed: 2 P r = 43 μC/cm2 and 2 E c = 61 kV/cm. The static- and dynamic-piezoelectric constants were observed to be 52 pC/N and 330 pm/V, respectively.

  20. Three-dimensional phases-connectivity and strong magnetoelectric response of self-assembled feather-like CoFe 2O 4-BaTiO 3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yu; Zhou, Jianxin; Wu, Di; Du, Yulei; Zhang, Mingsheng; Wang, Dunhui; Yu, Huiqiang; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2010-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) (CoFe 2O 4) 0.3-(BaTiO 3) 0.7 (CFO-BTO) nanostructures have been synthesized by a combinative using of hydrothermal reaction and polymer-assisted deposition. The feather-like nanostructures have an average diameter of 250 nm and lengths up to 5 μm, with the single-crystal CFO nanopillars embedded in the BTO matrix. The CFO-BTO nanostructures exhibit good ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties, as well as a large ME coefficient of 51.8 mV/cm Oe. A model has been proposed to explain the three-dimensional phases-connectivity of the nanostructures. And it is suggested that the novel type of phases-connectivity greatly promote the ME response.

  1. Relation between electrical properties of aerosol-deposited BaTiO3 thin films and their mechanical hardness measured by nano-indentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a high capacitance density for embedded decoupling capacitor applications, the aerosol deposition (AD) process was applied as a thin film deposition process. BaTiO3 films were fabricated on Cu substrates by the AD process at room temperature, and the film thickness was reduced to confirm the limit of the critical minimum thickness for dielectric properties. As a result, the BaTiO3 thin films that were less than 1-μm thick showed unstable electric properties owing to their high leakage currents. Therefore, to overcome this problem, the causes of the high leakage currents were investigated. In this study, it was confirmed that by comparing BaTiO3 thin films on Cu substrates with those on stainless steels (SUS) substrates, macroscopic defects and rough interfaces between films and substrates influence the leakage currents. Moreover, based on the deposition mechanism of the AD process, it was considered that the BaTiO3 thin films on Cu substrates with thicknesses of less than 1 μm are formed with chinks and weak particle-to-particle bonding, giving rise to leakage currents. In order to confirm the relation between the above-mentioned surface morphologies and the dielectric behavior, the hardness of BaTiO3 films on Cu and SUS substrates was investigated by nano-indentation. Consequently, we proposed that the chinks and weak particle-to-particle bonding in the BaTiO3 thin films with thicknesses of less than 0.5 μm on Cu substrates could be the main cause of the high leakage currents. PMID:22616759

  2. Liquid crystal cells with built-in CdSe nanotubes for chromogenic smart emission devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung Ju; Chen, Chin-Chang; Cheng, Soofin; Chen, Yang Fang

    2008-01-21

    A simple and general approach for controlling optical anisotropy of nanostructured semiconductors is reported. Our design involves the fabrication of liquid crystal devices with built-in semiconductor nanotubes. Quite interestingly, it is found that semiconductor nanotubes can be well aligned along the orientation of liquid crystals molecules automatically, resulting in a very large emission anisotropy with the degree of polarization up to 72%. This intriguing result manifests a way to obtain well aligned semiconductor nanotubes and the emission anisotropy can be easily manipulated by an external bias. The ability to well control the emission anisotropy should open up new opportunities for nanostructured semiconductors, including optical filters, polarized light emitting diodes, flat panel displays, and many other chromogenic smart devices. PMID:18542142

  3. Optomechanical and crystallization phenomena visualized with 4D electron microscopy: interfacial carbon nanotubes on silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, David J; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-05-12

    With ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), we report observation of the nanoscopic crystallization of amorphous silicon nitride, and the ultrashort optomechanical motion of the crystalline silicon nitride at the interface of an adhering carbon nanotube network. The in situ static crystallization of the silicon nitride occurs only in the presence of an adhering nanotube network, thus indicating their mediating role in reaching temperatures close to 1000 degrees C when exposed to a train of laser pulses. Under such condition, 4D visualization of the optomechanical motion of the specimen was followed by quantifying the change in diffraction contrast of crystalline silicon nitride, to which the nanotube network is bonded. The direction of the motion was established from a tilt series correlating the change in displacement with both the tilt angle and the response time. Correlation of nanoscopic motion with the picosecond atomic-scale dynamics suggests that electronic processes initiated in the nanotubes are responsible for the initial ultrafast optomechanical motion. The time scales accessible to UEM are 12 orders of magnitude shorter than those traditionally used to study the optomechanical motion of carbon nanotube networks, thus allowing for distinctions between the different electronic and thermal mechanisms to be made. PMID:20377202

  4. Mode sequence, frequency change of nonsoft phonons, and LO-TO splitting in strained tetragonal BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeliarijaona, Aldo; Fu, Huaxiang

    2015-09-01

    Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy revealed the existence of an unusual large-frequency shift occurring to a nonsoft mode of E (TO4 ) when BaTiO3 is strained to a SrTiO3 substrate [D. Tenne et al., Science 313, 1614 (2006), 10.1126/science.1130306]. It raised two interesting questions: (i) whether there are other nonsoft modes that possess similar or even larger strain-induced frequency shifts and (ii) how the mode sequence is altered by these shifts in frequency. Note that mode sequence is also pivotal in correctly indexing and assigning the spectroscopy peaks observed in all Raman experiments. By mapping out the evolutions of individual phonon modes as a function of strain using first-principles density functional perturbation calculations, we determine the mode sequence and strain-induced phonon frequency shifts in prototypical BaTiO3. Our study reveals that the mode sequence is drastically different when BaTiO3 is strained to SrTiO3 compared to that in the unstrained structure, caused by multiple mode crossings. Furthermore, we predict that three other nonsoft modes, A1(TO2), E (LO4 ), and A1(TO3), display even larger strain-induced frequency shifts than E (TO4 ). The strain responses of individual modes are found to be highly mode specific, and a mechanism that regulates the magnitude of the frequency shift is provided. As another key outcome of this study, we tackle a long-standing problem of LO-TO splitting in ferroelectrics. A rigorous definition for the LO-TO splitting is formulated, which allows this critical quantity to be calculated quantitatively. The definition immediately reveals a new finding; that is, a large LO-TO splitting not only exists for E (LO4 ), which is previously known and originates from a soft mode, it also occurs for a nonsoft A1(LO3) mode. The LO-TO splitting is shown to decrease drastically with compressive strain, and this decrease cannot be explained by the Born effective charges and high-frequency dielectric constants.

  5. Structure and Crystallization Behavior of Nylong 66/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites at Low Carbon Nanotube Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Li,L.; Li, C.; Ni, C.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified with poly(hexamethylene adipamide) (also known as Nylon 66) via a controlled polymer solution crystallization method. A 'nanohybrid shish kebab' (NHSK) structure was found wherein the MWNT resembled the shish while Nylon 66 lamellar crystals formed the kebabs. These Nylon 66-functionalized MWNTs were used as precursors to prepare polymer/MWNT nanocomposites. Excellent dispersion was revealed by optical and electron microscopies. Nitric acid etching of the nanocomposites showed that MWNT formed a robust network in Nylon 66. Non-isothermal DSC results showed multiple melting peaks, which can be attributed to lamellar thickness changes upon heating. The crystallite sizes L{sub 100} and L{sup 010} of Nylon 66, determined by WAXD, decreased with increasing MWNT contents. Isothermal DSC results showed that crystallization kinetics increased first and then decreased with increasing MWNT contents in Nylon 66. This study showed that the effect of MWNTs on Nylon 66 crystallization is twofold: MWNTs provide heterogeneous nucleation sites for Nylon 66 crystallization while the tube network structure hinders large crystal growth.

  6. Multi walled carbon nanotubes as sorbent for removal of crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess high surface active site to volume ratio as well as controlled pore size distribution that make them high profile material with an exceptional sorption capability and high sorption efficiency compared to conventional adsorbents. In the present paper, multi walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and were further used for the removal of dye crystal violet. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were used for characterization. The systematic assessments of the pH and effect of adsorbent on different concentrations of dye with respect to contact time were examined. Langmuir and Temkin models were used to describe the isotherm studies. PMID:25924370

  7. Effects of A-site nonstoichiometry on oxide ion conduction in 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasertpalichat, Sasiporn; Schmidt, Whitney; Cann, David P.

    2016-06-01

    Lead free 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state mixed oxide route with the A-site stoichiometry modified to incorporate donor-doping (through Bi-excess) and acceptor-doping (through Na-excess). Both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric ceramics exhibited a single perovskite phase with pseudo-cubic symmetry. A significant improvement in the dielectric properties was observed in Bi-excess compositions and a deterioration in the dielectric properties was observed in Na-excess compositions. Impedance spectroscopy was utilized to analyze the effects of A-site nonstoichiometry on conduction mechanisms. Compositions with Bi-excess resulted in an electrically homogeneous microstructure with an increase in resistivity by ˜3-4 orders of magnitude and an associated activation energy of 1.57eV which was close to half of the optical bandgap. In contrast, an electrically heterogeneous microstructure was observed in both the stoichiometric and Na-excess compositions. In addition, the Na-excess compositions exhibited low resistivities (ρ˜103Ω-cm) with characteristic peaks in the impedance data comparable to the recent observations of oxide ion conduction in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3. Long term annealing studies were also conducted at 800∘C to identify changes in crystal structure and electrical properties. The results of this study demonstrates that the dielectric and electrical properties of 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics are very sensitive to Bi/Na stoichiometry.

  8. Self-scanning of a dye laser due to feedback from a BaTiO(3) phase-conjugate reflector.

    PubMed

    Whitten, W B; Ramsey, J M

    1984-02-01

    Feedback from a self-pumped BaTiO(3) phase-conjugate reflector into an untuned cw dye laser produces substantial line narrowing (4-6 GHz) and generates a recurrent wavelength sweep from the rhodamine 6G peak at 618 nm to as far as 644 nm. PMID:19718230

  9. Structural and dielectric properties of laser ablated BaTiO3 films deposited over electrophoretically dispersed CoFe2O4 grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, J. G.; Gomes, I. T.; Pereira, M. R.; Moura, C.; Mendes, J. A.; Almeida, B. G.

    2014-10-01

    Thin film nanocomposites with mixed connectivity, composed by CoFe2O4 grains, deposited by electrophoresis on Si|Pt substrates, and subsequently covered by a laser ablation deposited BaTiO3 layer were prepared with different cobalt ferrite concentrations. Their structure presented a combination of BaTiO3, with its tetragonal and the orthorhombic phases coexisting at room temperature, and CoFe2O4 with the cubic spinel structure. The cobalt ferrite nanograins were under in-plane tensile stress, while the BaTiO3 phase was under in-plane compressive stress. The dielectric measurements showed that as the barium titanate grain size decreased, its ferroelectric Curie temperature shifted to lower temperatures relative to the bulk. This grain size dependent TC shift was associated and modeled by a core-shell structure of BaTiO3 grains in the films, with a tetragonal core and cubic shell. Additionally, a diffuse tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition was observed and, in agreement with Raman spectroscopy results, associated to the coexistence of barium titanate orthorhombic and tetragonal phases in the room temperature region. This led to the formation of polar nanoclusters with random polarization orientations, which induced a frustrated phase transition between the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases of barium titanate in the films.

  10. Structural and ferroelectric properties of BaTiO 3/YBa 2Cu 3O 7 heterostructures prepared by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. S.; Liu, Y. W.; Ma, K.; Peng, Z. Q.; Cui, D. F.; Lu, H. B.; Zhou, Y. L.; Chen, Z. H.; Li, L.; Yang, G. Z.

    1997-08-01

    Heteroepitaxial BaTiO 3(BTO)/YBa 2Cu 3O 7(YBCO) thin films were grown on (100) SrTiO 3(STO) substrates by ozone assistant laser molecular beam epitaxy (L sbnd MBE). The results show that by using this technique, high quality ferroelectric/superconductor heterostructures with high crystalline quality and desirable device performance can be obtained.

  11. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Multilayered BaTiO3/(Ba,Ca)TiO3/CaTiO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Na; Gao, Ting Ting; Xu, Xing; Liang, Wei Zheng; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Chonglin; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2016-08-31

    Highly oriented multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films were fabricated on Nb-doped (001) SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The configurations of multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films are designed with the thickness ratio of 1:1:1 and 2:1:1 and total thickness ∼300 nm. Microstructural characterization by X-ray diffraction indicates that the as-deposited thin films are highly c-axis oriented and large in-plane strain is determined in BaTiO3 and CaTiO3 layers. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies reveal an intense in-plane polarization component, whereas the out-of-plane shows inferior phase contrast. The optimized combination is found to be the BaTiO3-(Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3-CaTiO3 structure with combination ratio 2:1:1, which displays the largest domain switching amplitude under DC electric field, the largest room-temperature dielectric constant ∼646, a small dielectric loss of 0.03, and the largest dielectric tunability of ∼50% at 400 kV/cm. These results suggest that the enhanced dielectric and tunability performance are greatly associated with the large in-plane polarization component and domain switching. PMID:27514235

  12. Ferroelectric polarization and resistive switching characteristics of ion beam assisted sputter deposited BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. P. B.; Kamakshi, Koppole; Sekhar, K. C.; Moreira, J. Agostinho; Almeida, A.; Pereira, M.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, 150 nm thick polycrystalline BaTiO3 (BTO) films were deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate by ion beam assisted sputter deposition technique. The bias voltage dependent resistive switching (RS) and ferroelectric polarization characteristics of Au/BTO/Pt devices are investigated. The devices display the stable bipolar RS characteristics without an initial electroforming process. Fittings to current-voltage (I-V) curves suggest that low and high resistance states are governed, respectively, by filamentary model and trap controlled space charge limited conduction mechanism, where the oxygen vacancies act as traps. Presence of oxygen vacancies is evidenced from the photoluminescence spectrum. The devices also display P-V loops with remnant polarization (Pr) of 5.7 μC/cm2 and a coercive electric field (Ec) of 173.0 kV/cm. The coupling between the ferroelectric polarization and RS effect in BTO films is demonstrated.

  13. Multiferroic properties of microwave sintered BaTiO3-SrFe12O19 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlakunta, Sadhana; Raju, Pantagani; Meena, Sher Singh; Srinath, Sanyadanam; Sandhya, Reddigari; Kuruva, Praveena; Murthy, Sarabu Ramana

    2014-09-01

    The composites of xSrFe12O19-(1-x) BaTiO3 where x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1were prepared by Sol-gel method and consequently densified at 1100 °C/90 min using microwave sintering method. The phase formation and diphase microstructure of the composite samples was examined by X-ray diffraction and field emission electron microscope (FESEM), respectively. The effects of constituent phase variation on the ferroelectric, dielectric and magnetic properties were examined. It was observed that with a decrease of x, the Curie temperature shifted towards low temperature side.

  14. Chemistry and structure of BaTiO3 ultra-thin films grown by different O2 plasma power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Leroy, J.; Niu, G.; Saint-Girons, G.; Gautier, B.; Vilquin, B.; Barrett, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the chemical and atomic properties of 5 nm TiO2-terminated BaTiO3 (0 0 1) epitaxial films on Nb-doped SrTiO3, as a function of the atomic oxygen plasma power for film growth. Lower plasma power produces non-stoichiometric films with oxygen vacancies and Ti3+ ions. The larger Ti3+ ion radius and the in-plane clamping gives rise to an increase in the out-of-plane lattice parameter. XPS measures the Ti3+ concentration and the concomitant increase in dissociative water uptake in the film, giving rise to on-top OH- adsorption on surface Ti, proton adsorption on surface oxygen, and a near surface Ba-OH environment.

  15. Influence of temperature on the dielectric nonlinearity of BaTiO3-based multi-layer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Mi-Yang

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the dielectric nonlinearity was investigated for the BaTiO3 multilayer ceramic capacitor. The decrease in temperature caused a significant increase in the degree of dielectric nonlinearity. The Preisach analysis shows that such effect corresponds to a decrease in reversible and a significant increase in irreversible domain wall contribution to polarization. The magnitude of spontaneous polarization (PS) was increased with decreasing temperature. It can be associated with phase transition from pseudo-cubic to monoclinic and its resultant change in the polar direction, which was observed through transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that the increase in PS with the decrease in temperature inhibits domain wall motion in low driving field as it is anticipated to increase the degree of intergranular constraints during domain wall motion. But it results in a more steep increase in the dielectric constants beyond the threshold field where domain wall motion can occur.

  16. Effects of MgO Doping on DC Bias Aging Behavior of Mn-Doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Dong Woo; Hong, Jeong Oh; Han, Young Ho

    2008-07-01

    The capacitance aging of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) based on BaTiO3 dielectrics under DC electric fields has been studied. At a DC field of 1 V/µm, the capacitance of MLCC specimens decreased immediately in a very short period (<10 s, the first stage) and then decreased continuously with time (the second stage). Substitution of Mn ions markedly increased the slope of aging curves in the second stage. MgO doping significantly decreased the second stage aging rate of Mn-doped specimens. This aging rate decreased in the second stage with increasing MgO content. This may be due to the existence of a stable defect complex (MgTi''-VO••) inhibiting domain wall motion. MgO-doped specimens showed a small decrease in capacitance in the first stage, which may be due to small grain size and low dielectric permittivity.

  17. Effect of Vanadium Addition on Reliability and Microstructure of BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Hidesada; Shibahara, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Yu; Kido, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    The vanadium distribution in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), sintered under a reducing atmosphere, was investigated using scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS), and insulation resistance degradation was analyzed using impedance spectroscopy in highly accelerated lifetime tests to clarify the effects of vanadium on both the electrical properties and microstructure of MLCCs. Vanadium mitigated insulation resistance degradation and increased the reliability of MLCCs. Moreover, vanadium content increased and insulation resistance at the ceramic/electrode interface decreased slowly. This change in dynamics directly resulted in an improved lifetime of MLCCs. The results of STEM-EELS analysis showed that vanadium distributed along the grain boundary and grain boundary junction, but substituted into BaTiO3 at the ceramic/electrode interface. Therefore, it is considered that vanadium substitution at the ceramic/electrode interface improves the reliability of MLCCs.

  18. Dielectric Properties of Rare-Earth-Oxide-Doped BaTiO3 Ceramics Fired in Reducing Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, Yoshikazu; Shizuno, Hisamitsu; Kusumi, Shinya; Kishi, Hiroshi

    1994-09-01

    In order to gain an understanding of highly reliable electrical characteristics for the Ho-doped multilayer ceramic capacitors with Ni electrodes, dielectric properties of various rare-earth-oxide-doped BaTiO3 ceramics were studied. The smaller ionic radius rare-earth-oxide (Dy, Ho, Er)-doped samples showed lower resistivity in reducing atmosphere, but higher resistivity in oxidizing atmosphere at the cooling stage, compared with the larger-ion (La, Sm, Gd)-doped samples. Multilayer ceramic capacitors with Ni electrodes using the smaller-ion-doped materials showed smaller aging rate and longer lifetime. We developed Ni-electrode MLCs with X7R specification as 1 µ F in the 2125 type.

  19. Influence of interfacial coherency on ferroelectric switching of superlattice BaTiO3/SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Xingqiao; Li, Yulan; Eom, C.B.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-04-11

    Switching behavior of (BaTiO3)8/ (SrTiO3)4 heterostructure superlattice grown on SrTiO3 substrate was studied by employing the phase field method. To investigate the constraint effect of the substrate on switching, three types of superlattice/substrate interface mechanical relaxation conditions were considered, i.e. the fully ommensurate, partially relaxed and fully relaxed. Our simulation results demonstrated that the hysteresis loops under the three types of constraints were very different. The interfacial coherency affects dramatically the coercivity and remanence of the superlattice films. The mechanism of the hysteresis loop varying with interfacial coherency was analyzed by the ferroelectric domain configuration and its evolution during the switching process. The hysteresis loop of fully relaxed superlattice shows application potential on ferroelectric energy storage materials.

  20. Nanoprobe studies: Electrical transport in carbon nanotubes and crystal structure of aluminum nitride surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sujit Kumar

    Nanoprobes are an extraordinary set of experimental tools that allow fabrication, manipulation, and measurement in nano-scale systems. The primary use of a nanoprobe for imaging tiny objects is supplemented by powerful electrical techniques, namely scanning surface potential microscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. They allow us to measure potential, and current in carbon nanotube circuits. Nanoprobes are superior to conventional two- or four-probe measurements because they can provide spatial information of local electronic properties. This makes them highly attractive in studying junctions and contacts with carbon nanotubes. We have studied single-walled carbon nanotube circuits, forming junctions to other nanotubes. The experimental results indicate that these junctions act like potential barriers of about 50 meV that can confine electrons with an effective mass of 0.003 me , within nanotube channels of length 0.5 mum lying in-between two such potential barriers. This leads to quantization of the channel, forming a resonant tunneling structure. We have also found that single-walled nanotubes have phase coherence lengths of the order of 1 mum. This leads to situations where the electron interference effects at scattering centers need to be considered. We have seen direct evidence of this, in the non-linear resistance increase within nanotubes with few defects. Ambipolar transistor behavior was measured in a p-type single-walled nanotube circuit that showed electron injection across the Schottky junction at high positive bias. We have also studied multi-walled carbon nanotube circuits using scanning potential microscopy, and found that a back gate potential can vary the resistance of the channel. Vertical nanotube arrays, suitable for interconnects, were also measured. These hollow multi-walled nanotube channels were about 45 nm in diameter, and 50 mum in length, fabricated in an anodized alumina template. We found that these structures could

  1. Mechanism of high dielectric performance of polymer composites induced by BaTiO3-supporting Ag hybrid fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Yang, Wenhu; Yu, Shuhui; Luo, Suibin; Sun, Rong

    2014-03-01

    BaTiO3-supporting Ag hybrid particles (BT-Ag) with varied fraction of Ag were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate in the glycol solution containing BaTiO3 (BT) suspensions. The Ag nano particles with a size of about 20 nm were discretely grown on the surface of the BT. The dielectric performance of the composites containing the BT-Ag as fillers in the matrix of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was investigated. The relative permittivity (ɛr) of the BT-Ag/PVDF composites increased prominently with the increase of BT-Ag loading amount, and the typical conductive path of the conductor/polymer system was not observed even with a high loading of BT-Ag. The ɛr at 100 Hz for the three BT-(0.31, 0.49, 0.61)Ag/PVDF composites at room temperature were 283, 350, and 783, respectively. The ɛr of the composites was enhanced by more than 3 times compared with that of the composite containing untreated BT nanoparticles at frequencies over 1 kHz and the loss tangent (tan δ) was less than 0.1 which should be attributed to the low conductivity of the composites. Theoretical calculations based on the effective medium percolation theory model and series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced permittivity of BT-Ag/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT-Ag fillers, which was over 104 and associated with the content of Ag deposited on the surface of BT.

  2. Exploring the alignment of carbon nanotubes dispersed in a liquid crystal matrix using coplanar electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Volpati, D.; Massey, M. K.; Kotsialos, A.; Qaiser, F.; Pearson, C.; Tiburzi, G.; Zeze, D. A.; Petty, M. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Coleman, K. S.

    2015-03-28

    We report on the use of a liquid crystalline host medium to align single-walled carbon nanotubes in an electric field using an in-plane electrode configuration. Electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes orient in the field with a resulting increase in the DC conductivity in the field direction. Current versus voltage measurements on the composite show a nonlinear behavior, which was modelled by using single-carrier space-charge injection. The possibility of manipulating the conductivity pathways in the same sample by applying the electrical field in different (in-plane) directions has also been demonstrated. Raman spectroscopy indicates that there is an interaction between the nanotubes and the host liquid crystal molecules that goes beyond that of simple physical mixing.

  3. Ferroelectric polarization reversal in single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L.

    1992-01-01

    Research on the reversal of polarization in ferroelectric crystals is reviewed. Particular attention is given to observation methods for polarization reversal, BaTiO3 polarization reversal, crystal thickness dependence of polarization reversal, and domain wall movement during polarization reversal in TGS.

  4. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M; Geday, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules. PMID:27547599

  5. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules. PMID:27547599

  6. Electric field effects in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cîrtoaje, Cristina; Petrescu, Emil; Moţoc, Cornelia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate electric field induced effects in mixtures of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) with positive electric anisotropies (MCL 6601 Merck) with carbon nanotubes (MWCNT from Aldrich). In planar alignment, the current-electric field dependence and the current-temperature dependence were explained by assuming a Poole-Frenkel effect (i.e. a tunnelling mechanism) and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. Within this high field range it resulted that in planar aligned NLC-CNTs mixture the conductivity decreases when the temperature was increased. In homeotropic aligned mixture, the conduction mechanism is similar to the one occurring in a semiconductor: the conductivity increases when increasing temperature. This happens because in thin liquid crystal cells there is a possibility to realize an inner contact between nanotubes and electrodes so the mixture behaves like a semiconductor.

  7. Crystallization and recrystallization behavior study on biopolymer composites with polymer grafted halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ting; Kojio, Ken; Takahara, Atsushi

    We study the crystallization and recrystallization behavior of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in PLA/halloysite composites. Specifically, we are interested in finding the additional effect of interface properties variation in composites except for enhancing filler dispersion. Halloysite nanotubes are grafted with polymer to create different surface properties at their surface. These polymer grafted halloysite nanotubes are then spread into PLA via solvent mixing. Using differential scanning calorimeter, we track and analyze the influence of halloysite surface properties on the crystallization and recrystallization behavior of PLA composites under several conditions. We also present investigations of polarizing optical microscopy, in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The investigations provide insight into interface effect on PLA composites. The synchrotron WAXD measurements were performed on BL02B2 beamline at Spring-8 with the approval of the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute (JASRI) (Proposal No. 2015B1541).

  8. Vacuum filtration based formation of liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and high performance transistor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Benjamin; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report ultra-thin liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes using a simple vacuum filtration process. Vacuum filtration of nanotubes in aqueous surfactant solution formed nematic domains on the filter membrane surface and exhibited local ordering. A 2D fast Fourier transform was used to calculate the order parameters from scanning electron microscopy images. The order parameter was observed to be sensitive to the filtration time demonstrating different regions of transformation namely nucleation of nematic domains, nanotube accumulation and large domain growth.Transmittance versus sheet resistance measurements of such films resulted in optical to dc conductivity of σ opt/σ dc = 9.01 indicative of purely semiconducting nanotube liquid crystal network.Thin films of nanotube liquid crystals with order parameters ranging from S = 0.1-0.5 were patterned into conducting channels of transistor devices which showed high I on/I off ratios from 10-19 800 and electron mobility values μ e = 0.3-78.8 cm2 (V-s)-1, hole mobility values μ h = 0.4-287 cm2 (V-s)-1. High I on/I off ratios were observed at low order parameters and film mass. A Schottky barrier transistor model is consistent with the observed transistor characteristics. Electron and hole mobilities were seen to increase with order parameters and carbon nanotube mass fractions. A fundamental tradeoff between decreasing on/off ratio and increasing mobility with increasing nanotube film mass and order parameter is therefore concluded. Increase in order parameters of nanotubes liquid crystals improved the electronic transport properties as witnessed by the increase in σ dc/σ opt values on macroscopic films and high mobilities in microscopic transistors. Liquid crystal networks of semiconducting nanotubes as demonstrated here are simple to fabricate, transparent, scalable and could find wide ranging device applications.

  9. Orientation control of liquid crystals using carbon-nanotube-magnetic particle hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon Su; Youn, Sang Cheon; Kim, Yun Ho; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2013-06-28

    We have developed a simple yet versatile method for aligning liquid crystals (LCs) by using magnetic-field oriented single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) that were modified with magnetic particles. A high degree of homeotropic/planar LC alignment was achieved by SWNTs being exposed to a very low strength magnetic field, combined with strong π-π interactions between the biphenyl group in the LCs and the wall of the SWNTs. PMID:23676827

  10. Giant persistent photoconductivity in BaTiO3/TiO2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plodinec, Milivoj; Šantić, Ana; Zavašnik, Janez; Čeh, Miran; Gajović, Andreja

    2014-10-01

    The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect in nanotube arrays of barium titanate and TiO2 (BTO/TiO2NT) was studied at room temperature under daylight illumination. The BTO/TiO2NT heterostructures exhibited a giant PPC effect that was six orders of magnitude higher than the dark conductivity, followed by a slow relaxation for 3 h. The PPC in this material was explained by the existence of defects at the surfaces and the interfaces of the investigated heterostructures. The sample was prepared using a two-step synthesis: the anodization of a Ti-foil and a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis. The structural and electrical characteristics were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Summary The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low. PMID:25821679

  12. Ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in Fe doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bipul; Ravi, S.; Perumal, A.; Pamu, D.

    2014-09-01

    We report the investigation of crystal structure, magnetic and dielectric properties of BaTi1-xFexO3 samples for x=0.0-0.3. The parent compound is found to crystallize in tetragonal structure while Fe doped samples are found to crystallize in the mixture of tetragonal and hexagonal phases but they are free from any impurity phase. Room temperature ferromagnetism with the transition temperature (Tc) of 462 K was observed for x=0.3 sample. Fe doped samples exhibit ferroelectric transition with transition temperature (TcF) in the range of 390 K for x=0.0-312 K for x=0.2. The dielectric constant, ε‧ is found to decrease with the increase in doping concentrations.

  13. Weak ferromagnetism in the ferroelectric BiFeO3-ReFeO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions (Re=Dy,La)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Seog; Cheon, Chae Il; Lee, Chang Hee; Jang, Pyung Woo

    2004-07-01

    The binary and ternary solid solutions, BiFeO3-BaTiO3, BiFeO3-ReFeO3-BaTiO3 (Re=Dy,Pr,La), and BiFeO3-BaFeO2.5-BaTiO3 have been explored for attaining ferromagnetic ferroelectrics in bulk ceramics and understanding the effect of rare earth orthoferrites ReFeO3 on the spontaneous magnetization. The coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity has been observed over the composition range of 0.2⩽x⩽0.4 in the (1-x)BiFeO3-xBaTiO3 at room temperature. The introduction of DyFeO3 and LaFeO3 expands the composition range of the coexistence. The most superior ferromagnetic ferroelectrics obtained in this study are the 0.65BiFeO3-0.025DyFeO3-0.325BaTiO3 (Pr=5 μC/cm2,Mr=0.1 emu/g), 0.4875BiFeO3-0.025DyFeO3-0.4875BaTiO3 (Pr=7 μC/cm2,Mr=0.06 emu/g), and 0.475BiFeO3-0.05LaFeO3-0.475BaTiO3 (Pr=3.2 μC/cm2,Mr=0.2 emu/g). The spontaneous magnetization strongly depends on both the type and amount of the substitution components, DyFeO3, LaFeO3, PrFeO3, and BaFeO2.5 rather than the degree of G-type antiferromagnetic ordering. The origin of the spontaneous magnetization has been discussed in terms of antiferromagnetic ordering and charge carrier mediation.

  14. Influence of calcium carbonate and carbon nanotubes on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene at high supercooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schawe, Jürgen E. K.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer fillers have been classified as active or inactive regarding their nucleation performance. Whereas an active filler significantly accelerates the crystallization process, an inactive filler has a significantly reduced influence on the crystallization kinetics. The majority of the studies of the filler influence on the crystallization process are performed at relatively low supercooling or at low cooling rates. In this paper, we use the Fast Scanning DSC to study the crystallization process of differently filled polypropylene (PP) in the temperature range between 120 °C and 0 °C. The inactive filler calcium carbonate reduces the crystallization rate of the α-phase at low supercooling (above 80 °C). Between 45 °C and 80 °C, calcium carbonate significantly accelerates the α-phase crystallization of PP. The mesophase crystallization is not affected by this filler. As an example of active filler, carbon nanotubes are used. Even with small filler content the α-phase crystallization of PP is significantly accelerated. Also in this case the mesophase crystallization is not significantly affected.

  15. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array.

    PubMed

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  16. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  17. Electron-Phonon Couplings of the Interfacial Mode in FeSe Thin Films on SrTiO3 and BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Berlijn, Tom; Rademaker, Louk; Johnston, Steve

    Monolayers FeSe on SrTiO3 or BaTiO3 substrates possess highest superconducting transition temperatures in Fe-based superconductors with Tc ~ 70 K measured by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and other experiments. Furthermore, the high Tc's concur with exact replica bands in ARPES spectra. A forward scattering mechanism with small momentum transfer through the electron-phonon interaction has been proposed to explain the high Tc's and the replica bands. We apply ab initio techniques to study such coupling in monolayer and bilayer FeSe thin films on SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and oxygen-vacant SrTiO3 substrates. Our results confirm the forward scattering nature of electron-phonon coupling of the oxygen polar mode whose energy coincides with the off-set energy of the replica bands.

  18. Oxygen-induced surface reconstruction of SrRuO3 and its effect on the BaTiO3 interface.

    PubMed

    Shin, Junsoo; Borisevich, Albina Y; Meunier, Vincent; Zhou, Jing; Plummer, E Ward; Kalinin, Sergei V; Baddorf, Arthur P

    2010-07-27

    Atomically engineered oxide multilayers and superlattices display unique properties responsive to the electronic and atomic structures of the interfaces. We have followed the growth of ferroelectric BaTiO3 on SrRuO3 electrode with in situ atomic scale analysis of the surface structure at each stage. An oxygen-induced surface reconstruction of SrRuO3 leads to formation of SrO rows spaced at twice the bulk periodicity. This reconstruction modifies the structure of the first BaTiO3 layers grown subsequently, including intermixing observed with cross-section spectroscopy. These observations reveal that this common oxide interface is much more interesting than previously reported and provide a paradigm for oxygen engineering of oxide structure at an interface. PMID:20575506

  19. Structure and magnetic properties of the composite of Co1.75Fe1.25O4 and BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazhugasalamoorthy, S.; Bhowmik, R. N.

    2015-06-01

    We report the structure and magnetic properties of a composite consisting of magnetic Co1.75Fe1.25O4 and ferroelectric BaTiO3. The composite material was prepared by heating the mixture at 1000 °C. XRD pattern of the composite confirms the presence of cubic (CoFe2O4) and tetragonal (BaTiO3) phases and a minor impurity phase of BaCO3. Line scan in the energy dispersive analysis of X-ray spectrum indicated the separation of the ferrite particles about 15-23 µm in the composite. The composite material became magnetically soft in comparison to the Co-ferrite and shows scope for tailoring ferromagnetic parameters at room temperature.

  20. Fabrication of BaTiO3-Based Dielectrics for Ultrathin-Layer Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor Application by a Modified Coating Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yichi; Song, Tae-Ho; Hur, Kang Heon; Li, Longtu

    2011-02-01

    The development of multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) with base metal electrode (BME) requires precise controlling of the microstructure in a very thin dielectric layer (<1 µm). In this paper, a modified coating approach for high coverage of BaTiO3 powder for further MLCC application has been developed. The well dispersed and coated BaTiO3 powders are prepared and the relative mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, the ultrafine grained X7R dielectric ceramics were produced by both conventional mixing and modified coating methods. Compared with the conventional mixing method, the ceramics prepared by the coating approach exhibited better TCC (the temperature coefficient of capacitance) performance, with dielectric constant over 2000 and grain size below 150 nm. In addition, it is found through the coating method the content of additives can be reduced to a relatively smaller amount than that required in conventional mixing method.

  1. Nanotube

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-09-13

    This is a source code to calculate the current-voltage characteristics, the charge distribution and the electrostatic potential in carbon nanotube devices. The code utilizes the non-equilibrium Green's function method, implemented in a tight-binding scheme, to calculate the charge distribution and the energy-dependent transmission function, from which the current or the conductance are obtained. The electrostatic potential is obtained by solving Poisson's equation on a grid with boundary conditions on the electrodes, and at other interfaces.more » Self-consistency between the charge and the electrostatic potential is achieved using a linear mixing method. Different versions of the code allow the modeling of different types of nanotube devices: Version 1.0: Modeling of carbon nanotube electronic devices with cylindrical symmetry Version 1.1: Modeling of planar carbon nanotube electronic devices Version 1.2: Modeling of photocurrent in carbon nanotube devices« less

  2. Misfit strain-misfit strain diagram of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films: Thermodynamic calculations and phase-field simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, G.; Zhang, J. X.; Li, Y. L.; Choudhury, S.; Jia, Q. X.; Liu, Z. K.; Chen, L. Q.

    2008-12-01

    The effect of anisotropic strains on the phase transitions and domains structures of BaTiO3 thin films was studied using both thermodynamic calculations and phase-field simulations. The misfit strain-misfit strain domain stability diagrams were predicted. The similarity and significant differences between the diagrams from thermodynamic calculations assuming single domains and from phase-field simulations were analyzed. Typical domain structures as a result of anisotropic misfit strains are presented.

  3. Temperature-dependent high energy-resolution EELS of ferroelectric and paraelectric BaTiO3 phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugnet, Matthieu; Radtke, Guillaume; Woo, Steffi Y.; Zhu, Guo-zhen; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2016-01-01

    Probing the ferroelectricity at the nanometer scale is of particular interest for a wide range of applications. In this Rapid Communication, the structural distortion of BaTiO3 (BTO) is studied in its ferroelectric (rhombohedral and tetragonal), and paraelectric phases from the O K near edge structures in electron energy loss spectroscopy. Modifications of the electronic structure are detected in the lowest energy fine structure (FS) of the O K edge in the ferroelectric phases, and are interpreted by core-hole valence-electron screening geometry. For the paraelectric phase, the lowest energy FS of the O K edge is comparable to the one obtained at room temperature, which is inconsistent with an expected cubic structure. The variations observed in the O K near edge structures, such as a broader and more asymmetric lowest energy FS at low temperature, suggest that the magnitude of the Ti+4 off-centering along <111 > increases in lower-temperature phases. These findings demonstrate the sensitivity of the O K near edge structures to the structural distortions of BTO polymorphs, and form a basis for further investigations on defective or strained BTO at the nanoscale.

  4. NIR to blue light upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped BaTiO3 tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Astha; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Upconversion is an interesting optical property, generally shown by rare-earth doped materials. This unusual optical behavior shown by these rare-earths doped materials are due to their peculiar atomic configuration and electronic transitions. Here, the Tm3+-Yb3+ codoped BaTiO3 glass with TeO2 as former has been prepared by conventional melt and quench technique and the upconversion property has been investigated with the help of near infrared (NIR) to Visible UC study. The generation of the visible UC bands around ˜ 476 nm, ˜ 653 nm, ˜ 702 nm and one NIR UC band at ˜795 nm are assigned due to the 1G4→ 3H6, 1G4→ 3F4, 3F2→ 3H6 and 3H4→ 3H6 transitions respectively. The generations of these upconversion bands have been discussed in detail with the help of energy level diagram. The colour coordinates corresponding to the prepared material have been shown with the help of CIE chromaticity diagram. These glasses can be very appropriately used in the fabrication of solid state laser and as NIR to blue light upconverter.

  5. Hybrid chitosan-Pluronic F-127 films with BaTiO3:Co nanoparticles: Synthesis and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, S.; Dubo, J.; Barraza, N.; González, R.; Veloso, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, magnetic BaTiO3:Co (BT:Co) nanoparticles prepared using a combined sol-gel-hydrothermal technique were dispersed in a chitosan/Pluronic F-127 solution (QO/Pl) to obtain a nanocomposite hybrid films. Nanoparticles and hybrid films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM). Experimental results indicated that the BT:Co nanoparticles were encapsulated in the QO/Pl hybrid films and that the magnetic properties of the QO/Pl/BT:Co nanocomposites are similar to the naked BT:Co nanoparticles. Results indicate that Co doping produces an enhancement in the ferromagnetic behavior of the BT nanoparticle. The coating restricts this enhancement only to low-fields, leaving the diamagnetic behavior of BT at high-fields. Magnetically stable sizes (PSD) were obtained at 3% Co doping for both naked nanoparticles and hybrid films. These show an increased magnetic memory capacity and a softer magnetic hardness with respect to non-doped BT nanoparticles.

  6. Relating Electronic and Geometric Structure of Atomic Layer Deposited BaTiO3 to its Electrical Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO’s bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Ti content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate–film interfaces reveal BTO’s homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. This work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices. PMID:27009677

  7. Time-Dependent Negative Capacitance Effects in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Moon, Taehwan; Kwon, Young Jae; An, Cheol Hyun; Kim, Han Joon; Kim, Keum Do; Lee, Young Hwan; Hyun, Seung Dam; Park, Min Hyuk; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-07-13

    The negative capacitance (NC) effects in ferroelectric materials have emerged as the possible solution to low-power transistor devices and high-charge-density capacitors. Although the steep switching characteristic (subthreshold swing < sub-60 mV/dec) has been demonstrated in various devices combining the conventional transistors with ferroelectric gates, the actual applications of the NC effects are still some way off owing to the inherent hysteresis problem. This work reinterpreted the hysteretic properties of the NC effects within the time domain and demonstrated that capacitance (charge) boosting could be achieved without the hysteresis from the Al2O3/BaTiO3 bilayer capacitors through short-pulse charging. This work revealed that the hysteresis phenomenon in NC devices originated from the dielectric leakage of the dielectric layer. The suppression of charge injection via the dielectric leakage, which usually takes time, inhibits complete ferroelectric polarization switching during a short pulse time. It was demonstrated that a nonhysteretic NC effect can be achieved only within certain limited time and voltage ranges, but that these are sufficient for critical device applications. PMID:27231754

  8. Relating electronic and geometric structure of atomic layer deposited BaTiO3 to its electrical properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Torgersen, Jan; Acharya, Shinjita; Dadlani, Anup Lal; Petousis, Ioannis; Kim, Yongmin; Trejo, Orlando; Nordlund, Dennis; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2016-03-24

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO’s bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Timore » content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate–film interfaces reveal BTO’s homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. As a result, this work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices.« less

  9. Junction size dependence of ferroelectric properties in e-beam patterned BaTiO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. V.; Althammer, M.; Rott, K.; Reiss, G.; Gupta, A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the switching characteristics in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions patterned in a capacitive geometry with circular Ru top electrode with diameters ranging from ˜430 to 2300 nm. Two different patterning schemes, viz., lift-off and ion-milling, have been employed to examine the variations in the ferroelectric polarization, switching, and tunnel electro-resistance resulting from differences in the pattering processes. The values of polarization switching field are measured and compared for junctions of different diameter in the samples fabricated using both patterning schemes. We do not find any specific dependence of polarization switching bias on the size of junctions in both sample stacks. The junctions in the ion-milled sample show up to three orders of resistance change by polarization switching and the polarization retention is found to improve with increasing junction diameter. However, similar switching is absent in the lift-off sample, highlighting the effect of patterning scheme on the polarization retention.

  10. Grain-growth effect on dielectric nonlinearity of BaTiO3-based multi-layer ceramic capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun; Kim, Mi-Yang; Nam, Chan-Hee; Seo, Jung-Wook; Wi, Sung-Kwon; Hur, Kang-Heon

    2015-08-01

    A significant difference in dielectric nonlinearity was contrasted between fine- and coarse-grained BaTiO3-based multilayer ceramic capacitors. Grain growth resulted in a decrease in dielectric constant in low field but a steep increase with increase in alternating current field, which can be associated with a decrease in reversible and a significant increase in irreversible domain wall contribution from Preisach analysis. Fine-grained specimens showed almost cubic structure despite ferroelectric domain contrasts, which is anticipated to significantly reduce strain incompatibility during domain wall motion, and clean domain boundaries with no lattice defects. However, coarse-grained specimens with high aspect ratio of the tetragonal lattice should accompany lattice distortion with increased intergranular constraints during domain wall motion, and many lattice defects were observed near domain boundaries. These results demonstrate experimentally the presence of weak pinning centers in coarse-grained specimens, which inhibit domain wall motion in low alternating current fields. Long-range motion occurs beyond the threshold field and results in an abrupt increase in dielectric constant.