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Sample records for crystal biosensor microplates

  1. Photonic crystal biosensor microplates with integrated fluid networks for high throughput applications in drug discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Charles J.; Chan, Leo L.; Pineda, Maria F.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2007-09-01

    Assays used in pharmaceutical research require a system that can not only detect biochemical interactions with high sensitivity, but that can also perform many measurements in parallel while consuming low volumes of reagents. While nearly all label-free biosensor transducers to date have been interfaced with a flow channel, the liquid handling system is typically aligned and bonded to the transducer for supplying analytes to only a few sensors in parallel. In this presentation, we describe a fabrication approach for photonic crystal biosensors that utilizes nanoreplica molding to produce a network of sensors that are automatically self-aligned with a microfluidic network in a single process step. The sensor/fluid network is inexpensively produced on large surface areas upon flexible plastic substrates, allowing the device to be incorporated into standard format 96-well microplates. A simple flow scheme using hydrostatic pressure applied through a single control point enables immobilization of capture ligands upon a large number of sensors with 220 nL of reagent, and subsequent exposure of the sensors to test samples. A high resolution imaging detection instrument is capable of monitoring the binding within parallel channels at rates compatible with determining kinetic binding constants between the immobilized ligands and the analytes. The first implementation of this system is capable of monitoring the kinetic interactions of 11 flow channels at once, and a total of 88 channels within an integrated biosensor microplate in rapid succession. The system was initially tested to characterize the interaction between sets of proteins with known binding behavior.

  2. Microplate based optical biosensor for L-Dopa using tyrosinase from Amorphophallus campanulatus.

    PubMed

    Saini, Amardeep Singh; Kumar, Jitendra; Melo, Jose Savio

    2014-11-01

    Developing a biosensor which is capable of simultaneously monitoring l-Dopa levels in multiple samples besides requiring small reaction volume is of great value. The present study describes the detection of l-Dopa using tyrosinase enzyme extracted from Amorphophallus campanulatus and immobilized on the surface of the microplate wells. Among the different approaches used for immobilizing tyrosinase onto the microplate wells, glutaraldehyde treatment was found to be most effective. Besides enzyme activity, ESEM-EDS (environmental scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive system) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were also carried out to confirm the immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme onto the microplate well surface. This immobilized biocomponent was then integrated with an optical transducer for l-Dopa detection and it showed good reproducibility. The sensing property of the system was studied by measuring the initial rate of dopachrome formation at 475 nm. The calibration plot gave a linear range of detection from 10-1000 μM and the detection limit was calculated to be 3 μM. The immobilized biocomponent was stable for 41 days and was reused up to nine times. Spiked samples (blood plasma) were also analyzed using this biocomponent. This microplate based biosensor thus provides a convenient system for detection of multiple samples in a single run. PMID:25300217

  3. Slotted photonic crystal biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scullion, Mark Gerard

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them result in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This thesis presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which engender higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the peak of optical mode within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. High sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than most competing devices in the literature. Initial tests with cellular material for real applications was also performed, and shown to be of promise. In addition, groundwork to make an integrated device that includes the spectrometer function was also carried out showing that slotted photonic crystals themselves can be used for on-chip wavelength specific filtering and spectroscopy, whilst gas-free microvalves for automation were also developed. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  4. Photonic Crystal Nanolaser Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Shota; Otsuka, Shota; Hachuda, Shoji; Endo, Tatsuro; Imai, Yasunori; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Misawa, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshihiko

    High-performance and low-cost sensors are critical devices for high-throughput analyses of bio-samples in medical diagnoses and life sciences. In this paper, we demonstrate photonic crystal nanolaser sensor, which detects the adsorption of biomolecules from the lasing wavelength shift. It is a promising device, which balances a high sensitivity, high resolution, small size, easy integration, simple setup and low cost. In particular with a nanoslot structure, it achieves a super-sensitivity in protein sensing whose detection limit is three orders of magnitude lower than that of standard surface-plasmon-resonance sensors. Our investigations indicate that the nanoslot acts as a protein condenser powered by the optical gradient force, which arises from the strong localization of laser mode in the nanoslot.

  5. Work function engineering of SnO single crystal microplates with thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Won Hui; Jeong, Wooseok; Lee, Hyunsoo; Park, Jonghyurk; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-08-01

    We synthesized black SnO single-crystal microplates via a sonochemical process and engineered the work function of the SnO microplates using thermal treatments. The as-synthesized SnO microplates have a wide (001) plane, as is clearly evident from TEM images and diffraction patterns. Surface potential measurements on the SnO microplates show that the work function changes as the annealing temperature increases. The TEM and XAS results after thermal treatments imply that the micro-sized SnO(001) single-crystals are stable up to about 400 °C in air, after which the surface starts to become locally oxidized. Consequently, the long-range ordering and lattice parameter of the SnO(001) single crystals started to change to make polycrystalline SnO2 at about 600 °C. These results demonstrate the ability to tune the work function of the microplates and suggest an intriguing way to engineer the electrical properties of nanostructures.

  6. Work function engineering of SnO single crystal microplates with thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Doh, Won Hui; Jeong, Wooseok; Lee, Hyunsoo; Park, Jonghyurk; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-08-19

    We synthesized black SnO single-crystal microplates via a sonochemical process and engineered the work function of the SnO microplates using thermal treatments. The as-synthesized SnO microplates have a wide (001) plane, as is clearly evident from TEM images and diffraction patterns. Surface potential measurements on the SnO microplates show that the work function changes as the annealing temperature increases. The TEM and XAS results after thermal treatments imply that the micro-sized SnO(001) single-crystals are stable up to about 400 °C in air, after which the surface starts to become locally oxidized. Consequently, the long-range ordering and lattice parameter of the SnO(001) single crystals started to change to make polycrystalline SnO2 at about 600 °C. These results demonstrate the ability to tune the work function of the microplates and suggest an intriguing way to engineer the electrical properties of nanostructures. PMID:27389518

  7. Wafer-scale growth of large arrays of perovskite microplate crystals for functional electronics and optoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gongming; Li, Dehui; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Li, Yongjia; Chen, Chih-Yen; Yin, Anxiang; Zhao, Zipeng; Lin, Zhaoyang; Wu, Hao; He, Qiyuan; Ding, Mengning; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted intensive interest for its diverse optoelectronic applications. However, most studies to date have been limited to bulk thin films that are difficult to implement for integrated device arrays because of their incompatibility with typical lithography processes. We report the first patterned growth of regular arrays of perovskite microplate crystals for functional electronics and optoelectronics. We show that large arrays of lead iodide microplates can be grown from an aqueous solution through a seeded growth process and can be further intercalated with methylammonium iodide to produce perovskite crystals. Structural and optical characterizations demonstrate that the resulting materials display excellent crystalline quality and optical properties. We further show that perovskite crystals can be selectively grown on prepatterned electrode arrays to create independently addressable photodetector arrays and functional field effect transistors. The ability to grow perovskite microplates and to precisely place them at specific locations offers a new material platform for the fundamental investigation of the electronic and optical properties of perovskite materials and opens a pathway for integrated electronic and optoelectronic systems. PMID:26601297

  8. Optical modeling of liquid crystal biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Dae Kun; Rey, Alejandro D.

    2006-11-01

    Optical simulations of a liquid crystal biosensor device are performed using an integrated optical/textural model based on the equations of nematodynamics and two optical methods: the Berreman optical matrix method [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 502 (1972)] and the discretization of the Maxwell equations based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Testing the two optical methods with liquid crystal films of different degrees of orientational heterogeneities demonstrates that only the FDTD method is suitable to model this device. Basic substrate-induced texturing process due to protein adsorption gives rise to an orientation correlation function that is nearly linear with the transmitted light intensity, providing a basis to calibrate the device. The sensitivity of transmitted light to film thickness, protein surface coverage, and wavelength is established. A crossover incident light wavelength close to λco≈500nm is found, such that when λ >λco thinner films are more sensitive to the amount of protein surface coverage, while for λ <λco the reverse holds. In addition it is found that for all wavelengths the sensitivity increases with the amount of protein coverage. The integrated device model based on FDTD optical simulations in conjunction with the Landau-de Gennes nematodynamics model provides a rational basis for further progress in liquid crystal biosensor devices.

  9. Highly sensitive bovine serum albumin biosensor based on liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vikash; Kumar, Ajay; Ganguly, Prasun; Biradar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive liquid crystal (LC) based bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein biosensor is designed. A uniform homeotropic alignment of nematic LC was observed in BSA free substrate which changed into homogeneous in presence of BSA. The change in the LC orientation is found to depend strongly on BSA concentration. This change in the LC alignment is attributed to the modification in the surface conditions which is verified by contact angle measurements. We have detected an ultra low concentration (0.5 μg/ml) of BSA. The present study demonstrates the utilization of LC in the realization of high sensitivity biosensors.

  10. Size-dependent phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite microplate crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Dehui; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung -Chieh; Chen, Chih -Yen; Wu, Hao; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-04-21

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted considerable recent interest for solution processable solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in perovskite can significantly alter its optical, electrical properties and impact the corresponding applications. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the size-dependent orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition using a combined temperature-dependent optical, electrical transport and transmission electron microscopy study. Our studies of individual perovskite microplates with variable thicknesses demonstrate that the phase transition temperature decreases with reducing microplate thickness. The sudden decrease of mobility around phase transition temperature and the presence of hysteresis loops in the temperature-dependent mobility confirmmore » that the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is a first-order phase transition. Lastly, our findings offer significant fundamental insight on the temperature-and size-dependent structural, optical and charge transport properties of perovskite materials, and can greatly impact future exploration of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices from these materials.« less

  11. Size-dependent phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite microplate crystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dehui; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Yen; Wu, Hao; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted considerable recent interest for solution processable solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in perovskite can significantly alter its optical, electrical properties and impact the corresponding applications. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the size-dependent orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition using a combined temperature-dependent optical, electrical transport and transmission electron microscopy study. Our studies of individual perovskite microplates with variable thicknesses demonstrate that the phase transition temperature decreases with reducing microplate thickness. The sudden decrease of mobility around phase transition temperature and the presence of hysteresis loops in the temperature-dependent mobility confirm that the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is a first-order phase transition. Our findings offer significant fundamental insight on the temperature- and size-dependent structural, optical and charge transport properties of perovskite materials, and can greatly impact future exploration of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices from these materials. PMID:27098114

  12. Size-dependent phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite microplate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dehui; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Yen; Wu, Hao; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-04-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted considerable recent interest for solution processable solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in perovskite can significantly alter its optical, electrical properties and impact the corresponding applications. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the size-dependent orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition using a combined temperature-dependent optical, electrical transport and transmission electron microscopy study. Our studies of individual perovskite microplates with variable thicknesses demonstrate that the phase transition temperature decreases with reducing microplate thickness. The sudden decrease of mobility around phase transition temperature and the presence of hysteresis loops in the temperature-dependent mobility confirm that the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is a first-order phase transition. Our findings offer significant fundamental insight on the temperature- and size-dependent structural, optical and charge transport properties of perovskite materials, and can greatly impact future exploration of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices from these materials.

  13. Size-dependent phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite microplate crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Dehui; Wang, Gongming; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Yen; Wu, Hao; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite has attracted considerable recent interest for solution processable solar cells and other optoelectronic applications. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in perovskite can significantly alter its optical, electrical properties and impact the corresponding applications. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the size-dependent orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition using a combined temperature-dependent optical, electrical transport and transmission electron microscopy study. Our studies of individual perovskite microplates with variable thicknesses demonstrate that the phase transition temperature decreases with reducing microplate thickness. The sudden decrease of mobility around phase transition temperature and the presence of hysteresis loops in the temperature-dependent mobility confirm that the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition is a first-order phase transition. Our findings offer significant fundamental insight on the temperature- and size-dependent structural, optical and charge transport properties of perovskite materials, and can greatly impact future exploration of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices from these materials. PMID:27098114

  14. Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCamley, Maureen K.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Crawford, Gregory P.

    2007-02-01

    A liquid crystal based biosensor for the detection and diagnosis of sepsis is currently in development. Sepsis, a major clinical syndrome with a significant public health burden in the US due to a large elderly population, is the systemic response of the body to a localized infection and is defined as the combination of pathologic infection and physiological changes. Bacterial infections are responsible for 90% of cases of sepsis in the US. Currently there is no bedside diagnostic available to positively identify sepsis. The basic detection scheme employed in a liquid crystal biosensor contains attributes that would find value in a clinical setting, especially for the early detection of sepsis. Utilizing the unique properties of liquid crystals, such as birefringence, a bedside diagnostic is in development which will optically report the presence of biomolecules. In a septic patient, an endotoxin known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can be found in the blood stream. It is hypothesized that this long chained molecule will cause local disruptions to the open surface of a sensor containing aligned liquid crystal. The bulk liquid crystal ampli.es these local changes at the surface due to the presence of the sepsis marker, providing an optical readout through polarizing microscopy images. Liquid crystal sensors consisting of both square and circular grids, 100-200 μm in size, have been fabricated and filled with a common liquid crystal material, 5CB. Homeotropic alignment was confirmed using polarizing microscopy. The grids were then contacted with either saline only (control), or saline with varying concentrations of LPS. Changes in the con.guration of the nematic director of the liquid crystal were observed through the range of concentrations tested (5mg/mL - 1pg/mL) which have been confirmed by a consulting physician as clinically relevant levels.

  15. A liquid-crystal-based DNA biosensor for pathogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mashooq; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho; Park, Soo-Young

    2016-03-01

    A liquid-crystal (LC)-filled transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), to which a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid probe (ssDNAprobe) was adsorbed at the LC/aqueous interface (TEMDTAB/DNA), was applied for the highly specific detection of target DNA molecules. The DTAB-coated E7 (used LC mixture) in the TEM grid (TEMDTAB) exhibited a homeotropic orientation, and changed to a planar orientation upon adsorption of the ssDNAprobe. The TEMDTAB/DNA was then exposed to complementary (target) ssDNA, which resulted in a planar-to-homeotropic configurational change of E7 that could be observed through a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. The optimum adsorption density (2 μM) of ssDNAprobe enabled the detection of ≥0.05 nM complementary ssDNA. This TEMDTAB/DNA biosensor could differentiate complementary ssDNA from mismatched ssDNA as well as double-stranded DNA. It also successfully detected the genomic DNAs of the bacterium Erwinia carotovora and the fungi Rhazictonia solani. Owe to the high specificity, sensitivity, and label-free detection, this biosensor may broaden the applications of LC-based biosensors to pathogen detection.

  16. A liquid-crystal-based DNA biosensor for pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mashooq; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho; Park, Soo-Young

    2016-01-01

    A liquid-crystal (LC)-filled transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), to which a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid probe (ssDNAprobe) was adsorbed at the LC/aqueous interface (TEMDTAB/DNA), was applied for the highly specific detection of target DNA molecules. The DTAB-coated E7 (used LC mixture) in the TEM grid (TEMDTAB) exhibited a homeotropic orientation, and changed to a planar orientation upon adsorption of the ssDNAprobe. The TEMDTAB/DNA was then exposed to complementary (target) ssDNA, which resulted in a planar-to-homeotropic configurational change of E7 that could be observed through a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. The optimum adsorption density (2 μM) of ssDNAprobe enabled the detection of ≥0.05 nM complementary ssDNA. This TEMDTAB/DNA biosensor could differentiate complementary ssDNA from mismatched ssDNA as well as double-stranded DNA. It also successfully detected the genomic DNAs of the bacterium Erwinia carotovora and the fungi Rhazictonia solani. Owe to the high specificity, sensitivity, and label-free detection, this biosensor may broaden the applications of LC-based biosensors to pathogen detection. PMID:26940532

  17. A liquid-crystal-based DNA biosensor for pathogen detection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mashooq; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho; Park, Soo-Young

    2016-01-01

    A liquid-crystal (LC)-filled transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), to which a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid probe (ssDNAprobe) was adsorbed at the LC/aqueous interface (TEMDTAB/DNA), was applied for the highly specific detection of target DNA molecules. The DTAB-coated E7 (used LC mixture) in the TEM grid (TEMDTAB) exhibited a homeotropic orientation, and changed to a planar orientation upon adsorption of the ssDNAprobe. The TEMDTAB/DNA was then exposed to complementary (target) ssDNA, which resulted in a planar-to-homeotropic configurational change of E7 that could be observed through a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. The optimum adsorption density (2 μM) of ssDNAprobe enabled the detection of ≥0.05 nM complementary ssDNA. This TEMDTAB/DNA biosensor could differentiate complementary ssDNA from mismatched ssDNA as well as double-stranded DNA. It also successfully detected the genomic DNAs of the bacterium Erwinia carotovora and the fungi Rhazictonia solani. Owe to the high specificity, sensitivity, and label-free detection, this biosensor may broaden the applications of LC-based biosensors to pathogen detection. PMID:26940532

  18. Photonic crystal biosensor based on optical surface waves.

    PubMed

    Konopsky, Valery N; Karakouz, Tanya; Alieva, Elena V; Vicario, Chiara; Sekatskii, Sergey K; Dietler, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately. PMID:23429517

  19. Biosensors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes theory and principles behind biosensors that incorporate biological components as part of a sensor or probe. Projects major applications in medicine and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture, environmental studies, and the military. Surveys current use of biosensors. (ML)

  20. Silicon photonic crystal resonators for label free biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Amrita Kumar; Honzawa, Keita; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2016-04-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a two-dimensional (2D) silicon photonic crystal biosensor consisting of waveguides and cavity-type and defect-type resonators for enhancing the interactions between light and biomaterials. Sensitivity was measured using sucrose solution and the sensor showed the highest sensitivity [1570 nm/RIU (refractive index unit)] ever reported. We also investigated cavity size effects on resonance wavelength shift, and we observed that a large cavity exhibits a greater resonance wavelength shift. The fabricated sensor has shown a high Q of ∼105 in water and a device figure of merit of 1.2 × 105, which represent the improvements of the device performance over other photonic-crystal-based sensors.

  1. Low-cost and highly efficient DNA biosensor for heavy metal ion using specific DNAzyme-modified microplate and portable glucometer-based detection mode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Tang, Ying; Teng, Liumei; Lu, Minghua; Tang, Dianping

    2015-06-15

    A simple and low-cost DNA sensing platform based on Pb(2+)-specific DNAzyme-modified microplate was successfully developed for highly sensitive monitoring of lead ion (Pb(2+), one kind of toxic heavy metal ion) in the environmental samples coupling with a portable personal glucometer (PGM)-based detection mode. The detection cell was first prepared simply by means of immobilizing the DNAzyme on the streptavidin-modified microplate. Gold nanoparticle labeled with single-stranded DNA and invertase (Enz-AuNP-DNA) was utilized as the signal-transduction tag to produce PGM substrate (glucose). Upon addition of lead ion into the microplate, the substrate strand of the immobilized DNAzyme was catalytically cleaved by target Pb(2+), and the newly generated single-strand DNA in the microplate could hybridize again with the single-stranded DNA on the Enz-AuNP-DNA. Accompanying with the Enz-AuNP-DNA, the carried invertase could convert sucrose into glucose. The as-produced glucose could be monitored by using a widely accessible PGM for in situ amplified digital readout. Based on Enz-AuNP-DNA amplification strategy, as low as 1.0 pM Pb(2+) could be detected under the optimal conditions. Moreover, the methodology also showed good reproducibility and high selectivity toward target Pb(2+) against other metal ions because of highly specific Pb(2+)-dependent DNAzyme, and was applicable for monitoring Pb(2+) in the naturally contaminated sewage and spiked drinking water samples. PMID:25576929

  2. Liquid crystal-based proton sensitive glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mashooq; Park, Soo-Young

    2014-02-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid filled with 4-cyno-4-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) on the octadecyltrichloro silane-coated glass in an aqueous medium was developed to construct a glucose biosensor by coating poly(acrylicacid-b-4-cynobiphenyl-4-oxyundecylacrylate) (PAA-b-LCP) at the aqueous/5CB interface and immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) covalently to the PAA chains. The glucose was detected from a homeotropic to planar orientational transition of 5CB by polarized optical microscopy under crossed polarizers. The maximum immobilization density of the GOx, 1.3 molecules/nm(2) obtained in this TEM grid cell enabled the detection of glucose at concentrations as low as 0.02 mM with a response time of 10 s. This liquid crystal-based glucose sensor provided a linear response of birefringence of the 5CB to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2 mM with a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.32 mM. This new and sensitive glucose biosensor has the merits of low production cost and easy detection through the naked eye and might be useful for prescreening the glucose level in the human body. PMID:24432733

  3. Gold nanoparticle based signal enhancement liquid crystal biosensors for DNA hybridization assays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengyuan; Liu, Yanmei; Tan, Hui; Wu, Chao; Wu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2012-03-18

    A novel signal enhanced liquid crystal biosensor based on using AuNPs for highly sensitive DNA detection has been developed. This biosensor not only significantly decreases the detection limit, but also offers a simple detection process and shows a good selectivity to distinguish perfectly matched target DNA from two-base mismatched DNA. PMID:22302154

  4. Photonic Crystal Biosensor with In-Situ Synthesized DNA Probes for Enhanced Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shuren; Zhao, Y.; Retterer, Scott T; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Weiss, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    We report on a nearly 8-fold increase in multi-hole defect photonic crystal biosensor response by incorporating in-situ synthesis of DNA probes, as compared to the conventional functionalization method employing pre-synthesized DNA probe immobilization.

  5. Liquid crystal based biosensors for bile acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Sihui; Liang, Wenlang; Tanner, Colleen; Fang, Jiyu; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-03-01

    The concentration level of bile acids is a useful indicator for early diagnosis of liver diseases. The prevalent measurement method in detecting bile acids is the chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which is precise yet expensive. Here we present a biosensor platform based on liquid crystal (LC) films for the detection of cholic acid (CA). This platform has the advantage of low cost, label-free, solution phase detection and simple analysis. In this platform, LC film of 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) was hosted by a copper grid supported with a polyimide-coated glass substrate. By immersing into sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, the LC film was coated with SDS which induced a homeotropic anchoring of 5CB. Addition of CA introduced competitive adsorption between CA and SDS at the interface, triggering a transition from homeotropic to homogeneous anchoring. The detection limit can be tuned by changing the pH value of the solution from 12uM to 170uM.

  6. Thiol- and biotin-labeled probes for oligonucleotide quartz crystal microbalance biosensors of microalga alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Lazerges, Mathieu; Perrot, Hubert; Rabehagasoa, Niriniony; Compère, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Two quartz crystal microbalance oligonucleotide biosensors of a toxic microalga gene sequence (Alexandrium Minutum) have been designed. Grafting on a gold surface of 20-base thiol- or biotin-labeled probe, and selective hybridization with the complementary 20-base target, have been monitored in situ with a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. The frequency of the set up is stable to within a few hertz, corresponding to the nanogram scale, for three hour experiments. DNA recognition by the two biosensors is efficient and selective. Hybridization kinetic curves indicate that the biosensor designed with the thiol-labeled probe is more sensitive, and that the biosensor designed with the biotin-labeled probe has a shorter time response and a higher hybridization efficiency. PMID:25585927

  7. Thiol- and Biotin-Labeled Probes for Oligonucleotide Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensors of Microalga Alexandrium Minutum

    PubMed Central

    Lazerges, Mathieu; Perrot, Hubert; Rabehagasoa, Niriniony; Compère, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Two quartz crystal microbalance oligonucleotide biosensors of a toxic microalga gene sequence (Alexandrium Minutum) have been designed. Grafting on a gold surface of 20-base thiol- or biotin-labeled probe, and selective hybridization with the complementary 20-base target, have been monitored in situ with a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. The frequency of the set up is stable to within a few hertz, corresponding to the nanogram scale, for three hour experiments. DNA recognition by the two biosensors is efficient and selective. Hybridization kinetic curves indicate that the biosensor designed with the thiol-labeled probe is more sensitive, and that the biosensor designed with the biotin-labeled probe has a shorter time response and a higher hybridization efficiency. PMID:25585927

  8. Nano-optic label-free biosensors based on photonic crystal platform with negative refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroua, W.; Haxha, S.; AbdelMalek, F.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a novel biosensor based on hetero photonic crystal (PC) structures is proposed. The biosensor consists of photonic crystals with negative refraction (PCNR) embedded between two ordinary PC structures. The PCNR is employed in order to produce an image that is as similar as the light source, which is located in the first ordinary PC. Significant enhancement of the image is achieved when a nanocavity is introduced into the PCNR. It is found that the transmission peak shifts when the nanocavity is filled with blood plasma, liquid and dry air. It is shown that by careful selection of the radius of the nanocavity, the sensitivity of the proposed biosensor can be enhanced. The presented PCNR biosensor is investigated by employing the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD).

  9. BIOSENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has recently been proposed under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Commission that biosensors be regarded as a subgroup of chemical sensors in which a biologically based mechanism is used for detection of the analyte. hemical sensors are defined und...

  10. Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers.

    PubMed

    Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Bog, Uwe; Sekula, Sylwia; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2010-08-30

    There is a strong need for low-cost biosensors to enable rapid, on-site analysis of biological, biomedical, or chemical substances. We propose a platform for label-free optical biosensors based on applying the analyte onto a surface-functionalized photonic crystal slab and performing a transmission measurement with two crossed polarization filters. This dark-field approach allows for efficient background suppression as only the photonic crystal guided-mode resonances interacting with the functionalized surface experience significant polarization rotation. We present a compact biosensor demonstrator using a low-cost light emitting diode and a simple photodiode capable of detecting the binding kinetics of a 2.5 nM solution of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-functionalized photonic crystal surface. PMID:20940807

  11. Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Ray T.

    2012-01-01

    Current trends in photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), that focus on small and smaller sensors have faced a bottleneck trying to balance two contradictory requirements of resonance quality factor and sensitivity. By simultaneous control of the radiation loss and optical mode volumes, we show that both requirements can be satisfied simultaneously. Microcavity sensors are designed in which resonances show highest Q ~9,300 in the bio-ambient phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as well as highest sensitivity among photonic crystal biosensors. We experimentally demonstrated mass sensitivity 8.8 atto-grams with sensitivity per unit area of 0.8 picograms/mm2 Highest sensitivity, irrespective of the dissociation constant Kd, is demonstrated among all existing label-free optical biosensors in silicon at the concentration of 0.1μg/ml. PMID:22748964

  12. Four-channel label-free photonic crystal biosensor using nanocavity resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyaee, Saeed; Najafgholinezhad, Samira; Alipour Banaei, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we design and characterize a novel small size four-channel biosensor based on the two-dimensional photonic crystal with introducing waveguides and nano-cavities in the hexagonal lattice of air pores in the silicon slab. By removing a group of air pores, waveguides are achieved, and nano-cavities are shaped by modifying the radius of air pores. Highly parallel operation of this biosensor due to the special architecture is the capability of the designed structure. The biomaterials which are suspended in a liquid medium inside nano-cavities cause effective refractive index changes which lead to the resonant wavelength shift in the output terminal. According to results, with increasing the refractive index of nano-cavities, resonant wavelengths shifts to longer values. For biochemical sensing like DNA molecule and protein and for the refractive index detection, this novel designed biosensor can be utilized.

  13. Active layer identification of photonic crystal waveguide biosensor chip for the detection of Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painam, Balveer; Kaler, Rajinder S.; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-07-01

    This work represents experimental and simulation analysis of photonic crystal waveguide (PCW)-based biosensor structures, which is used for detection of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell. A method is adopted for E. coli culture to measure length, diameter, and refractive index to finalize the structural design and to verify the suitability of PCW as a biosensor. This method is tested using DH5α strains of E. coli. The typical precisions of measurements are varied in ranges from 1.132 to 1.825 μm and from 0.447 to 0.66 μm for pathogen's length and diameter, respectively. The measured distribution of samples over length and diameter are in correlation with the measurements performed by scanning electron microscope. After obtaining average length and diameter of cylindrical shaped E. coli cell, we consider these values for simulation analysis of designed PCW biosensor. E. coli cell is trapped in the middle of the PCW biosensor having three different types of waveguides, i.e., gallium arsenide/silicon dioxide (GaAs/SiO2), silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO2), or silicon nitride/silicon dioxide (Si3N4/SiO2) to observe the maximum resonance shift and sensitivity. It is observed from the simulation data analysis that GaAs/SiO2 is the preferred PCW biosensor for the identification of E. coli.

  14. Planar Photonic Crystal Biosensor for Quantitative Label-Free Cell Attachment Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weili; Long, Kenneth D.; Kurniawan, Jonas; Hung, Margaret; Yu, Hojeong; Harley, Brendan A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a planar-surface photonic crystal (PC) biosensor for quantitative, kinetic, label-free imaging of cell–surface interactions is demonstrated. The planar biosensor surface eliminates external stimuli to the cells caused by substrate topography to more accurately reflect smooth surface environment encountered by many cell types in vitro. Here, a fabrication approach that combines nanoreplica molding and a horizontal dipping process is used to planarize the surface of the PC biosensor. The planar PC biosensor maintains a high detection sensitivity that enables the monitoring of live cell–substrate interactions with spatial resolution sufficient for observing intracellular attachment strength gradients and the extensions of filopodia from the cell body. The evolution of cell morphology during the attachment and spreading process of 3T3 fibroblast cells is compared between planar and grating-structured PC biosensors. The planar surface effectively eliminates the directionally biased cellular attachment behaviors that are observed on the grating-structured surface. This work represents an important step forward in the development of label-free techniques for observing cellular processes without unintended external environmental modulation. PMID:26877910

  15. An immuno-biosensor system based on quartz crystal microbalance for avian influenza virus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengping; Chen, Guoming; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Yunlong

    2007-12-01

    For the quick detection of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), a biosensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) was fabricated according to the specific bonding principle between antibody and antigen. Staphylococcal Protein A (SPA) was extracted from Staphylococcus and purified. Then SPA was coated on the surface of QCM for immobilizing AIV monoclonal antibodies. The use of AIV monoclonal antibody could enhance the specificity of the immuno-biosensor. A multi-channel piezoelectricity detection system for the immuno-biosensor was developed. The system can work for the quick detection of AIV antigen in the case of the entirely aqueous status owe to one special oscillating circuit designed in this work. The optimum conditions of SPA coating and AIV monoclonal antibody immobilization were investigated utilizing the multi-channel detection system. The preliminary application of the immuno-biosensor system for detection of AIV was evaluated. Results indicate that the immuno-biosensor system can detect the AIV antigens with a linear range of 3-200ng/ml. The system can accomplish the detection of AIV antigens around 40 minutes.

  16. The Galapagos Microplate Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Schouten, H.; Cann, J. R.; Zhu, W.; Montesi, L. G.; Mitchell, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    We report a new bathymetry survey of the Galapagos microplate (GMP), which separates the Pacific, Nazca, and Cocos plates at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Prior to the formation of the microplate, 1.5-1.0 Ma, there was a succession of transient minor rifts forming triple junctions north and south of the propagating Cocos-Nazca rift (see Schouten et al. abstract). As proposed by Lonsdale (1988) the formation of a large near-axis seamount coincided with the initiation of the GMP and stabilized rifting on its southern boundary, now called Dietz Deep Rift. Lonsdale also proposed that the GMP was rotating clockwise at 6 degrees/my. Schouten et al. (1993) and Klein et al. (2005) applied an edge-driven microplate model to the GMP to understand its kinematics and predicted rotation rates of 30-40 degrees/my and 22 degrees/my, respectively. These interpretations and predictions were based on sparse bathymetry data. In early 2009 (AT 15-41), we mapped the Galapagos microplate in its entirety to understand more fully the conditions that led to the stabilization of the southern triple junction at Dietz Deep Rift and to constrain the rotation rate of the microplate. Our new data show the two highly contrasted sections of Dietz Deep Rift. The northeastern section contains Dietz Deep, a 2 km deep basin, within a fault-dominated rift valley about 20 km wide; subsidiary rifts occur to the south. Sidescan data indicate that extension in this broadly rifted area has been largely amagmatic. The southwestern section of Dietz Deep Rift is dominated by a variety of volcanic constructions in which faulting plays a minor part. The volcanism has resulted in two large seamounts and a number of volcanic ridges running parallel to the fault dominated rift valley. The largest volcanic ridge is steep-sided and straight, and extends to intersect the East Pacific Rise (EPR) at 1 10’N to form the triple junction. Other minor volcanic ridges occur in the SW section of the microplate fanning

  17. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as biosensor for the detecting of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Ngo, Vo Ke; Giang Nguyen, Dang; Phuong Uyen Nguyen, Hoang; Tran, Van Man; Nguyen, Thi Khoa My; Phat Huynh, Trong; Lam, Quang Vinh; Dat Huynh, Thanh; Truong, Thi Ngoc Lien

    2014-12-01

    Although Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commensalism organism in the intestine of humans and warm-blooded animals, it can be toxic at higher density and causes diseases, especially the highly toxic E. coli O157:H7. In this paper a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor was developed for the detection of E. coli O157:H7 bacteria. The anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibodies were immobilized on a self-assembly monolayer (SAM) modified 5 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal resonator. The SAMs were activated with 16-mercaptopropanoic acid, in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and ester N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The result of changing frequency due to the adsorption of E. coli O157:H7 was measured by the QCM biosensor system designed and fabricated by ICDREC-VNUHCM. This system gave good results in the range of 102-107 CFU mL-1 E. coli O157:H7. The time of bacteria E. coli O157:H7 detection in the sample was about 50 m. Besides, QCM biosensor from SAM method was comparable to protein A method-based piezoelectric immunosensor in terms of the amount of immobilized antibodies and detection sensitivity.

  18. Fluctuating hydrodynamics of nematics for models of liquid-crystal based biosensors via lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Orlando; Velez, Jose Antonio; Castañeda, David

    2008-03-01

    Experimental biosensors based on liquid crystals (LC) use nematics to detect the presence of specific analytes, via the optical textures exhibited by the LC at long times. Efforts to model the time evolution of these textures have relied on relaxational models, ignoring transport phenomena. In this work we include hydrodynamics into a model for these LC biosensors, using lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods and assess the effect on the lifetime of multidomain structures, characteristic of high concentrations of analyte. We apply Yeoman's et al. LB algorithm, which reproduces the hydrodynamic equations developed by Beris and Edwards for LCs. We also take into account thermal fluctuations, by adding random perturbations to the hydrodynamic modes. Following Adhikari et al., their amplitude is determined by the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem and we excite both hydrodynamic and the sub-hydrodynamic modes (also called ghost modes). As a result, we analyze the influence of the fluctuations and hydrodynamics on the movement of topological defects.

  19. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hai Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, Donglei

    2015-03-23

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  20. Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Yue; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    We review the development and application of nanostructured photonic crystal surfaces and a hyperspectral reflectance imaging detection instrument which, when used together, represent a new form of optical microscopy that enables label-free, quantitative, and kinetic monitoring of biomaterial interaction with substrate surfaces. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) has been used to detect broad classes of materials which include dielectric nanoparticles, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, biomolecular layers, and live cells. Because PCEM does not require cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes, it is especially useful for monitoring the long-term interactions of cells with extracellular matrix surfaces. PCEM is only sensitive to the attachment of cell components within ~200 nm of the photonic crystal surface, which may correspond to the region of most interest for adhesion processes that involve stem cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and metastasis. PCEM has also demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for sensing nanoparticle contrast agents that are roughly the same size as protein molecules, which may enable applications in “digital” diagnostics with single molecule sensing resolution. We will review PCEM’s development history, operating principles, nanostructure design, and imaging modalities that enable tracking of optical scatterers, emitters, absorbers, and centers of dielectric permittivity. PMID:26343684

  1. Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yue; Cunningham, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    We review the development and application of nanostructured photonic crystal surfaces and a hyperspectral reflectance imaging detection instrument which, when used together, represent a new form of optical microscopy that enables label-free, quantitative, and kinetic monitoring of biomaterial interaction with substrate surfaces. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) has been used to detect broad classes of materials which include dielectric nanoparticles, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, biomolecular layers, and live cells. Because PCEM does not require cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes, it is especially useful for monitoring the long-term interactions of cells with extracellular matrix surfaces. PCEM is only sensitive to the attachment of cell components within ~200 nm of the photonic crystal surface, which may correspond to the region of most interest for adhesion processes that involve stem cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and metastasis. PCEM has also demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for sensing nanoparticle contrast agents that are roughly the same size as protein molecules, which may enable applications in "digital" diagnostics with single molecule sensing resolution. We will review PCEM's development history, operating principles, nanostructure design, and imaging modalities that enable tracking of optical scatterers, emitters, absorbers, and centers of dielectric permittivity. PMID:26343684

  2. A novel assay for detecting canine parvovirus using a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Seong-In; Choi, Sarah; Cho, In-Soo; Park, Eun-Hye; An, Dong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial to reduce both the shedding and clinical signs of canine parvovirus (CPV). The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a new tool for measuring frequency changes associated with antigen-antibody interactions. In this study, the QCM biosensor and ProLinker™ B were used to rapidly diagnosis CPV infection. ProLinker™ B enables antibodies to be attached to a gold-coated quartz surface in a regular pattern and in the correct orientation for antigen binding. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to set a cut-off value using reference CPVs (two groups: one CPV-positive and one CPV-negative). The ROC curves overlapped and the point of intersection was used as the cut-off value. A QCM biosensor with a cut-off value of -205 Hz showed 95.4% (104/109) sensitivity and 98.0% (149/152) specificity when used to test 261 field fecal samples compared to PCR. In conclusion, the QCM biosensor described herein is eminently suitable for the rapid diagnosis of CPV infection with high sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, it is a promising analytical tool that will be useful for clinical diagnosis, which requires rapid and reliable analyses. PMID:25813597

  3. Design optimization of structural parameters for highly sensitive photonic crystal label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jonghyun; Han, Yun-ah; Kim, Seok-min

    2013-01-01

    The effects of structural design parameters on the performance of nano-replicated photonic crystal (PC) label-free biosensors were examined by the analysis of simulated reflection spectra of PC structures. The grating pitch, duty, scaled grating height and scaled TiO2 layer thickness were selected as the design factors to optimize the PC structure. The peak wavelength value (PWV), full width at half maximum of the peak, figure of merit for the bulk and surface sensitivities, and surface/bulk sensitivity ratio were also selected as the responses to optimize the PC label-free biosensor performance. A parametric study showed that the grating pitch was the dominant factor for PWV, and that it had low interaction effects with other scaled design factors. Therefore, we can isolate the effect of grating pitch using scaled design factors. For the design of PC-label free biosensor, one should consider that: (1) the PWV can be measured by the reflection peak measurement instruments, (2) the grating pitch and duty can be manufactured using conventional lithography systems, and (3) the optimum design is less sensitive to the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness variations in the fabrication process. In this paper, we suggested a design guide for highly sensitive PC biosensor in which one select the grating pitch and duty based on the limitations of the lithography and measurement system, and conduct a multi objective optimization of the grating height and TiO2 layer thickness for maximizing performance and minimizing the influence of parameter variation. Through multi-objective optimization of a PC structure with a fixed grating height of 550 nm and a duty of 50%, we obtained a surface FOM of 66.18 RIU-1 and an S/B ratio of 34.8%, with a grating height of 117 nm and TiO2 height of 210 nm. PMID:23470487

  4. Label-free detection of glycated haemoglobin in human blood using silicon-based photonic crystal nanocavity biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyaee, Saeed; Seifouri, Mahmood; Mohsenirad, Hamideh

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a two-dimensional photonic crystal-based biosensor that consists of a waveguide and a nanocavity with high sensitivity. A new method is employed for increasing sensitivity of the biosensor. The simulation results show that biosensor is highly sensitive to the refractive index (RI) variations due to injected biomaterials, like glycated haemoglobin, into the sensing surface. The proposed biosensor is designed for the wavelength range of 1514.4-1896.3 nm. The sensitivity and the quality factor are calculated to be 3000 and 272.43 nm/RIU, respectively. The designed structure can detect a 0.002 change in the RI via resonant wavelength shift of 0.9 nm. The band diagram and transmission spectra are computed using plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods.

  5. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber as a robust Raman biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetani, Altaf; Momenpour T. Monfared, Ali; Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Anis, Hanan; Riordon, Jason; Godin, Michel

    2013-03-01

    The present work demonstrates the integration of hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HC-PCF), microfluidics, and statistical analysis for monitoring biomolecules using Raman spectroscopy. HC-PCF as a signal enhancer has been proven by many researchers. However, there have been challenges in using HC-PCF for practical applications due to limitations such as coupling, stability, evaporation, clogging, consistent filling, and reusing the same fiber. This limited the potential of HC-PCF to detect low concentrations of liquid samples, which is why HC-PCF still hasn't transcended the lab barriers. The current device is based on an H-design lay-out which uses the pressure difference between the two ends of the fiber for filling and flushing the liquid samples. This mitigated several issues related to device performance by allowing us to fill the fiber with liquid samples consistently, rapidly and reproducibly. The resulting Raman signals were significantly more stable as various concentrations of ethanol in water were sequentially introduced into the fiber. The scheme also allowed us to overcome the barrier of predicting low concentrations by applying Partial Least Square (PLS) technique which was done for the first time using HC-PCF. Thus, the present scheme paves path for the inclusion of HC-PCF in the main stream point-of-care technology.

  6. Quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for rapid detection of aerosolized microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farka, Zdenĕk.; Kovár, David; Skládal, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) represent the current menace of the asymmetric war. The early detection of BWAs, especially in the form of bioaerosol, is a challenging task for governments all around the world. Label-free quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor and electrochemical immunosensor were developed and tested for rapid detection of BWA surrogate (E. coli) in the form of bioaerosol. Two immobilization strategies for the attachment of antibody were tested; the gold sensor surface was activated by cysteamine and then antibody was covalently linked either using glutaraldehyde, or the reduced antibodies were attached via Sulfo-SMCC. A portable bioaerosol chamber was constructed and used for safe manipulation with aerosolized microorganisms. The dissemination was done using a piezoelectric humidifier, distribution of bioaerosol inside the chamber was ensured using three 12-cm fans. The whole system was controlled remotely using LAN network. The disseminated microbial cells were collected and preconcentrated using the wetted-wall cyclone SASS 2300, the analysis was done using the on-line linked immunosensors. The QCM immunosensor had limit of detection 1×104 CFU·L-1 of air with analysis time 16 min, the whole experiment including dissemination and sensor surface regeneration took 40 min. In case of blank (disseminated sterile buffer), no signal change was observed. The electrochemical immunosensor was able to detect 150 CFU·L-1 of air in 20 min; also in this case, no interferences were observed. Reference measurements were done using particle counter Met One 3400 and by cultivation method on agar plates. The sensors have proved to be applicable for rapid screening of microorganisms in air.

  7. Detection of Myoglobin with an Open-Cavity-Based Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bailin; Tamez-Vela, Juan Manuel; Solis, Steven; Bustamante, Gilbert; Peterson, Ralph; Rahman, Shafiqur; Morales, Andres; Tang, Liang; Ye, Jing Yong

    2013-01-01

    The label-free detection of one of the cardiac biomarkers, myoglobin, using a photonic-crystal-based biosensor in a total-internal-reflection configuration (PC-TIR) is presented in this paper. The PC-TIR sensor possesses a unique open optical microcavity that allows for several key advantages in biomolecular assays. In contrast to a conventional closed microcavity, the open configuration allows easy functionalization of the sensing surface for rapid biomolecular binding assays. Moreover, the properties of PC structures make it easy to be designed and engineered for operating at any optical wavelength. Through fine design of the photonic crystal structure, biochemical modification of the sensor surface, and integration with a microfluidic system, we have demonstrated that the detection sensitivity of the sensor for myoglobin has reached the clinically significant concentration range, enabling potential usage of this biosensor for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The real-time response of the sensor to the myoglobin binding may potentially provide point-of-care monitoring of patients and treatment effects. PMID:27006922

  8. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit. PMID:23082282

  9. Biosensor architecture for enhanced disease diagnostics: lab-in-a-photonic-crystal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuai; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Rashid, Abdullah Al; John, Sajeev

    2016-05-30

    A conceptual lab-in-a-photonic-crystal biosensor is demonstrated that can multiplex four or more distinct disease-markers and distinguish their presence and combinations simultaneously with unique spectral fingerprints. This biosensor consists of a photonic-band-gap, multi-mode waveguide coupled to surface modes on either side, encased in a glass slide with microfluidic channels. The spectral fingerprints consist of multiple peaks in optical transmission vs. frequency that respond sensitively and uniquely in both frequency shift and nonmonotonic change of peak transmittance levels to various analyte bindings. This special property enables complete, logical determination of twelve different combinations of four distinct disease-markers through one scan of the transmission spectrum. The results reveal unique phenomena such as switching between the strong-coupling and weak-coupling combinations of surface states by analyte binding at different locations along the central waveguide. The unconventional transmission spectra are explained using a Landauer-Büttiker, multiple-scattering, transmission theory that reproduces the main features of the exact finite-difference-time-domain simulation. PMID:27410136

  10. Self assembled monolayer based liquid crystal biosensor for free cholesterol detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Mukta; Agrawal, V. V.; Chandran, Achu; Joshi, Tilak; Prakash, Jai; Biradar, A. M.

    2014-04-14

    A unique cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor, based on the disruption of orientation in LCs, is developed for cholesterol detection. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMOAP) and (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) is prepared on a glass plate by adsorption. The enzyme (ChOx) is immobilized on SAM surface for 12 h before utilizing the film for biosensing purpose. LC based biosensing study is conducted on SAM/ChOx/LC (5CB) cells for cholesterol concentrations ranging from 10 mg/dl to 250 mg/dl. The sensing mechanism has been verified through polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrometric techniques.

  11. Self assembled monolayer based liquid crystal biosensor for free cholesterol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Mukta; Chandran, Achu; Joshi, Tilak; Prakash, Jai; Agrawal, V. V.; Biradar, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    A unique cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor, based on the disruption of orientation in LCs, is developed for cholesterol detection. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of Dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMOAP) and (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) is prepared on a glass plate by adsorption. The enzyme (ChOx) is immobilized on SAM surface for 12 h before utilizing the film for biosensing purpose. LC based biosensing study is conducted on SAM/ChOx/LC (5CB) cells for cholesterol concentrations ranging from 10 mg/dl to 250 mg/dl. The sensing mechanism has been verified through polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and spectrometric techniques.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on large size square-lattice photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, Pibin; Li, Zhongyang; Yuan, Sheng; Yao, Jianquan; Lu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on large size square-lattice photonic crystal fiber has been designed and simulated by finite element method. The square-lattice airholes are first coated with a calcium fluoride layer to provide mode confinement, then a nanoscale gold layer is deposited to excite the plasmon mode, and finally, the sample is infiltrated into the holes. The numerical results reveal that the resonance properties are easily affected by many parameters. The refractive index resolution of corresponding sensor can reach 4.3 × 10-6 RIU when the optimum parameters are set as the radius of curvature of the airhole r = 2 μm, the thickness of the core struts c = 200 nm, the auxiliary dielectric layer s = 1 μm, and the gold film d = 40 nm. In addition, the effective area and nonlinear coefficient are calculated.

  13. Handheld imaging photonic crystal biosensor for multiplexed, label-free protein detection

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Sabrina; Bräu, Marion; Meyer, Björn-Ole; Karrock, Torben; Gutekunst, Sören B.; Blohm, Lars; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Buhmann, Raymund; Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Gerken, Martina

    2015-01-01

    We present a handheld biosensor system for the label-free and specific multiplexed detection of several biomarkers employing a spectrometer-free imaging measurement system. A photonic crystal surface functionalized with multiple specific ligands forms the optical transducer. The photonic crystal slab is fabricated on a glass substrate by replicating a periodic grating master stamp with a period of 370 nm into a photoresist via nanoimprint lithography and deposition of a 70-nm titanium dioxide layer. Capture molecules are coupled covalently and drop-wise to the photonic crystal surface. With a simple camera and imaging optics the surface-normal transmission is detected. In the transmission spectrum guided-mode resonances are observed that shift due to protein binding. This shift is observed as an intensity change in the green color channel of the camera. Non-functionalized image sections are used for continuous elimination of background drift. In a first experiment we demonstrate the specific and time-resolved detection of 90.0 nm CD40 ligand antibody, 90.0 nM EGF antibody, and 500 nM streptavidin in parallel on one sensor chip. In a second experiment, aptamers with two different spacer lengths are used as receptor. The binding kinetics with association and dissociation of 250 nM thrombin and regeneration of the sensor surface with acidic tris-HCl-buffer (pH 5.0) is presented for two measurement cycles. PMID:26504624

  14. Acetylcholinesterase liquid crystal biosensor based on modulated growth of gold nanoparticles for amplified detection of acetylcholine and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shuzhen; Qiao, Yanan; Han, Wenting; Xie, Zhaoxia; Wu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2012-01-01

    A novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) liquid crystal (LC) biosensor based on enzymatic growth of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has been developed for amplified detection of acetylcholine (ACh) and AChE inhibitor. In this method, AChE mediates the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine (ATCl) to form thiocholine, and the latter further reduces AuCl(4)(-) to Au NPs without Au nanoseeds. This process, termed biometallization, leads to a great enhancement in the optical signal of the LC biosensor due to the large size of Au NPs, which can greatly disrupt the orientational arrangement of LCs. On the other hand, the hydrolysis of ATCl is inhibited in the presence of ACh or organophosphate pesticides (OPs, a AChE inhibitor), which will decrease the catalytic growth of Au NPs and, as a result, reduce the orientational response of LCs. On the basis of such an inhibition mechanism, the AChE LC biosensor can be used as an effective way to realize the detection of ACh and AChE inhibitors. The results showed that the AChE LC biosensor was highly sensitive to ACh with a detection limit of 15 μmol/L and OPs with a detection limit of 0.3 nmol/L. This study provides a simple and sensitive AChE LC biosensing approach and offers effective signal enhanced strategies for the development of enzyme LC biosensors. PMID:22148672

  15. Edge-driven microplate kinematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.

    1993-01-01

    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  16. User-friendly, miniature biosensor flow cell for fragile high fundamental frequency quartz crystal resonators.

    PubMed

    Sagmeister, Brigitte P; Graz, Ingrid M; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Gruber, Hermann; Bauer, Siegfried

    2009-04-15

    For the application of high fundamental frequency (HFF) quartz crystal resonators as ultra sensitive acoustic biosensors, a tailor-made quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) flow cell has been fabricated and tested. The cell permits an equally fast and easy installation and replacement of small and fragile HFF sensors. Usability and simple fabrication are two central features of the HFF-QCM flow cell. Mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical requirements are considered. The design of the cell combines these, partially contradictory, requirements within a simple device. Central design concepts are discussed and a brief description of the fabrication, with a special focus on the preparation of crucial parts, is provided. For test measurements, the cell was equipped with a standard 50 MHz HFF resonator which had been surface-functionalised with a self-assembled monolayer of 1-octadecanethiol. The reliable performance is demonstrated with two types of experiments: the real time monitoring of phospholipid monolayer formation and its removal with detergent, as well as step-wise growth of a protein multilayer system by an alternating immobilisation of streptavidin and biotinylated immunoglobulin G. PMID:19231152

  17. Recognition of apoptotic cells by viable cells is specific, ubiquitous, and species independent: analysis using photonic crystal biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Pattabiraman, Goutham; Lidstone, Erich A.; Palasiewicz, Karol; Cunningham, Brian T.; Ucker, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic recognition is innate and linked to a profound immune regulation (innate apoptotic immunity [IAI]) involving anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses. Many of the molecular and mechanistic details of this response remain elusive. Although immune outcomes can be quantified readily, the initial specific recognition events have been difficult to assess. We developed a sensitive, real-time method to detect the recognition of apoptotic cells by viable adherent responder cells, using a photonic crystal biosensor approach. The method relies on characteristic spectral shifts resulting from the specific recognition and dose-dependent interaction of adherent responder cells with nonadherent apoptotic targets. Of note, the biosensor provides a readout of early recognition-specific events in responder cells that occur distal to the biosensor surface. We find that innate apoptotic cell recognition occurs in a strikingly species-independent manner, consistent with our previous work and inferences drawn from indirect assays. Our studies indicate obligate cytoskeletal involvement, although apoptotic cell phagocytosis is not involved. Because it is a direct, objective, and quantitative readout of recognition exclusively, this biosensor approach affords a methodology with which to dissect the early recognition events associated with IAI and immunosuppression. PMID:24694594

  18. Highly sensitive color-indicating and quantitative biosensor based on cholesteric liquid crystal

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Sung, Yu-Chien; Lee, Mon-Juan; Lee, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biosensors employ highly sensitive interfaces between the alignment layers and LCs to detect biomolecules and their interactions. Present techniques based on optical texture observation of the homeotropic-to-planar response of nematic LCs are limited by their quantitative reproducibility of results, indicating that both the accuracy and reliability of LC-based detection require further improvements. Here we show that cholesteric LC (CLC) can be used as a novel sensing element in the design of an alternative LC-based biosensing device. The chirality of the vertically anchored (VA) CLC was exploited in the detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein standard commonly used in protein quantitation. The color appearance and the corresponding transmission spectrum of the cholesteric phase changed with the concentration of BSA, by which a detection limit of 1 fg/ml was observed. The optical response of the VA CLC interface offers a simple and inexpensive platform for highly sensitive and naked-eye color-indicating detection of biomolecules, and, thus, may facilitate the development of point-of-care devices for the detection of disease-related biomarkers. PMID:26713215

  19. Highly-sensitive liquid crystal biosensor based on DNA dendrimers-mediated optical reorientation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui; Li, Xia; Liao, Shuzhen; Yu, Ruqin; Wu, Zhaoyang

    2014-12-15

    A novel highly-sensitive liquid crystal (LC) biosensing approach based on target-triggering DNA dendrimers was developed for the detection of p53 mutation gene segment at the LC-aqueous interface. In this study, the mutant-type p53 gene segment was the target to trigger the formation of DNA dendrimers from hairpin DNA probes by hybridization chain reaction, and the latter as a 'signal enhancement element' further induced the LC reorientation from tilted to homeotropic alignment, resulting in a corresponding optical changes of LC biosensors from birefringent to honeycombed textures or dark framework. The distinct optical reorientational appearances can serve as a characteristic signal to distinguish target concentrations ranging from 0.08 nM to 8 nM. Moreover, these optical phenomena suggest that the LC reorientation is related to the electric-dipole coupling between the adsorbed DNA and LC molecules, the conformational constraints of DNA and the internal electric field induction upon hybridization. This label-free LC biosensing strategy can open up a new platform for the sensitive detection of specific DNA sequences and enrich the application scope of an LC biosensing technique. PMID:24984288

  20. Highly sensitive color-indicating and quantitative biosensor based on cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Sung, Yu-Chien; Lee, Mon-Juan; Lee, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based biosensors employ highly sensitive interfaces between the alignment layers and LCs to detect biomolecules and their interactions. Present techniques based on optical texture observation of the homeotropic-to-planar response of nematic LCs are limited by their quantitative reproducibility of results, indicating that both the accuracy and reliability of LC-based detection require further improvements. Here we show that cholesteric LC (CLC) can be used as a novel sensing element in the design of an alternative LC-based biosensing device. The chirality of the vertically anchored (VA) CLC was exploited in the detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein standard commonly used in protein quantitation. The color appearance and the corresponding transmission spectrum of the cholesteric phase changed with the concentration of BSA, by which a detection limit of 1 fg/ml was observed. The optical response of the VA CLC interface offers a simple and inexpensive platform for highly sensitive and naked-eye color-indicating detection of biomolecules, and, thus, may facilitate the development of point-of-care devices for the detection of disease-related biomarkers. PMID:26713215

  1. Real-time multianalyte biosensors based on interference-free multichannel monolithic quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Jaruwongrungsee, Kata; Waiwijit, Uraiwan; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Sangworasil, Manas; Pintavirooj, Chuchart; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2015-05-15

    In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize a new interference-free multichannel monolithic quartz crystal microbalance (MQCM) platform for bio-sensing applications. Firstly, interference due to thickness-shear vibration mode coupling between channels in MQCM array is effectively suppressed by interposing a polydimethylsiloxane wall between adjacent QCM electrodes on a quartz substrate to form inverted-mesa-like structure. In addition, the electrical coupling due to the electrical impedance of solution is diminished by extending the flow path between them with an extended-design flow channel. The electrical testing results show that individual QCM signal is unaffected by those of adjacent channels under liquid loading, signifying the achievement of interference-free MQCM. The MQCM is applied for multi-analyte biosensing of IgG and HSA. The anti-IgG and anti-HSA are separately immobilized on two adjacent QCM electrodes, which are subsequently blocked with BSA to avoid unspecific binding. The MQCM biosensors are tested with single- and double-analyte solutions under continuous flow of buffer. The IgG and HSA QCM sensors only show frequency shift responses to their corresponding analytes and there are very small cross frequency shifts due to remnant unspecific binding. Moreover, MQCM sensors show approximately linear frequency shift response with analyte concentration. Therefore, the developed MQCM platform is promising for real-time interference-free label-free detection and quantification of multiple bio-analytes. PMID:25307623

  2. Label-free liquid crystal biosensor based on specific oligonucleotide probes for heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengyuan; Wu, Chao; Tan, Hui; Wu, Yan; Liao, Shuzhen; Wu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, to enhance the capability of metal ions disturbing the orientation of liquid crystals (LCs), we designed a new label-free LC biosensor for the highly selective and sensitive detection of heavy metal ions. This strategy makes use of the target-induced DNA conformational change to enhance the disruption of target molecules for the orientation of LC leading to an amplified optical signal. The Hg(2+) ion, which possesses a unique property to bind specifically to two DNA thymine (T) bases, is used as a model heavy metal ion. In the presence of Hg(2+), the specific oligonucleotide probes form a conformational reorganization of the oligonucleotide probes from hairpin structure to duplex-like complexes. The duplex-like complexes are then bound on the triethoxysilylbutyraldehyde/N,N-dimethyl-N-octadecyl (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilyl chloride (TEA/DMOAP)-coated substrate modified with capture probes, which can greatly distort the orientational profile of LC, making the optical image of LC cell birefringent as a result. The optical signal of LC sensor has a visible change at the Hg(2+) concentration of low to 0.1 nM, showing good detection sensitivity. The cost-effective LC sensing method can translate the concentration signal of heavy metal ions in solution into the presence of DNA duplexes and is expected to be a sensitive detection platform for heavy metal ions and other small molecule monitors. PMID:23214408

  3. Improving the binding efficiency of quartz crystal microbalance biosensors by applying the electrothermal effect

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yao-Hung; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Chao, Sheng D.; Wu, Kuang-Chong; Huang, Long-Sun

    2014-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) serving as a biosensor to detect the target biomolecules (analytes) often suffers from the time consuming process, especially in the case of diffusion-limited reaction. In this experimental work, we modify the reaction chamber of a conventional QCM by integrating into the multi-microelectrodes to produce electrothermal vortex flow which can efficiently drive the analytes moving toward the sensor surface, where the analytes were captured by the immobilized ligands. The microelectrodes are placed on the top surface of the chamber opposite to the sensor, which is located on the bottom of the chamber. Besides, the height of reaction chamber is reduced to assure that the suspended analytes in the fluid can be effectively drived to the sensor surface by induced electrothermal vortex flow, and also the sample costs are saved. A series of frequency shift measurements associated with the adding mass due to the specific binding of the analytes in the fluid flow and the immobilized ligands on the QCM sensor surface are performed with or without applying electrothermal effect (ETE). The experimental results show that electrothermal vortex flow does effectively accelerate the specific binding and make the frequency shift measurement more sensible. In addition, the images of the binding surfaces of the sensors with or without applying electrothermal effect are taken through the scanning electron microscopy. By comparing the images, it also clearly indicates that ETE does raise the specific binding of the analytes and ligands and efficiently improves the performance of the QCM sensor. PMID:25538808

  4. Label-free Detection of Cardiac Troponin I with a Photonic Crystal Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bailin; Morales, Andres W.; Peterson, Ralph; Tang, Liang; Ye, Jing Yong

    2014-01-01

    A biosensor has been developed with a photonic crystal structure used in a total-internal-reflection (PC-TIR) configuration for label-free detection of a cardiac biomarker: Troponin I (cTnI). In contrast to a conventional optical microcavity that has a closed structure with its cavity layer sandwiched between two high-reflection surfaces, the PC-TIR configuration creates a unique open microcavity, which allows its cavity layer (sensing layer) to be easily functionalized and directly exposed to analyte molecules for bioassays. In this study, a PC-TIR sensor has been used for the label-free measurements of cardiac biomarkers by monitoring the changes in the resonant condition of the cavity due to biomolecular binding processes. Antibodies against cTnI are immobilized on the sensor surface for specific detection of cTnI with a wide range of concentrations. Detection limit of cTnI with a concentration as low as 0.1 ng mL−1 has been achieved. PMID:24632136

  5. Liquid crystal-based glucose biosensor functionalized with mixed PAA and QP4VP brushes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mashooq; Park, Soo-Young

    2015-06-15

    4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid was developed for glucose detection by coating with a monolayer of mixed polymer brushes using poly(acrylicacid-b-4-cynobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (PAA-b-LCP) and quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine-b-4-cynobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (QP4VP-b-LCP) (LCP stands for liquid crystal polymer) at the 5CB/aqueous interface. The resultant 5CB in TEM grid was functionalized with the PAA and QP4VP brushes, which were strongly anchored by the LCP block. The PAA brush rendered the 5CB/aqueous interface pH-responsive and the QP4VP brush immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) through electrostatic interactions without the aid of coupling agents. The glucose was detected through a homeotropic-to-planar orientational transition of the 5CB observed through a polarized optical microscope (POM) under crossed polarizers. The optimum immobilization with a 0.78 µM GOx solution on the dual-brush-coated TEM grid enabled glucose detection at concentrations higher than 0.5 mM with response times shorter than 180 s. This TEM grid glucose sensor provided a linear response of birefringence of the 5CB to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 11 mM with a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 1.67 mM. This new and sensitive glucose biosensor has the advantages of low production cost, simple enzyme immobilization, high enzyme sensitivity and stability, and easy detection with POM, and may be useful for prescreening the glucose level in the human body. PMID:25617751

  6. Development of optical biosensor based on photonic crystal made of TiO2 using liquid phase deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Keigo; Aki, Shoma; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Endo, Tatsuro

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated a titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photonic crystal (PhC) using liquid phase deposition (LPD) to develop highly sensitive optical biosensors. The optical characteristics of the PhCs in the visible region were sensitive to the change in the refractive index of the surrounding medium due to an antigen–antibody reaction; thus, applications using the optical biosensor are expected to be highly sensitive. However, a base material with a high refractive index is indispensable for the fabrication of the PhC. Here, TiO2, which has optical transparency in the visible region, was selected as the high refractive index base material. The present LPD method allowed fabrication using low-cost apparatus. Furthermore, the mild conditions of the LPD method led to formation of TiO2-based PhC with fewer crack structures. Finally, the anti-neuron-specific enolase antibody was immobilized onto the TiO2-based PhC surface, and 1–1000 ng/mL of the neuron-specific enolase antigen was successfully detected.

  7. Glucose biosensor based on GOx/HRP bienzyme at liquid-crystal/aqueous interface.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mashooq; Park, Soo-Young

    2015-11-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were co-immobilized to the polyacrylicacid block of a poly(acrylicacid-b-4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-undecylacrylate) (PAA-b-LCP) copolymer in water. PAA-b-LCP was strongly anchored by the LCP block in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) which was contained in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid for glucose detection. The optimal conditions for the performance of the TEM grid glucose biosensor were studied in terms of the activity and stability of the immobilized enzymes. Glucose in water was detected by the 5CB changing from a planar to a homeotropic orientation, as observed through a polarized optical microscope. The TEM biosensor detected glucose concentrations at ⩾0.02 mM, with an optimal GOx/HRP molar ratio of 3/1. This glucose biosensor has characteristics of enzyme sensitivity and stability, reusability, the ease and selective glucose detection which may provide a new way of detecting glucose. PMID:26196711

  8. Development of a Mass Sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM)-Based DNA Biosensor Using a 50 MHz Electronic Oscillator Circuit

    PubMed Central

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm2 in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected. PMID:22164037

  9. A biosensor of high-density lipoprotein of human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Kai-Han; Chu, Wei-Lin; Tsou, Yu-Shih; Wu, Li-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor for the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) is demonstrated. The sensing mechanism is based on a polar-polar interaction between orientation of LC directors and HDL in human serum. The concentration of polar HDL in human serum affects the orientations of LC directors at the interface between LCPCF and the human serum. In addition, the surface free energy of LCPCF changes with the applied voltage due to the electrically tunable orientations of LC directors anchored among the polymer grains of LCPCF. As a result, the droplet motion of human serum on LCPCF under applied voltages can sense the concentration of HDL in human serum.

  10. Development of a mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based DNA biosensor using a 50 MHz electronic oscillator circuit.

    PubMed

    García-Martinez, Gonzalo; Bustabad, Enrique Alonso; Perrot, Hubert; Gabrielli, Claude; Bucur, Bogdan; Lazerges, Mathieu; Rose, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pardo, Loreto; Fariña, Jose; Compère, Chantal; Vives, Antonio Arnau

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the design of a high sensitivity DNA sequence detector using a 50 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electronic oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuitry is based on Miller topology, which is able to work in damping media. Calibration and experimental study of frequency noise are carried out, finding that the designed sensor has a resolution of 7.1 ng/cm(2) in dynamic conditions (with circulation of liquid). Then the oscillator is proved as DNA biosensor. Results show that the system is able to detect the presence of complementary target DNAs in a solution with high selectivity and sensitivity. DNA target concentrations higher of 50 ng/mL can be detected. PMID:22164037

  11. A comparative study of the cytoskeleton binding drugs nocodazole and taxol with a mammalian cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor: different dynamic responses and energy dissipation effects.

    PubMed

    Marx, Kenneth A; Zhou, Tiean; Montrone, Anne; McIntosh, Donna; Braunhut, Susan J

    2007-02-01

    The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to create piezoelectric whole-cell biosensors utilizing either living endothelial cells (ECs) or the metastatic human mammary cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 adhering to the gold QCM surface under in vitro growth conditions. We utilized the whole-cell QCM biosensors for the detection of the effects of varying concentrations of the microtubule binding drugs taxol and nocodazole by measuring changes in the QCM steady state frequency (Deltaf) and motional resistance (DeltaR), shift values. Using 0.11-50 microM nocodazole, we observed the Deltaf shift values of the biosensors, consisting of 20,000 ECs, to decrease significantly in magnitude (nearly 100%) to a limiting value, in a dose-dependent fashion, over a 5- to 6-h incubation period following drug addition. This effect is consistent with nocodazole's known disruption of intracellular microtubules. On the other hand, 10 microM taxol caused little alteration in Deltaf over the same time period, consistent with its microtubule hyperstabilization effect. When the EC QCM biosensor Deltaf shift values were normalized by the number of ECs found firmly attached to the QCM surface via trypsin removal and electronic counting, the dose curve was shifted to lower nocodazole concentrations, resulting in a more sensitive drug biosensor. The kinetics of the Deltaf decrease with increasing nocodazole concentrations measured by the EC QCM biosensor was found to be similar at all drug concentrations and was well fit by a single first-order exponential decay equation. For all nocodazole doses, t(0.5) was invariant, averaging t(0.5)=0.83+/-0.14 h. These data demonstrate that a single dynamic sensing system within the cell, the microtubules, is disrupted by the addition of nocodazole and this process is sensed by the cell QCM biosensor. This interpretation of the data was confirmed by a fluorescence light microscopy investigation of ECs undergoing treatment with increasing nocodazole doses

  12. A semistatic microplate-based phytotoxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F. . Centre des Sciences de l'Environnement); Blaise, C. )

    1995-02-01

    A novel phytotoxicity test is described herein that employs a microplate equipped with membrane-bottomed wells. This MultiScreen[trademark] (Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA) microplate allows performance of a semistatic algal test, in which test medium is renewed periodically. With such a design, the algal test becomes comparable to other short-term tests used to evaluate chronic toxicity of chemicals and effluents. The EC50s obtained for Cu[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+], Cr[sup 6+], atrazine, and one leachate sample (municipal sludge incinerator residue) with static and semistatic algal microplate tests were compared in this study. The semistatic microplate test revealed greater sensitivity than did the static microplate test.

  13. QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE BIOSENSOR FOR MEASUREMENT OF 2,4-D IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to proportional relationship between vibrational frequency and surface mass, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has been used to detect the accumulation of small quantities of chemical and biological compounds on electrode-covered quartz crystals. lassically, these devices...

  14. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, M. I.; Svendsen, W. E.; Hauptmann, P.; Naumann, M.

    2010-08-01

    In this contribution we present a new disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for the online analysis of adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on quartz crystal resonators (QCRs). The device was conceived for the parallel cultivation of cells providing the same experimental conditions among all the sensors of the array. As well, dedicated sensor interface electronics were developed and optimized for fast spectra acquisition of all 16 QCRs with a miniaturized impedance analyzer. This allowed performing cell cultivation experiments for the observation of fast cellular reaction kinetics with focus on the comparison of the resulting sensor signals influenced by different cell distributions on the sensor surface. To prove the assumption of equal flow circulation within the symmetric micro-channel network and support the hypothesis of identical cultivation conditions for the cells living above the sensors, the influence of fabrication tolerances on the flow regime has been simulated. As well, the shear stress on the adherent cell layer due to the flowing media was characterized. Injection molding technology was chosen for the cheap mass production of disposable devices. Furthermore, the injection molding process was simulated in order to optimize the mold geometry and minimize the shrinkage and the warpage of the parts. MDCK-II cells were cultivated in the biosensor array. Parallel cultivation of cells on the gold surface of the QCRs led to first observations of the impact of the cell distribution on the sensor signals during cell cultivation. Indeed, the initial cell distribution revealed a significant influence on the changes in the measured acoustic load on the QCRs suggesting dissimilar cell migrations as well as proliferation kinetics of a non-confluent MDCK-II cell layer.

  15. Microplate Assay for Colletotrichum Spore Production

    PubMed Central

    Slade, S. J.; Harris, R. F.; Smith, C. S.; Andrews, J. H.; Nordheim, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    A simple microplate method was devised to assay spore production by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides by growing the fungus on 1 ml of solid media in the wells of tissue culture plates. Growth and sporulation on microplates were compared at days 4 and 8 with growth and sporulation in 100-ml liquid batch cultures that involved 11 common media. Spore production per unit volume of medium was the same for solid and liquid forms of the media. Qualitative assessment of mycelial growth measured on microplates agreed with that of growth measured in liquid cultures. The microplate assay indicated that V8 juice was the best medium and that an organic content of about 6 mg/ml was optimal for high sporulation and low mycelium production. The assay provides a convenient, rapid, and inexpensive means of screening media for the production of fungal conidia in large numbers, to be used, for example, in biological control programs. PMID:16347310

  16. Fabrication of Refractive Index Tunable Polydimethylsiloxane Photonic Crystal for Biosensor Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Karthik; Murthy, T. R. Srinivasa; Hegde, G. M.

    Photonic crystal based nanostructures are expected to play a significant role in next generation nanophotonic devices. Recent developments in two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal based devices have created widespread interest as such planar photonic structures are compatible with conventional microelectronic and photonic devices. Various optical components such as waveguides, resonators, modulators and demultiplexers have been designed and fabricated based on 2D photonic crystal geometry. This paper presents the fabrication of refractive index tunable Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer based photonic crystals. The advantages of using PDMS are mainly its chemical stability, bio-compatibility and the stack reduces sidewall roughness scattering. The PDMS structure with square lattice was fabricated by using silicon substrate patterned with SU8-2002 resist. The 600 nm period grating of PDMS is then fabricated using Nano-imprinting. In addition, the refractive index of PDMS is modified using certain additive materials. The resulting photonic crystals are suitable for application in photonic integrated circuits and biological applications such as filters, cavities or microlaser waveguides.

  17. Preparation of QP4VP-b-LCP liquid crystal block copolymer and its application as a biosensor.

    PubMed

    Omer, Muhammad; Park, Soo-Young

    2014-09-01

    The interface between nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), and water in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with QP4VP-b-LCP (quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) (QP4VP) and poly(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (LCP)) was examined for protein and DNA detection. QP4VP-b-LCP was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Quaternization of P4VP with iodomethane (CH3I) made it a strong cationic polyelectrolyte and allowed QP4VP-b-LCP to form complexes with oppositely charged biological species. Several proteins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), hemoglobin (Hb), α chymotrypsinogen-A (ChTg), and lysozyme (LYZ), were tested for nonspecific protein detection. By injecting the protein solutions into the TEM grid cell, the initial homeotropic orientation of the TEM grid cell changed to a planar orientation above their isoelectric points (PIs) due to electrostatic interactions between QP4VP (+charge) and proteins (-charge), which did not occur below the PIs of the tested proteins. Their minimum concentrations at which the homeotropic to planar configurational change (H-P change) occurred were 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.04 wt.% for BSA, ChTg, Hb, and LYZ, respectively. One of the strong anionic polyelectrolytes, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (due to the phosphate deoxyribose backbone) was also tested. A H-P change was observed with as little as 0.0013 wt.% salmon sperm DNA regardless of the pH of the cell. A H-P change occurred in 5CB and was observed by polarized optical microscopy. This simple and inexpensive setup for nonspecific biomaterial detection provides the basic idea for developing effective selective biosensors by introducing specific binding groups, such as the aptamer and antibody. PMID:24980600

  18. Optical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  19. Optical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  20. An Integrative Biosensor Based on Contra-Directional Coupling Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xiao-Yu; Yao, Di-Bi; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Huang, Yi-Dong; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Jiang-De

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integrative biochemical sensor utilizing the dip in the transmission spectrum of a normal single-line defect photonic crystal (PC) waveguide, which has a contra-directional coupling with another PC waveguide. When the air holes in the PC slab are filled with a liquid analyte with different refractive indices, the dip has a wavelength shift By detecting the output power variation at a certain fixed wavelength, a sensitivity of 1.2 × 10-4 is feasible. This structure is easy for integration due to its plane waveguide structure and omissible pump source. In addition, high signal to noise ratio can be expected because signal transmits via a normal single-line defect PC waveguide instead of the PC hole area or analyte.

  1. Liquid Crystal Droplet-Embedded Biopolymer Hydrogel Sheets for Biosensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jinan; Liang, Wenlang; Fang, Jiyu

    2016-02-17

    The development of simple, portable, and low-cost biosensing platforms is of great interest in the clinical diagnosis of disease. Here, we report liquid crystal (LC) droplet-embedded chitosan (CHI) hydrogel films formed by the Ag(+) ion-triggered fast gelation of the CHI/surfactant complex-stabilized LC emulsion which is cast on substrates. The small sheets cut from the LC droplet-embedded hydrogel films combine the advantages of both hydrogels and LC droplets, offering a portable and label-free sensing platform for the real-time detection of bile acids in a small amount of solution. We find that the response time and detection limit of LC droplet-embedded hydrogel sheets for bile acids depend on their chemical structures. PMID:26808341

  2. Utilizing a high fundamental frequency quartz crystal resonator as a biosensor in a digital microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Thomas; Stehrer, Brigitte P; Bauer, Siegfried; Jakoby, Bernhard; Hilber, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip system utilizing Electro Wetting on Dielectrics (EWOD) as the actuation principle and a High Fundamental Frequency (HFF; 50 MHz) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator as a mass-sensitive sensor. In a first experiment we have tested the reversible formation of a phosphor-lipid monolayer of phospholipid vesicles out of an aqueous buffer suspension onto a bio-functionalized integrated QCM sensor. A binding of bio-molecules results in an altered mass load of the resonant sensor and a shift of the resonance frequency can be measured. In the second part of the experiment, the formation of a protein multilayer composed of the biomolecule streptavidin and biotinylated immunoglobulin G was monitored. Additionally, the macroscopic contact angle was optically measured in order to verify the bio-specific binding and to test the implications onto the balance of the surface tensions. Using these sample applications, we were able to demonstrate and to verify the feasibility of integrating a mass-sensitive QCM sensor into a digital microfluidic chip. PMID:22241942

  3. Biosensors for hepatitis B virus detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-09-21

    A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of analytes, which combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. Recently, an increasing number of biosensors have been used in clinical research, for example, the blood glucose biosensor. This review focuses on the current state of biosensor research with respect to efficient, specific and rapid detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The biosensors developed based on different techniques, including optical methods (e.g., surface plasmon resonance), acoustic wave technologies (e.g., quartz crystal microbalance), electrochemistry (amperometry, voltammetry and impedance) and novel nanotechnology, are also discussed. PMID:25253948

  4. Architecture of the Northwest Andean Microplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, L. V.; Hernandez, O.; von Frese, R. R.; Schmidt, M.

    2005-05-01

    Recently revised models on global plate boundary zones show that the North Andes microplate includes a wide distribution of seismicity, volcanic events, active faulting and extreme topography. The current description of the north Andean microplate boundaries is interpreted from a variety of geological and geophysical models including volcanism and seismicity with variable confidence levels. The poorly understood complex structure and geometry of plate boundaries limits the ability of current physical models to predict neotectonic and other effects including intra-plate lithospheric stresses and strain. Together with local surface gravity and topography data, a variety of available space geodetic sensors have substantially improved the modeling of the lithosphere for analyzing subsurface mass dynamics. They include the GPS-derived 3-D crustal velocities, high resolution (90-m) topography, seismic surveys and high resolution gravity models derived from integrated satellite (e.g., CHAMP and GRACE, 200-km resolution) and terrestrial observations (up to ~5 km resolution). Spherical wavelets is a modern tool for a multi-resolution representation of spatially heterogenously distributed gravity (consistent with the generalized boundary value problem) and for topography datasets with the distinct ability to enhance localized signals. Analysis of multi-resolution gravity and topography models combined with GPS velocities provide a unique opportunity to characterize the structure, isostatic conditions, mass dynamics, and intra-plate deformations of the North Andes microplate.

  5. Enhanced sandwich immunoassay using antibody-functionalized magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles for extraction and detection of soluble transferrin receptor on a photonic crystal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Ross D; Chen, Weili; Cunningham, Brian T; Andrade, Juan E

    2015-12-15

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has detrimental effects on individuals and societies worldwide. A standard sandwich assay (SA) for the detection of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), a biomarker of IDA, on a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor was established, but it was susceptible to non-specific signals from complex matrixes. In this study, iron-oxide nanoparticles (fAb-IONs) were used as magnetic immuno-probes to bind sTfR and minimize non-specific signals, while enhancing detection on the PC biosensor. This inverse sandwich assay (IA) method completely bound sTfR with low variability (<4% RSD) in buffer and allowed for its accurate and precise detection in sera (Liquichek™ control sera) on the PC biosensor using two certified ELISAs as reference methods. A linear dose-response curve was elicited at the fAb-IONs concentration in which the theoretical binding ratio (sTfR:fAb-IONs) was calculated to be <1 on the IA. The LoDs for sTfR in the SA and IA were similar (P>0.05) at 14 and 21 μg/mL, respectively. The inherent imprecision of the IA and reference ELISAs was σ(δ)=0.45 µg/mL and the mean biases for Liquichek™ 1, 2 and 3 were 0.18, 0.19 and -0.04 µg/mL, respectively. Whereas the inherent imprecision of the SA and reference ELISAs was σ(δ)=0.52 µg/mL and the biases for Liquichek™ 1, 2 and 3 were 0.66, 0.14 and -0.67 µg/mL, respectively. Thus, unlike the SA, the IA method measures sTfR with the same bias as the reference ELISAs. Combined magnetic separation and detection of nutrition biomarkers on PC biosensors represents a facile method for their accurate and reliable quantification in complex matrixes. PMID:26232676

  6. Study and development of label-free optical biosensors for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Charles J.

    For the majority of assays currently performed, fluorescent or colorimetric chemical labels are commonly attached to the molecules under study so that they may be readily visualized. The methods of using labels to track biomolecular binding events are very sensitive and effective, and are employed as standardized assay protocol across research labs worldwide. However, using labels induces experimental uncertainties due to the effect of the label on molecular conformation, active binding sites, or inability to find an appropriate label that functions equivalently for all molecules in an experiment. Therefore, the ability to perform highly sensitive biochemical detection without the use of fluorescent labels would further simplify assay protocols and would provide quantitative kinetic data, while removing experimental artifacts from fluorescent quenching, shelf-life, and background fluorescence phenomena. In view of the advantages mentioned above, the study and development of optical label-free sensor technologies have been undertaken here. In general, label-free photonic crystal (PC) biosensors and metal nanodome array surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates, both of which are fabricated by nanoreplica molding process, have been used as the method to attack the problem. Chapter 1 shows the work on PC label-free biosensor incorporated microfluidic network for bioassay performance enhancement and kinetic reaction rate constant determination. Chapter 2 describes the work on theoretical and experimental comparison of label-free biosensing in microplate, microfluidic, and spot-based affinity capture assays. Chapter 3 shows the work on integration of PC biosensor with actuate-to-open valve microfluidic chip for pL-volume combinatorial mixing and screening application. In Chapter 4, the development and characterization of SERS nanodome array is shown. Lastly, Chapter 5 describes SERS nanodome sensor incorporated tubing for point-of-care monitoring of

  7. India-Eurasia collision triggers formation of an oceanic microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara; Müller, Dietmar; Sandwell, David

    2016-04-01

    Detailed mapping of seafloor tectonic fabric in the Indian Ocean, using high-resolution satellite-derived vertical gravity gradient data, reveals an extinct Pacific-style oceanic microplate - the Mammerickx Microplate - west of the Ninetyeast Ridge. It is one of the first Pacific-style microplates to be mapped outside the Pacific basin, suggesting that geophysical conditions during formation probably resembled those that have dominated at eastern Pacific ridges. The microplate formed at the Indian-Antarctic ridge and is bordered by an extinct ridge in the north and pseudofault in the south, whose conjugate is located north of the Kerguelen Plateau. Independent microplate rotation is indicated by asymmetric pseudofaults and rotated abyssal hill fabric, also identified in multibeam data. Magnetic anomaly picks and age estimates calculated from published spreading rates suggest formation during chron 21o (~47.3 Ma). Plate reorganizations can trigger ridge propagation and microplate development, and we propose that formation of the Mammerickx Microplate is linked with the initial 'soft' stage of the India-Eurasia collision. The collision altered the stress regime at the Indian-Antarctic ridge, leading to a change in segmentation and ridge propagation from an establishing transform fault. Fast Indian-Antarctic spreading that preceded microplate formation, and Kerguelen Plume activity may have facilitated ridge propagation via the production of thin and weak lithosphere. However, both factors had been present for tens of millions of years and are therefore unlikely to have triggered the event. Prior to the collision, this combination of fast spreading and plume activity was responsible for the production of a wide region of undulate seafloor to the north of the extinct ridge and 'W' shaped lineations that record back and forth ridge propagation. Microplate formation provides a means of dating the onset of the India-Eurasia collision, and is completely independent of and

  8. Microfabricated glucose biosensor for culture well operation.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, R M; Cox, T; Tuffin, R; Sage, I; Drago, G A; Biddle, N; Griffiths, J; Pittson, R; Johnson, G; Xu, J; Jackson, S K; Kenna, G; Luxton, R; Hart, J P

    2013-04-15

    A water-based carbon screen-printing ink formulation, containing the redox mediator cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx), was investigated for its suitability to fabricate glucose microbiosensors in a 96-well microplate format: (1) the biosensor ink was dip-coated onto a platinum (Pt) wire electrode, leading to satisfactory amperometric performance; (2) the ink was deposited onto the surface of a series of Pt microelectrodes (10-500 μm diameter) fabricated on a silicon substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) microfabrication techniques: capillary deposition proved to be successful; a Pt microdisc electrode of ≥100 μm was required for optimum biosensor performance; (3) MEMS processing was used to fabricate suitably sized metal (Pt) tracks and pads onto a silicon 96 well format base chip, and the glucose biosensor ink was screen-printed onto these pads to create glucose microbiosensors. When formed into microwells, using a 340 μl volume of buffer, the microbiosensors produced steady-state amperometric responses which showed linearity up to 5 mM glucose (CV=6% for n=5 biosensors). When coated, using an optimised protocol, with collagen in order to aid cell adhesion, the biosensors continued to show satisfactory performance in culture medium (linear range to 2 mM, dynamic range to 7 mM, CV=5.7% for n=4 biosensors). Finally, the operation of these collagen-coated microbiosensors, in 5-well 96-well format microwells, was tested using a 5-channel multipotentiostat. A relationship between amperometric response due to glucose, and cell number in the microwells, was observed. These results indicate that microphotolithography and screen-printing techniques can be combined successfully to produce microbiosensors capable of monitoring glucose metabolism in 96 well format cell cultures. The potential application areas for these microbiosensors are discussed. PMID:23265827

  9. A living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for continuous monitoring of cytotoxic responses of macrophages to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exist and new ENMs are being developed. A challenge to nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety is evaluating toxicity of ENMs before they become widely utilized. Cellular assays remain the predominant test platform yet these methods are limited by using discrete time endpoints and reliance on organic dyes, vulnerable to interference from ENMs. Label-free, continuous, rapid response systems with biologically meaningful endpoints are needed. We have developed a device to detect and monitor in real time responses of living cells to ENMs. The device, a living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor (QCMB), uses macrophages adherent to a quartz crystal. The communal response of macrophages to treatments is monitored continuously as changes in crystal oscillation frequency (Δf). We report the ability of this QCMB to distinguish benign from toxic exposures and reveal unique kinetic information about cellular responses to varying doses of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Results We analyzed macrophage responses to additions of Zymosan A, polystyrene beads (PBs) (benign substances) or SWCNT (3-150 μg/ml) in the QCMB over 18 hrs. In parallel, toxicity was monitored over 24/48 hrs using conventional viability assays and histological stains to detect apoptosis. In the QCMB, a stable unchanging oscillation frequency occurred when cells alone, Zymosan A alone, PBs alone or SWCNTs without cells at the highest dose alone were used. With living cells in the QCMB, when Zymosan A, PBs or SWCNTs were added, a significant decrease in frequency occurred from 1-6 hrs. For SWCNTs, this Δf was dose-dependent. From 6-18 hrs, benign substances or low dose SWCNT (3-30 μg/ml) treatments showed a reversal of the decrease of oscillation frequency, returning to or exceeding pre-treatment levels. Cell recovery was confirmed in conventional assays. The lag time to see the Δf reversal in QCMB plots was linearly SWCNT

  10. Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan; Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the contributions of quality factor, fill fraction, and group index of chip-integrated resonance microcavity devices, to the detection limit for bulk chemical sensing and the minimum detectable biomolecule concentration in biosensing. We analyze the contributions from analyte absorbance, as well as from temperature and spectral noise. Slow light in two-dimensional photonic crystals provide opportunities for significant reduction of the detection limit below 1 × 10-7 RIU (refractive index unit) which can enable highly sensitive sensors in diverse application areas. We demonstrate experimentally detected concentration of 1 fM (67 fg/ml) for the binding between biotin and avidin, the lowest reported till date.

  11. 3D photonic crystal-based biosensor functionalized with quantum dot-based aptamer for thrombine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Choi, Eunpyo; Park, Youngkyu; Park, Jungyul

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new technique for protein detection by using the enhancement of intensity in quantum dots (Qdot) whose emission is guided by 3D photonic crystal (PC) structures. For easy to use, we design the emitted light from the sensor can be recovered, when the chemical antibody (aptamer) conjugated with guard DNA (g-DNA) labeled with a quencher (Black FQ) hybridizes with the target proteins. In detail, we synthesis a Qdot-aptamer complex and then immobilize these complex on the PC surfaces. Next, we perform the hybridization of the Qdot-aptamer complex with g-DNA labeled with the quencher. It induces the quenching effect of fluoresce intensity in the Qdot-aptamer. In presence of target protein (thrombin), the Qdot-aptamer complex prefers to form the thrombin-aptamer complex: this results in the release of Black FQ-g-DNA and the quenched light intensity recovers into the original high intensity with Qdot. The intensity recovery varies quantitatively according to the level of the target protein concentration. This proposed sensor shows much higher detection sensitivity than the general fluorescent detection mechanism, which is functionalized on the flat surfaces because of the light guiding effect from 3D photonic crystal structures.

  12. Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan; Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-05-12

    We analyze the contributions of quality factor, fill fraction, and group index of chip-integrated resonance microcavity devices, to the detection limit for bulk chemical sensing and the minimum detectable biomolecule concentration in biosensing. We analyze the contributions from analyte absorbance, as well as from temperature and spectral noise. Slow light in two-dimensional photonic crystals provide opportunities for significant reduction of the detection limit below 1 × 10{sup −7} RIU (refractive index unit) which can enable highly sensitive sensors in diverse application areas. We demonstrate experimentally detected concentration of 1 fM (67 fg/ml) for the binding between biotin and avidin, the lowest reported till date.

  13. Liquid-Crystal Biosensor Based on Nickel-Nanosphere-Induced Homeotropic Alignment for the Amplified Detection of Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyu; Peng, Yi; Xu, Lihong; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qian; Guo, Lin

    2015-10-28

    A new liquid-crystal (LC)-based sensor operated by nickel nanosphere (NiNS)-induced homeotropic alignment for the label-free monitoring of thrombin was reported. When doped with NiNSs, a uniform vertical orientation of 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) was easily obtained. A sandwich system of aptamer/thrombin/aptamer-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was fabricated, and AuNPs-aptamer conjugation caused the disruption of the 5CB orientation, leading to an obvious change of the optical appearance from a dark to a bright response to thrombin concentrations from 0.1 to 100 nM. This design also allowed quantitative detection of the thrombin concentration. This distinctive and sensitive thrombin LC sensor provides a new principle for building LC-sensing systems. PMID:26458050

  14. Biosensor of endotoxin and sepsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Xi; Gao, Wei; He, Qing-hua; Cai, Shaoxi

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the relation between biosensor of endotoxin and endotoxin of plasma in sepsis. Method: biosensor of endotoxin was designed with technology of quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor ligand of endotoxin were immobilized by protein A conjugate. When a sample soliton of plasma containing endotoxin 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0Eu, treated with perchloric acid and injected into slot of quartz crystal surface respectively, the ligand was released from the surface of quartz crystal to form a more stable complex with endotoxin in solution. The endotoxin concentration corresponded to the weight change on the crystal surface, and caused change of frequency that occurred when desorbed. The result was biosensor of endotoxin might detect endotoxin of plasma in sepsis, measurements range between 0.05Eu and 0.5Eu in the stop flow mode, measurement range between 0.1Eu and 1Eu in the flow mode. The sensor of endotoxin could detect the endotoxin of plasm rapidly, and use for detection sepsis in clinically.

  15. Absorbance and fluorometric sensing with capillary wells microplates

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Han Yen; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Neild, Adrian; Wah Ng, Tuck; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-12-15

    Detection and readout from small volume assays in microplates are a challenge. The capillary wells microplate approach [Ng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008)] offers strong advantages in small liquid volume management. An adapted design is described and shown here to be able to detect, in a nonimaging manner, fluorescence and absorbance assays minus the error often associated with meniscus forming at the air-liquid interface. The presence of bubbles in liquid samples residing in microplate wells can cause inaccuracies. Pipetting errors, if not adequately managed, can result in misleading data and wrong interpretations of assay results; particularly in the context of high throughput screening. We show that the adapted design is also able to detect for bubbles and pipetting errors during actual assay runs to ensure accuracy in screening.

  16. Biosensor utilizing a liquid crystal/water interface functionalized with poly(4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate-b-((2-dimethyl amino) ethyl methacrylate)).

    PubMed

    Omer, Muhammad; Khan, Mashooq; Kim, Young Kyoo; Lee, Joon Hyung; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Park, Soo-Young

    2014-09-01

    The interface between the nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) and water within a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with the pH-dependent weak cationic amphiphilic block copolymer poly((4-cyanobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate)-b-((2-dimethyl amino) ethyl methacrylate)) (LCP-b-PDMAEMA) (which was successfully synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization) was subsequently evaluated for protein and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection. The LCP-b-PDMAEMA monolayer was fabricated using a Langmuir Blodgett trough, transferred to the 5CB-filled TEM grid, and placed on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-coated glass (TEMPDMAEMA) in such a way that the LCP chains were immersed in the 5CB while the PDMAEMA chains were pointed away from the 5CB surface and immersed in water. Several model proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), hemoglobin (Hb), and chymotrypsinogen (ChTg) were tested at pH values ranging from 2 to 12 to determine the role of the charge state of the protein on protein detection by a weak polyelectrolyte such as PDMAEMA. PDMAEMA contains cationic and neutral states below and above the pKa value, respectively, and is thus able to absorb proteins below its pKa threshold through electrostatic interactions. BSA exhibited a homeotropic to planar (H-P) change in orientation within the TEMPDMAEMA grid cell at concentrations greater than 0.02wt% within the pH range between the isoelectric point (pI) of BSA and the pKa of PDMAEMA, where the charge states of BSA and PDMAEMA were negative and positive, respectively. However, this change in orientation did not occur with other proteins that exhibited a pI higher than the pKa of PDMAEMA due to the electrostatic repulsions resulting from their same cationic charges. This result indicates that the electrostatic interactions between proteins and PDMAEMA are a major contributing factor for protein detection by the H-P transformation within the

  17. Surface oxide effect on optical sensing and photoelectric conversion of α-In2Se3 hexagonal microplates.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Lin, Chien-Hao; Wang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ying-Cen; Chen, Shin-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    The surface formation oxide assists of visible to ultraviolet photoelectric conversion in α-In2Se3 hexagonal microplates has been explored. Hexagonal α-In2Se3 microplates with the sizes of 10s to 100s of micrometers were synthesized and prepared by the chemical vapor transport method using ICl3 as a transport agent. Many vacancies and surface imperfection states have been found in the bulk and on the surface of the microplate because of the intrinsic defect nature of α-In2Se3. To discover physical and chemical properties and finding technological uses of α-In2Se3, several experiments including transmission electron miscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface photovoltage (SPV), photoluminescence (PL), surface photoresponse (SPR), photoconductivity (PC), and thermoreflectance (TR) measurements have been carried out. Experimental results of TEM, XPS, SPV, PL, and SPR measurements show that a surface oxidation layer α-In2Se3-3xO3x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) has formed on the crystal face of α-In2Se3 in environmental air with the inner layer content close to In2Se3 but the outermost layer content approaching In2O3. The near band edge transitions of α-In2Se3 microplates have been probed experimentally by TR and PC measurements. The direct band gap of α-In2Se3 has been determined to be 1.453 eV. The SPV result shows a maximum quantum efficiency of the surface oxide α-In2Se3-3xO3x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) that presents a peak photoresponse near 2.18 eV. The analyses of SPV, SPR, PL, TR, and PC measurements revealed that the surface oxide layer facilitates the conversion of the ultraviolet to the visible range while the native defects (Se and In vacancies) sustain photoconductivity in the near-infrared region. On the basis of the experimental results a wide-energy-range photodetector that combines PC- and SPR-mode operations for α-In2Se3 microplate has been made. The testing results show a well-behaved function of photoelectric conversion in the near-infrared to

  18. Microplate Bioassay for Determining Substrate Selectivity of "Candida rugosa" Lipase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shi-zhen; Fang, Bai-shan

    2012-01-01

    Substrate selectivity of "Candida rugosa" lipase was tested using "p"-nitrophenyl esters of increasing chain length (C[subscript 1], C[subscript 7], C[subscript 15]) using the high-throughput screening method. A fast and easy 96-well microplate bioassay was developed to help students learn and practice biotechnological specificity screen. The…

  19. The origin of the Iberian microplate high topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, L.; Pulgar, J. A.; Alonso, J. L.; Fernandez Viejo, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Iberian microplate is about 1100 km width, 3500 km long, and experienced contraction during the Cenozoic convergence of the Eurasian and African plates. In this process two main mountain ranges were created in the boundaries of the microplate: the Cantabrian-Pyrenean range in the north and the Betic-Rif orogenic system in the south, with a maximun height of 3479 m over sea level. However, in the interior of the microplate there is also several ranges and plateaus, with maximun heights of 2592 m. The origin of these interior high topography is controversial and has been explained by means of several procesess as: a) transference of displacement from the south border of the microplate, b) lithospheric folding, or c) more complex deep mantle related processes. In this work we investigate the relation between the northern border range of the microplate and some Iberian interior reliefs as: a) the Spanish Central System range, located in the central part of the microplate, with peaks over 2500 m, and b) the North-Iberian meseta, situated between these two ranges, and with average heights of 750 m. In order to solve this relation we have built a crustal-scale cross-section, through the northern half of the Iberian microplate, by using field geological mapping, subsoil information and deep geophysical data. The section acroos the central part of the Cantabrian range shows the well-known Iberian microplate continental subduction beneath the Eurasian plate, with a prominent crustal root that reaches up to 45 km depth. In this section an important difference between the upper and lower crust shortening values has been found. Thus, the upper crust has been shortened 97 km while the lower crust 122 km. The section across de Central System range shows a slightly thickened crust. In this range also exist a difference in the shortening values between upper and lower crust, but in the contrary sense than the Cantabrian range. Thus, the Central System range has been shortened

  20. Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities

    PubMed Central

    Geschwindner, Stefan; Carlsson, Johan F.; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical waveguide grating (OWG), in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA) format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA). Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms. PMID:22666031

  1. Cryoalgotox: Use of cryopreserved alga in a semistatic microplate test

    SciTech Connect

    Benhra, A.; Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    Use of cryopreserved alga Selenastrum capricornutum has been evaluated as a simple and cost-efficient procedure in a new semistatic algal ecotoxicity test. Experiments have been conducted to compare performance criteria of this method, named Cryoalgotox, versus the classic microplate test using fresh algae. Cryoalgotox 72-h 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) determined with Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 6+}, and atrazine were more sensitive, repeatable (low coefficients of variation), and reproducible (low time effect) than the results obtained with the classical microplate tests. The effect of storage time at {minus}80 C on the sensitivity of the algae was assessed using cadmium as a toxic reference; it was shown that algae stored at {minus}80 C over a 3-month period gave comparable toxicity results to those found with fresh algae.

  2. Microplate based biosensing with a computer screen aided technique.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Daniel; Andersson, Tony P M; Svensson, Samuel P S; Lundström, Ingemar

    2003-10-30

    Melanophores, dark pigment cells from the frog Xenopus laevis, have the ability to change light absorbance upon stimulation by different biological agents. Hormone exposure (e.g. melatonin or alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone) has been used here as a reversible stimulus to test a new compact microplate reading platform. As an application, the detection of the asthma drug formoterol in blood plasma samples is demonstrated. The present system utilizes a computer screen as a (programmable) large area light source, and a standard web camera as recording media enabling even kinetic microplate reading with a versatile and broadly available platform, which suffices to evaluate numerous bioassays. Especially in the context of point of care testing or self testing applications these possibilities become advantageous compared with highly dedicated comparatively expensive commercial systems. PMID:14558996

  3. Biochemical characterization and immobilization of Erwinia carotovoral-asparaginase in a microplate for high-throughput biosensing of l-asparagine.

    PubMed

    Labrou, Nikolaos E; Muharram, Magdy Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    l-Asparaginases (l-ASNase, E.C. 3.5.1.1) catalyze the conversion of l-asparagine to l-aspartic acid and ammonia. In the present work, a new form of l-ASNase from a strain of Erwinia carotovora (EcaL-ASNase) was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein and characterized. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a single-step procedure comprising ion-exchange chromatography. The properties of the recombinant enzyme were investigated employing kinetic analysis and molecular modelling and the kinetic parameters (Km, kcat) were determined for a number of substrates. The enzyme was used to assemble a microplate-based biosensor that was used for the development of a simple assay for the determination of l-asparagine in biological samples. In this sensor, the enzyme was immobilized by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde and deposited into the well of a microplate in 96-well format. The sensing scheme was based on the colorimetric measurement of ammonia formation using the Nessler's reagent. This format is ideal for micro-volume applications and allows the use of the proposed biosensor in high-throughput applications for monitoring l-asparagine levels in serum and foods samples. Calibration curve was obtained for l-asparagine, with useful concentration range 10-200μΜ. The biosensor had a detection limit of 10μM for l-asparagine. The method's reproducibility was in the order of ±3-6% and l-asparagine mean recoveries were 101.5%. PMID:27542748

  4. Optimization of phagocyte chemiluminescence measurements using microplates and vials.

    PubMed

    Hengster, P; Kunc, M; Linke, R; Eberl, T; Steurer, W; Ofner, D; Berthold, F; Margreiter, R

    1999-01-01

    In order to cope with large amounts of samples for chemiluminescence (CL), vials were replaced with microplates. Although various types of plates have been commercially available for quite some time and the free-plate mode is advocated by the producer of the counter, little is known about their impact on the outcome of CL measurements. We tested two different 24-well microplates and six different 96-well microplates in two different luminometers, and results were compared with those achieved with vials. Before these comparative tests, we attempted to optimize measurement conditions. CL sensitivity was highest with luminol concentrations of 0.8-3.3 micromol/L, PMA concentrations of 0.06-80 micromol/L, a pH value of 10 and a temperature of 20 degrees C. An indirect correlation was found between fluid volume and yield in counts: the lower the volume, the higher the counts. With regard to sensitivity and cross-talk, the 96-well Isoplatetrade mark was superior to all other plates tested. While all white plates tested gave acceptable results, usage of the black 96-well plates resulted in an extremely low sensitivity. Plates designed for cell culturing gave even lower counts and a cross-talk of up to 31%. All attempts to reduce cross-talk and improve sensitivity, such as aluminium foil or grids, irrespective of the position of the photomultiplier, did not give results comparable to the original 96-well isoplate. Our results suggest that, with the exception of black 96-well microplates and cell culture plates, all other plates tested have a sufficient sensitivity when compared to vials and acceptable cross-talk, the 96-well Isoplatetrade mark being the best. Both types of luminometers used gave reproducible results, Wallac having a somewhat higher sensitivity, Canberra Packard somewhat less cross-talk. PMID:10398566

  5. Semi-automated microplate monitoring of protein polymerization and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Veronica M; Rowlett, Veronica W; Margolin, William; Morano, Kevin A

    2016-09-01

    Static light scattering (SLS) is a commonly used technique for monitoring dynamics of high molecular weight protein complexes such as protein oligomers or aggregates. However, traditional methods are limited to testing a single condition and typically require large amounts of protein and specialized equipment. We show that a standard microplate reader can be used to characterize the molecular dynamics of different types of protein complexes, with the multiple advantages of microscale experimental volumes, semi-automated protocols and highly parallel processing. PMID:27251433

  6. Quantitative Microplate-Based Respirometry with Correction for Oxygen Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Respirometry using modified cell culture microplates offers an increase in throughput and a decrease in biological material required for each assay. Plate based respirometers are susceptible to a range of diffusion phenomena; as O2 is consumed by the specimen, atmospheric O2 leaks into the measurement volume. Oxygen also dissolves in and diffuses passively through the polystyrene commonly used as a microplate material. Consequently the walls of such respirometer chambers are not just permeable to O2 but also store substantial amounts of gas. O2 flux between the walls and the measurement volume biases the measured oxygen consumption rate depending on the actual [O2] gradient. We describe a compartment model-based correction algorithm to deconvolute the biological oxygen consumption rate from the measured [O2]. We optimize the algorithm to work with the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer. The correction algorithm is biologically validated using mouse cortical synaptosomes and liver mitochondria attached to XF24 V7 cell culture microplates, and by comparison to classical Clark electrode oxygraph measurements. The algorithm increases the useful range of oxygen consumption rates, the temporal resolution, and durations of measurements. The algorithm is presented in a general format and is therefore applicable to other respirometer systems. PMID:19555051

  7. GPS estimates of microplate motions, northern Caribbean: evidence for a Hispaniola microplate and implications for earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Calais, E.

    2012-09-01

    We use elastic block modelling of 126 GPS site velocities from Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and other islands in the northern Caribbean to test for the existence of a Hispaniola microplate and estimate angular velocities for the Gônave, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands and two smaller microplates relative to each other and the Caribbean and North America plates. A model in which the Gônave microplate spans the whole plate boundary between the Cayman spreading centre and Mona Passage west of Puerto Rico is rejected at a high confidence level. The data instead require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary within or offshore from western Hispaniola. Our updated angular velocities predict 6.8 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the seismically hazardous Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone of southwest Hispaniola, 9.8 ± 2.0 mm yr-1 of slip along the Septentrional fault of northern Hispaniola and ˜14-15 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. They also predict 5.7 ± 1 mm yr-1 of fault-normal motion in the vicinity of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, faster than previously estimated and possibly accommodated by folds and faults in the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone borderlands. Our new and a previous estimate of Gônave-Caribbean plate motion suggest that enough elastic strain accumulates to generate one to two Mw˜ 7 earthquakes per century along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and nearby faults of southwest Hispaniola. That the 2010 M= 7.0 Haiti earthquake ended a 240-yr-long period of seismic quiescence in this region raises concerns that it could mark the onset of a new earthquake sequence that will relieve elastic strain that has accumulated since the late 18th century.

  8. Maximizing Photoluminescence Extraction in Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Ali; Sarau, George; Xavier, Jolly; Paraïso, Taofiq K.; Christiansen, Silke; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal modes can be tailored for increasing light matter interactions and light extraction efficiencies. These PhC properties have been explored for improving the device performance of LEDs, solar cells and precision biosensors. Tuning the extended band structure of 2D PhC provides a means for increasing light extraction throughout a planar device. This requires careful design and fabrication of PhC with a desirable mode structure overlapping with the spectral region of emission. We show a method for predicting and maximizing light extraction from 2D photonic crystal slabs, exemplified by maximizing silicon photoluminescence (PL). Systematically varying the lattice constant and filling factor, we predict the increases in PL intensity from band structure calculations and confirm predictions in micro-PL experiments. With the near optimal design parameters of PhC, we demonstrate more than 500-fold increase in PL intensity, measured near band edge of silicon at room temperature, an enhancement by an order of magnitude more than what has been reported. PMID:27113674

  9. Maximizing Photoluminescence Extraction in Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Ali; Sarau, George; Xavier, Jolly; Paraïso, Taofiq K; Christiansen, Silke; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal modes can be tailored for increasing light matter interactions and light extraction efficiencies. These PhC properties have been explored for improving the device performance of LEDs, solar cells and precision biosensors. Tuning the extended band structure of 2D PhC provides a means for increasing light extraction throughout a planar device. This requires careful design and fabrication of PhC with a desirable mode structure overlapping with the spectral region of emission. We show a method for predicting and maximizing light extraction from 2D photonic crystal slabs, exemplified by maximizing silicon photoluminescence (PL). Systematically varying the lattice constant and filling factor, we predict the increases in PL intensity from band structure calculations and confirm predictions in micro-PL experiments. With the near optimal design parameters of PhC, we demonstrate more than 500-fold increase in PL intensity, measured near band edge of silicon at room temperature, an enhancement by an order of magnitude more than what has been reported. PMID:27113674

  10. A Cenozoic tectonic model for Southeast Asia - microplates and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.A.

    1995-04-01

    A computer-assisted Cenozoic tectonic model was built for Southeast Asia and used to construct 23 base maps, 2 to 6 million years apart. This close temporal spacing was necessary to constrain all the local geometric shifts in a consistent and geologically feasible fashion. More than a hundred individual blocks were required to adequately treat Cenozoic microplate processes at a basic level. The reconstructions show tectonic evolution to be characterized by long periods of gradual evolution, interrupted by brief, widespread episodes of reorganization in fundamental plate geometries and kinematics. These episodes are triggered by major collisions, or by accumulation of smaller changes. The model takes into account difficulties inherent in the region. The Pacific and Indo-Australian plates and their predecessors have driven westward and northward since the late Paleozoic, towards each other and the relatively stationary backstop of Asia. Southeast Asia is therefore the result of a long-lived, complex process of convergent tectonics, making it difficult to reconstruct tectonic evolution as much of the continental margin and sea floor spreading record was erased. In addition, the region has been dominated by small-scale microplate processes with short time scales and internal deformation, taking place in rapidly evolving and more ductile buffer zones between the major rigid plate systems. These plate interaction zones have taken up much of the relative motion between the major plates. Relatively ephemeral crustal blocks appear and die within the buffer zones, or accrete to and disperse from the margins of the major plate systems. However, such microplate evolution is the dominant factor in Cenozoic basin evolution. This detailed testonic model aids in comprehension and prediction of basin development, regional hydrocarbon habitat, and petroleum systems.

  11. Nano- and microsized zeolites as a perspective material for potentiometric biosensors creation.

    PubMed

    Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Shelyakina, Margaryta K; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; Soy, Esin; Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan; Ozansoy Kasap, Berna; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Akata Kurç, Burcu; Soldatkin, Alexei P; Dzyadevych, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    A number of potentiometric biosensors based on coimmobilization of enzymes with different types of zeolite on pH-ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) have been developed. Their working characteristics have been determined and compared. It was shown that clinoptilolite and zeolite Beta polymorph A (BEA) are more promising for creating biosensors than zeolite A. Changing the concentration of zeolite BEA in membranes, it is possible to extend the biosensor linear measurement range. The two-layer method of deposition of the enzyme with clinoptilolite was found to provide a significant increase in the biosensor sensitivity to substrates, whereas thermal modification of the zeolite BEA crystals can improve analytical characteristics of potentiometric biosensors for detection of toxic substances. These results show that it is possible to regulate the ISFET characteristics for different enzyme-based biosensors by tailoring the electrode surfaces via different zeolites. This makes zeolites strong candidates for integration into biosensors as ISFET modifiers. PMID:25852356

  12. Piezoelectric Biosensors for Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Marrazza, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Due to the great amount of pesticides currently being used, there is an increased interest for developing biosensors for their detection. Among all the physical transducers, piezoelectric systems have emerged as the most attractive due to their simplicity, low instrumentation costs, possibility for real-time and label-free detection and generally high sensitivity. This paper presents an overview of biosensors based on the quartz crystal microbalance, which have been reported in the literature for organophosphate and carbamate pesticide analysis. PMID:25587424

  13. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis. PMID:26274599

  14. Calcofluor fluorescence assay for wort beta-glucan in a microplate format

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widely-used fluorescent (Calcofluor) flow injection analysis method for determining the concentrations of beta-glucans in Congress worts from barley malts is adapted to microplate format. Adaptation of the Calcofluor assay to use widely available fluorescent microplate readers makes the assay m...

  15. Tectonics and evolution of the Juan Fernandez microplate at the Pacific-Nazca-Antarctic triple junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson-Fontana, S.; Larson, R. L.; Engein, J. F.; Lundgren, P.; Stein, S.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic and bathymetric profiles derived from the R/V Endeavor survey and focal mechanism studies for earthquakes on two of the Juan Fernandez microplate boundaries are analyzed. It is observed that the Nazca-Juan Fernandez pole is in the northern end of the microplate since the magnetic lineation along the East Ridge of the microplate fans to the south. The calculation of the relative motion of the Juan Fernandez-Pacific-Nazca-Antarctic four-plate system using the algorithm of Minster et al. (1974) is described. The development of tectonic and evolutionary models of the region is examined. The tectonic model reveals that the northern boundary of the Juan Fernandez microplate is a zone of compression and that the West Ridge and southwestern boundary are spreading obliquely; the evolutionary model relates the formation of the Juan Fernandez microplate to differential spreading rates at the triple junction.

  16. Genomagnetic Electrochemical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Joseph; Erdem, Arzum

    The use of nucleic acid technologies has significantly improved preparation and diagnostic procedures in life sciences. Nucleic acid layers combined with electrochemical or optical transducers produce a new kind of affinity biosensors as DNA Biosensor for small molecular weight molecules. Electrochemical DNA biosensors are attractive devices for converting the hybridization event into an analytical signal for obtaining sequence-specific information in connection with clinical, environmental or forensic investigations. DNA hybridization biosensors, based on electrochemical transduction of hybridization, couple the high specificity of hybridization reactions with the excellent sensitivity and portability of electrochemical transducers. The main goal in all researches is to design DNA biosensors for preparing a basis for the future DNA microarray system. DNA chip has now become a powerful tool in biological research, however the real clinic assay is still under development. Recently, there has been a great interest to the magnetic beads and/or nanoparticles labelled with metals such as gold, cadmium, silver, etc. for designing of novel electrochemical DNA biosensor approaches resulting in efficient separation. The attractive features of this technology include simple approach, rapid results, multi-analyte detection, low-cost per measurument, stable, and non-hazardous reagents, and reduced waste handling. Some of these new approaches and applications of the electrochemical DNA biosensors based on magnetic beads and its combining with nanoparticles labelled with metals are described and discussed.

  17. Introduction to biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-06-30

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  18. Introduction to biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  19. Constraints on the Ionian microplate subduction beneath the Tyrrhenian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, V.; Verdoya, M.; Chiozzi, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Tyrrhenian Basin is, from a geodynamical point of view, one of the most intriguing areas of the Central Mediterranean, being affected by still ongoing and not yet fully understood tectonic processes of lithosphere extension and subduction. Its high heat flux, albeit lower than that expected from classical models of plate cooling, together with other pieces of geophysical evidence, argues for a marginal-type basin of very young age. The abyssal plain of the basin is floored with oceanic crust and it is thermally perturbed by strong hydrothermal circulation. The stretched continental margins are affected by volcanic activity, which causes local thermal perturbations by fluid circulation and magma intrusion. The surface heat flux budget on the margins is well balanced only if one envisages an additional thermal contribution of a layer of magma underplating the crust and a lithosphere overlying an anomalously hot asthenosphere. In this paper we supply further constraints on the deformation processes affecting the Ionian microplate subducting beneath the southern part of the basin, on the basis of a joint analysis of the seismic activity and the thermal state. We determined the thermal structure in the descending plate by means of an analytical model taking into account how the slab would heat and the mantle wedge cool with time. A relation between the maximum depth of seismicity of several marginal basins and the thermal parameter of the descending slabs, which depends on the age of the subducted lithosphere and the vertical component of the convergence rate, has been used. The tectonic subsidence of about 6000 m evaluated for the oceanic domain of the Ionian microplate implies a heat flux of 40 mW/m2, which is in agreement with the observed values. By considering that the maximum depth of the seismic events within the slab, a thermal parameter of about 4500 km, was found. The corresponding assimilation and cooling times of the microplate are 13 and 100 My

  20. Nucleation-fibrillation dynamics of Aβ1-40 peptides on liquid-solid surface studied by total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy coupled with quartz-crystal microbalance biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Hiroki; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Noi, Kentaro; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji; Hirao, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    We have successfully developed the total-internal-reflection-fluorescence microscopy combined with a quartz-crystal microbalance (TIRFM-QCM) biosensor, and monitored the nucleation-fibrillation phenomenon of amyloid β1-40 peptide on the naked quartz surface. The cross-β-sheet structures were visualized with the TIRFM using the thioflavin-T (Th-T) label, and other unlabeled aggregates were detected through the frequency change of the 58-MHz wireless-electrodeless QCM throughout the aggregation reaction. The QCM response indicates significant adsorption of the peptides on the quartz surface at the early stage, which is followed by fibrillation. The non-cross-β-sheet oligomers are first formed, and nuclei appear in the oligomer region, from which fibrils originate and elongate. The two-color TIRFM observation was performed after the aggregation reaction with the Nile-red label as well as the ThT label for identifying nucleation from non-β-sheet regions. An aggregation model is proposed.

  1. GMR-based PhC biosensor: FOM analysis and experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Syamprasad, Jagadeesh; Narayanan, Roshni; Joseph, Joby; Takahashi, Hiroki; Sandhu, Adarsh; Jindal, Rajeev

    2014-02-20

    Guided Mode Resonance based Photonic crystal biosensor has a lot of potential applications. In our work, we are trying to improve their figure of merit values in order to achieve an optimum level through design and fabrication techniques. A robust and low-cost alternative for current biosensors is also explored through this research.

  2. Oceanic microplate formation records the onset of India-Eurasia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Dietmar Müller, R.; Sandwell, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of seafloor tectonic fabric in the Indian Ocean, using high-resolution satellite-derived vertical gravity gradient data, reveals an extinct Pacific-style oceanic microplate ('Mammerickx Microplate') west of the Ninetyeast Ridge. It is one of the first Pacific-style microplates to be mapped outside the Pacific basin, suggesting that geophysical conditions during formation probably resembled those that have dominated at eastern Pacific ridges. The microplate formed at the Indian-Antarctic ridge and is bordered by an extinct ridge in the north and pseudofault in the south, whose conjugate is located north of the Kerguelen Plateau. Independent microplate rotation is indicated by asymmetric pseudofaults and rotated abyssal hill fabric, also seen in multibeam data. Magnetic anomaly picks and age estimates calculated from published spreading rates suggest formation during chron 21o (∼47.3 Ma). Plate reorganizations can trigger ridge propagation and microplate development, and we propose that Mammerickx Microplate formation is linked with the India-Eurasia collision (initial 'soft' collision). The collision altered the stress regime at the Indian-Antarctic ridge, leading to a change in segmentation and ridge propagation from an establishing transform. Fast Indian-Antarctic spreading that preceded microplate formation, and Kerguelen Plume activity, may have facilitated ridge propagation via the production of thin and weak lithosphere; however both factors had been present for tens of millions of years and are therefore unlikely to have triggered the event. Prior to the collision, the combination of fast spreading and plume activity was responsible for the production of a wide region of undulate seafloor to the north of the extinct ridge and 'W' shaped lineations that record back and forth ridge propagation. Microplate formation provides a precise means of dating the onset of the India-Eurasia collision, and is completely independent of and complementary to timing

  3. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review, with 19 references, is given on challenges and possible opportunities for the development of biosensors for environmental monitoring applications. The high cost and slow turnaround times typically associated with the measurement of regulated pollutants clearly indicates...

  4. The western transverse ranges microplate as a native terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.; Reed, W.E. )

    1994-04-01

    Palocurrent measurements from the entire Cretaceous section of the western Transverse Ranges microplate (WTRM) yield a northerly flow direction. Point count data indicate a mixed provenance for both conglomerates and associated sandstones. The dominant provenance was mixed magmatic arc/recycled orogen and disected/transitional arc terranes. Petrographic, quantitative SEM and microprobe analysis also indicate the presence of diagnostic Franciscan mineralogy in these sediments, including glaucophane, riebeckite, lawsonite, and serpentine, suggesting derivation from a subduction complex. Olistoclasts of chert, jadeitic graywacke, serpentine and blueschist are found intermixed within the arc-derived sediments. Olistoclasts range in size from sub-millimeter to centimeter scale and olistoliths range up to 150 m. Well preserved internal bedding in some of the olistoliths suggest emplacement by landsliding indicating very short transport distance. This Franciscan material represents the oldest melange-derived material reported from this part of California and documents uplift and erosion of the subduction complex earlier than previously suggested. These data are consistent with deposition in a Cretaceous fore-arc basin located west or south of the San Diego area. The allochthonous WTRM of southern California can be reconstructed to an originally north-south oriented fore-arc basin. After deposition of the Sespe Formation (22 Ma [+-]) the microplate was slivered by strike-slip faults and rotated clockwise approximately 90[degrees], after which, the block again accreted against the continental margin. Our reconstruction suggest that depositional and structural trends for Eocene and Cretaceous sediments is likely to be different from that in the Miocene Monterey pay zones in the Santa Barbara channel region. If our reconstruction is correct, exploration strategy for Eocene and Cretaceous petroleum in the southern California Bight should take this tectonic model into account.

  5. Triggered optical biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Song, Xuedong; Swanson, Basil I.

    2001-10-02

    An optical biosensor is provided for the detection of a multivalent target biomolecule, the biosensor including a substrate having a bilayer membrane thereon, a recognition molecule situated at the surface, the recognition molecule capable of binding with the multivalent target biomolecule, the recognition molecule further characterized as including a fluorescence label thereon and as being movable at the surface and a device for measuring a fluorescence change in response to binding between the recognition molecule and the multivalent target biomolecule.

  6. Fiber optic choline biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Cao, Xiaojian; Jia, Ke; Chai, Xueting; Lu, Hua; Lu, Zuhong

    2001-10-01

    A fiber optic fluorescence biosensor for choline is introduced in this paper. Choline is an important neurotransmitter in mammals. Due to the growing needs for on-site clinical monitoring of the choline, much effect has been devoted to develop choline biosensors. Fiber-optic fluorescence biosensors have many advantages, including miniaturization, flexibility, and lack of electrical contact and interference. The choline fiber-optic biosensor we designed implemented a bifurcated fiber to perform fluorescence measurements. The light of the blue LED is coupled into one end of the fiber as excitation and the emission spectrum from sensing film is monitored by fiber-spectrometer (S2000, Ocean Optics) through the other end of the fiber. The sensing end of the fiber is coated with Nafion film dispersed with choline oxidase and oxygen sensitive luminescent Ru(II) complex (Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II), hexahydrate). Choline oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine and hydrogen peroxide while consuming oxygen. The fluorescence intensity of oxygen- sensitive Ru(II) are related to the choline concentration. The response of the fiber-optic sensor in choline solution is represented and discussed. The result indicates a low-cost, high-performance, portable choline biosensor.

  7. Mapping a disordered portion of the Brz2001-binding site on a plant monooxygenase, DWARF4, using a quartz-crystal microbalance biosensor-based T7 phage display.

    PubMed

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Manita, Daisuke; Kusayanagi, Tomoe; Izaguirre-Carbonell, Jesus; Takakusagi, Kaori; Kuramochi, Kouji; Iwabata, Kazuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Sugawara, Fumio

    2013-04-01

    In small-molecule/protein interaction studies, technical difficulties such as low solubility of small molecules or low abundance of protein samples often restrict the progress of research. Here, we describe a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor-based T7 phage display in combination use with a receptor-ligand contacts (RELIC) bioinformatics server for application in a plant Brz2001/DWARF4 system. Brz2001 is a brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitor in the less-soluble triazole series of compounds that targets DWARF4, a cytochrome P450 (Cyp450) monooxygenase containing heme and iron. Using a Brz2001 derivative that has higher solubility in 70% EtOH and forms a self-assembled monolayer on gold electrode, we selected 34 Brz2001-recognizing peptides from a 15-mer T7 phage-displayed random peptide library using a total of four sets of one-cycle biopanning. The RELIC/MOTIF program revealed continuous and discontinuous short motifs conserved within the 34 Brz2001-selected 15-mer peptide sequences, indicating the increase of information content for Brz2001 recognition. Furthermore, an analysis of similarity between the 34 peptides and the amino-acid sequence of DWARF4 using the RELIC/MATCH program generated a similarity plot and a cluster diagram of the amino-acid sequence. Both of these data highlighted an internally located disordered portion of a catalytic site on DWARF4, indicating that this portion is essential for Brz2001 recognition. A similar trend was also noted by an analysis using another 26 Brz2001-selected peptides, and not observed using the 27 gold electrode-recognizing control peptides, demonstrating the reproducibility and specificity of this method. Thus, this affinity-based strategy enables high-throughput detection of the small-molecule-recognizing portion on the target protein, which overcomes technical difficulties such as sample solubility or preparation that occur when conventional methods are used. PMID:23514038

  8. Microplate spectroscopic methods for determination of the organophosphate soman.

    PubMed

    Prokofieva, Daria Stanislavovna; Voitenko, Natalia Gennadievna; Gustyleva, Lyudmila Konstantinovna; Babakov, Vladimir Nikolaevich; Savelieva, Elena Igorevna; Jenkins, Richard Owen; Goncharov, Nikolay Vasilievich

    2010-06-01

    Two microplate spectroscopic methods for determination of organophosphates, based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, have been elaborated and evaluated for determination of the chemical weapon agent soman. The principal difference between the methods is that one measures reaction substrate concentration (elaborated from Hestrin), while the other measures reaction product (elaborated from Ellman). The linear ranges of the two methods were found to be similar. Although the limit of quantification was lower for the Ellman method (110 pM), the sensitivity coefficient was in favor of the Hestrin method (1.55-fold higher). The effects of the main soman hydrolysis products were consistent for the two methods: both methylphosphonic acid and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid did not inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. The main components of decontaminating solutions showed differential effects: while monoethanolamine had no influence upon results obtained by either method, hydrogen peroxide interfered with the Ellman method at far lower concentrations than with the Hestrin method. In practical applications involving samples containing hydrogen peroxide, the method based on Hestrin should be regarded as much more specific for OP determination than the Ellman method. PMID:20411202

  9. Development of a microplate reader compatible microfluidic chip for ELISA.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fenghua; Zhang, Qin; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xinchun; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Shuping; Cheng, Zhiyi

    2012-08-01

    We report a novel microfluidic device use for sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay assay (ELISA). The related procedures including the introduction of reagents, dilution and distribution of samples, as well as immobilization of enzyme can be readily carried out on a poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chip. Particularly, this microfluidic chip comprising of two distinct parallel units, and has an identical dimension as a conventional microtiter plate, which offers access to the directly quantitative detection by the microplate reader. Gradient-concentration reacting solutions at six different concentrations level generated by the microfluidic channel network are simultaneously transported to 24 reaction chambers to form enzymatic products. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) and KH(2)PO(4) are used as enzyme-substrate-inhibitor model, to demonstrate the utility of the developed microchip-based enzyme inhibitor assay. Various conditions such as the surface treatment of chip channels, fluids velocities, substrate concentration, and buffer pH are investigated. The present microfluidic device for ELISA holds several advantages, for instance frugal usage of samples and reagents, less of operating time, favorably integrated configuration, ease of manipulation, and could be explored to a variety of high throughput drug screening. PMID:22526682

  10. Myoglobin microplate assay to evaluate prevention of protein peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sara S; Magalhães, Luís M; Mota, Ana I P; Soares, Tânia R P; Korsak, Barbara; Reis, Salette; Segundo, Marcela A

    2015-10-10

    The current therapeutic strategies are based on the design of multifunctional drug candidates able to interact with various disease related targets. Drugs that have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond their main therapeutic action, may prevent the oxidative damage of biomolecules. Therefore, analytical approaches that monitor in a continuous mode the ability of drugs to counteract peroxidation of physiologically relevant biotargets are required. In the present work, a microplate spectrophotometric assay is proposed to evaluate the ability of selected cardiovascular drugs, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, β -blockers and statins to prevent protein peroxidation. Myoglobin, which is a heme protein, and peroxyl radicals generated from thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride at 37 °C, pH 7.4 were selected as protein model and oxidative species, respectively. Myoglobin peroxidation was continuously monitored by the absorbance decrease at 409 nm and the ability of drugs to counteract protein oxidation was determined by the calculation of the area under the curve upon the myoglobin oxidation. Fluvastatin (AUC₅₀=12.5 ± 1.2 μM) and enalapril (AUC₅₀=15.2 ± 1.8 μM) showed high ability to prevent myoglobin peroxidation, providing even better efficiency than endogenous antioxidants such as reduced glutathione. Moreover, labetalol, enalapril and fluvastatin prevent the autoxidation of myoglobin, while glutathione showed a pro-oxidant effect. PMID:26093510

  11. The larval parasitoid Microplitis croceipes oviposits in conspecific adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasu, Keiji; Hoang Le, K.

    2007-03-01

    Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a larval parasitoid of Helicoverpa/Heliothis spp. In the course of mass rearing of M. croceipes, we found that females oviposited in the conspecific adults in rearing cages. When 20 pairs of inexperienced females and males or of experienced females and males were reared in a cage, the males lived for 14-15 days and the females for 18-20 days on average. At their death, 37-42% of the males and 50-57% of the females contained conspecific eggs or first instar larvae in their abdominal cavity. When two of inexperienced females met on a host-infested leaf of soybean, they attempted to sting each other. Of the attacked females, 30% contained a conspecific egg laid in their abdomen. In abdominal cavity of the adults parasitized by a conspecific female, the majority of the parasitoid eggs laid disappeared within 1 day after oviposition. Only 10-30% of the parasitoid eggs laid in conspecific adults hatched 3-4 days after oviposition, but those larvae never molted to second instar. When the adults were stung by one or two conspecific females, their subsequent longevity was significantly shorter than that for the control adults. Oviposition in conspecific adults may be prevalent in other parasitic wasps that quickly oviposit without intensive host examination, and have cuticle and size of abdomen to be stung by conspeicifcs.

  12. Location dependent biases in automatic 96-well microplate readers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R O; Hammock, B D

    1988-01-01

    Procedures performed in 96-well microplates and quantitated by automatic readers assume instruments to be precise, accurate, and free of well location dependent bias. Instrument specifications generally focus on precision and accuracy without specifically addressing biases which are dependent on well location. These biases appear to be meniscus dependent and can be demonstrated in varying degrees in automatic readers of many designs by using a reverse plate wet test, which compares repeated readings of a dye loaded plate in normal and reversed positions. This test analyzes differences between readings and is, therefore, independent of pipetting error or other experimental variables such as protein binding or immunoassay variability. Different plates increased or decreased the magnitude of observed errors but did not themselves cause the errors measured by the reverse plate wet test. Error patterns were consistent for each reader and varied widely among the 16 instruments tested. Only 4 of 16 instruments passed an existing manufacturer's specification for precision, and only one of the 16 readers tested passed a similar specification for accuracy. The severest location dependent bias was found in an instrument which exhibited excellent repeatability and consistently passed its built-in diagnostic tests. One reader with significant bias was returned to the manufacturer for routine service and calibration, but it was not demonstrably improved. The reverse plate wet test is an extremely useful diagnostic tool for quality control at all stages of instrument manufacture and use. PMID:3069835

  13. Microplates based on liquid bridges between glass rods.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Lye, Jonathan Kok Keung; Backhous, Scott; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2013-05-01

    Microplating that (i) does not necessitate complex or precise machinery to dispense small liquid volumes, (ii) enables fluorescent optical diagnosis, and (iii) permits simple analyte mixing mechanically is desirable. We advance here a novel approach that employs the formation of a liquid bridge held in place by capillary forces between glass rod tubes located parallel to each other. Experimental investigations made on liquid filling characteristics show conformance to theoretical notions. Analytical development showed the presence of regions of minimal uncertainty in the cross-sectional area of the liquid body arising from variations in the contact angle which permit consistent fluorescence measurements. Cyclical translation of the rods relative to each other, which cause rupture and reattachment of the liquid bridge, was found to engender good mixing. Strong linear trends were found in fluorescence signals relative to EGFP fluorophore concentration using standard and optical fiber (which offer targeted) excitation illumination. The open nature of liquid handling in the approach reported here and the positive results obtained portend the ability for development as integrated lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:23484766

  14. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Maul, A; Block, J C

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) and its relative independence from the influence of bacterial density allowed the use of analysis of variance to investigate the effects of spatial and temporal bacterial heterogeneity on the estimation of coliforms. Variability among replicate samples, subsamples, handling, and analytical errors were considered as the major sources of variation in bacterial titration. Variances associated with individual components of the sampling procedure were isolated, and optimal replications of each step were determined. Temporal variation was shown to be more influential than the other three components (most probable number, subsample, sample to sample), which were approximately equal in effect. However, the incidence of sample-to-sample variability (16%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) caused by spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations in the Moselle River is shown and emphasized. Consequently, we recommend that replicate samples be taken on each occasion when conducting a sampling program for a stream pollution survey. PMID:6360044

  15. A new, sensitive marine microalgal recombinant biosensor using luminescence monitoring for toxicity testing of antifouling biocides.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves; Joux, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  16. Large-scale preparation of shape controlled SnO and improved capacitance for supercapacitors: from nanoclusters to square microplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Ji, Hongmei; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Xuefan; Pinto, João; Yang, Gang

    2013-07-01

    Here, we first provide a facile ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of SnO using SnCl2 and the organic solvent of ethanolamine (ETA). The moderate alkalinity of ETA and ultrasound play very important roles in the synthesis of SnO. After the hydrolysis of the intermediate of ETA-Sn(ii), the as-synthesized SnO nanoclusters undergo assembly, amalgamation, and preferential growth to microplates in hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized SnO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To explore its potential applications in energy storage, SnO was fabricated into a supercapacitor electrode and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The as-synthesized SnO exhibits remarkable pseudocapacitive activity including high specific capacitance (208.9 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1), good rate capability (65.8 F g-1 at 40 A g-1), and excellent cycling stability (retention 119.3% after 10 000 cycles) for application in supercapacitors. The capacitive behavior of SnO with various crystal morphologies was observed by fitted EIS using an equivalent circuit. The novel synthetic route for SnO is a convenient and potential way to large-scale production of microplates which is expected to be applicable in the synthesis of other metal oxide nanoparticles.Here, we first provide a facile ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of SnO using SnCl2 and the organic solvent of ethanolamine (ETA). The moderate alkalinity of ETA and ultrasound play very important roles in the synthesis of SnO. After the hydrolysis of the intermediate of ETA-Sn(ii), the as-synthesized SnO nanoclusters undergo assembly, amalgamation, and preferential growth to microplates in hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized SnO was characterized by scanning

  17. Recent Trends in Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karube, Isao

    The determination of organic compounds in foods is very important in food industries. A various compounds are contained in foods, selective determination methods are required for food processing and analysis. Electrochemical monitoring devices (biosensors) employing immobilized biocatalysts such as immobilized enzymes, organelles, microorganisms, and tissue have definite advantages. The enzyme Sensors consisted of immobilized enzymes and electrochemical devices. Enzyme sensors could be used for the determination of sugars, amino acids, organic acids, alcohols, lipids, nucleic acid derivatives, etc.. Furthermore, a multifunctional biosensor for the determination of several compounds has been developed for food processing. On the other hand, microbial sensors consisted of immobilized microorganisms and electrodes have been used for industrial and environmental analysis. Microbial sensors were applied for the determination of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, amino acids, mutagens, me thane, ammonia, and BOD. Furthermore, micro-biosensors using immobilized biocatalysts and ion sensitive field effect transistor or microelectrodes prepared by silicon fabrication technologies have been developed for medical ap. plication and food processing. This review summarizes the design and application of biosensors.

  18. Biosensors for bioprocesses

    SciTech Connect

    Van Brunt, J.

    1987-05-01

    The advent of biosensors has been touted as the marriage of the century - a marriage of microelectronics and biotechnology. But exactly what is a biosensor. Actually, the term is used interchangeably for two sometimes very different classes of devices - those that measure biological molecules and particles and those that use biomolecules as part of the sensing mechanism. The basic conceptual design of a biosensor is simple: a biological receptor is coupled to an electronic tranducer in such a way that the transducer converts biochemical activity at one end into electrical activity at the other. The biological component is usually an enzyme (for selective chemical catalysis) or an antibody (for highly selective binding), although cell membrane receptors, tissue slices, and microbial cells are used as well. The electronic component measures voltage (potentiometric), current (amperometric), light, sound, temperaure, or mass (piezoelectric). Biosensors display several unique features that make them especially attractive. They are small. They are simple to use many procedures require one step, no additional reagents, and no radioactivity. They are portable. And they are inexpensive and perfect for data processing.

  19. Large-scale preparation of shape controlled SnO and improved capacitance for supercapacitors: from nanoclusters to square microplates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Ji, Hongmei; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Xuefan; Pinto, João; Yang, Gang

    2013-08-21

    Here, we first provide a facile ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of SnO using SnCl2 and the organic solvent of ethanolamine (ETA). The moderate alkalinity of ETA and ultrasound play very important roles in the synthesis of SnO. After the hydrolysis of the intermediate of ETA-Sn(II), the as-synthesized SnO nanoclusters undergo assembly, amalgamation, and preferential growth to microplates in hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized SnO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To explore its potential applications in energy storage, SnO was fabricated into a supercapacitor electrode and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The as-synthesized SnO exhibits remarkable pseudocapacitive activity including high specific capacitance (208.9 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1)), good rate capability (65.8 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1)), and excellent cycling stability (retention 119.3% after 10,000 cycles) for application in supercapacitors. The capacitive behavior of SnO with various crystal morphologies was observed by fitted EIS using an equivalent circuit. The novel synthetic route for SnO is a convenient and potential way to large-scale production of microplates which is expected to be applicable in the synthesis of other metal oxide nanoparticles. PMID:23842544

  20. First hydrothermal active vent discovered on the Galapagos Microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Li, H.; Wu, G.; Su, X.; Zhang, G.; Chinese DY115-21 Leg 3 Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    The Galapagos Microplate (GM) lies on the western Gaplapagos Spreading Center (GSC), representing one of the classic Ridge-Ridge-Ridge (R-R-R) plate boundaries of the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific plates. The presence of the 'black smoke' and hydrothermal vent community were firstly confirmed on the GSC. Lots of hydrothermal fields were discovered on the center and eastern GSC, while the western GSC has not been well investigated. During 17th Oct. to 9th Nov. 2009, the 3rd leg of Chinese DY115-21 cruise with R/V Dayangyihao has been launched along 2°N-5°S near equatorial East Pacific Rise (EPR). Two new hydrothermal fields were confirmed. One is named 'Precious Stone Mountain', which is the first hydrothermal field on the GM. The other is found at 101.47°W, 0.84°S EPR. The 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field (at 101.49°W, 1.22°N) is located at an off-axial seamount on the southern GM boundary, with a depth from 1,450 to 1,700m. Hydrothermal fluids emitting from the fissures and hydrothermal fauna were captured by deep-tow video. Few mineral clasts of pyrite and chalcopyrite were separated from one sediment sample, but no sulfide chimney was found yet. Hydrothermal fauna such as alive mussels, crabs, shrimps, tubeworms, giant clams, as well as rock samples were collected by TV-Grab. The study of the seafloor classification with Simrad EM120 multi-beam echosounder has been conducted on the 'Precious Stone Mountain' hydrothermal field. The result indicates that seafloor materials around the hydrothermal field can be characterized into three types, such as the fresh lava, hydrothermal sediment, and altered rock.

  1. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  2. Microplate-based method for high-throughput screening of microalgae growth potential.

    PubMed

    Van Wagenen, Jon; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Plósz, Benedek Gy; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-10-01

    Microalgae cultivation conditions in microplates will differ from large-scale photobioreactors in crucial parameters such as light profile, mixing and gas transfer. Hence volumetric productivity (P(v)) measurements made in microplates cannot be directly scaled up. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to use microplates to measure characteristic exponential growth rates and determine the specific growth rate light intensity dependency (μ-I curve), which is useful as the key input for several models that predict P(v). Nannochloropsis salina and Chlorella sorokiniana specific growth rates were measured by repeated batch culture in microplates supplied with continuous light at different intensities. Exponential growth unlimited by gas transfer or self-shading was observable for a period of several days using fluorescence, which is an order of magnitude more sensitive than optical density. The microplate datasets were comparable to similar datasets obtained in photobioreactors and were used an input for the Huesemann model to accurately predict P(v). PMID:25103033

  3. Novel versatile smart phone based Microplate readers for on-site diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiangqiang; Wu, Ze; Li, Xiuqing; Yao, Cuize; Yu, Shiting; Xiao, Wei; Tang, Yong

    2016-07-15

    Microplate readers are important diagnostic instruments, used intensively for various readout test kits (biochemical analysis kits and ELISA kits). However, due to their expensive and non-portability, commercial microplate readers are unavailable for home testing, community and rural hospitals, especially in developing countries. In this study, to provide a field-portable, cost-effective and versatile diagnostic tool, we reported a novel smart phone based microplate reader. The basic principle of this devise relies on a smart phone's optical sensor that measures transmitted light intensities of liquid samples. To prove the validity of these devises, developed smart phone based microplate readers were applied to readout results of various analytical targets. These targets included analanine aminotransferase (ALT; limit of detection (LOD) was 17.54 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (AKP; LOD was 15.56 U/L), creatinine (LOD was 1.35μM), bovine serum albumin (BSA; LOD was 0.0041mg/mL), prostate specific antigen (PSA; LOD was 0.76pg/mL), and ractopamine (Rac; LOD was 0.31ng/mL). The developed smart phone based microplate readers are versatile, portable, and inexpensive; they are unique because of their ability to perform under circumstances where resources and expertize are limited. PMID:27019031

  4. Development of Singlet Oxygen Absorption Capacity (SOAC) Assay Method Using a Microplate Reader.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shingo; Iwasaki-Kino, Yuko; Aizawa, Koichi; Terao, Junji; Mukai, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new assay method that can quantify the singlet oxygen absorption capacity (SOAC) of natural antioxidants and food extracts was developed. The SOAC values were measured in ethanol-chloroform-D2O (50 + 50 + 1, v/v/v) solution at 35°C using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer equipped with a six-channel cell positioner and an electron-temperature control unit. In the present study, measurement of the SOAC values was performed for eight representative carotenoids and three vegetable extracts (tomato, carrot, and red paprika) using a versatile instrument, the microplate reader. A 24-well glass microplate was used for measurements because a plastic microplate, commonly used in the laboratory, dissolves in the ethanol-chloroform-D2O solution. The SOAC values of eight carotenoids and three vegetable extracts measured using a microplate reader were in good agreement with the corresponding values measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, suggesting that the microplate reader is an applicable instrument for the measurement of reliable SOAC values for general antioxidants and food extracts in solution. PMID:26822807

  5. Scalable Production of Molybdenum Disulfide Based Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Carl H; Kybert, Nicholas J; Schneier, Camilla; Xi, Jin; Romero, Gabriela; Saven, Jeffery G; Liu, Renyu; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2016-06-28

    We demonstrate arrays of opioid biosensors based on chemical vapor deposition grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs) coupled to a computationally redesigned, water-soluble variant of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). By transferring dense films of monolayer MoS2 crystals onto prefabricated electrode arrays, we obtain high-quality FETs with clean surfaces that allow for reproducible protein attachment. The fabrication yield of MoS2 FETs and biosensors exceeds 95%, with an average mobility of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (36 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) at room temperature under ambient (in vacuo). An atomic length nickel-mediated linker chemistry enables target binding events that occur very close to the MoS2 surface to maximize sensitivity. The biosensor response calibration curve for a synthetic opioid peptide known to bind to the wild-type MOR indicates binding affinity that matches values determined using traditional techniques and a limit of detection ∼3 nM (1.5 ng/mL). The combination of scalable array fabrication and rapid, precise binding readout enabled by the MoS2 transistor offers the prospect of a solid-state drug testing platform for rapid readout of the interactions between novel drugs and their intended protein targets. PMID:27227361

  6. Graphene as a signal amplifier for preparation of ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Jaroslav; Kasák, Peter; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnostics of diseases performed with minimal money and time consumption has become achievable due to recent advances in development of biosensors. These devices use biorecognition elements for selective interaction with an analyte and signal readout is obtained via different types of transducers. Operational characteristics of biosensors have been reported to improve substantially, when a diverse range of nanomaterials was employed. This review presents construction of electrochemical biosensors based on graphene, atomically thin 2D carbon crystals, which is currently intensively studied nanomaterial. The most attractive directions of graphene applications in biosensor preparation are discussed here including novel detection and amplification schemes exploiting graphene’s unique electrochemical, physical and chemical properties. The future of graphene-based biosensors is most likely bright, but there is still a lot of work to do to fulfill high expectations. PMID:27242391

  7. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors and Bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Mao, Xun; Gurung, Anant; Baloda, Meenu; Lin, Yuehe; He, Yuqing

    2010-08-31

    This book chapter summarizes the recent advance in nanomaterials for electrochemical biosensors and bioassays. Biofunctionalization of nanomaterials for biosensors fabrication and their biomedical applications are discussed.

  8. A direct heating model to overcome the edge effect in microplates.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chun Yat; Zahidi, Alifa Afiah Ahmad; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2015-01-01

    Array-based tests in a microplate format are complicated by the regional variation in results of the outer against the inner wells of the plate. Analysis of the evaporation mechanics of sessile drops showed that evaporation rate increase with temperature was due to changes in the heat of vaporization, density and diffusion coefficient. In simulations of direct bottom heating of standard microplates, considerable heat transfer via conduction from the side walls was found to be responsible for lower temperatures in the liquid in wells close to the edge. Applying a two temperature heating mode, 304 K at the side compared to 310 K at the bottom, allowed for a more uniform temperature distribution. Transparency microplates were found to inherently possess immunity to the edge effect problem due to the presence of air between the liquid and solid wall. PMID:25289516

  9. Rigid and non-rigid micro-plates: Philippines and Myanmar-Andaman case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Generally, tectonic plates are considered as rigid. Oblique plate convergence favors the development of micro-plates along the converging boundaries. The north-south-trending Philippines archipelago (here named Philippine Mobile Belt, PMB), a few hundreds kilometers wide, is one of such complex tectonic zones. We show here that it is composed of rigid rotating crustal blocks (here called platelets). In Myanmar, the northernmost tip of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction system is another complex zone made of various crustal blocks in-between convergent plates. Yet, contrary to PMB, it sustains internal deformation with platelet buckling, altogether indicative of a non-rigid behavior. Therefore, the two case studies, Philippine Mobile Belt and Myanmar-Andaman micro-plate (MAS), illustrate the complexity of micro-plate tectonics and kinematics at convergent plate boundaries.

  10. Conducting polymer based electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Nihan; Malmström, Jenny; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2016-03-28

    Conducting polymer (CP)-based electrochemical biosensors have gained great attention as such biosensor platforms are easy and cost-effective to fabricate, and provide a direct electrical readout for the presence of biological analytes with high sensitivity and selectivity. CP materials themselves are both sensing elements and transducers of the biological recognition event at the same time, simplifying sensor designs. This review summarizes the advances in electrochemical biosensors based on CPs. Recognition probe immobilisation techniques, transduction mechanisms and detection of various target biomolecules have been discussed in detail. Efforts to miniaturize CP-based electrochemical biosensors and fabrication of sensor arrays are also briefly reviewed. PMID:26948182

  11. Vigorous venting and biology at Pito Seamount, Easter microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naar, D. F.; Hekinian, R.; Segonzac, M.; Francheteau, J.; Armijo, R.; Cogne, J.-P.; Constantin, M.; Girardeau, J.; Hey, R. N.; Searle, R. C.

    A Nautile submersible investigation of Pito Seamount documents vigorous hydrothermal venting at 23°19.65'S, 111°38.41'W and at a depth of 2270 m. The data indicate the volcano is young and recently active, as predicted from analyses of SeaMARC II side-scan and swath bathymetry, and geophysical data. Pito Seamount lies near Pito Deep (5980 m), which marks the tip of the northwestward propagating East rift of the Easter microplate. Bathymetry surrounding Pito Seamount consists of a series of ridges and valleys with relief up to ˜4 km. The 4-km submersible-transect to the summit of Pito Seamount crossed areas of very glassy basalt with little or no sediment cover, suggesting the lava flows are very young. Most of the lava samples from Pito Seamount are depleted normal MORB (mid-ocean ridge basalt). Lava samples associated with active and dead hydrothermal vents consist of phyric and aphyric transitional and enriched MORB. Sulfides consist primarily of sphalerite and pyrite, with traces of chalcopyrite. The active hydrothermal chimney on Pito Seamount has a small, undiversified biological community similar to northern East Pacific Rise vent sites (alvinellid worms, bythograeid crabs and bythitid fishes) and western Pacific back-arc basin sites (alvinocaridid shrimps). No vestimentiferan worms were observed. Previous geophysical data, and new geochemical data and visual observations, suggest that the vigorous black smoker is a result of deep, extensive crosscutting faults formed by extensive tectonic thinning of Pito Deep, and a very robust magmatic supply being supplied from upwelling asthenosphere. Although no biological or vent fluid samples were obtained, geological and biological observations, such as the large number of inactive chimneys, old hydrothermal deposits, and starfish, as well as the occurrence of dead mollusks (gastropod and mussels), suggest a recent waning of hydrothermal activity near the summit. The speculative interpretation that Pito Seamount

  12. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  13. Carbon nanotube biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Tîlmaciu, Carmen-Mihaela; Morris, May C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites, or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we describe their structural and physical properties, functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers. PMID:26579509

  14. Towards optoelectronic urea biosensors.

    PubMed

    Pokrzywnicka, Marta; Koncki, Robert; Tymecki, Łukasz

    2015-03-01

    Integration of immobilized enzymes with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) leads to the development of optoelectronic enzyme-based biosensors. In this work, urease, used as a model enzyme, immobilized in the form of an open-tubular microbioreactor or biosensing membrane that has been integrated with two red LEDs. It forms complete, fiberless, miniaturized, and extremely economic biooptoelectronic devices useful for nonstationary measurements under flow analysis conditions. Both enzyme-based biodevices, operating according to the paired emitter detector diode (PEDD) principle, allow relatively fast, highly sensitive, and well-reproducible urea detection in the millimolar range of concentrations. Potential analytical applications of the developed urea bioPEDDs have been announced. Both presented constructions will be easily adapted for the development of other optoelectronic biosensors exploring various enzyme-based schemes of biodetection. PMID:25619983

  15. Crustal Accretion and Mantle Geodynamics at Microplates: Constraints from Gravity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, K.; Georgen, J. E.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Oceanic crustal accretion occurs in a variety of locations, including mid-ocean ridges and back-arc spreading centers, and in unique settings within these systems, such as plate boundary triple junctions, intra-transform spreading centers, and microplates. This study focuses on crustal accretion and mantle geodynamics at microplates. The Easter and Juan Fernandez microplates are located in the South Pacific along the Pacific, Nazca and Antarctic plate boundaries. Both microplates formed 3-5 Ma and they are currently rotating clockwise at 15 deg/Ma and 9 deg/Ma respectively (e.g., Searle et al. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 1993). The study area also encompasses the Easter/Sala y Gomez mantle plume and the Foundation seamount chain, both of which are located close to spreading centers. We calculate mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) from satellite gravity measurements and shipboard soundings in order to gain a better understanding of the thermal structure of these two oceanic microplates and to quantify the effect that melting anomalies may have on their boundaries. We assume a crustal thickness of 6.0 km, a 1.7 g/cm^3 density difference at the water/crust interface, and a 0.6 g/cm^3 density difference at the crust/mantle interface. The west rift of the Easter microplate has an MBA low ranging from approximately -50 to -100 mGal, while the east rift has slightly higher MBA values ranging from roughly 10 to -50 mGal. The west rift of the Juan Fernandez microplate has a maximum MBA low of about -100 mGal with a sharp increase to -20 mGal at -35 deg S. The east rift of the Juan Fernandez microplate is characterized by more variable MBA, ranging from 0 to -140 mGal. The MBA low associated with the Easter/Sala y Gomez mantle plume has a maximum amplitude about 150 mGal. Likewise, the Foundation seamounts show a gravity low of -140 to -150 mGal. These spatial variations in gravity, as well as published isotopic data and exploratory numerical models, are used to constrain upper mantle

  16. Microplate-compatible total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy for receptor pharmacology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghan; Zaytseva, Natalya V.; Wu, Qi; Li, Min; Fang, Ye

    2013-05-01

    We report the use of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for analyzing receptor pharmacology and the development of a microplate-compatible TIRF imaging system. Using stably expressed green fluorescence protein tagged β2-adrenergic receptor as the reporter, we found that the activation of different receptors results in distinct kinetic signatures of the TIRF intensity of cells. These TIRF signatures closely resemble the characteristics of their respective label-free dynamic mass redistribution signals in the same cells. This suggests that TIRF in microplate can be used for profiling and screening drugs.

  17. Micro-algal biosensors.

    PubMed

    Brayner, Roberta; Couté, Alain; Livage, Jacques; Perrette, Catherine; Sicard, Clémence

    2011-08-01

    Fighting against water pollution requires the ability to detect pollutants for example herbicides or heavy metals. Micro-algae that live in marine and fresh water offer a versatile solution for the construction of novel biosensors. These photosynthetic microorganisms are very sensitive to changes in their environment, enabling the detection of traces of pollutants. Three groups of micro-algae are described in this paper: chlorophyta, cyanobacteria, and diatoms. PMID:21626188

  18. Nanobiomaterials for Electrochemical Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumera, M.

    2007-08-01

    I will discuss main techniques and methods which use nanoscale materials for construction of electrochemical biosensors with emphasis on methods developed by myself and my coworkers. Described approaches include carbon nanotube based electrodes relying on double wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes, novel binding materials and mass production technology; and nanoscale materials as biomolecule tracers, including gold nanoparticles for DNA detection. Specific issues related to electrochemistry of nanoscale materials will be discussed. Various applications for genomic and proteomic analysis will be described.

  19. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  20. Nano-machining of biosensor electrodes through gold nanoparticles deposition produced by femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ventura, B.; Funari, R.; Anoop, K. K.; Amoruso, S.; Ausanio, G.; Gesuele, F.; Velotta, R.; Altucci, C.

    2015-06-01

    We report an application of femtosecond laser ablation to improve the sensitivity of biosensors based on a quartz crystal microbalance device. The nanoparticles produced by irradiating a gold target with 527-nm, 300-fs laser pulses, in high vacuum, are directly deposited on the quartz crystal microbalance electrode. Different gold electrodes are fabricated by varying the deposition time, thus addressing how the nanoparticles surface coverage influences the sensor response. The modified biosensor is tested by weighting immobilized IgG antibody from goat and its analyte (IgG from mouse), and the results are compared with a standard electrode. A substantial increase of biosensor sensitivity is achieved, thus demonstrating that femtosecond laser ablation and deposition is a viable physical method to improve the biosensor sensitivity by means of nanostructured electrodes.

  1. A new diamond biosensor with integrated graphitic microchannels for detecting quantal exocytic events from chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Gosso, Sara; Vittone, Ettore; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2013-09-14

    An MeV ion-microbeam lithographic technique can be successfully employed for the fabrication of an all-carbon miniaturized cellular biosensor based on graphitic microchannels embedded in a single-crystal diamond matrix. The device is functionally characterized for the in vitro recording of quantal exocytic events from single chromaffin cells, with high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio, opening promising perspectives for the realization of monolithic all-carbon cellular biosensors. PMID:23847004

  2. "Liquid Knife" to Fabricate Patterning Single-Crystalline Perovskite Microplates toward High-Performance Laser Arrays.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiangang; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Yifan; Wang, Xuedong; Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Fu, Hongbin; Jiang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    A facile and effective "liquid knife" is created by controlling the dewetting process of the liquid precursor, yielding patterning single-crystalline perovskite microplates with uniform size, precise positioning, high quality, and low lasing thresholds. The sizes and location of single-crystalline perovskite are controllable, leading to mode-tunable lasing emission and patterned lasers. PMID:27000628

  3. High-throughput measurements of the optical redox ratio using a commercial microplate reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Taylor M.; Shah, Amy T.; Walsh, Alex J.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for accurate, high-throughput, functional measures to gauge the efficacy of potential drugs in living cells. As an early marker of drug response in cells, cellular metabolism provides an attractive platform for high-throughput drug testing. Optical techniques can noninvasively monitor NADH and FAD, two autofluorescent metabolic coenzymes. The autofluorescent redox ratio, defined as the autofluorescence intensity of NADH divided by that of FAD, quantifies relative rates of cellular glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, current microscopy methods for redox ratio quantification are time-intensive and low-throughput, limiting their practicality in drug screening. Alternatively, high-throughput commercial microplate readers quickly measure fluorescence intensities for hundreds of wells. This study found that a commercial microplate reader can differentiate the receptor status of breast cancer cell lines (p<0.05) based on redox ratio measurements without extrinsic contrast agents. Furthermore, microplate reader redox ratio measurements resolve response (p<0.05) and lack of response (p>0.05) in cell lines that are responsive and nonresponsive, respectively, to the breast cancer drug trastuzumab. These studies indicate that the microplate readers can be used to measure the redox ratio in a high-throughput manner and are sensitive enough to detect differences in cellular metabolism that are consistent with microscopy results.

  4. Measurement of filter paper activities of cellulase with microplate-based assay

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yan; Cui, Yuxiao; Cheng, Qiyue; Zhang, Zaixiao; Lu, Jia Hui; Meng, Qingfan; Teng, Lirong; Ren, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    It is always a challenge to determine the total cellulase activity efficiently without reducing accuracy. The most common total cellulase activity assay is the filter paper assay (FPA) established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). A new procedure to measure the FPA with microplate-based assay was studied in this work, which followed the main idea of IUPAC to dilute cellulase preparation to get fixed glucose release. FPAs of six cellulase preparations were determined with the microplate-based assay. It is shown that FPAs of cellulase Youtell, RCconc, R-10, Lerkam, Yishui and Sinopharm were 67.9, 46.0, 46.1, 27.4, 7.6 and 8.0 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the FPA determined with IUPAC and the microplate-based assay. It could be concluded that the FPA could be determined by the microplate-based assay with the same accuracy and much more efficiency compared with that by IUPAC. PMID:26858572

  5. Development of LEDs-based microplate reader for bioanalytical assay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaruri, Sami D.; Katzlinger, Michael; Schinwald, Bernhard; Kronberger, Georg; Atzler, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    The optical design for an LEDs-based microplate reader that can perform fluorescence intensity (top and bottom), absorbance, luminescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements is described. The microplate reader is the first microplate reader in the marketplace that incorporates LEDs as excitation light sources. Absorbance measurements over the 0-3.5 optical density range for caffeine solution are presented. Additionally, fluorescence intensity readings collected at 535 and 625 nm from a green and a red RediPlateTM are reported. Furthermore, fluorescence decay lifetime measurements obtained for Eu (europium) and Sm (samarium) standard solutions using 370 nm excitation are presented. The microplate reader detection limits for the fluorescence intensity top, fluorescence intensity bottom, fluorescence polarization and time-resolved fluorescence modes are 1.5 fmol 100 µL-1 fluorescein (384-well plate), 25 fmol 100 µL-1 fluorescein (384-well plate), 5 mP at 10 nM fluorescein (black 384-well plate) and 30 amol 100 µL-1 europium solution (white 384-well plate), respectively.

  6. Measurement of filter paper activities of cellulase with microplate-based assay.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yan; Cui, Yuxiao; Cheng, Qiyue; Zhang, Zaixiao; Lu, Jia Hui; Meng, Qingfan; Teng, Lirong; Ren, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    It is always a challenge to determine the total cellulase activity efficiently without reducing accuracy. The most common total cellulase activity assay is the filter paper assay (FPA) established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). A new procedure to measure the FPA with microplate-based assay was studied in this work, which followed the main idea of IUPAC to dilute cellulase preparation to get fixed glucose release. FPAs of six cellulase preparations were determined with the microplate-based assay. It is shown that FPAs of cellulase Youtell, RCconc, R-10, Lerkam, Yishui and Sinopharm were 67.9, 46.0, 46.1, 27.4, 7.6 and 8.0 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the FPA determined with IUPAC and the microplate-based assay. It could be concluded that the FPA could be determined by the microplate-based assay with the same accuracy and much more efficiency compared with that by IUPAC. PMID:26858572

  7. Coupling the Torpedo Microplate-Receptor Binding Assay with Mass Spectrometry to Detect Cyclic Imine Neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M.; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility. PMID:23131021

  8. Coupling the Torpedo microplate-receptor binding assay with mass spectrometry to detect cyclic imine neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Aráoz, Rómulo; Ramos, Suzanne; Pelissier, Franck; Guérineau, Vincent; Benoit, Evelyne; Vilariño, Natalia; Botana, Luis M; Zakarian, Armen; Molgó, Jordi

    2012-12-01

    Cyclic imine neurotoxins constitute an emergent family of neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin that are potent antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We developed a target-directed functional method based on the mechanism of action of competitive agonists/antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors for the detection of marine cyclic imine neurotoxins. The key step for method development was the immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes rich in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the surface of microplate wells and the use of biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin as tracer. Cyclic imine neurotoxins competitively inhibit biotinylated-α-bungarotoxin binding to Torpedo-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The microplate-receptor binding assay allowed rapid detection of nanomolar concentrations of cyclic imine neurotoxins directly in shellfish samples. Although highly sensitive and specific for the detection of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a class, the receptor binding assay cannot identify a given analyte. To address the low selectivity of the microplate-receptor binding assay, the cyclic imine neurotoxins tightly bound to the coated Torpedo nicotinic receptor were eluted with methanol, and the chemical nature of the eluted ligands was identified by mass spectrometry. The immobilization of Torpedo electrocyte membranes on the surface of microplate wells proved to be a high-throughput format for the survey of neurotoxins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors directly in shellfish matrixes with high sensitivity and reproducibility. PMID:23131021

  9. Customizable PCR-microplate array for differential identification of multiple pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Woubit, Abdela; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Roberts, Sherrelle; Graham, Martha; Kim, Moonil; Samuel, Temesgen

    2014-01-01

    Customizable PCR-microplate arrays were developed for the rapid identification of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Previously, we identified highly specific primers targeting each of the pathogens above. Here, we report the development of customizable PCR-microplate arrays for simultaneous identification of the pathogens using the primers. A mixed aliquot of genomic DNA from 38 different strains was used to validate three PCR-microplate array formats. Identical PCR conditions were used to run all the samples on the three formats. Results show specific amplifications on all the three custom plates. In a preliminary test to evaluate the sensitivity of these assays in laboratory-inoculated samples, detection limits as low as 9 cfu/g/ml S. Typhimurium were obtained from beef hot dog, and 78 cfu/ml from milk. Such microplate arrays could serve as valuable tools for initial identification or secondary confirmation of these pathogens. PMID:24215700

  10. High-Resolution Vertical Observation of Intracellular Structure Using Magnetically Responsive Microplates.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Tetsuhiko; Onoe, Hiroaki; Tottori, Soichiro; Aonuma, Hiroka; Mizutani, Takeomi; Kamiya, Koki; Ishihara, Hirotaka; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-07-01

    A vertical confocal observation system capable of high-resolution observation of intracellular structure is demonstrated. The system consists of magnet-active microplates to rotate, incline, and translate single adherent cells in the applied magnetic field. Appended to conventional confocal microscopes, this system enables high-resolution cross-sectional imaging with single-molecule sensitivity in single scanning. PMID:27185344

  11. New GPS Constrains on Crustal Deformation within the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solares, M. M.; Lopez, A. M.; Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Over twenty years of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations along the northeastern region of the Caribbean plate boundary zone have been used to evaluate crustal deformation in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate, which generally translates westward relative to the Caribbean plate. New data from continuous GPS stations (cGPS) and re-occupied campaign GPS stations (eGPS) obtained between 2014 and 2015 allowed us to update the velocity field of the PRVI GPS Network and redefine the existing plate kinematics model of the PRVI microplate from previous measurements (Jansma et al., 2000; Jansma & Mattioli, 2005). Geodetic datasets for this epoch were processed with GIPSY/OASIS II (v.6.2) using an absolute point positioning strategy with final, precise orbits and clocks from JPL (IGS08). Results of sites velocity in the PRVI block are presented with respect to North America and Caribbean reference frames in ITRF08. The horizontal velocity components were used to calculate baseline lengths changes between selected GPS stations that span on-land faults and microplate boundaries, thus allowing quantification of internal deformation within the PRVI block. This enables us to locate zones of active deformation and faulting in order to understand how the relative motion between geological structures is accommodated. Our updated velocity field constrains intraplate deformation to 1-3 mm/yr across the PRVI microplate and active extension of 1-2 mm/yr in the Anegada passage eastern boundary. In addition, counterclockwise rotation has been observed and may be related to the deformation in southwestern Puerto Rico continuing offshore to the Muertos Trough along PRVI's southern boundary. Despite the PRVI microplate slow motion and small deformation, increasing velocities from east to west coincides with the most active microseismic zone and ongoing deformation in southwestern Puerto Rico suggesting independent motion along this segment of the PRVI block.

  12. Gas sensing in microplates with optodes: influence of oxygen exchange between sample, air, and plate material.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sarina; Weiss, Svenja; Heinzle, Elmar; John, Gernot T; Krause, Christian; Klimant, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    Microplates with integrated optical oxygen sensors are a new tool to study metabolic rates and enzyme activities. Precise measurements are possible only if oxygen exchange between the sample and the environment is known. In this study we quantify gas exchange in plastic microplates. Dissolved oxygen was detected using either an oxygen-sensitive film fixed at the bottom of each well or a needle-type sensor. The diffusion of oxygen into wells sealed with different foils, paraffin oil, and paraffin wax, respectively, was quantified. Although foil covers showed the lowest oxygen permeability, they include an inevitable gas phase between sample and sealing and are difficult to manage. The use of oil was found to be critical due to the extensive shaking caused by movement of the plates during measurements in microplate readers. Thus, paraffin wax was the choice material because it avoids convection of the sample and is easy to handle. Furthermore, without shaking, significant gradients in pO2 levels within a single well of a polystyrene microplate covered with paraffin oil were detected with the needle-type sensor. Higher pO2 levels were obtained near the surface of the sample as well as near the wall of the well. A significant diffusion of oxygen through the plastic plate material was found using plates based on polystyrene. Thus, the location of a sensor element within the well has an effect on the measured pO2 level. Using a sensor film fixed on the bottom of a well or using a dissolved pO2-sensitive indicator results in pO2 offset and in apparently lower respiration rates or enzyme activities. Oxygen diffusion through a polystyrene microplate was simulated for measurements without convection--that is, for samples without oxygen diffusion through the cover and for unshaken measurements using permeable sealings. This mathematical model allows for calculation of the correct kinetic parameters. PMID:15772950

  13. Guided Bloch surface wave resonance for biosensor designs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiu-Bao; Liu, Lan-Jun; Lu, Hai; Li, Hai-Dong; Wang, Zhi-Guo

    2016-05-01

    A guided Bloch surface wave resonance (GBR) configuration is introduced for label-free biosensing. The GBR is realized by coupling the first-order diffraction of a subwavelength grating with the Bloch surface wave at the interface between a 1D photonic crystal slab and bio-solution. In addition to sustaining the Bloch surface mode, the photonic crystal provides the design freedom of simultaneously increasing the quality and decreasing the sideband transmissions of the resonance spectrum. The low sideband and high-quality features along with the large sensitivity rising from the strong overlap between the Bloch surface mode and the bio-solution make the GBR suitable for the design of biosensors. Biosensors with a high figure of merit are realized by the compact configurations. PMID:27140900

  14. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Jules L; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-06-30

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications-in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market.In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking. PMID:27365037

  15. Improved Biosensors for Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  16. Multiplexed Biosensors for Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Maragos, Chris M

    2016-07-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect low-MW toxins produced by fungi (mycotoxins). The number of formats that have been investigated is impressive and is an indication of the importance attached to finding easy-to-use, accurate, and rapid methods for detecting these toxins in commodities and foods. This review explores the details of multiplexed biosensors based on many formats, including multiplexed immunoassays, suspension arrays, membrane-based devices (flow-through and immunochromatographic), and planar microarrays. Each assay format has its own strengths and areas that need improvement. Certain formats, such as multiplexed immunochromatographic devices, are well developed and relatively easy to use, and in some cases, commercial products are being sold. Others, such as the suspension arrays and microarrays, are laboratory-based assays that, although more complicated, are also more amenable to a larger scale of multiplexing. The diversity of such efforts and the multitude of formats under investigation suggest that multiple solutions will be found to satisfy the need for multiplexed toxin detection. PMID:27455928

  17. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jules L.; Formisano, Nello; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications–in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market. In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking. PMID:27365037

  18. Silver nanocube on gold microplate as a well-defined and highly active substrate for SERS detection.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaohu; Rycenga, Matthew; Qin, Dong; Xia, Younan

    2013-10-14

    Strong enhancement and good reproducibility in Raman signals are two major requirements for a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to be used for sensitive detection of an analyte. Here we report a new type of SERS substrate that was fabricated by depositing a Ag nanocube (AgNC) on the surface of a Au microplate (AuMP). Owing to the strong and reproducible hot spots formed at corner sites of the AgNC in proximity with the AuMP surface, the new substrate showed high sensitivity and reproducibility. Using 1,4-benzenedithiol as a probe, the SERS enhancement factor of a typical "AgNC on AuMP" substrate could reach a level as high as 4.7×10(7). In addition to the high sensitivity and reproducibility, the "AgNC on AuMP" substrate also displayed very good stability. Potential use of the "AgNC on AuMP" substrate was demonstrated by detecting crystal violet with high sensitivity. PMID:24187611

  19. Highly dispersive photonic band-gap-edge optofluidic biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, S.; Mortensen, N. A.

    2006-11-01

    Highly dispersive photonic band-gap-edge optofluidic biosensors are studied theoretically. We demonstrate that these structures are strongly sensitive to the refractive index of the liquid, which is used to tune dispersion of the photonic crystal. The upper frequency band-gap edge shifts about 1.8 nm for δ n=0.002, which is quite sensitive. Results from transmission spectra agree well with those obtained from the band structure theory.

  20. Use of a parasitic wasp as a biosensor.

    PubMed

    Olson, Dawn; Rains, Glen

    2014-06-01

    Screening cargo for illicit substances is in need of rapid high-throughput inspection systems that accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component of cocaine, by examining their response to training concentrations, their sensitivity at low concentrations, and their ability to detect methyl benzoate when two concealment substances (green tea and ground coffee) are added to the testing arena. Utilizing classical associative learning techniques with sucrose as reward, we found that M. croceipes learns individual concentrations of methyl benzoate, and they can generalize this learning to concentrations 100× lower than the training concentration. Their sensitivity to methyl benzoate is very low at an estimated 3 ppb. They are also able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by green tea, but were not able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by coffee grounds. Habituation to the tea and coffee odors prior to testing improves their responses, resulting in effective detection of methyl benzoate covered by the coffee grounds. With the aid of the portable device called 'the wasp hound', the wasps appear to have potential to be effective on-site biosensors for the detection of cocaine. PMID:25587415

  1. Biosensor commercialization strategy - a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Tsai; Wang, Su-Man

    2005-01-01

    Biosensors are analytical devices, which use biological interactions to provide either qualitative or quantitative results. They are extensively employed in many fields such as clinical diagnosis and biomedicine, military applications, anti-terrorism, farm, garden and veterinary analysis, process control, fermentation control and analysis, pharmaceutical and drug analysis, food and drink production and analysis, pollution control and monitoring, microbiology, bacterial and viral analysis, mining, and industrial and toxic gases. The biosensor market has significantly increased and will be mushrooming in the next decade. The total biosensor market is estimated to be 10.8 billion dollars by 2007. The emerging biosensor market presents both opportunities and obstacles to start-up biosensor entrepreneurs. The major challenge and threat for these entrepreneurs is how to predict the biosensor market and how to convert promising biosensor technology into commercialized biosensors. By adopting a simple commercialization strategy framework, we identify two key elements of biosensor commercialization strategy: excludability and complementary asset. We further divide biosensor commercialization environments into four distinct sub-environments: the Attacker's Advantage, Reputation-Based Idea Trading, Greenfield Competition and Ideas Factories. This paper explains how the interaction between these two key elements shapes biosensor commercialization strategy and biosensor industry dynamics. This paper also discusses alternative commercialization strategies for each specific commercialization environment and how to choose from these alternatives. The analysis of this study further provides a good reference for start-up biosensor entrepreneurs to formulate effective biosensor commercialization strategy. PMID:15574353

  2. Fast and Accurate Microplate Method (Biolog MT2) for Detection of Fusarium Fungicides Resistance/Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Frąc, Magdalena; Gryta, Agata; Oszust, Karolina; Kotowicz, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The need for finding fungicides against Fusarium is a key step in the chemical plant protection and using appropriate chemical agents. Existing, conventional methods of evaluation of Fusarium isolates resistance to fungicides are costly, time-consuming and potentially environmentally harmful due to usage of high amounts of potentially toxic chemicals. Therefore, the development of fast, accurate and effective detection methods for Fusarium resistance to fungicides is urgently required. MT2 microplates (Biolog(TM)) method is traditionally used for bacteria identification and the evaluation of their ability to utilize different carbon substrates. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no reports concerning the use of this technical tool to determine fungicides resistance of the Fusarium isolates. For this reason, the objectives of this study are to develop a fast method for Fusarium resistance to fungicides detection and to validate the effectiveness approach between both traditional hole-plate and MT2 microplates assays. In presented study MT2 microplate-based assay was evaluated for potential use as an alternative resistance detection method. This was carried out using three commercially available fungicides, containing following active substances: triazoles (tebuconazole), benzimidazoles (carbendazim) and strobilurins (azoxystrobin), in six concentrations (0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2%), for nine selected Fusarium isolates. In this study, the particular concentrations of each fungicides was loaded into MT2 microplate wells. The wells were inoculated with the Fusarium mycelium suspended in PM4-IF inoculating fluid. Before inoculation the suspension was standardized for each isolates into 75% of transmittance. Traditional hole-plate method was used as a control assay. The fungicides concentrations in control method were the following: 0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50%. Strong relationships between MT2 microplate and traditional hole

  3. Fast and Accurate Microplate Method (Biolog MT2) for Detection of Fusarium Fungicides Resistance/Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Gryta, Agata; Oszust, Karolina; Kotowicz, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The need for finding fungicides against Fusarium is a key step in the chemical plant protection and using appropriate chemical agents. Existing, conventional methods of evaluation of Fusarium isolates resistance to fungicides are costly, time-consuming and potentially environmentally harmful due to usage of high amounts of potentially toxic chemicals. Therefore, the development of fast, accurate and effective detection methods for Fusarium resistance to fungicides is urgently required. MT2 microplates (BiologTM) method is traditionally used for bacteria identification and the evaluation of their ability to utilize different carbon substrates. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no reports concerning the use of this technical tool to determine fungicides resistance of the Fusarium isolates. For this reason, the objectives of this study are to develop a fast method for Fusarium resistance to fungicides detection and to validate the effectiveness approach between both traditional hole-plate and MT2 microplates assays. In presented study MT2 microplate-based assay was evaluated for potential use as an alternative resistance detection method. This was carried out using three commercially available fungicides, containing following active substances: triazoles (tebuconazole), benzimidazoles (carbendazim) and strobilurins (azoxystrobin), in six concentrations (0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2%), for nine selected Fusarium isolates. In this study, the particular concentrations of each fungicides was loaded into MT2 microplate wells. The wells were inoculated with the Fusarium mycelium suspended in PM4-IF inoculating fluid. Before inoculation the suspension was standardized for each isolates into 75% of transmittance. Traditional hole-plate method was used as a control assay. The fungicides concentrations in control method were the following: 0, 0.0005, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50%. Strong relationships between MT2 microplate and traditional hole

  4. Wandering terranes in southern Alaska: The Aleutia Microplate and implications for the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, Michael S.; Cooper, Alan K.

    1983-04-01

    Paleomagnetic and geological data suggest that much of southern Alaska is a collage of tectonostratigraphic terranes which originated in Mesozoic time at paleolatitudes far south of their present position. The time of `docking' of the terranes against cratonic Alaska is critical to defining their amalgamated size and extent during their northward motion as well as their role in the evolution of the Bering Sea. One of the largest of the tectonostratigraphic terranes, the Peninsular terrane of south central and southwestern Alaska, extends offshore along the outer Bering Sea continental margin (Beringia). Paleomagnetic data suggest that this terrane has moved northward through all of Cenozoic time, but geologic data imply that the terrane had accreted to Alaska by the end of the Mesozoic. In early Cenozoic time the eastern part of the Aleutian arc appears to have been superimposed on the Peninsular terrane, and postulated northward Cenozoic motion of the terrane would therefore have required northward motion of the arc. Two accretion models, based on docking times for terranes in Alaska, are proposed, and they illustrate that large areas of the abyssal Bering Sea, the Alaska Peninsula, the Aleutian arc, and the Beringian continental margin may be part of a superterrane or microplate called Aleutia (microplate as defined by Beck et al. (1980), i.e., a microplate is a displaced segment of lithosphere that has crustal roots, whereas a superterrane is an amalgamation of terranes which may or may not be rootless). Model A implies that the Aleutian arc developed in situ on the southern edge of Aleutia after the microplate had docked. In model B, the final docking time of the Peninsular terrane is late Cenozoic, which implies that the Aleutia microplate encompasses a mammoth area that includes parts of southern Alaska, the Alaska Peninsula, the southern Beringian margin, the abyssal Bering Sea (Kula plate), and the Aleutian arc. If model A is correct, the docking time of

  5. Sensors and Biosensors for the Determination of Small Molecule Biological Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Shuo

    2008-01-01

    The following review of sensors and biosensors focuses on the determination of commonly studied small molecule biological toxins, including mycotoxins and small molecule neurotoxins. Because of the high toxicity of small molecule toxins, an effective analysis technique for determining their toxicity is indispensable. Sensors and biosensors have emerged as sensitive and rapid techniques for toxicity analysis in the past decade. Several different sensors for the determination of mycotoxins and other small molecule neurotoxins have been reported in the literature, and many of these sensors such as tissue biosensors, enzyme sensors, optical immunosensors, electrochemical sensors, quartz crystal sensors, and surface plasmon resonance biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Sensors are a practical and convenient monitoring tool in the area of routine analysis, and their specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility and analysis stability should all be improved in future work. In addition, accuracy field portable sensing devices and multiplexing analysis devices will be important requirement for the future.

  6. Glycan and lectin biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Belický, Štefan; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    A short description about the importance of glycan biorecognition in physiological (blood cell type) and pathological processes (infections by human and avian influenza viruses) is provided in this review. Glycans are described as much better information storage media, compared to proteins or DNA, due to the extensive variability of glycan structures. Techniques able to detect an exact glycan structure are briefly discussed with the main focus on the application of lectins (glycan-recognising proteins) in the specific analysis of glycans still attached to proteins or cells/viruses. Optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and micromechanical biosensors with immobilised lectins or glycans able to detect a wide range of analytes including whole cells/viruses are also discussed. PMID:27365034

  7. Noninvasive biosensor for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, Karunakaran

    2003-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar- is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This is especially a concern in early childhood years when the nervous system is still developing. Hypoglycemic unawareness (in which the body"s normal ability to signal low blood sugar doesn"t work and an oncoming low blood sugar episode proceeds undetected) is a particularly frightening problem for many people with diabetes. Researchers have now uncovered evidence that repeated bouts of insulin-induced hypoglycemia can harm the brain over time, causing confusion, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Extreme cases have resulted in coma and death. In this paper, a non-invasive biosensor in a wrist watch along with a wireless data downloading system is proposed.

  8. The electrophotonic silicon biosensor.

    PubMed

    Juan-Colás, José; Parkin, Alison; Dunn, Katherine E; Scullion, Mark G; Krauss, Thomas F; Johnson, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of personalized and stratified medicine requires label-free, low-cost diagnostic technology capable of monitoring multiple disease biomarkers in parallel. Silicon photonic biosensors combine high-sensitivity analysis with scalable, low-cost manufacturing, but they tend to measure only a single biomarker and provide no information about their (bio)chemical activity. Here we introduce an electrochemical silicon photonic sensor capable of highly sensitive and multiparameter profiling of biomarkers. Our electrophotonic technology consists of microring resonators optimally n-doped to support high Q resonances alongside electrochemical processes in situ. The inclusion of electrochemical control enables site-selective immobilization of different biomolecules on individual microrings within a sensor array. The combination of photonic and electrochemical characterization also provides additional quantitative information and unique insight into chemical reactivity that is unavailable with photonic detection alone. By exploiting both the photonic and the electrical properties of silicon, the sensor opens new modalities for sensing on the microscale. PMID:27624590

  9. Glycan and lectin biosensors.

    PubMed

    Belický, Štefan; Katrlík, Jaroslav; Tkáč, Ján

    2016-06-30

    A short description about the importance of glycan biorecognition in physiological (blood cell type) and pathological processes (infections by human and avian influenza viruses) is provided in this review. Glycans are described as much better information storage media, compared to proteins or DNA, due to the extensive variability of glycan structures. Techniques able to detect an exact glycan structure are briefly discussed with the main focus on the application of lectins (glycan-recognising proteins) in the specific analysis of glycans still attached to proteins or cells/viruses. Optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric and micromechanical biosensors with immobilised lectins or glycans able to detect a wide range of analytes including whole cells/viruses are also discussed. PMID:27365034

  10. DNA nanotechnology-enabled biosensors.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yinan; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. DNA-based biosensors, as a sub-field to biosensor, utilize DNA strands with short oligonucleotides as probes for target recognition. Although DNA-based biosensors have offered a promising alternative for fast, simple and cheap detection of target molecules, there still exist key challenges including poor stability and reproducibility that hinder their competition with the current gold standard for DNA assays. By exploiting the self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, researchers have dedicated to make versatile DNA nanostructures in a highly rigid, controllable and functionalized manner, which offers unprecedented opportunities for developing DNA-based biosensors. In this review, we will briefly introduce the recent advances on design and fabrication of static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and summarize their applications for fabrication and functionalization of DNA-based biosensors. PMID:26212206

  11. Improvement of up-converting phosphor technology-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chengke; Huang, Lihua; Zhang, Youbao; Guo, Xiaoxian; Qu, Jianfeng; Huang, Huijie

    2008-12-01

    A novel biosensor based on up-converting phosphor technology (UPT) was developed several years ago. It is a kind of optical biosensor using up-converting phosphor (UCP) particles as the biological marker. From then on, some improvements have been made for this UPT-based biosensor. The primary aspects of the improvement lie in the control system. On one hand, the hardware of the control system has been optimized, including replacing two single chip microcomputers (SCM) with only one, the optimal design of the keyboard interface circuit and the liquid crystal module (LCM) control circuit et al.. These result in lower power consumption and higher reliability. On the other hand, a novel signal processing algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can improve the automation and operating simplicity of the UPT-based biosensor. It has proved to have high sensitivity (~ng/ml), high stability and good repeatability (CV<5%), which is better than the former system. It can meet the need of some various applications such as rapid immunoassay, chemical and biological detection and so on.

  12. A Fast Optical Method for the Determination of Liquid Levels in Microplates

    PubMed Central

    Thurow, Kerstin; Stoll, Norbert; Ritterbusch, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Parallel liquid handling systems are widely used in different applications of life sciences. In order to avoid false positive or negative results which lead to higher costs due to the replication of the experiments it is necessary to monitor the process and success of liquid delivery. An easy method for the determination of the liquid levels in microplates has been developed and evaluated. The optical method bases on the measurement of the liquid level using CCD cameras followed by special algorithms for the evaluation and visualization of the measured data. The proposed method was tested in changing environmental lighting for two different liquids. These tests confirm our approach towards optical liquid level determination for smallest volumes in microplates and also show the challenges regarding environmental lighting and different physical properties of fluids. PMID:21747734

  13. Analysis of Aerobic Respiration in Intact Skeletal Muscle Tissue by Microplate-Based Respirometry.

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Jonathan; Guttridge, Denis C

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is a key component of skeletal muscle health, and its dysfunction has been associated with a wide variety of diseases. Microplate-based respirometry measures aerobic respiration of live cells through extracellular changes in oxygen concentration. Here, we describe a methodology to measure aerobic respiration of intact murine skeletal muscle tissue. The tissues are not cultured, permeabilized, or enzymatically dissociated to single fibers, so there is minimal experimental manipulation affecting the samples prior to acquiring measurements. PMID:27492183

  14. High-throughput microplate technique for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Chundawat, Shishir P S; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-04-15

    Several factors will influence the viability of a biochemical platform for manufacturing lignocellulosic based fuels and chemicals, for example, genetically engineering energy crops, reducing pre-treatment severity, and minimizing enzyme loading. Past research on biomass conversion has focused largely on acid based pre-treatment technologies that fractionate lignin and hemicellulose from cellulose. However, for alkaline based (e.g., AFEX) and other lower severity pre-treatments it becomes critical to co-hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose using an optimized enzyme cocktail. Lignocellulosics are appropriate substrates to assess hydrolytic activity of enzyme mixtures compared to conventional unrealistic substrates (e.g., filter paper, chromogenic, and fluorigenic compounds) for studying synergistic hydrolysis. However, there are few, if any, high-throughput lignocellulosic digestibility analytical platforms for optimizing biomass conversion. The 96-well Biomass Conversion Research Lab (BCRL) microplate method is a high-throughput assay to study digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass as a function of biomass composition, pre-treatment severity, and enzyme composition. The most suitable method for delivering milled biomass to the microplate was through multi-pipetting slurry suspensions. A rapid bio-enzymatic, spectrophotometric assay was used to determine fermentable sugars. The entire procedure was automated using a robotic pipetting workstation. Several parameters that affect hydrolysis in the microplate were studied and optimized (i.e., particle size reduction, slurry solids concentration, glucan loading, mass transfer issues, and time period for hydrolysis). The microplate method was optimized for crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pre-treated corn stover. PMID:18306256

  15. Platelet aggregation inhibitors from Philippine marine invertebrate samples screened in a new microplate assay.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Sheila Marie V; Bojo, Zenaida P; Roberto, Amy V D; Lazaro, Jose Enrico H; Mangalindan, Gina C; Florentino, Leila M; Lim-Navarro, Pilar; Tasdemir, Deniz; Ireland, Chris M; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2003-01-01

    A new microplate assay for Ca(2+)-induced platelet aggregation as detected by Giemsa dye was used to screen marine invertebrate samples from the Philippines for inhibitors of human platelet aggregation. Out of 261 crude methanol extracts of marine sponges and tunicates, 25 inhibited aggregation at 2 mg/ml. Inhibition of agonist-induced aggregation in an aggregometer was used to confirm results of the microplate assay and to determine the specific mode of inhibition of 2 samples. The marine sponge Xestospongia sp. yielded a xestospongin/araguspongine-type molecule that inhibited collagen-induced aggregation by 87% at 2 micro g/ml, and epinephrine-induced aggregation by 78% at 20 micro g/ml, while the marine sponge Aplysina sp. yielded 5,6-dibromotryptamine, which inhibited epinephrine-induced aggregation by 51% at 20 micro g/ml. In this study we have found that the microplate assay is a simple, inexpensive, yet useful preliminary tool to qualitatively screen a large number of marine samples for antiplatelet aggregation activity. PMID:14719168

  16. Carbon-coated lithium titanium phosphate nanoporous microplates with superior electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifeng; Liu, Li; Zhou, Qian; Tan, Jinli; Yan, Zichao; Xia, Dongdong; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang; Wang, Xianyou

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we report a facile method to synthesize carbon-coated LiTi2(PO4)3 nanoporous microplates (LTP/C MPs) using ethylenediamine as the chelating agent and carbon source. The as-prepared LTP/C MPs with thickness of 0.4 μm consist of interconnected nanosized particles embedded in nano-thickness carbon layer and well-dispersed nanopores. The carbon layer significantly improves the electrochemical performance of LiTi2(PO4)3 microplates. LTP/C MPs deliver a reversible capacity of 121 mAh g-1 at 0.2C (1C = 138 mAh g-1) and show a remarkable capacity retention of 94.2% over 100 cycles when matched with Li metal counter electrode. It also presents excellent electrochemical properties as anode material for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLBs). LTP/C MPs//LiMn2O4 ARLB shows a high discharge capacity of 76 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1 and superior rate capability. The results suggest a practical stratagem to develop a novel composite in which the carbon is coated with LiTi2(PO4)3 nanoporous microplates, which can become one of the promising electrode materials for both non-aqueous and aqueous lithium ion batteries.

  17. Using Isolated Mitochondria from Minimal Quantities of Mouse Skeletal Muscle for High throughput Microplate Respiratory Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Boutagy, Nabil E.; Rogers, George W.; Pyne, Emily S.; Ali, Mostafa M.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Frisard, Madlyn I.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondria play a specific role in many disease pathologies. As such, the measurement of oxygen consumption as an indicator of mitochondrial function in this tissue has become more prevalent. Although many technologies and assays exist that measure mitochondrial respiratory pathways in a variety of cells, tissue and species, there is currently a void in the literature in regards to the compilation of these assays using isolated mitochondria from mouse skeletal muscle for use in microplate based technologies. Importantly, the use of microplate based respirometric assays is growing among mitochondrial biologists as it allows for high throughput measurements using minimal quantities of isolated mitochondria. Therefore, a collection of microplate based respirometric assays were developed that are able to assess mechanistic changes/adaptations in oxygen consumption in a commonly used animal model. The methods presented herein provide step-by-step instructions to perform these assays with an optimal amount of mitochondrial protein and reagents, and high precision as evidenced by the minimal variance across the dynamic range of each assay. PMID:26555567

  18. Influence of acoustic streaming on ultrasonic particle manipulation in a 100-well ring-transducer microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlin, Mathias; Christakou, Athanasia E.; Frisk, Thomas; Önfelt, Björn; Wiklund, Martin

    2013-03-01

    We characterize and quantify the performance of ultrasonic particle aggregation and positioning in a 100-well microplate. We analyze the result when operating a planar ultrasonic ring transducer at different single actuation frequencies in the range 2.20-2.40 MHz, and compare with the result obtained from different schemes of frequency-modulated actuation. Compared to our previously used wedge transducer design, the ring transducer has a larger contact area facing the microplate, resulting in lower temperature increase for a given actuation voltage. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of acoustic streaming occurring simultaneously with the particle trapping in the wells of the microplate, and we define an adaptive ultrasonic actuation scheme for optimizing both efficiency and robustness of the method. The device is designed as a tool for ultrasound-mediated cell aggregation and positioning. This is a method for high-resolution optical characterization of time-dependent cellular processes at the level of single cells. In this paper, we demonstrate how to operate our device in order to optimize the scanning time of 3D confocal microscopy with the aim to perform high-resolution time-lapse imaging of cells or cell-cell interactions in a highly parallel manner.

  19. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  20. NANOSCALE BIOSENSORS IN ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation presented information on nanoscale biosensors in ecosystem exposure research. The outline of the presentation is as follows: nanomaterials environmental exposure research; US agencies involved in nanosensor research; nanoscale LEDs in biosensors; nano...

  1. Block rotation and continental extension in Afar: A comparison to oceanic microplate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, Gary D.; Stein, Seth; Engeln, Joseph F.

    1991-06-01

    The reorganization of oceanic spreading centers separating major plates often appears to occur by a process in which discrete microplates form and evolve by rift propagation. To see whether such microplate behavior has implications for continental rifting, we investigate the application of a microplate model to the Afar region at the Nubia-Somalia-Arabia triple junction. Studies of marine magnetic anomalies, volcanic ages, bathymetry, and seismicity suggest that the westward propagating Gulf of Aden spreading center has propagated into eastern Afar within the past 2 m.y., causing rifting and extension within the continent. We derive constraints on the extension history from the geometry and timing of rift formation and from paleomagnetic data indicating that Pliocene to Pleistocene age rocks have undergone a clockwise rotation of ˜11°. We suggest that the history of rifting, the rotation, and several other features of the regional geology can be described by combining features of an oceanic microplate model and the concept of rift localization previously proposed for Afar. In this scenario, motion occurring on several rifts within an extensional zone preceding the propagating spreading center is gradually transferred to a single rift. While motion is transferred, the overlap region between the growing and dying rifts acts as one or more microplates or blocks that rotate relative to the surrounding major plates. The rifting history and rotations in eastern Afar are thus related to the rift propagation and localization that occurs as the plate boundary evolves. Provided the constraints we use are appropriate, our model better describes the regional kinematics than alternative block models including one based on "bookshelf" faulting. If the tectonics of Afar are typical for continental breakup, they have interesting implications for the geometry of passive margins. In particular, asymmetric rifted margins can be produced if the final location of the rift axis is not

  2. Biosensor for metal analysis and speciation

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, Abigail M.; Peyton, Brent M.; Apel, William A.; Petersen, James N.

    2007-01-30

    A biosensor for metal analysis and speciation is disclosed. The biosensor comprises an electron carrier immobilized to a surface of an electrode and a layer of an immobilized enzyme adjacent to the electrode. The immobilized enzyme comprises an enzyme having biological activity inhibited by a metal to be detected by the biosensor.

  3. Porous silicon biosensor: current status.

    PubMed

    Dhanekar, Saakshi; Jain, Swati

    2013-03-15

    Biosensing technologies cater to modern day diagnostics and point of care multi-specialty clinics, hospitals and laboratories. Biosensors aggregate the sensitivity of detection methodologies and constitutional selectivity of biomolecules. Endeavors to develop highly sensitive, fast, stable and low cost biosensors have been made possible by extensive and arduous research. Immense research work is going on for detection of molecules using various materials as immobilization substrate and sensing elements. Amongst materials being used as bio-sensing substrates, nano-porous silicon (PS) has amassed attention and gained popularity in recent years. It has captivating and tunable features like ease of fabrication, special optico-physico properties, tailored morphological structure and versatile surface chemistry enhancing its prospects as transducer for fabricating biosensors. The present review describes the fabrication of PS and its biosensing capabilities for detection of various analytes including, but not limited to, glucose, DNA, antibodies, bacteria and viruses. Attention has been consecrated on the various methodologies such as electrical, electrochemical, optical and label free techniques along with the performances of these biosensors. It concludes with some future prospects and challenges of PS based biosensors. PMID:23122704

  4. DNA biosensors that reason.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    Despite the many designs of devices operating with the DNA strand displacement, surprisingly none is explicitly devoted to the implementation of logical deductions. The present article introduces a new model of biosensor device that uses nucleic acid strands to encode simple rules such as "IF DNA_strand(1) is present THEN disease(A)" or "IF DNA_strand(1) AND DNA_strand(2) are present THEN disease(B)". Taking advantage of the strand displacement operation, our model makes these simple rules interact with input signals (either DNA or any type of RNA) to generate an output signal (in the form of nucleotide strands). This output signal represents a diagnosis, which either can be measured using FRET techniques, cascaded as the input of another logical deduction with different rules, or even be a drug that is administered in response to a set of symptoms. The encoding introduces an implicit error cancellation mechanism, which increases the system scalability enabling longer inference cascades with a bounded and controllable signal-noise relation. It also allows the same rule to be used in forward inference or backward inference, providing the option of validly outputting negated propositions (e.g. "diagnosis A excluded"). The models presented in this paper can be used to implement smart logical DNA devices that perform genetic diagnosis in vitro. PMID:22406690

  5. Biosensors for termite control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkhanda, M.

    2013-12-01

    Termites are major urban pests in Pakistan and cause damage to wooden structures and buildings. Termite management has two parts: prevention and control. The most difficult part of termite control is termite detection as most of them are subterranean in Pakistan and have tunneling habit.Throughout the world, chemical termiticides are going to be replaced by baits, microwave and sensor technology. Termite species are distinct biologically and have specific foraging behaviors. Termite Detection Radar, Moisture meter and Remote Thermal Sensor with Laser are available throughout the world. These can detect termites underground and use fewer chemicals than traditional methods. For wooden buildings, a termite sensor and an intrusion detection system for detecting termites are designed. A pair of electrodes is disposed inside the container. A pair of terminals is connected to these electrodes, these extend outside the container. Termites are detected by a change of conductivity between the electrodes, when termites are detected a warning device generates a warning signal. In Pakistan, there is dire need to develop such biosensoring devices locally, then apply control methods that would save money and protect the environment.

  6. Plants as Environmental Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, Don Rufus A

    2006-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a wide variety of perturbations including variation of temperature and/or light, mechanical forces, gravity, air and soil pollution, drought, deficiency or surplus of nutrients, attacks by insects and pathogens, etc., and hence, it is essential for all plants to have survival sensory mechanisms against such perturbations. Consequently, plants generate various types of intracellular and intercellular electrical signals mostly in the form of action and variation potentials in response to these environmental changes. However, over a long period, only certain plants with rapid and highly noticeable responses for environmental stresses have received much attention from plant scientists. Of particular interest to our recent studies on ultra fast action potential measurements in green plants, we discuss in this review the evidence supporting the foundation for utilizing green plants as fast biosensors for molecular recognition of the direction of light, monitoring the environment, and detecting the insect attacks as well as the effects of pesticides, defoliants, uncouplers, and heavy metal pollutants. PMID:19521490

  7. Fluidics cube for biosensor miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodson, J. M.; Feldstein, M. J.; Leatzow, D. M.; Flack, L. K.; Golden, J. P.; Ligler, F. S.

    2001-01-01

    To create a small, portable, fully automated biosensor, a compact means of fluid handling is required. We designed, manufactured, and tested a "fluidics cube" for such a purpose. This cube, made of thermoplastic, contains reservoirs and channels for liquid samples and reagents and operates without the use of any internal valves or meters; it is a passive fluid circuit that relies on pressure relief vents to control fluid movement. We demonstrate the ability of pressure relief vents to control fluid movement and show how to simply manufacture or modify the cube. Combined with the planar array biosensor developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, it brings us one step closer to realizing our goal of a handheld biosensor capable of analyzing multiple samples for multiple analytes.

  8. Modelling a Peroxidase-based Optical Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Romas; Gaidamauskaite, Evelina; Kulys, Juozas

    2007-01-01

    The response of a peroxidase-based optical biosensor was modelled digitally. A mathematical model of the optical biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments, an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. The digital simulation was carried out using finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration as well as of the thickness of both the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially at low concentrations of the peroxidase and of the hydrogen peroxide.

  9. Faulting and strain partitioning in Jamaica from GPS and structural data: Implications for Gonave and Hispaniola microplate kinematics, northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Bryn

    A series of small microplates separate the Caribbean and North America plates in the northern Caribbean. My dissertation focuses on understanding the structural evolution and neotectonic deformation of Jamaica, and how it relates to the overall microplates and tectonics of the northern Caribbean. Jamaica, which lies along the same seismically active plate boundary as Haiti, has had twelve earthquakes with Modified Mercalli intensities of VII to X since 1667. However, remarkably little is known about which faults presently constitute the most significant seismic hazards. This research provides insight into tectonic processes and facilitates mitigation of geological hazards in the region. Two chapters focus on characterizing deformation in Jamaica through modeling GPS velocities and through field mapping. The best-fitting models based on GPS velocities place most strike-slip motion on faults in central Jamaica and suggest that faults in northern Jamaica have minimal motion. I estimate 4--5 mm yr-1 of slip for faults near the capital city of Kingston of southeastern Jamaica, implying significant seismic hazard. Field mapping combined with present-day topography, focal mechanisms, geology, gravity, and well and borehole data indicate that east-west contraction is accommodated by reactivated, NNW-striking reverse faults, which are bound by E-striking strike-slip faults in southern Jamaica. The other two chapters of my thesis focuses on understanding the behavior of the microplates along the Caribbean-North America plate boundary: I model GPS velocities and use shear-wave splitting to understand the crustal and mantle behaviors, respectively of the microplates. The GPS data require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary just west of or within western Hispaniola. The new microplate angular velocities predict 6.8+/-1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip and 5.7+/-1 mm yr-1 of convergent motion surrounding the

  10. Biosensors and their applications – A review

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Parikha

    2016-01-01

    The various types of biosensors such as enzyme-based, tissue-based, immunosensors, DNA biosensors, thermal and piezoelectric biosensors have been deliberated here to highlight their indispensable applications in multitudinous fields. Some of the popular fields implementing the use of biosensors are food industry to keep a check on its quality and safety, to help distinguish between the natural and artificial; in the fermentation industry and in the saccharification process to detect precise glucose concentrations; in metabolic engineering to enable in vivo monitoring of cellular metabolism. Biosensors and their role in medical science including early stage detection of human interleukin-10 causing heart diseases, rapid detection of human papilloma virus, etc. are important aspects. Fluorescent biosensors play a vital role in drug discovery and in cancer. Biosensor applications are prevalent in the plant biology sector to find out the missing links required in metabolic processes. Other applications are involved in defence, clinical sector, and for marine applications. PMID:27195214

  11. Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology

    PubMed Central

    Fracchiolla, Nicola S.; Artuso, Silvia; Cortelezzi, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice. PMID:23673681

  12. Biosensors and their applications - A review.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Parikha

    2016-01-01

    The various types of biosensors such as enzyme-based, tissue-based, immunosensors, DNA biosensors, thermal and piezoelectric biosensors have been deliberated here to highlight their indispensable applications in multitudinous fields. Some of the popular fields implementing the use of biosensors are food industry to keep a check on its quality and safety, to help distinguish between the natural and artificial; in the fermentation industry and in the saccharification process to detect precise glucose concentrations; in metabolic engineering to enable in vivo monitoring of cellular metabolism. Biosensors and their role in medical science including early stage detection of human interleukin-10 causing heart diseases, rapid detection of human papilloma virus, etc. are important aspects. Fluorescent biosensors play a vital role in drug discovery and in cancer. Biosensor applications are prevalent in the plant biology sector to find out the missing links required in metabolic processes. Other applications are involved in defence, clinical sector, and for marine applications. PMID:27195214

  13. Establishment and validation of a method for multi-dose irradiation of cells in 96-well microplates

    SciTech Connect

    Abatzoglou, Ioannis; Zois, Christos E.; Pouliliou, Stamatia

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► We established a method for multi-dose irradiation of cell cultures within a 96-well plate. ► Equations to adjust to preferable dose levels are produced and provided. ► Up to eight different dose levels can be tested in one microplate. ► This method results in fast and reliable estimation of radiation dose–response curves. -- Abstract: Microplates are useful tools in chemistry, biotechnology and molecular biology. In radiobiology research, these can be also applied to assess the effect of a certain radiation dose delivered to the whole microplate, to test radio-sensitivity, radio-sensitization or radio-protection. Whether different radiation doses can be accurately applied to a single 96-well plate to further facilitate and accelerated research by one hand and spare funds on the other, is a question dealt in the current paper. Following repeated ion-chamber, TLD and radiotherapy planning dosimetry we established a method for multi-dose irradiation of cell cultures within a 96-well plate, which allows an accurate delivery of desired doses in sequential columns of the microplate. Up to eight different dose levels can be tested in one microplate. This method results in fast and reliable estimation of radiation dose–response curves.

  14. Electrical Percolation Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of “electrical percolation”. In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a “gate” and SEB as an “actuator”, it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create “Biological Central Processing Units (CPUs)” with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously. PMID:24041756

  15. A luminescent nisin biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immonen, Nina; Karp, Matti

    2006-02-01

    Nisin is a lantibiotic, an antibacterial peptide produced by certain Lactococcus lactis strains that kills or inhibits the growth of other bacteria. Nisin is widely used as a food preservative, and its long-time use suggests that it can be generally regarded as safe. We have developed a method for determining the amount of nisin in food samples that is based on luminescent biosensor bacteria. Bacterial luciferase operon luxABCDE was inserted into plasmid pNZ8048, and the construct was transformed by electroporation into Lc. lactis strain NZ9800, whose ability to produce nisin has been erased by deletion of the gene nisA. The operon luxABCDE has been modified to be functional in gram-positive bacteria to confer a bioluminescent phenotype without the requirement of adding an exogenous substrate. In the plasmid pNZ8048, the operon was placed under control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter. The chromosomal nisRK genes of Lc. lactis NZ9800 allow it to sense nisin in the environment and relay this signal via signal transduction proteins NisK and NisR to initiate transcription from nisA promoter. In the case of our sensor bacteria, this leads to production of luciferase and, thus, luminescence that can be directly measured from living bacteria. Luminescence can be detected as early as within minutes of induction. The nisin assay described here provides a detection limit in the sub-picogram level per ml, and a linear area between 1 - 1000 pg/ml. The sensitivity of this assay exceeds the performance of all previously published methods.

  16. Microplate-Based Characterization of Protein-Phosphoinositide Binding Interactions Using a Synthetic Biotinylated Headgroup Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Denghuang; Smith, Matthew D.; Manna, Debasis; Bostic, Heidi E.; Cho, Wonhwa; Best, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane lipids act as important regulators of a litany of important physiological and pathophysiological events. Many of them act as site-specific ligands for cytosolic proteins in binding events that recruit receptors to the cell surface and control both protein function and subcellular localization. Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPns) are a family of signaling lipids that regulate numerous cellular processes by interacting with a myriad of protein binding modules. Characterization of PIPn-binding proteins has been hampered by the lack of a rapid and convenient quantitative assay. Herein, microplate-based detection is presented as an effective approach to characterizing protein-PIPn binding interactions at the molecular level. With this assay, the binding of proteins to isolated PIPn headgroups is detected with high sensitivity using a platform that is amenable to high-throughput screening. In the studies described herein, biotinylated PI-(4,5)-P2 headgroup analogue 1 was designed, synthesized and immobilized onto 96-well streptavidin-coated microplates to study receptor binding. This assay was used to characterize the binding of the PH domain of β-spectrin to this headgroup. The high affinity interaction that was detected for surface association (Kd, surf = 6 nM ±3), demonstrates that receptor binding modules can form high affinity interactions with lipid headgroups outside of a membrane environment. The results also indicate the feasibility of the assay for rapid characterization of PIPn-binding proteins as well as the promise for high-throughput analysis of protein-PIPn binding interactions. Finally, this assay was also employed to characterize the inhibition of the binding of receptors to the PIPn-derivatized microplates using solution phase competitors. This showcases the viability of this assay for rapid screening of inhibitors of PIPn-binding proteins. PMID:19182890

  17. In vitro toxicity testing with microplate cell cultures: Impact of cell binding.

    PubMed

    Gülden, Michael; Schreiner, Jeannine; Seibert, Hasso

    2015-06-01

    In vitro generated data on toxic potencies are generally based on nominal concentrations. However, cellular and extracellular binding and elimination processes may reduce the available free fraction of a compound. Then, nominal effective concentrations do not represent appropriate measures of toxic exposure in vitro and underestimate toxic potencies. In this study it was investigated whether cell binding can affect the availability of chemicals in microplate based toxicity assays. To this end the cytotoxicity of compounds like mercury chloride, digitonin and alcohol ethoxylates, accumulated by cells via different modes, was investigated in 96-well microplate cultures with varying concentrations of Balb/c 3T3 cells. The median effective nominal concentrations of all but one of the tested compounds depended linearly from the cell concentration. Applying a previously developed equilibrium distribution model cell concentration-independent median effective extracellular concentrations and cell burdens, respectively, could be calculated. The compounds were accumulated by the cells with bioconcentration factors, BCF, between 480 and ≥ 25,000. Cell binding of the alcohol ethoxylates was correlated with their lipophilicity. The results show that significant cell binding can occur even at the small cell volume fractions (∼ 1 × 10(-5) to 3 × 10(-3) L/L) encountered in microplate assays. To what extent cell binding affects the bioavailability depends on the BCF and the cell volume fraction. EC50 measurements in the presence of at least two different cell concentrations allow for excluding or detecting significant cell binding and for determining more appropriate measures of toxic exposure in vitro like median effective extracellular (free) concentrations or cell burdens. PMID:24291469

  18. Rapid acid digestion and simple microplate method for milk iodine determination.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Ordookhani, Arash; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-01-01

    Iodine deficiency leads to deficiency of thyroid hormones, which causes mental retardation in infant. Laboratory confirmation is important in its diagnosis. The major problems associated with the existing methods for iodine determination in milk samples are: 1) nonsafe alkaline solution; 2) harsh thermal condition; and 3) extra time required to complete various steps. In this study, a simple and rapid colorimetric method was investigated, which used acid digestion in combination with a rapid microplate reading format method to determine the total iodine content in milk. Sample digestion was done on 50 microL milk in metavanadate/perchloric, at 230 degrees C for 10 min. After digestion, iodine determination was based on the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The reaction results were read in 96-well microplates by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reader. The determination range of the assay was between 2 and 40 microg/dL. The within-run coefficient of variation percent in three levels (3, 12, and 36 microg/dL) ranged from 6.7 to 9.3 and between-run coefficients of variation ranged from 8.6 to 12.3%. The results obtained (n=70) by the optimized method have good correlation with the results of alkaline incineration as a reference method (n=70; r2=0.907; y=0.952x+1.77). Recovery tests for accuracy assessment in six levels from 6.2 to 34.2 microg/dL) were between 91.3 and 113%. This method has enabled us to achieve 0.12 microg/dL sensitivity. The results of this study show that a quick acid digestion combined with mild thermal and low sample volume with a quick reading of assay results were the main advantages of the acid digestion and microplate reading format. PMID:17847102

  19. The August 2002 earthquake sequence in north Afar: Insights into the neotectonics of the Danakil microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayele, Atalay; Stuart, Graham; Bastow, Ian; Keir, Derek

    2007-06-01

    In August 2002, there was high seismic activity in Afar concentrated at the plateau margin of the northern Ethiopian rift east of Mekele, near the western part of the Danakil microplate. The spatial and temporal distributions of this seismic activity over four weeks indicate the NNW propagation of the Gulf of Aden rift across the Afar Depression towards the western Ethiopian plateau. Fault plane solutions for six larger earthquakes from the August 2002 sequence are estimated from moment tensor inversion of local broadband waveform data. The results show only normal faulting on NNW trending and NE dipping faults, which agree with tectonics of the area and distribution of aftershocks. No strike-slip component is observed in any of our fault plane solutions or those of other workers including Harvard CMT solutions in the region. Such motion would be indicative of oblique-slip deformation between the Nubian plate and the Danakil microplate consistent with counter-clockwise rotation of the microplate. Hypocentral depths of well-constrained events are 5-7 km, which is the approximate elastic plate thickness in the Main Ethiopian rift, possibly indicating the depth to the brittle-ductile transition zone in this part of the Afar Depression. The shallowness of the depth estimates agree with the macroseismic reports available from a wide area in northern Ethiopia. Potential future shallow crustal deformation may cause significant loss of human life and damage to property in the densely populated highland region around Mekele unless measures are taken in improving building standards. The b-value for this sequence is estimated to be 0.66 using a least squares fit, while it is 0.67 ± 0.16 from a maximum-likelihood approach. This estimated b-value is low or the frequency of occurrence of relatively larger magnitude events is high indicating that it is a highly stressed region as evidenced by the recent increase of the seismicity in the area.

  20. The Geometry of the Subducting Slabs Beneath the PRVI Microplate Based on 3D Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Keller, G. R.; Holland, A. A.; Keranen, K. M.; Li, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (PRVI) microplate is located between two subduction zones, with the Puerto Rico trench to the north and the Muertos trough to the south. The Puerto Rico trench is caused by southward-directed subduction of the North American Plate, and the Muertos trough is the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate. There is no active volcanism on Puerto Rico; however, earthquake depths and seismic tomography imply that the slab of Caribbean plate continues northward beneath Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico overlies these two slabs with extension to both the west (Mona Passage) and southeast (Anacapa Passage). The cause of the extension is unknown, but GPS measurements show that Puerto Rico is experiencing anti-clockwise rotation, and the extension associated with the Anacapa Passage may be produced by this rotation. To the west, it is debated whether the Mona Passage is a boundary between two micro-plates or simple a local rift basin. To address the sources of the extension and the cause of the rotation, we are investigating if the deep structures can be the dynamic source for the observed kinematic movements. We collected data on earthquakes occurring between 2009-2011 in the PRVI region and relocated them using the SEISAN code provided by the Institute of Solid Earth Physics, University of Bergen. The FMTOMO code from Australian National University was used for 3D tomography from P and S wave arrival times. By comparing the relocated epicenters and the 3D tomography results, the subducting slabs were identified. When integrated with the results of previous studies, the geometric model of the slabs is a critical key to understanding the evolution of the PRVI microplate in the past and the future.

  1. Sensitive microplate assay for the detection of proteolytic enzymes using radiolabeled gelatin

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, B.D.; Kwan-Lim, G.E.; Maizels, R.M.

    1988-07-01

    A sensitive, microplate assay is described for the detection of a wide range of proteolytic enzymes, using radio-iodine-labeled gelatin as substrate. The technique uses the Bolton-Hunter reagent to label the substrate, which is then coated onto the wells of polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates. By measuring the radioactivity released the assay is able to detect elastase, trypsin, and collagenase in concentrations of 1 ng/ml or less, while the microtiter format permits multiple sample handling and minimizes sample volumes required for analysis.

  2. Self-assembly of gold nanorods into vertically aligned, rectangular microplates with a supercrystalline structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junyan; Li, Zhe; Ye, Xiaozhou; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2013-12-01

    Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of nearly parallel arrays of vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates of GNRs. The obtained rectangular-plate-shaped GNR supercrystals exhibited interesting anisotropic optical reflection properties, which were revealed by polarized light microscopy.Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of

  3. Determination of N-species in soil extracts using microplate techniques.

    PubMed

    Shand, Charles A; Williams, Berwyn L; Coutts, Grace

    2008-01-15

    Colourimetric methods for the determination of NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+) and total N in water extracts of soils using 96-well microplate techniques are described. Nitrate was determined by azo dye formation after reduction to NO(2)(-) using a solution of hydrazine sulphate. Ammonium in the soil extracts was purified and concentrated by diffusion as NH(3) from small volumes (750microL) of extract treated with MgO into a H(2)SO(4) collector using a double-plate, MicroResp method and subsequently determined by the Berthelot reaction. For the determination of total N, samples were oxidised with K(2)S(2)O(8) at 110 degrees C in a 96x1.1mL polytetrafluoroethylene block with a lid that closed individual wells. The oxidised solutions were transferred to standard plates for colourimetric analysis of NO(3)(-). The recovery of N, measured as NO(3)(-), from NH(4)NO(3) and a range of organic-N compounds was >95%. The limits of quantitation of the colourimetic assays were 0.020mgNL(-1) for NO(3)(-) and 0.051mgNL(-1) for NH(4)(+). The methods were tested on water extracts derived from a range of 10 nutrient poor soils from Scotland. There were acceptable linear correlations between the results obtained by established methods. For soil extracts analysed by the microplate method, the relationship for NO(3)(-) was 1.03x result from ion chromatography+0.0055 (R(2)=0.9961); for NH(4)(+) determined by the microplate method, the relationship was 0.9696xresult from a discrete analyser-0.0169 (R(2)=0.9757) and for total N determined by oxidation in the PTFE microplate the relationship was 0.9435xresult obtained by combustion+0.0489 (R(2)=0.9743). Purification of the NH(4)(+) in water extracts from the 10 different soils by the diffusion method did not result in any systematic difference (paired t-test, p=0.05) between measured concentration values determined before and after diffusion. PMID:18371688

  4. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  5. DESIGN OF INTEGRATING WAVEGUIDE BIOSENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Integrating Waveguide Biosensor allows for rapid and sensitive detection of pathogenic agents, cells and proteins via immunoassay or PCR products. The analytes are captured on the surface of the waveguide and then tagged with fluorescent labels. The waveguides are illuminated by excitation light...

  6. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  7. A high content assay for biosensor validation and for examining stimuli that affect biosensor activity

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Scott D.; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the difference between the biosensor’s maximally activated and inactivated state, and examine response to specific proteins. This involves considerable labor and expense, as expression conditions must be optimized to saturate the biosensor with the regulator, and multiple replicates and controls are required. We describe here a protocol for biosensor validation in a 96-well plate format using an automated microscope. This protocol produces dose-response curves, enables efficient examination of many parameters, and unlike cell suspension assays allows visual inspection (eg for cell health and biosensor or regulator localization). Optimization of single chain and dual chain Rho GTPase biosensors is addressed, but the assay is applicable to any biosensor that can be expressed or otherwise loaded in adherent cells. The assay can also be used for purposes other than biosensor validation, using a well-characterized biosensor as a readout for variations in upstream molecules. PMID:25447074

  8. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  9. Examining the effects of self-assembled monolayers on nanoporous gold based amperometric glucose biosensors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xinxin; Li, Hui; Wang, Meng'en; Zhang, Kai; Si, Pengchao

    2014-01-21

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) based biosensors have been constructed by covalently immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). With p-benzoquinone (BQ) as a mediator, diffusion behavior and amperometric biosensor performance are evaluated by electrochemical characterization. The enzyme modified electrodes are demonstrated to show a thickness-sensitive behavior. Compared with planar polycrystalline gold, the unique porous structure of NPG has also been characterized via an electrochemical surface reconstruction process. Single-crystal gold-like electrochemical behavior on NPG and a comprehensive understanding of its impacts on sensor performance have been proposed. PMID:24256634

  10. AgI microplate monocrystals with polar {0001} facets: spontaneous photocarrier separation and enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qin; Zheng, Xiaoli; Yang, Shihe

    2014-02-24

    Elucidating the facet-dependent photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalysts is important in improving the overall efficiency of photocatalysis. Furthermore, combining facet control with selective deposition of oxidation and/or reduction cocatalysts on specific faces of semiconductor photocatalysts is potentially an effective strategy to synergistically optimize the functionality of photocatalysts. In the present study, high-purity wurtzite-type β-AgI platelet microcrystals with polar {0001} facets were prepared by a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone-assisted precipitation reaction. The polar-faceted AgI microplates were used as archetypes to demonstrate preferential diametric migration (i.e., effective separation) of photogenerated electrons and holes along the c axis. Such vectorial electron-hole separation stems from the asymmetric surface structures, which give rise to distinct photoexcited reaction behaviors on the ±(0001) polar facets of wurtzite-type semiconductors. Furthermore, on selective deposition of Ag and MnOx (1.5microplates in degrading organic pollutants was dramatically enhanced thanks to the broad light-absorption range, strong dye-adsorption ability, and effective spatial separation of photocarriers. PMID:24449437

  11. Highly Multiplexed RNA Aptamer Selection using a Microplate-based Microcolumn Device.

    PubMed

    Reinholt, Sarah J; Ozer, Abdullah; Lis, John T; Craighead, Harold G

    2016-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed RNA aptamer selection to 19 different targets simultaneously using a microcolumn-based device, MEDUSA (Microplate-based Enrichment Device Used for the Selection of Aptamers), as well as a modified selection process, that significantly reduce the time and reagents needed for selections. We exploited MEDUSA's reconfigurable design between parallel and serially-connected microcolumns to enable the use of just 2 aliquots of starting library, and its 96-well microplate compatibility to enable the continued use of high-throughput techniques in downstream processes. Our modified selection protocol allowed us to perform the equivalent of a 10-cycle selection in the time it takes for 4 traditional selection cycles. Several aptamers were discovered with nanomolar dissociation constants. Furthermore, aptamers were identified that not only bound with high affinity, but also acted as inhibitors to significantly reduce the activity of their target protein, mouse decapping exoribonuclease (DXO). The aptamers resisted DXO's exoribonuclease activity, and in studies monitoring DXO's degradation of a 30-nucleotide substrate, less than 1 μM of aptamer demonstrated significant inhibition of DXO activity. This aptamer selection method using MEDUSA helps to overcome some of the major challenges with traditional aptamer selections, and provides a platform for high-throughput selections that lends itself to process automation. PMID:27432610

  12. A simple and rapid microplate assay for glycoprotein-processing glycosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.S.; Zwolshen, J.H.; Harry, B.S.; Sunkara, P.S. )

    1989-08-15

    A simple and convenient microplate assay for glycosidases involved in the glycoprotein-processing reactions is described. The assay is based on specific binding of high-mannose-type oligosaccharide substrates to concanavalin A-Sepharose, while monosaccharides liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis do not bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose. By the use of radiolabeled substrates (( 3H)glucose for glucosidases and (3H)mannose for mannosidases), the radioactivity in the liberated monosaccharides can be determined as a measure of the enzymatic activity. This principle was employed earlier for developing assays for glycosidases previously reported. These authors have reported the separation of substrate from the product by concanavalin A-Sepharose column chromatography. This procedure is handicapped by the fact that it cannot be used for a large number of samples and is time consuming. We have simplified this procedure and adapted it to the use of a microplate (96-well plate). This would help in processing a large number of samples in a short time. In this report we show that the assay is comparable to the column assay previously reported. It is linear with time and enzyme concentration and shows expected kinetics with castanospermine, a known inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase I.

  13. Biocompatibility of microplates for culturing epithelial renal cells evaluated by a microcalorimetric technique.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; DePierre, J W; Nässberger, L

    2000-09-01

    In the present study we have developed a microcalorimetric procedure which allows convenient investigation of biocompatibility in a microsystem. We examined the biocompatibility of a porcine renal epithelial tubule cell line LLC-PK1 and a human primary renal epithelial tubule cell (RPTEC) with microplates composed of three different materials, i.e. Thermanox, transparent film and titanium. All three materials showed equal biocompatibility with LLC-PK1 cells, judging from the attainment of steady-state power curves and the same rate of heat production per cell (2.5 microW / microg DNA). The human renal cells were poorly biocompatible with the Thermanox and transparent film. However, on titanium the RPTEC cell did adhere, as demonstrated by a steady-state power curve. The human cells also showed a higher metabolic activity (3.0 microW / microg DNA), than did LLC-PK1 cells cultured on the same type of microplates. In research on biocompatibility there is a need for alternatives to experimental animal investigations. The present technique allows studies of cellular interactions with different biomaterials in a rapid and standardized manner and may therefore prove to be a useful screening procedure. PMID:15348389

  14. Nanoshell-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on a Microplate for Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbin; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Liqiang; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Chuanlai

    2016-06-22

    A sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunosensor based on the Au nanoparticle (Au NP) shell structure was developed to detect staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) on a microplate. Au NPs modified with 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) and coated with Ag shell of controlled thickness at 6.6 nm exhibited excellent SERS intensity and were used as signal reporters in the detection of SEB. The engaged 4-NTP allowed the significant electromagnetic enhancement between Au NPs and the Ag shell and prevented the dissociation of the Raman reporter. More importantly, 4-NTP-differentiated SERS signals between the sample and microplate. The SERS-based immunosensor had a limit of detection of 1.3 pg/mL SEB. Analysis of SEB-spiked milk samples revealed that the developed method had high accuracy. Therefore, the SERS-encoded Au@Ag core-shell structure-based immunosensor is promising for the detection of biotoxins, pathogens, and environmental pollutants. PMID:27193082

  15. A paper/polymer hybrid microfluidic microplate for rapid quantitative detection of multiple disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Sharma T; Dou, Maowei; Sun, Jianjun; Li, XiuJun

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most widely used laboratory disease diagnosis methods. However, performing ELISA in low-resource settings is limited by long incubation time, large volumes of precious reagents, and well-equipped laboratories. Herein, we developed a simple, miniaturized paper/PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) hybrid microfluidic microplate for low-cost, high throughput, and point-of-care (POC) infectious disease diagnosis. The novel use of porous paper in flow-through microwells facilitates rapid antibody/antigen immobilization and efficient washing, avoiding complicated surface modifications. The top reagent delivery channels can simply transfer reagents to multiple microwells thus avoiding repeated manual pipetting and costly robots. Results of colorimetric ELISA can be observed within an hour by the naked eye. Quantitative analysis was achieved by calculating the brightness of images scanned by an office scanner. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) were quantitatively analyzed with good reliability in human serum samples. Without using any specialized equipment, the limits of detection of 1.6 ng/mL for IgG and 1.3 ng/mL for HBsAg were achieved, which were comparable to commercial ELISA kits using specialized equipment. We envisage that this simple POC hybrid microplate can have broad applications in various bioassays, especially in resource-limited settings. PMID:27456979

  16. Highly Multiplexed RNA Aptamer Selection using a Microplate-based Microcolumn Device

    PubMed Central

    Reinholt, Sarah J.; Ozer, Abdullah; Lis, John T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed RNA aptamer selection to 19 different targets simultaneously using a microcolumn-based device, MEDUSA (Microplate-based Enrichment Device Used for the Selection of Aptamers), as well as a modified selection process, that significantly reduce the time and reagents needed for selections. We exploited MEDUSA’s reconfigurable design between parallel and serially-connected microcolumns to enable the use of just 2 aliquots of starting library, and its 96-well microplate compatibility to enable the continued use of high-throughput techniques in downstream processes. Our modified selection protocol allowed us to perform the equivalent of a 10-cycle selection in the time it takes for 4 traditional selection cycles. Several aptamers were discovered with nanomolar dissociation constants. Furthermore, aptamers were identified that not only bound with high affinity, but also acted as inhibitors to significantly reduce the activity of their target protein, mouse decapping exoribonuclease (DXO). The aptamers resisted DXO’s exoribonuclease activity, and in studies monitoring DXO’s degradation of a 30-nucleotide substrate, less than 1 μM of aptamer demonstrated significant inhibition of DXO activity. This aptamer selection method using MEDUSA helps to overcome some of the major challenges with traditional aptamer selections, and provides a platform for high-throughput selections that lends itself to process automation. PMID:27432610

  17. A paper/polymer hybrid microfluidic microplate for rapid quantitative detection of multiple disease biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Sun, Jianjun; Li, XiuJun

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most widely used laboratory disease diagnosis methods. However, performing ELISA in low-resource settings is limited by long incubation time, large volumes of precious reagents, and well-equipped laboratories. Herein, we developed a simple, miniaturized paper/PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) hybrid microfluidic microplate for low-cost, high throughput, and point-of-care (POC) infectious disease diagnosis. The novel use of porous paper in flow-through microwells facilitates rapid antibody/antigen immobilization and efficient washing, avoiding complicated surface modifications. The top reagent delivery channels can simply transfer reagents to multiple microwells thus avoiding repeated manual pipetting and costly robots. Results of colorimetric ELISA can be observed within an hour by the naked eye. Quantitative analysis was achieved by calculating the brightness of images scanned by an office scanner. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) were quantitatively analyzed with good reliability in human serum samples. Without using any specialized equipment, the limits of detection of 1.6 ng/mL for IgG and 1.3 ng/mL for HBsAg were achieved, which were comparable to commercial ELISA kits using specialized equipment. We envisage that this simple POC hybrid microplate can have broad applications in various bioassays, especially in resource-limited settings. PMID:27456979

  18. Metabolic activities of five botryticides against Botrytis cinerea examined using the Biolog FF MicroPlate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hancheng; Wang, Jin; Li, Licui; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Maosheng; Shang, Shenghua; Yu, Zhihe

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important fungal disease worldwide. Boscalid, carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and propiconazole are representative botryticides for grey mold management. This research investigated the sensitivities of B. cinerea from tobacco to these chemicals using the Biolog FF Microplate. All five chemicals showed inhibitory activity, with average EC50 values of 0.94, 0.05, 0.50, 0.61 and 0.31 μg ml(-1), respectively. B. cinerea metabolized 96.8% of tested carbon sources, including 29 effectively and 33 moderately, but the metabolic fingerprints differed under pressures imposed by these botryticides. For boscalid, B. cinerea was unable to metabolize many substrates related to tricarboxylic acid cycle. For carbendazim, carbon sources related to glycolysis were not metabolized. For iprodione, use of most carbon substrates was weakly inhibited, and the metabolic profile was similar to that of the control. For propiconazole, no carbon substrates were metabolized and the physiological and biochemical functions of the pathogen were totally inhibited. These findings provide useful information on metabolic activities of these botryticides, and may lead to future applications of the Biolog FF Microplate for examining metabolic effects of other fungicides on other fungi, as well as providing a metabolic fingerprint of B. cinerea that could be useful for identification. PMID:27491536

  19. An Analytical Model for Squeeze-Film Damping of Perforated Torsional Microplates Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Squeeze-film damping plays a significant role in the performance of micro-resonators because it determines their quality factors. Perforations in microstructures are often used to control the squeeze-film damping in micro-resonators. To model the perforation effects on the squeeze-film damping, many analytical models have been proposed, however, most of the previous models have been concerned with the squeeze-film damping due to the normal motion between the perforated vibrating plate and a fixed substrate, while there is a lack of works that model the squeeze-film damping of perforated torsion microplates, which are also widely used in MEMS devices. This paper presents an analytical model for the squeeze-film damping of perforated torsion microplates. The derivation in this paper is based on a modified Reynolds equation that includes compressibility and rarefaction effects. The pressure distribution under the vibrating plate is obtained using the double sine series. Closed-form expressions for the stiffness and the damping coefficients of the squeeze-film are derived. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing its results with the finite element method (FEM) results and the experimental results available in the literature. The regime of validity and limitations of the present model are assessed. PMID:25815453

  20. A paper/polymer hybrid microfluidic microplate for rapid quantitative detection of multiple disease biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjay, Sharma T.; Dou, Maowei; Sun, Jianjun; Li, Xiujun

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most widely used laboratory disease diagnosis methods. However, performing ELISA in low-resource settings is limited by long incubation time, large volumes of precious reagents, and well-equipped laboratories. Herein, we developed a simple, miniaturized paper/PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) hybrid microfluidic microplate for low-cost, high throughput, and point-of-care (POC) infectious disease diagnosis. The novel use of porous paper in flow-through microwells facilitates rapid antibody/antigen immobilization and efficient washing, avoiding complicated surface modifications. The top reagent delivery channels can simply transfer reagents to multiple microwells thus avoiding repeated manual pipetting and costly robots. Results of colorimetric ELISA can be observed within an hour by the naked eye. Quantitative analysis was achieved by calculating the brightness of images scanned by an office scanner. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) were quantitatively analyzed with good reliability in human serum samples. Without using any specialized equipment, the limits of detection of 1.6 ng/mL for IgG and 1.3 ng/mL for HBsAg were achieved, which were comparable to commercial ELISA kits using specialized equipment. We envisage that this simple POC hybrid microplate can have broad applications in various bioassays, especially in resource-limited settings.

  1. Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, T.; Kutzner, C.; Kropp, M.; Brokmann, G.; Lang, W.; Steinke, A.; Kienle, A.; Hauptmann, P.

    2010-10-01

    In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected.

  2. Self-assembly of gold nanorods into vertically aligned, rectangular microplates with a supercrystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junyan; Li, Zhe; Ye, Xiaozhou; Ma, Yurong; Qi, Limin

    2014-01-21

    Vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates with a well-defined rectangular shape were fabricated in a large area through self-assembly of gold nanorods by a novel bulk solution evaporation method. This evaporative self-assembly strategy involving continuous movement of the contact line can prevent the coffee-ring effect, thus allowing uniform deposition of discrete GNR superstructures over a large area and favoring the formation of GNR supercrystals with geometrically symmetric shapes. A mechanism based on the continuing nucleation and growth of smectic GNR superstructures accompanying the movement of the contact line was put forward for the formation of the unique GNR supercrystal arrays. Based on this mechanism, a micropatterned substrate was designed to control the nucleation location and growth direction, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly of nearly parallel arrays of vertically aligned, supercrystalline microplates of GNRs. The obtained rectangular-plate-shaped GNR supercrystals exhibited interesting anisotropic optical reflection properties, which were revealed by polarized light microscopy. PMID:24292548

  3. An analytical model for squeeze-film damping of perforated torsional microplates resonators.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Squeeze-film damping plays a significant role in the performance of micro-resonators because it determines their quality factors. Perforations in microstructures are often used to control the squeeze-film damping in micro-resonators. To model the perforation effects on the squeeze-film damping, many analytical models have been proposed, however, most of the previous models have been concerned with the squeeze-film damping due to the normal motion between the perforated vibrating plate and a fixed substrate, while there is a lack of works that model the squeeze-film damping of perforated torsion microplates, which are also widely used in MEMS devices. This paper presents an analytical model for the squeeze-film damping of perforated torsion microplates. The derivation in this paper is based on a modified Reynolds equation that includes compressibility and rarefaction effects. The pressure distribution under the vibrating plate is obtained using the double sine series. Closed-form expressions for the stiffness and the damping coefficients of the squeeze-film are derived. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing its results with the finite element method (FEM) results and the experimental results available in the literature. The regime of validity and limitations of the present model are assessed. PMID:25815453

  4. Metabolic activities of five botryticides against Botrytis cinerea examined using the Biolog FF MicroPlate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hancheng; Wang, Jin; Li, Licui; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Maosheng; Shang, Shenghua; Yu, Zhihe

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important fungal disease worldwide. Boscalid, carbendazim, iprodione, pyrimethanil and propiconazole are representative botryticides for grey mold management. This research investigated the sensitivities of B. cinerea from tobacco to these chemicals using the Biolog FF Microplate. All five chemicals showed inhibitory activity, with average EC50 values of 0.94, 0.05, 0.50, 0.61 and 0.31 μg ml−1, respectively. B. cinerea metabolized 96.8% of tested carbon sources, including 29 effectively and 33 moderately, but the metabolic fingerprints differed under pressures imposed by these botryticides. For boscalid, B. cinerea was unable to metabolize many substrates related to tricarboxylic acid cycle. For carbendazim, carbon sources related to glycolysis were not metabolized. For iprodione, use of most carbon substrates was weakly inhibited, and the metabolic profile was similar to that of the control. For propiconazole, no carbon substrates were metabolized and the physiological and biochemical functions of the pathogen were totally inhibited. These findings provide useful information on metabolic activities of these botryticides, and may lead to future applications of the Biolog FF Microplate for examining metabolic effects of other fungicides on other fungi, as well as providing a metabolic fingerprint of B. cinerea that could be useful for identification. PMID:27491536

  5. Microplate-reader method for the rapid analysis of copper in natural waters with chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Axel; Chase, Zanna; Remenyi, Tomas; Quéroué, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method for the determination of copper in natural waters at nanomolar levels. The use of a microplate-reader minimizes sample processing time (~25 s per sample), reagent consumption (~120 μL per sample), and sample volume (~700 μL). Copper is detected by chemiluminescence. This technique is based on the formation of a complex between copper and 1,10-phenanthroline and the subsequent emission of light during the oxidation of the complex by hydrogen peroxide. Samples are acidified to pH 1.7 and then introduced directly into a 24-well plate. Reagents are added during data acquisition via two reagent injectors. When trace metal clean protocols are employed, the reproducibility is generally less than 7% on blanks and the detection limit is 0.7 nM for seawater and 0.4 nM for freshwater. More than 100 samples per hour can be analyzed with this technique, which is simple, robust, and amenable to at-sea analysis. Seawater samples from Storm Bay in Tasmania illustrate the utility of the method for environmental science. Indeed other trace metals for which optical detection methods exist (e.g., chemiluminescence, fluorescence, and absorbance) could be adapted to the microplate-reader. PMID:23335917

  6. Tiny Medicine: Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo-Heung; Eteshola, Edward; Bhattacharya, Amit; Dong, Zhongyun; Shim, Joon-Sub; Conforti, Laura; Kim, Dogyoon; Schulz, Mark J.; Ahn, Chong H.; Watts, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Tiny medicine refers to the development of small easy to use devices that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. Nanomaterial-based biosensors utilize the unique properties of biological and physical nanomaterials to recognize a target molecule and effect transduction of an electronic signal. In general, the advantages of nanomaterial-based biosensors are fast response, small size, high sensitivity, and portability compared to existing large electrodes and sensors. Systems integration is the core technology that enables tiny medicine. Integration of nanomaterials, microfluidics, automatic samplers, and transduction devices on a single chip provides many advantages for point of care devices such as biosensors. Biosensors are also being used as new analytical tools to study medicine. Thus this paper reviews how nanomaterials can be used to build biosensors and how these biosensors can help now and in the future to detect disease and monitor therapies. PMID:22291565

  7. Plasmonic nanoparticles: Towards the fabrication of biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Au and Ag nanoparticles are mainly employed in the fabrication of biosensors owing to their unique optical properties compared to other noble metal nanoparticles. Many biosensors are fabricated for the rapid detection of different analytes such as organic and inorganic molecules, biomolecules like DNA, proteins, biotoxins and pathogens. In this mini review we mainly discuss on the usage of Au and Ag nanoparticles for the fabrication of colorimetric, SERS and two photon based photoluminescence biosensors.

  8. Recent Development in Optical Fiber Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, María Espinosa; Sánchez, Antonio Jesús Ruiz; Rojas, Fuensanta Sánchez; Ojeda, Catalina Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Remarkable developments can be seen in the field of optical fibre biosensors in the last decade. More sensors for specific analytes have been reported, novel sensing chemistries or transduction principles have been introduced, and applications in various analytical fields have been realised. This review consists of papers mainly reported in the last decade and presents about applications of optical fiber biosensors. Discussions on the trends in optical fiber biosensor applications in real samples are enumerated.

  9. Zinc oxide interdigitated electrode for biosensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin L., L.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Adzhri, R.; M. Nuzaihan M., N.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Hashim, U.

    2016-07-01

    In biosensors, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film plays a crucial role in term of stability, sensitivity, biocompatibility and low cost. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) design is one of the device architecture in biosensor for label free, stability and sensitivity. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of zinc oxide deposited on the IDE as a transducer for sensing of biomolecule. The formation of APTES had increase the performance of the surface functionalization..Furthermore we extend the discuss on the surface functionalization process which is utilized for probe attachment onto the surface of biosensor through surface immobilization process, thus enables the sensing of biomolecules for biosensor application.

  10. Survey of the 1998 optical biosensor literature.

    PubMed

    Myszka, D G

    1999-01-01

    The utilization of optical biosensors to study molecular interactions continues to expand. In 1998, 384 articles relating to the use of commercial biosensors were published in 130 different journals. While significant strides in new applications and methodology were made, a majority of the biosensor literature is of rather poor quality. Basic information about experimental conditions is often not presented and many publications fail to display the experimental data, bringing into question the credibility of the results. This review provides suggestions on how to collect, analyze and report biosensor data. PMID:10611648