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Sample records for crystal nial deformed

  1. Dislocation substructure in NiAl single crystals deformed at ambient temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Pollock, T.M.; Mahajan, S.; Arunachalam, V.S.

    1997-12-31

    Dislocation substructure in NiAl single crystals oriented for single slip and deformed at ambient temperature has been studied using weak-beam transmission electron microscopy. Deformation is localized in bands that consists mostly of near-edge dislocations, with an interspersion of a high density of elongated prismatic loops. Pure screw dislocations are not observed, but dislocations having zigzag configurations that are near-screw in orientation are present. A high density of jogs is observed on both near-edge and zigzag dislocation segments. The mechanisms for the development of this substructure are discussed, emphasizing the role of double cross slip and resulting glissile and sessile jogs of varying heights.

  2. Preparation, deformation and fracture of stoichiometric NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Loeser, W.; Koethe, A.; Vaerst, G.; Gueth, A.

    1997-12-31

    A modified Bridgman method involving vacuum treatment prior to the growth process was developed for preparation of high-accuracy stoichiometric NiAl crystals. Single crystals with stoichiometry deviations <0.2 wt.% Ni characterized by residual resistance ratios R{sub 298K}/R{sub 4.2K} > 4 have been prepared. An improved gravimetric analysis ensured the best accuracy among the various wet chemical analysis methods tested and a total error less than 0.1 at.% for Ni determination in NiAl. The stoichiometric NiAl single crystals exhibit high compressive strain in <123> crystallographic axis of the order of 20% in the as-grown state and 40% after annealing 1 h at 1,073 K. The critical resolved shear stress was reduced from 104 MPa to 45 MPa by annealing. In 3-point bend tests tensile strains to failure up to 10% have been achieved. Microscopic oxide inclusions near the sample surface were identified as the cause of crack initiation in bent samples.

  3. Elevated Temperature Creep Deformation in Solid Solution <001> NiAL-3.6Ti Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, Ronald D.; Darolia, Ram

    2003-01-01

    The 1100 to 1500 K slow plastic strain rate compressive properties of <001> oriented NiAl-3.6Ti single crystals have been measured, and the results suggests that two deformation processes exist. While the intermediate temperature/faster strain rate mechanism is uncertain, plastic flow at elevated temperature/slower strain rates in NiAl-3.6Ti appears to be controlled by solute drag as described by the Cottrell-Jaswon solute drag model for gliding b = a(sub 0)<101> dislocations. While the calculated activation energy of deformation is much higher (approximately 480 kJ/mol) than the activation energy for diffusion (approximately 290 kJ/mol) used in the Cottrell-Jaswon creep model, a forced temperature compensated - power law fit using the activation energy for diffusion was able to adequately (greater than 90%) predict the observed creep properties. Thus we conclude that the rejection of a diffusion controlled mechanism can not be simply based on a large numerical difference between the activation energies for deformation and diffusion.

  4. Observations of Glide and Decomposition of a<101> Dislocations at High Temperatures in Ni-Al Single Crystals Deformed along the Hard Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Daw, M. S.; Noebe, R. D.; Mills, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Ni-44at.% Al and Ni-50at.% single crystals were tested in compression in the hard (001) orientations. The dislocation processes and deformation behavior were studied as a function of temperature, strain and strain rate. A slip transition in NiAl occurs from alpha(111) slip to non-alphaaaaaaaaaaa9111) slip at intermediate temperatures. In Ni-50at.% Al single crystal, only alpha(010) dislocations are observed above the slip transition temperature. In contrast, alpha(101)(101) glide has been observed to control deformation beyond the slip transition temperature in Ni-44at.%Al. alpha(101) dislocations are observed primarily along both (111) directions in the glide plane. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations show that the core of the alpha(101) dislocations along these directions is decomposed into two alpha(010) dislocations, separated by a distance of approximately 2nm. The temperature window of stability for these alpha(101) dislocations depends upon the strain rate. At a strain rate of 1.4 x 10(exp -4)/s, lpha(101) dislocations are observed between 800 and 1000K. Complete decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations into alpha(010) dislocations occurs beyond 1000K, leading to alpha(010) climb as the deformation mode at higher temperature. At lower strain rates, decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations has been observed to occur along the edge orientation at temperatures below 1000K. Embedded-atom method calculations and experimental results indicate that alpha(101) dislocation have a large Peieris stress at low temperature. Based on the present microstructural observations and a survey of the literature with respect to vacancy content and diffusion in NiAl, a model is proposed for alpha(101)(101) glide in Ni-44at.%Al, and for the observed yield strength versus temperature behavior of Ni-Al alloys at intermediate and high temperatures.

  5. The solid-solution alloying effects of Ti on the high-temperature deformation behavior of NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabjian, P.H.; Nix, W.D.; Garg, A.; Noebe, R.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have investigated the high-temperature deformation behavior of the solid-solution strengthened alloy Ni-47.5Al-2.5Ti. Single crystals were deformed in compression in the hard <001> and soft <111> orientations, at temperatures between 900 C and 1,200 C. The results show that Ti has a very powerful solute strengthening effect in NiAl. The creep rates for the solid-solution alloy were observed to be three to four orders of magnitude lower than for the stoichiometric material. They discuss the efforts to understand this solid-solution strengthening effect. They have studied high-temperature deformation transients in an effort to determine whether solute drag effects contribute to the creep resistance of this solid solution. In addition, they have examined the solute size effect of Ti as it replaces Al on the Al sub-lattice. They discuss the probable mechanism of creep of this alloy in light of TEM observations of the dislocation structures in creep-deformed crystals.

  6. Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H. P.

    2015-02-05

    B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a(100) carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a(110) dislocations by dislocation reactions; the a(110) dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a(110) dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged.

  7. Monitoring of deformation induced microcracking in polycrystalline NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Wanner, A.; Schietinger, B.; Bidlingmaier, T.; Zalkind, H.; Arzt, E.

    1995-08-01

    Microcracking in polycrystalline near-stoichiometric NiAl produced by room temperature plastic deformation under uniaxial compression was investigated by means of optical microscopy, velocity of sound measurements, and acoustic emission monitoring. Results show that strains greater than 2% are required to produce microcrack populations which can be evaluated by microscopical investigation or velocity of sound measurements. However, acoustic emission monitoring during compression testing indicates that microcracking starts at about 0.7% compressive plastic strain which is identical with the typical tensile fracture strain for NiAl. Thus it is concluded that there is little or no stable microcracking prior to failure in tension. Acoustic emission results show also that the process of microcracking does not primarily occur during the applied compressive deformation. A considerable fraction of the microcracking takes place during the quasi-elastic unloading following deformation.

  8. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  9. Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H. P.

    2015-02-05

    B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a(100) carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a(110) dislocations by dislocationmore » reactions; the a(110) dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a(110) dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged.« less

  10. Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a〈100〉 carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a〈110〉 dislocations by dislocation reactions; the a〈110〉 dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a〈110〉 dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged. PMID:25663749

  11. Decomposition of a<111> and a<101> dislocations in hard-oriented NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, R.; Savage, M.F.; Mills, M.J.; Daw, M.S.; Noebe, R.D.

    1998-08-04

    The B2 intermetallic compound NiAl and its alloys have been subjects of extensive study for potential use as high temperature structural materials, particularly in the aerospace industry. The factors that make them attractive candidates are their low density (5.85 g/cm{sup 3}), excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance and high melting points. But they suffer from lack of ductility at low temperatures and poor strength at higher temperatures. There are still several issues regarding deformation behavior in NiAl and other B2 alloys (e.g., FeAl) that merit further research. Study of the deformation behavior in NiAl should provide further insight into some of the outstanding issues in B2 alloys: chiefly, the nature of slip transition and the effect of various parameters such as temperature, strain rate and stoichiometry on the deformation behavior. The preferred slip system in NiAl involves a <100> slip. But on stressing along the cube axes, also known as the hard orientation, single crystals of NiAl deform at much higher stresses through the motion of a<111> dislocations at lower temperatures. Non-a<111> slip dominates at higher temperatures, with an associated increase in ductility and dramatic decrease in strength. There is also some confusion regarding the mode of deformation beyond the slip transition temperature. The exact process of this slip transition needs to be addressed in its entirety to completely understand the mechanical response of NiAl.

  12. Deformation mechanisms of NiAl cyclicly deformed near the brittle-to-ductile transformation temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antolovich, Stephen D.; Saxena, Ashok; Cullers, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    One of the ongoing challenges of the aerospace industry is to develop more efficient turbine engines. Greater efficiency entails reduced specific strength and larger temperature gradients, the latter of which means higher operating temperatures and increased thermal conductivity. Continued development of nickel-based superalloys has provided steady increases in engine efficiency and the limits of superalloys have probably not been realized. However, other material systems are under intense investigation for possible use in high temperature engines. Ceramic, intermetallic, and various composite systems are being explored in an effort to exploit the much higher melting temperatures of these systems. NiAl is considered a potential alternative to conventional superalloys due to its excellent oxidation resistance, low density, and high melting temperature. The fact that NiAl is the most common coating for current superalloy turbine blades is a tribute to its oxidation resistance. Its density is one-third that of typical superalloys and in most temperature ranges its thermal conductivity is twice that of common superalloys. Despite these many advantages, NiAl requires more investigation before it is ready to be used in engines. Binary NiAl in general has poor high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. On-going research in alloy design continues to make improvements in the high-temperature strength of NiAl. The factors controlling low temperature ductility have been identified in the last few years. Small, but reproducible ductility can now be achieved at room temperature through careful control of chemical purity and processing. But the mechanisms controlling the transition from brittle to ductile behavior are not fully understood. Research in the area of fatigue deformation can aid the development of the NiAl system in two ways. Fatigue properties must be documented and optimized before NiAl can be applied to engineering systems. More importantly though

  13. TEM in-situ study of dislocation motion in B2 NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, B.; Crimp, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    In an effort to understand dislocation mobility in stoichiometric NiAl single crystals, in-situ tensile deformation experiments have been performed in a transmission electron microscope. Commercially pure and high purity single crystals with <001> and <110> orientations have been examined. Two different thermal treatments were adopted in order to effect the mechanical response. Dislocation motion was observed in all samples. Pre-existing dislocations, either isolated or tangled, were not observed to move at any point leading up to sample failure. Cross-slip of the mobile dislocations was observed in some cases. In commercially pure single crystals, dislocations were found to move at a much slower rate and uniform manner in contrast to motion in high purity single crystals which occurs by rapid jumps.

  14. Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, X. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

    1995-01-01

    A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

  15. Mechanisms of elevated-temperature deformation in the B2 aluminides NiAl and CoAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaney, D. L.; Nix, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A strain rate change technique, developed previously for distinguishing between pure-metal and alloy-type creep behavior, was used to study the elevated-temperature deformation behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Tests on NiAl were conducted at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 K while tests on CoAl were performed at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 K. NiAl exhibits pure-metal type behavior over the entire temperature range studied. CoAl, however, undergoes a transition from pure-metal to alloy-type deformation behavior as the temperature is decreased from 1400 to 1200 K. Slip appears to be inherently more difficult in CoAl than in NiAl, with lattice friction effects limiting the mobility of dislocations at a much higher tmeperature in CoAl than in NiAl. The superior strength of CoAl at elevated temperatures may, therefore, be related to a greater lattice friction strengthening effect in CoAl than in NiAl.

  16. Deformation mechanisms of NiAl cyclicly deformed near the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullers, Cheryl L.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    The intermetallic compound NiAl is one of many advanced materials which is being scrutinized for possible use in high temperature, structural applications. Stoichiometric NiAl has a high melting temperature, excellent oxidation resistance, and good thermal conductivity. Past research has concentrated on improving monotonic properties. The encouraging results obtained on binary and micro-alloyed NiAl over the past ten years have led to the broadening of NiAl experimental programs. The purpose of this research project was to determine the low cycle fatigue properties and dislocation mechanisms of stoichiometric NiAl at temperatures near the monotonic brittle-to-ductile transition. The fatigue properties were found to change only slightly in the temperature range of 600 to 700 K; a temperature range over which monotonic ductility and fracture strength increase markedly. The shape of the cyclic hardening curves coincided with the changes observed in the dislocation structures. The evolution of dislocation structures did not appear to change with temperature.

  17. Creep Properties of NiAl-1Hf Single Crystals Re-Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Locci, Ivan E.; Darolia, Ram; Bowman, Randy R.

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-1Hf single crystals have been shown to be quite strong at 1027 C, with strength levels approaching those of advanced Ni-based superalloys. Initial testing, however, indicated that the properties might not be reproducible. Study of the 1027 C creep behavior of four different NiAl-1Hf single-crystal ingots subjected to several different heat treatments indicated that strength lies in a narrow band. Thus, we concluded that the mechanical properties are reproducible. Recent investigations of the intermetallic NiAl have confirmed that minor alloying additions combined with single-crystal growth technology can produce elevated temperature strength levels approaching those of Ni-based superalloys. For example, General Electric alloy AFN 12 {Ni-48.5(at.%) Al-0.5Hf-1Ti-0.05Ga} has a creep rupture strength equivalent to Rene 80 combined with a approximately 30-percent lower density, a fourfold improvement in thermal conductivity, and the ability to form a self-protective alumina scale in aggressive environments. Although the compositions of strong NiAl single crystals are relatively simple, the microstructures are complex and vary with the heat treatment and with small ingot-toingot variations in the alloy chemistry. In addition, initial testing suggested a strong dependence between microstructure and creep strength. If these observations were true, the ability to utilize NiAl single-crystal rotating components in turbine machinery could be severely limited. To investigate the possible limitations in the creep response of high-strength NiAl single crystals, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated an in depth investigation of the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and subsequent 1027 C creep behavior of [001]-oriented NiAl-1Hf with a nominal chemistry of Ni-47.5Al-1Hf-0.5Si. This alloy was selected since four ingots, grown over a number of years and possessing slightly different compositions, were available for study. Specimens taken from the

  18. Manifestations of Dynamic Strain Aging in Soft-Oriented NiAl Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    The tensile and compressive properties of six NiAl-base single-crystal alloys have been investigated at temperatures between 77 and 1200 K. The normalized critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS/E) and work-hardening rates (Theta/E) for these alloys generally decreased with increasing temperature. However, anomalous peaks or plateaus for these properties were observed in conventional purity (CPNiAl), Si-doped (NiAl-Si), C-doped low Si (UF-NiAl1), and Mo-doped (NiAl-Mo) alloys at intermediate temperatures (600 to 1000 K). This anomalous behavior was not observed in high-purity, low interstitial material (HP-NiAl). Low or negative strain-rate sensitivities (SRS) also were observed in all six alloys in this intermediate temperature range. Coincident with the occurrence of negative strain-rate sensitivities was the observation of serrated stress-strain curves in the CPNiAl and NiAl-Si alloys. These phenomena have been attributed to dynamic strain aging (DSA). Chemical analysis of the alloys used in this study suggests that the main specie responsible for strain aging in NiAl is C but indicate that residual Si impurities can enhance the strain aging effects. The corresponding dislocation microstructures at low temperatures (300 to 600 K) were composed of well-defined cells. At intermediate temperatures (600 to 900 K), either poorly defined cells or coarse bands of localized slip, reminiscent of the vein structures observed in low-cycle fatigue specimens deformed in the DSA regime, were observed in conventional purity, Si-doped, and in Mo-doped alloys. In contrast, a well-defined cell structure persisted in the low interstitial, high-purity alloy. At elevated temperatures (greater than or equal to 1000 K), more uniformly distributed dislocations and sub-boundaries were observed in all alloys. These observations are consistent with the occurrence of DSA in NiAl single-crystal alloys at intermediate temperatures.

  19. The effects of alloy purity on the mechanical behavior of soft oriented NiAl single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results of the effects of alloy purity on the mechanical properties of NiAl single crystals are presented. Two stoichiometric NiAl single crystals with different impurity contents were studied. It is concluded that reductions in the interstitial and substitutional levels cause reduced yield strengths in NiAl. Heat treatment also results in reduced yield and flow stresses in both CP-NiAl and Hp-NiAl which are considered to be due to a reduction in the concentration of thermal vacancies due to vacancy coalescence during heat treatment.

  20. Effect of Hf-Rich Particles on the Creep Life of a High-strength Nial Single Crystal Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Raj, S. V.; Darolia, R.

    1995-01-01

    Additions of small amounts of Hf and Si to NiAl single crystals significantly improve their high-temperature strength and creep properties. However, if large Hf-rich dendritic particles formed during casting of the alloyed single crystals are not dissolved completely during homogenization heat treatment, a large variation in creep rupture life can occur. This behavior, observed in five samples of a Hf containing NiAl single crystal alloy tested at 1144 K under an initial stress of 241.4 MPa, is described in detail highlighting the role of interdendritic Hf-rich particles in limiting creep rupture life.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of oxidation of (110)NiAl single crystal with wedge-shaped profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedchenko, Olena; Chernov, Sergey V.; Klimenkov, Michael; Protsenko, Serhiy I.; Nepijko, Sergej A.; Schönhense, Gerd

    2016-02-01

    Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) investigations of oxidation processes in (110)NiAl single crystal of wedge like shape, i.e., on the sample’s areas of different thickness, were carried out. It was found that in the result of several cycles of ion etching, annealing and oxidation the upper layer of (110)NiAl is enriched with Ni. With the increase of Ni concentration from 50 to 100 at. %, the stoichiometry of the near surface area changes and the new phases of Ni3Al and Ni with Al doping are formed one after another. Up to Ni content of 75 at. % the defects concentration in the near-surface area increases and above 75 at. % it drops again. This leads to the change in orientation and azimuth direction of aluminum oxide (alumina). By varying the conditions of γ-Al2O3 epitaxial growth on (110)NiAl with (100), (110), and (111) orientations, we found that this oxide can be grown with different azimuthal directions, for example [440](111)γ-Al2O3 ∥ [002](110)NiAl and [440](111)γ-Al2O3 ∥ [022](110)NiAl.

  2. High temperature deformation of NiAl and CoAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature mechanical properties of the aluminides are reviewed with respect to their potential as high temperature structural materials. It is shown that NiAl and CoAl are substantially stronger than the pure metals Ni and Co at high temperatures and approach the strength of some superalloys, particularly when those superalloys are tested in "weak" directions. The factors that limit and control the high temperature strengths of NiAl and CoAl are examined to provide a basis for the development of intermetallic alloys of this type.

  3. Effect of prestraining on the brittle-to-ductile transition of NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, S.; Ebrahimi, F.

    1997-12-31

    The brittle-to-ductile transition (BDT) has been established for NiAl single crystals as evaluated by fracture toughness testing and also the effects of prestraining on the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) have been investigated. Specimens were prestrained to a 10% plastic strain level at 200 C under tension prior to toughness testing. The BDT of the prestrained specimens was compared to that of the as homogenized specimens. The results have revealed the occurrence of two competing effects upon prestraining: (1) an increase in dislocation sources causing a difficulty in micro-crack initiation and resulting in an increase in toughness at low temperatures, and (2) an increase in the flow stress resulting in an increase in BDT temperature. The crack initiation and propagation mechanisms were also analyzed and have been discussed.

  4. Deformations in chiral liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaev, Petr; Reddy, Kathryn; Bateman, Daniel; Iljin, Andrey

    2014-03-01

    Deformations and their relaxation in chiral liquid crystals are studied experimentally and theoretically in planar geometry for liquid crystalline mixtures of varying viscosities. It is shown by both methods that shear deformation in liquid crystals results in the inclination and extension of cholesteric helix in samples with high viscosity. Stretching deformation results in shrinking cholesteric helix. This leads to a possibility of detecting deformations on a nanometer scale by observing changes in selective reflection spectra. Theoretical model takes into account elastic strain of physical network formed by the entanglements between components of liquid crystalline mixture, viscosity of the matrix and elasticity of the liquid crystalline subsystem. This allows to model mechanical response of the matrix with different viscosities to stretching and shear of various amplitudes. It is shown that relaxation of the cholesteric helix takes much shorter time than mechanical relaxation of the mixtures. The model perfectly agrees with experimental data. The model is compared with theoretical model describing behavior of elastomers.

  5. Al-doping influence on crystal growth of Ni-Al alloy: Experimental testing of a theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Xi-Ming; Chen, Jun; Li, Jing-Tian; Zhuang, Jun; Ning, Xi-Jing

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a condensing potential model was developed to evaluate the crystallization ability of bulk materials [Ye X X, Ming C, Hu Y C and Ning X J 2009 J. Chem. Phys. 130 164711 and Peng K, Ming C, Ye X X, Zhang W X, Zhuang J and Ning X J 2011 Chem. Phys. Lett. 501 330], showing that the best temperature for single crystal growth is about 0.6Tm, where Tm is the melting temperature, and for Ni-Al alloy, more than 6 wt% of Al-doping will badly reduce the crystallization ability. In order to verify these predictions, we fabricated Ni-Al films with different concentrations of Al on Si substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition, and post-annealed the films at 833, 933, 1033 (˜ 0.6Tm), 1133, and 1233 K in vacuum furnace, respectively. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that annealing at 0.6Tm is indeed best for larger crystal grain formation, and the film crystallization ability remarkably declines with more than 6-wt% Al doping. Project supported by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20130071110018) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274073).

  6. Crystallography of the NiHfSi Phase in a NiAl (0.5 Hf) Single-Crystal Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Noebe, R. D.; Darolia, R.

    1996-01-01

    Small additions of Hf to conventionally processed NiAl single crystals result in the precipitation of a high density of cuboidal G-phase along with a newly identified silicide phase. Both of these phases form in the presence of Si which is not an intentional alloying addition but is a contaminant resulting from contact with the ceramic shell molds during directional solidification of the single-crystal ingots. The morphology, crystal structure and Orientation Relationship (OR) of the silicide phase in a NiAl (0.5 at.%Hf) single-crystal alloy have been determined using transmission electron microscopy, electron microdiffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Qualitative elemental analysis and indexing of the electron microdiffraction patterns from the new phase indicate that it is an orthorhombic NiHfSi phase with unit cell parameters, a = 0.639 nm, b = 0.389 nm and c = 0.72 nm, and space group Pnma. The NiHfSi phase forms as thin rectangular plates on NiAl/111/ planes with an OR that is given by NiHfSi(100))(parallel) NiAl(111) and NiHfSi zone axes(010) (parallel) NiAl zone axes (101). Twelve variants of the NiHfSi phase were observed in the alloy and the number of variants and rectangular morphology of NiHfSi plates are consistent with symmetry requirements. Quenching experiments indicate that nucleation of the NiHfSi phase in NiAI(Hf) alloys is aided by the formation of NiAl group of zone axes (111) vacancy loops that form on the NiAl /111/ planes.

  7. Crystallography of the NiHfSi phase in a NiAl(0.5Hf) single-crystal alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A.; Noebe, R.D.; Darolia, R.

    1996-07-01

    Small additions of Hf to conventionally processed NiAl single crystals result in the precipitation of a high density of cuboidal G-phase along with a newly identified silicide phase. Both of these phases form in the presence of Si which is not an intentional alloying addition but is a contaminant resulting from contact with the ceramic shell molds during directional solidification of the single-crystal ingots. The morphology, crystal structure and orientation relationship (O.R.) of the silicide phase in a NiAl(0.5at.%Hf) single-crystal alloy have been determined using transmission electron microscopy, electron microdiffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Qualitative elemental analysis and indexing of the electron microdiffraction patterns from the new phase indicate that it is an orthorhombic NiHfSi phase with unit cell parameters, a = 0.639 nm, b = 0.389 nm and c = 0.72 nm, and space group Pnma. The NiHfSi phase forms as thin rectangular plates on {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub NiAl} planes with an O.R. that is given by (100){sub NiHfSi}{parallel}(111){sub NiAl} and [010]{sub NiHfSi}{parallel}[{bar 1}01]{sub NiAl}. Twelve variants of the NiHfSi phase were observed in the alloy and the number of variants and rectangular morphology of NiHfSi plates are consistent with symmetry requirements. Quenching experiments indicate that nucleation of the NiHfSi phase in NiAl(Hf) alloys is aided by the formation of <111>{sub NiAl} vacancy loops that form on the {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub NiAl} planes.

  8. Microstructure and Phase Stability of Single Crystal NiAl Alloyed with Hf and Zr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, I. E.; Dickerson, R. M.; Garg, A.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Darolia, R.

    1996-01-01

    Six near stoichiometric, NiAl single-crystal alloys, with 0.05-1.5 at.% of Hf and Zr additions plus Si impurities, were microstructurally analyzed in the as-cast, homogenized, and aged conditions. Hafnium-rich interdendritic regions, containing the Heusler phase (Ni2AlHf), were found in all the as-cast alloys containing Hf. Homogenization heat treatments partially reduced these interdendritic segregated regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the as-cast and homogenized microstructures revealed the presence of a high density of fine Hf (or Zr) and Si-rich precipitates. These were identified as G-phase, Nil6X6Si7, or as an orthorhombic NiXSi phase, where X is Hf or Zr. Under these conditions the expected Heusler phase (beta') was almost completely absent. The Si responsible for the formation of the G and NiHfSi phases is the result of molten metal reacting with the Si-containing crucible used during the casting process. Varying the cooling rates after homogenization resulted in the refinement or complete suppression of the G and NiHfSi phases. In some of the alloys studied, long-term aging heat treatments resulted in the formation of Heusler precipitates, which were more stable at the aging temperature and coarsened at the expense of the G-phase. In other alloys, long-term aging resulted in the formation of the NiXSi phase. The stability of the Heusler or NiXSi phases can be traced to the reactive element (Hf or Zr) to silicon ratio. If the ratio is high, then the Heusler phase appears stable after long time aging. If the ratio is low, then the NiHfSi phase appears to be the stable phase.

  9. Indentation Schmid factor and orientation dependence of nanoindentation pop-in behavior of NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianlei; Gao, Yanfei; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P

    2011-01-01

    Instrumented nanoindentation techniques have been widely used to characterize the small-scale mechanical behavior of materials. The elastic-plastic transition during nanoindentation is often indicated by a sudden displacement burst (pop-in) in the measured load-displacement curve. In defect-free single crystals, the pop-in is believed to be the result of homogeneous dislocation nucleation because the maximum shear stress corresponding to the pop-in load approaches the theoretical strength of the materials and because the statistical distribution of pop-in stresses is consistent with what is expected for a thermally activated process of homogeneous dislocation nucleation. This paper investigates whether this process is affected by crystallography and stress components other than the resolved shear stress. A Stroh formalism coupled with the two-dimensional Fourier transformation is used to derive the analytical stress fields in elastically anisotropic solids under Hertzian contact, which allows the determination of an indentation Schmid factor, namely, the ratio of maximum resolved shear stress to the maximum contact pressure. Nanoindentation tests were conducted on B2-structured NiAl single crystals with different surface normal directions. This material was chosen because it deforms at room temperature by {110}<001> slip and thus avoids the complexity of partial dislocation nucleation. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental data and the theoretically predicted orientation dependence of pop-in loads based on the indentation Schmid factor. Pop-in load is lowest for indentation directions close to <111> and highest for those close to <001>. In nanoindentation, since the stress component normal to the slip plane is typically comparable in magnitude to the resolved shear stress, we find that the pressure sensitivity of homogeneous dislocation nucleation cannot be determined from pop-in tests. Our statistical measurements generally confirm the thermal

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a single crystal NiAl alloy with Zr or Hf rich G-phase precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, I. E.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.; Miner, R. V.; Nathal, M. V.; Darolia, R.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of producing NiAl reinforced with the G-phase (Ni16X6Si7), where X is Zr or Hf, has been investigated. The microstructure of these NiAl alloys have been characterized in the as-cast and annealed conditions. The G-phases are present as fine cuboidal precipitates (10 to 40 nm) and have lattice parameters almost four times that of NiAl. They are coherent with the matrix and fairly resistant to coarsening during annealing heat treatments. Segregation and nonuniform precipitate distribution observed in as-cast materials were eliminated by homogenization at temperatures near 1600 K. Slow cooling from these temperatures resulted in large plate shaped precipitates, denuded zones, and a loss of coherency in some of the large particles. Faster cooling produced a homogeneous fine distribution of cuboidal G-phase particles in the matrix. Preliminary mechanical properties for the Zr-doped alloy are presented and compared to binary single crystal NiAl. The presence of these precipitates appears to have an important strengthening effect at temperatures not less than 1000 K compared to binary NiAl single crystals.

  11. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju; Huang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Lin; Sun, Jun; Ma, Evan

    2010-01-21

    Deformation twinning in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium's ideal strength. We develop a 'stimulated slip' model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning. The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence relevant for applications. PMID:20090749

  12. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  13. {l_angle}111{r_angle} Slip in NiAl single crystals between 4.2K and 100K

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.Q.; Taylor, G.; Darolia, R.; Hazzledine, P.M.

    1995-08-01

    Slip in {l_angle}111{r_angle} directions is a deformation mode found in many intermetallic compounds ordered into the B2 (CsCl) structure, but in NiAl it is active only under the limiting conditions of uniaxial loading along {l_angle}100{r_angle} and low testing temperatures. This paper investigates the deformation characteristics of {l_angle}100{r_angle} oriented NiAl tested between 4.2K and 300K. Compression tests have shown that below about 100 K, deformation takes place by slip in {l_angle}111{r_angle} directions without kinking, whereas between 100K and 300K kinking in the form of shearing on {l_brace}100{r_brace} becomes the dominant mode of plastic deformation, occurring usually near one or both ends of the compression samples. The yield stress has been found to exhibit a normal decrease with temperature, but at a rate that is smaller than most bcc metals. The sensitivity of the flow stress to strain-rate changes is also characteristically small, giving activation volumes around b{sup 3}, b being the Burgers vector of a{l_angle}111{r_angle} superdislocation. Both slip line observations and transmission electron microscopy have shown slip mainly on {l_brace}110{r_brace} near 80K, but with increasing activity on {l_brace}112{r_brace} and cross-slip between {l_brace}110{r_brace} and {l_brace}112{r_brace} with the lowering of temperature to 4.2K.

  14. Slip transition and dislocation structures in off-stoichiometric NiAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, R.; Savage, M.F.; Mills, M.J.; Daw, M.S.; Noebe, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Compression tests have been performed on hard-oriented Ni-44Al single crystals for several temperatures and strain levels. There is a slip transition from a<111> type slip to non-a<111> type slip which corresponds with the observation of yield points. Transmission electron microscopy studies provide evidence for decomposition of a<111> dislocations into a <101> and a<010> dislocations near the knee of the yield strength curve. The mechanism of this slip transition and the nature of the dislocation processes both below and above the knee are described.

  15. Deformation of ⊥m single quartz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasner, P.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The rheology of quartz deformed by dislocation creep is essential to understanding the strength of the mid to lower continental crust. Our current understanding of quartz rheology is derived primarily from studies of polycrystalline quartz and little is known about the temperature, strain rate, or water dependence of the individual quartz slip systems. In order to better understand the rheology of quartz slip systems, we have deformed synthetic quartz single crystals with the prism oriented at 45° to the compression direction (⊥m orientation). We converted the gel-type water found in synthetic quartz crystals to free water fluid inclusions, similar to water observed in milky quartz crystals, by annealing the crystals at 900°C/0.1 MPa for 24 hours. The single crystals were deformed at a confining pressure of 1.5 GPa with temperatures of 850 to 1000°C and strain rates of 10-6 to 10-4/s. FTIR measurements of water concentrations in the starting material, annealed synthetic crystals and deformed synthetic quartz crystals indicate that the water concentrations (125-300 H/106Si) are not affected by the annealing process or deformation. However, the spectra in the annealed and deformed samples are similar to those of natural milky quartz rather than those of synthetic quartz. Results of temperature and strain rate stepping experiments indicate that the strength of the crystals decreases with increasing temperature and/or decreasing strain rate. Undulatory extinction is the predominant microstructure observed in deformed samples, which is consistent with deformation by dislocation creep. The strength of the ⊥m oriented quartz crystals deformed in this study with free water is greater than those of the studies of synthetic quartz with gel type water (Linker and Kirby, 1981 and Muto et al., 2011).

  16. Coherent Pair Production in Deformed Crystals with a Complex Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, A. R.; Saharian, A. A.; Parazian, V. V.

    We investigate the coherent electron-positron pair creation by high-energy photons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross-section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The conditions are specified under which the influence of the deformation is considerable. The case is considered in detail when the photon enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for SiO2 single crystal and Moliere parametrization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by the acoustic wave of S type. In dependence of the parameters, the presence of deformation can either enhance or reduce the pair creation cross-section. This can be used to control the parameters of the positron sources for storage rings and colliders.

  17. Plastic Deformation of O+ Oriented Quartz Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, E. J.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The strength of wet quartz deforming by dislocation creep significantly influences the strength of mid to lower crust. Dislocation creep of quartz in Earth's crust is dominated by slip on the basal slip system. However, very little is known about the temperature, strain rate, or water fugacity dependence of this slip system. In order to better understand the rheology of the basal slip system, we deformed single crystals of synthetic quartz, with the basal slip system oriented at 45° to the compression direction (O+ orientation). Each core was annealed at 900°C and 1 atm for 24 hours to convert the gel-type water defects found in synthetic quartz into fluid inclusions, like those observed in milky quartz. FTIR analysis indicate that water contents (200-450 H/106Si) were not affected by the annealing process. The annealed single crystals were then deformed in a Griggs piston-cylinder rock deformation apparatus using a solid salt assembly, at temperatures from 800 to 900°C, strain rates from 10-6 to 10-4/s, and a confining pressure of 1.5 GPa. The strength of the quartz crystals increases with faster strain rates and decreases with increasing temperature. During some of the faster strain rate steps at 800°C, the crystals did not deform plastically before the differential stress reached the confining pressure, whereas they deformed at low stresses at 800°C and 10-6/s. The microstructures visible in the deformed samples are consistent with dislocation creep. The samples exhibit undulatory extinction, and show no deformation lamellae or subgrain formation. The strength of synthetic quartz crystals with low water contents deformed in this study is greater than milky quartz single crystals with high water contents deformed at the same conditions in other studies. These results indicate that the strength of basal slip system in quartz is affected by both water content and water fugacity.

  18. Deformation studies of near single-crystal triblock copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Honeker, C.; Villar, M.A.; Thomas, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    The mechanical behavior of block copolymers is being studied in order to determine the evolution of the microphase-separation morphologies with deformation. To facilitate analysis a novel processing technique termed {open_quotes}roll-casting{close_quotes} is used to orient the copolymers. Large, near single-crystal macroscopically oriented films are produced by applying a shear field on a homogeneous solution and allowing the solvent to evaporate until the copolymer has microphase separated. Deformation behavior is studied with in situ small angle x-ray diffraction and TEM studies of films deformed up to 700% extension. Initial studies on poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) triblock copolymers with a cylindrical morphology indicate a break-up of the morphology at low deformations and a development of a characteristic 4 point pattern at high deformations. Hysteresis is observed in deformation directions of 0 and 90 degrees.

  19. Phyllotactic transformations as plastic deformations of tubular crystals with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, Daniel; Nelson, David

    Tubular crystals are 2D lattices in cylindrical topologies, which could be realized as assemblies of colloidal particles, and occur naturally in biological microtubules and in single-walled carbon nanotubes. Their geometry can be understood in the language of phyllotaxis borrowed from botany. We study the mechanics of plastic deformations in tubular crystals in response to tensile stress, as mediated by the formation and separation of dislocation pairs in a triangular lattice. Dislocation motion allows the growth of one phyllotactic arrangement at the expense of another, offering a low-energy, stepwise mode of plastic deformation in response to external stresses. Through theory and simulation, we examine how the tube's radius and helicity affects, and is in turn altered by, dislocation glide. The crystal's bending modulus is found to produce simple but important corrections to the tube's deformation mechanics.

  20. Deformation and failure of curved colloidal crystal shells

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Carlotta; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Designing and controlling particle self-assembly into robust and reliable high-performance smart materials often involves crystalline ordering in curved spaces. Examples include carbon allotropes like graphene, synthetic materials such as colloidosomes, or biological systems like lipid membranes, solid domains on vesicles, or viral capsids. Despite the relevance of these structures, the irreversible deformation and failure of curved crystals is still mostly unexplored. Here, we report simulation results of the mechanical deformation of colloidal crystalline shells that illustrate the subtle role played by geometrically necessary topological defects in controlling plastic yielding and failure. We observe plastic deformation attributable to the migration and reorientation of grain boundary scars, a collective process assisted by the intermittent proliferation of disclination pairs or abrupt structural failure induced by crack nucleating at defects. Our results provide general guiding principles to optimize the structural and mechanical stability of curved colloidal crystals. PMID:26553975

  1. Deformation and failure of curved colloidal crystal shells.

    PubMed

    Negri, Carlotta; Sellerio, Alessandro L; Zapperi, Stefano; Miguel, M Carmen

    2015-11-24

    Designing and controlling particle self-assembly into robust and reliable high-performance smart materials often involves crystalline ordering in curved spaces. Examples include carbon allotropes like graphene, synthetic materials such as colloidosomes, or biological systems like lipid membranes, solid domains on vesicles, or viral capsids. Despite the relevance of these structures, the irreversible deformation and failure of curved crystals is still mostly unexplored. Here, we report simulation results of the mechanical deformation of colloidal crystalline shells that illustrate the subtle role played by geometrically necessary topological defects in controlling plastic yielding and failure. We observe plastic deformation attributable to the migration and reorientation of grain boundary scars, a collective process assisted by the intermittent proliferation of disclination pairs or abrupt structural failure induced by crack nucleating at defects. Our results provide general guiding principles to optimize the structural and mechanical stability of curved colloidal crystals. PMID:26553975

  2. Strong luminescence induced by elastic deformation of piezoelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, V. K.; Chandra, B. P.; Jha, Piyush

    2013-06-01

    The luminescence induced by elastic deformation of solids, called the phenomenon of elastico-mechanoluminescence (EML), is observed in several materials. For applied pressure in the range of 17 MPa, certain crystals emit intense EML, which can be seen in day light with naked eye. In the present paper, we explore that, as the piezoelectric constant near the photo-generated electric dipoles formed by trapping of charge carriers in crystals is several times higher as compared to that at normal sites, the piezoelectrically induced detrapping of charge carriers and EML emission may take place for less value of the pressure applied onto the crystals.

  3. Nanoscale anisotropic plastic deformation in single crystal GaN

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Elasto-plastic mechanical deformation behaviors of c-plane (0001) and nonpolar GaN single crystals are studied using nanoindentation, cathodoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Nanoindentation tests show that c-plane GaN is less susceptible to plastic deformation and has higher hardness and Young's modulus than the nonpolar GaN. Cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy characterizations of indent-induced plastic deformation reveal that there are two primary slip systems for the c-plane GaN, while there is only one most favorable slip system for the nonplane GaN. We suggest that the anisotropic elasto-plastic mechanical properties of GaN are relative to its anisotropic plastic deformation behavior. PACS: 62.20.fq; 81.05.Ea; 61.72.Lk. PMID:22353389

  4. Friction and deformation behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and deformation studies were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with diamond. When the radius of curvature of the spherical diamond rider was large (0.3), deformation of silicon carbide was primarily elastic. Under these conditions the friction coefficient was low and did not show a dependence on the silicon carbide orientation. Further, there was no detectable cracking of the silicon carbide surfaces. When smaller radii of curvature of the spherical diamond riders (0.15 and 0.02 mm) or a conical diamond rider was used, plastic grooving occured and the silicon carbide exhibited anisotropic friction and deformation behavior. Under these conditions the friction coefficient depended on load. Anisotropic friction and deformation of the basal plane of silicon carbide was controlled by the slip system. 10101120and cleavage of1010.

  5. Adsorbed liposome deformation studied with quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reviakine, Ilya; Gallego, Marta; Johannsmann, Diethelm; Tellechea, Edurne

    2012-02-01

    Deformation of surface-adsorbed liposomes is an important parameter that governs the kinetics of their transformations, but one that is very difficult to measure in the case of nm-size liposomes. We investigate the deformation of dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline liposomes by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) as a function of temperature and show that it follows the dependence of this lipid's bending modulus on temperature, as expected from theoretical considerations. To corroborate our approach, we model QCM response from adsorbed liposomes by explicitly considering their shape and mechanical properties.

  6. Hierarchical Characterization of Deformation Heterogeneities inBCC crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Magid, Karen R.; Lilleodden, Erica T.; Tamura, Nobumichi; Florando, Jeff; Lassila, Dave; Barabash, Rozaliya I.; Morris, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Deformation behavior of body-centered cubic (BCC) metals is being investigated by white beam x-ray microdiffraction to characterize the dislocation structure that results from uniaxial compression experiments. The measurements were performed on molybdenum single crystals and a tantalum bicrystal as part of a hierarchical characterization effort. Results show heterogeneities in the deformed structure and misorientation maps consistent with results obtained from Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM). Additionally, the technique allows for the determination of the active glide systems as well as of the dislocation densities in function of the position in the sample.

  7. Water weakening in experimentally deformed milky quartz single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, H.; Thust, A.; Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Behrens, H.; Tarantola, A.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FI´s decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FI´s form, increasing the number of FI´s drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FI´s is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FI´s. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FI´s, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FI´s during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  8. Deformation of Single Crystal Molybdenum at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B P; Aracne, C; Farber, D L; Boro, C O; Lassila, D H

    2004-02-24

    Single crystal samples of micron dimensions oriented in the [001] direction were shortened 10 to 40% in uniaxial compression with superposed hydrostatic pressure to begin investigation of how the onset of yielding evolves with pressure. A testing machine based on opposed anvil geometry with precision pneumatic control of the applied force and capability to measure sub micron displacements was developed to produce shape changing deformation at pressure. The experiments extend observations of pressure dependent deformation to {approx}5Gpa at shortening rates of {approx}2*10{sup -4}. Samples have been recovered for post run characterization and analysis to determine if deformation mechanisms are altered by pressure. Experiments under hydrostatic pressure provide insight into the nature of materials under extreme conditions, and also provide a means for altering deformation behavior in a controlled fashion. The approach has a long history demonstrating that pressure enhances ductility in general, and produces enhanced hardening relative to that expected from normal cold work in the BCC metals Mo, Ta and Nb{sup 2}. The pressure hardening is in excess of that predicted from the measured increase in shear modulus at pressure, and therefore is likely due to a dislocation mechanism, such as suppression of kink pair formation or the interaction of forest dislocation cores, and not from lattice resistance. The effect has not been observed in FCC metals, suggesting a fundamental difference between deformation mechanisms at pressure for the two classes. The purpose of this letter is to investigate the origin of pressure hardening with new experiments that extend the pressure range beyond 3 GPa, the upper limit of conventional large sample (1cm{sup 3}) testing methods. Most previous high pressure deformation studies have been on poly crystals, relying on model dependent analysis to infer the maximum deviatoric stress that a deformed sample can support. In one experiment, a

  9. Flextensional Single Crystal Piezoelectric Actuators for Membrane Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Sahul, Raffi; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2006-01-01

    Large aperture and light weight space telescopes requires adaptive optics with deformable mirrors capable of large amplitude aberration corrections at a broad temperature range for space applications including NASA missions such as SAFIR, TPF, Con-X, etc. The single crystal piezoelectric actuators produced at TRS offer large stroke, low hysteresis, and an excellent cryogenic strain response. Specifically, the recently developed low profile, low voltage flextensional single crystal piezoelectric actuators with dimensions of 18 x 5 x 1 mm showed stroke larger than 95 microns under 300 V. Furthermore, flextensional actuator retained approx. 40-50% of its room temperature strain at liquid Nitrogen environment. In this paper, ATILA FEM design of flextensional actuators, actuator fabrication, and characterization results will be presented for the future work on membrane deformable mirror.

  10. Plastic Deformation of Aluminum Single Crystals at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R D; Young, A P; Schwope, A D

    1956-01-01

    This report describes the results of a comprehensive study of plastic deformation of aluminum single crystals over a wide range of temperatures. The results of constant-stress creep tests have been reported for the temperature range from 400 degrees to 900 degrees F. For these tests, a new capacitance-type extensometer was designed. This unit has a range of 0.30 inch over which the sensitivity is very nearly linear and can be varied from as low a sensitivity as is desired to a maximum of 20 microinches per millivolt with good stability. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of small amounts of prestraining, by two different methods, on the creep and tensile properties of these aluminum single crystals. From observations it has been concluded that plastic deformation takes place predominantly by slip which is accompanied by the mechanisms of kinking and polygonization.

  11. Deformation of chlorin rings in the Photosystem II crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keisuke; Umena, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamiya, Nobuo; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2012-05-29

    The crystal structure of Photosystem II (PSII) analyzed at a resolution of 1.9 Å revealed deformations of chlorin rings in the chlorophylls for the first time. We investigated the degrees of chlorin ring deformation and factors that contributed to them in the PSII crystal structure, using a normal-coordinate structural decomposition procedure. The out-of-plane distortion of the P(D1) chlorin ring can be described predominantly by a large "doming mode" arising from the axial ligand, D1-His198, as well as the chlorophyll side chains and PSII protein environment. In contrast, the deformation of P(D2) was caused by a "saddling mode" arising from the D2-Trp191 ring and the doming mode arising from D2-His197. Large ruffling modes, which were reported to lower the redox potential in heme proteins, were observed in P(D1) and Chl(D1), but not in P(D2) and Chl(D2). Furthermore, as P(D1) possessed the largest doming mode among the reaction center chlorophylls, the corresponding bacteriochlorophyll P(L) possessed the largest doming mode in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the majority of the redox potential shift in the protein environment was determined by the electrostatic environment. The difference in the chlorin ring deformation appears to directly refer to the difference in "the local steric protein environment" rather than the redox potential value in PSII. PMID:22568617

  12. Plastically deformed region around indentations on Si angle crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, M.

    1994-12-01

    Expansion of a hemispherical shell by inner pressure has been widely applied for the model of the deformation by an indentation on a flat surface; however, the deformed region is not necessarily spherically symmetric, especially in anisotropic materials such as single crystals. Therefore, whether the spherical model is applicable in an indentation process for objective materials must always be kept in mind. Indentations have been made on the (111) surface of silicon crystal at various temperatures. The three-dimensional shape of the plastically deformed region was experimentally measured by means of an etching technique and its difference from the hemisphere was observed. It was never spherical but much more complicated, similar to a bottle gourd. The slip mechanism, which resulted in the observed shape of the plastic region, is discussed further. The plastic region was analytically obtained also on the assumption that the stress distribution was spherically symmetrical. The result is approximately in accordance with the observed shape. It is therefore concluded that the stress distribution is nearly spherical although the plastic region is far from it. The yield strength of silicon crystals and their temperature dependence were obtained based on the spherical model.

  13. Deformation of Diopside Single Crystal at Mantle Pressure 2 TEM Characterization of Deformation Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    E Amiguet; P Cordier; P Raterron

    2011-12-31

    The dislocation microstructures of diopside single crystals deformed at high-pressure (4 {<=} P {<=} 9 GPa), high-temperature (1100{sup o} {<=} T {<=} 1400 {sup o}C) using a Deformation-DIA high-pressure apparatus (D-DIA) have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy using weak-beam dark-field (WBDF), precession electron diffraction (PED), large-angle convergent-beam electron diffraction (LACBED) and the thickness-fringe method. Dislocation glide is the dominant deformation mechanism under these conditions. The 1/2<110>{l_brace}110{r_brace} glide is controlled by lattice friction on the edge segments and shows extensive cross-slip. The [001] glide occurs mostly on {l_brace}110{r_brace}; no evidence for [001](010) glide has been found. The [100] dislocations bear a strong lattice friction probably due to complex (out of glide) core structures.

  14. Large anisotropic deformation of skyrmions in strained crystal.

    PubMed

    Shibata, K; Iwasaki, J; Kanazawa, N; Aizawa, S; Tanigaki, T; Shirai, M; Nakajima, T; Kubota, M; Kawasaki, M; Park, H S; Shindo, D; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y

    2015-07-01

    Mechanical control of magnetism is an important and promising approach in spintronics. To date, strain control has mostly been demonstrated in ferromagnetic structures by exploiting a change in magnetocrystalline anisotropy. It would be desirable to achieve large strain effects on magnetic nanostructures. Here, using in situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that anisotropic strain as small as 0.3% in a chiral magnet of FeGe induces very large deformations in magnetic skyrmions, as well as distortions of the skyrmion crystal lattice on the order of 20%. Skyrmions are stabilized by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, originating from a chiral crystal structure. Our results show that the change in the modulation of the strength of this interaction is amplified by two orders of magnitude with respect to changes in the crystal lattice due to an applied strain. Our findings may provide a mechanism to achieve strain control of topological magnetic structures based on the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. PMID:26030654

  15. Monoclinic deformation of calcite crystals at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przeniosło, R.; Fabrykiewicz, P.; Sosnowska, I.

    2016-09-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation powder diffraction shows that the average crystal structure of calcite at ambient conditions is described with the trigonal space group R 3 bar c but there is a systematic hkl-dependent Bragg peak broadening. A modelling of this anisotropic peak broadening with the microstrain model from Stephens (1999) [15] is presented. The observed lattice parameters' correlations can be described by assuming a monoclinic-type deformation of calcite crystallites. A quantitative model of this monoclinic deformation observed at ambient conditions is described with the space group C 2 / c . The monoclinic unit cell suggested at ambient conditions is related with the monoclinic unit cell reported in calcite at high pressure (Merrill and Bassett (1975) [10]).

  16. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed on NiAl over the last decade, with an exponential increase in effort occurring over the last few years. This is due to interest in this material for electronic, catalytic, coating and especially high-temperature structural applications. This report uses this wealth of new information to develop a complete description of the properties and processing of NiAl and NiAl-based materials. Emphasis is placed on the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms of single and polycrystalline NiAl and its alloys over the entire range of temperatures for which data are available. Creep, fatigue, and environmental resistance of this material are discussed. In addition, issues surrounding alloy design, development of NiAl-based composites, and materials processing are addressed.

  17. Rolling-contact deformation of MgO single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrane, K. F.; Glaeser, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Magnesium oxide single crystals were used as a model bearing material and deformed by rolling contact with a steel ball 0.64 cm in diameter. A dependence of depth of slip on rolling velocity which persisted with increasing numbers of rolling-contact cycles was discovered. The track width, track hardness and dislocation interactions as observed by transmission electron microscopy all increased in a consistent manner with increasing cycles. The rolling-contact state of stress produces a high density of dislocations in a localized zone. Dislocation interaction in this zone produces cleavage-type cracks after a large number of rolling-contact cycles. The orientation of the crystal influences the character of dislocation accumulation.

  18. Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.

  19. Experimental Deformation of Diopside Single Crystals at Mantle P and T: Mechanical Data and Deformation Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiguet, E.; Raterron, P.; Cordier, P.; Couvy, H.; Chen, J.

    2009-04-01

    Clinopyroxenes (cpx) are major constituents of eclogites and are present in excess of 10 vol.% at most depths in the pyrolitic upper mantle. Among mantle minerals, they exhibit the strongest anisotropy for seismic wave propagation. Cpx plastic properties may thus significantly affect both mantle rheology and seismic anisotropy. Yet, no study of cpx rheology at high-pressure (typically P > 3 GPa) has been reported so far, while recent developments in high-pressure deformation devices coupled with synchrotron radiation allow now investigating the rheology of mantle minerals and aggregates at the extreme pressure and temperature (T) of their natural occurrence in the Earth. In order to investigate the effect of P on cpx rheology, steady state deformation experiments were carried out on gem quality oriented diopside crystals in the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA, see Wang et al., 2003, Rev. Scientific Instr., 74, 3002) that equipped the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS (Upton, NY, USA), at P ranging from 3.8 to 8.8 GPa, T in the range 1100˚ -1400˚ C, and with differential stress () ranging between 0.2 and 1.7 GPa. Three compression directions were chosen in order to activate either 1 •2 {1¯10} dislocation slip (duplex) systems together, or [100](010) and [010](100) systems together, or again [001] dislocation slip in (100), (010) and {110} planes. Constant and specimen strain rates (ɛ˙) were monitored in situ using time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the run products revealed that dislocation creep was responsible for sample deformation. Comparison of the present high-P deformation data with data obtained at room-P - on similar diopside crystals deformed at comparable T- conditions (Raterron and Jaoul, 1991, JGR, 96, 14277) - allows quantifying the effect of P on the activity of 1 •2 {1¯10} duplex systems. This translates into an activation volume V * = 17 ± 6 cm

  20. Initial evaluation of continuous fiber reinforced NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.; Eldridge, J. I.

    1990-01-01

    NiAl is being evaluated as a potential matrix material as part of an overall program to develop and understand high-temperature structural composites. Currently, continuous fiber composites have been fabricated by the powder cloth technique incorporating either W(218) or single crystal Al2O3 fibers as reinforcements in both binary NiAl and a solute strengthened NiAl(.05 at. pct Zr) matrix. Initial evaluation of these composite systems have included: fiber push-out testing to measure matrix/fiber bond strengths, bend testing to determine strength as a function of temperature and composite structure, and thermal cycling to establish the effect of matrix and fiber properties on composite life. The effect of matrix/fiber bond strength and matrix strength on several composite properties will be discussed.

  1. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  2. Deformation of polysynthetically twinned (PST) TiAl crystals at high strain rate and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Gray, G.T. III; Yamaguchi, Masaharu

    1997-12-31

    Deformation microstructures in a 435{degree} <{bar 3}21> oriented polysynthetically twinned (PST) TiAl crystal deformed in compression at 3000 s{sup {minus}1} and 800 C was studied. Deformation of this PST crystal is characterized as follows: (1) Deformation of domains [III] and [IV] is dominated by 1/6[11{bar 2}](111) parallel twinning (twinning parallel to lamellar interfaces). Ordinary dislocations observed in these domains are found to be a complementary deformation mode. (2) Deformation of domains [II], [V] and [VI] is controlled by ordinary dislocation slip. Complementary deformation modes in these domains are ordinary dislocation slip, superdislocation slip and cross-twinning. (3) Domain [I] is not deformed after the specimen deforms up to {approximately}7% strain.

  3. Dislocation dynamics during plastic deformations of complex plasma crystals.

    PubMed

    Durniak, C; Samsonov, D; Ralph, J F; Zhdanov, S; Morfill, G

    2013-11-01

    The internal structures of most periodic crystalline solids contain defects. This affects various important mechanical and thermal properties of crystals. Since it is very difficult and expensive to track the motion of individual atoms in real solids, macroscopic model systems, such as complex plasmas, are often used. Complex plasmas consist of micrometer-sized grains immersed into an ion-electron plasma. They exist in solidlike, liquidlike, and gaseouslike states and exhibit a range of nonlinear and dynamic effects, most of which have direct analogies in solids and liquids. Slabs of a monolayer hexagonal complex plasma were subjected to a cycle of uniaxial compression and decompression of large amplitudes to achieve plastic deformations, both in experiments and simulations. During the cycle, the internal structure of the lattice exhibited significant rearrangements. Dislocations (point defects) were generated and displaced in the stressed lattice. They tended to glide parallel to their Burgers vectors under load. It was found that the deformation cycle was macroscopically reversible but irreversible at the particle scale. PMID:24329366

  4. Dislocation dynamics during plastic deformations of complex plasma crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durniak, C.; Samsonov, D.; Ralph, J. F.; Zhdanov, S.; Morfill, G.

    2013-11-01

    The internal structures of most periodic crystalline solids contain defects. This affects various important mechanical and thermal properties of crystals. Since it is very difficult and expensive to track the motion of individual atoms in real solids, macroscopic model systems, such as complex plasmas, are often used. Complex plasmas consist of micrometer-sized grains immersed into an ion-electron plasma. They exist in solidlike, liquidlike, and gaseouslike states and exhibit a range of nonlinear and dynamic effects, most of which have direct analogies in solids and liquids. Slabs of a monolayer hexagonal complex plasma were subjected to a cycle of uniaxial compression and decompression of large amplitudes to achieve plastic deformations, both in experiments and simulations. During the cycle, the internal structure of the lattice exhibited significant rearrangements. Dislocations (point defects) were generated and displaced in the stressed lattice. They tended to glide parallel to their Burgers vectors under load. It was found that the deformation cycle was macroscopically reversible but irreversible at the particle scale.

  5. Quantum effect on the nucleation of plastic deformation carriers and destruction in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Khon, Yury A. Kaminskii, Petr P.

    2015-10-27

    New concepts on the irreversible crystal deformation as a structure transformation caused by a change in interatomic interactions at fluctuations of the electron density under loading are described. The change in interatomic interactions lead to the excitation of dynamical displacements of atoms. A model and a theory of a deformable pristine crystal taking into account the excitation of thermally activated and dynamical displacements of atoms are suggested. New mechanisms of the nucleation of plastic deformation carriers and destruction in pristine crystals at the real value of the deforming stress are studied.

  6. Fluid inclusions and microstructures in experimentally deformed quartz single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thust, A.; Tarantola, A.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.

    2009-04-01

    The "H2O-weakening" effect that reduces the strength of quartz dramatically (e.g. Griggs & Blacic 1965) is still not understood. For example, Kronenberg & Tullis (1984) conclude that the weakening effect is pressure dependent while Paterson (1989) infers a glide and recovery control of water. Obviously, the spatial distribution and transport of H2O are important factors (Kronenberg et al. 1986, FitzGerald et al. 1991). We have carried out experiments on milky quartz in a Griggs deformation apparatus. Cylinders (6.5 mm in diameter, 12-13 mm in length) from a milky zone of a natural quartz single crystal have been cored in orientations (1) normal to one of the prism planes and (2) 45˚ to and 45˚ to (O+orientation). At 1 GPa confining pressure, 900˚ C and 10-6s-1, the flow strength is 150 MPa for samples with orientation (1). Further experiments are needed to establish the flow strength for orientation (2). FTIR measurements on double-polished thick sections (200-500 μm) in the undeformed quartz material yield an average H2O content of approximately 100 H/106Si. The water is heterogeneously distributed in the sample. Direct measurements on fluid inclusions yield a H2O content of more than 25 000 H/106Si. Thus, the H2O in the undeformed material is predominantly present in fluid inclusions of size from tens to hundred microns. Micro-thermometric measurements at low temperature indicate the presence of different salts in the fluid inclusions. The ice melting temperature, between -6.9 and -7.4˚ C, indicate an average salinity of 10.5 wt% NaCl. After deformation the distribution of H2O is more homogeneous throughout the sample. The majority of the big inclusions have disappeared and very small inclusions of several microns to sub-micron size have formed. FTIR measurements in zones of undulatory extinction and shear bands show an average H2O content of approximately 3000 H/106Si. Moreover, the larger fluid inclusions are characterized by a higher salinity (12 wt%) due

  7. Deformation of olivine single crystals under lithospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Tommasi, A.; Cordier, P.

    2012-12-01

    The rheology of mantle rocks at lithospheric temperatures (<1000°C) remains poorly constrained, in contrast to the extensive experimental data on creep of olivine single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates at high temperature (T > 1200°C). Consequently, we have performed tri-axial compression experiments on oriented single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates of San Carlos olivine at temperatures ranging from 800° to 1090°C. The experiments were carried out at a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a high-resolution gas-medium mechanical testing apparatus at constant strain rates ranging from 7 × 10-6 s-1 to 1 × 10-4 s-1 . Compression was applied along three different crystallographic directions: [101]c, [110]c and [011]c, to activate the several slip systems. Yield differential stresses range from 88 to 1076 MPa. To constrain hardening, stick-and-slip, or strain localization behaviors, all samples were deformed at constant displacement rate for finite strains between 4 to 23 %. Hardening was observed in all experiments and the maximum differential stress often overcame the confining pressure. EBSD mapping highlights macroscale bending of the crystalline network in three crystals. TEM observations on several samples show dislocations with [100] and [001] Burgers vectors in all samples, but dislocation arrangements vary. The results from the present study permit to refining the power-law expressing the strain rate dependence on stress and temperature for olivine, allowing its application to the lithospheric mantle. Our experiments confirm that previous published high-temperature power flow laws overestimate the strength of lithospheric mantle and that the transition to low-temperature creep occurs at higher temperatures than it has previously been established.

  8. Examination of dislocation structures near crack tip region of B2 NiAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B.C.; Simkin, B.; Crimp, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The structure and distribution of dislocations in the region of crack tips and crack edges have been examined in single crystal stoichiometric B2 NiAl using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI). ECCI, which allows examination of near surface substructural crystalline defects in bulk specimens, has been carried out for undeformed as well as in-situ deformed 4-point bend specimens. Images of dislocations at crack tips and along the crack fracture surfaces have been studied. Observations have been correlated with variations in thermal treatment corresponding with brittle and toughened conditions. A higher dislocation density was observed over a larger region in front of crack tips for the toughened materials as compared to brittle material.

  9. Does a threshold stress for creep exist in HfC-dispersed NiAl?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1991-01-01

    Recently it was proposed (Jha et al., 1989; Whittenberger et al., 1990) on the basis of constant velocity testing at 1300 K that dispersion strengthened NiAl composites containing about 4 wt pct HfC possess threshold stresses for creep. Further, 1300 K compression testing has been conducted on NiAl+4HfC, and diametrically opposite behavior has been found: for constant load creep tests a normal power law behavior was observed. However, additional constant velocity testing still indicates that the flow stress is essentially independent of strain rate below 10 exp -6/s. Examination of NiAl+4.3HfC specimens deformed under constant velocity conditions revealed that the original hot extruded small grain structure could be converted to large, elongated grains during testing. Such a transformation appears to be responsible for the apparent threshold stress behavior in HfC dispersed NiAl.

  10. Shock induced reaction of Ni/Al nanopowder mixture.

    PubMed

    Meng, C M; Wei, J J; Chen, Q Y

    2012-11-01

    Nanopowder Ni/Al mixture (mixed in Al:Ni = 2:1 stoichiometry) was shock compressed by employing single and two-stage light gas gun. The particle size of Al and Ni are 100-200 nm and 50-70 nm respectively, morphologies of Al and Ni are sphere like either. Recovered product was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. According to the XRD spectrum, the mixed powder undergo complete reaction under shock compression, reaction product consist of Ni2Al3, NiAl and corundum structure Al2O3 compound. Grain size of Ni-Al compound is less than 100 nm. With the shock pressure increasing, the ratio of Ni2Al3 decreased obviously. The corundum crystal size is 400-500 nm according to the SEM observation. The results of shock recovery experiments and analysis show that the threshold pressure for reaction of nano size powder Ni/Al mixture is much less than that of micro size powder. PMID:23421276

  11. Angular distribution of positrons in coherent pair production in deformed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazian, V. V.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of positrons in the coherent process electron-positron pair creation process by high-energy photons in a periodically deformed single crystal with a complex base. The formula for the corresponding differential cross section is derived for an arbitrary deformation field. The case is considered in detail when the photon enters into the crystal at small angles with respect to a crystallographic axis. The results of the numerical calculations are presented for SiO2 and diamond single crystals and Moliere parameterization of the screened atomic potentials in the case of the deformation field generated by an acoustic wave of S-type.

  12. Elevated Temperature Compressive Properties of Zr-Modified Nial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    Small Zr additions are known to substantially affect the deformation behavior and strength of polycrystalline NiAl, yet little information is currently available regarding the high-temperature properties of such alloys. Utilizing prealloyed powder technology, a series of four NiAl alloys have been produced containing from 0.05 to 0.7 at. pct Zr. The creep behavior of these alloys was characterized in compression between 1000 and 1400 K at strain rates ranging from approx. O.1 to 10(exp -9)/ sec. All the Zr-modified alloys were significantly stronger than binary NiAl under lower temperature and faster strain-rate conditions; however, the single-phase materials (Zr less than or equal to 0.1 at. pct) and binary NiAl had similar strengths at high temperatures and slow strain rates. The two-phase NiAl-Ni, AlZr alloys containing 0.3 and 0.7 at. pct Zr had nearly identical strengths. While the two-phase alloys were stronger than the single-phase materials at all test conditions, the degree of microstructural damage in the two-phase alloys due to internal oxidation during testing appeared to increase with Zr level. Balancing the poor oxidation behavior with the consistent strength advantage of the two-phase alloys, it is concluded that optimum elevated-temperature properties could be obtained in Heusler-strengthened NiAl containing between 0.1 and 0.3 at. pct Zr.

  13. Deformation of diffusion-bonded bi-PST and directionally solidified crystals of TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Kishida, K.; Johnson, D.R.; Masuda, Y.; Inui, H.; Yamaguchi, M.; Shimada, Y.

    1997-12-31

    With a data base now available on the microstructural characteristics and the deformation, fracture and macroscopic flow behavior of polysynthetically twinned (PST) crystals of {gamma}/{alpha}{sub 2} TiAl-base alloys, an approach to achieve a good combination of strength, ductility and toughness in {gamma}/{alpha}{sub 2} TiAl-base alloys was proposed using directional solidification (DS) techniques to produce a columnar grain material with the lamellar orientation aligned parallel to the growth direction. Such alignment of the lamellar microstructure was recently accomplished in {gamma}/{alpha}{sub 2} TiAl-base alloys of near equiatomic compositions using an appropriately oriented seed crystal from the Ti-Al-Si system. At the same time, bi-PST crystals, each containing a planar boundary parallel to the loading axis were prepared by directional solidification and diffusion bonding of two PST crystals. Such bi-PST crystals were deformed in tension at room temperature and their deformation behavior was examined in terms of the compatibility requirements imposed at the grain boundary and the interaction of the two component PST crystals. In this paper, (i) the current status of the DS processing efforts, (ii) some result of microscopic characterization of grain boundaries in diffusion bonded bi-PST crystals and (iii) results of deformation experiments of bi-PST crystals prepared by DS processing and diffusion bonding, will be reported.

  14. The influence of thermal deformation processes on frequency conversion in an LBO crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arapov, Yu D.; Dyakov, V. A.; Grechin, S. G.; Kasyanov, I. V.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of the thermal deformation process on frequency conversion in an LBO crystal is considered. The different temperature bandwidths at the harmonic generation of YAG:Nd laser radiation were obtained experimentally three times at different types of crystal fixation.

  15. Time-dependent Elastic Deformation in Crystal: Insights from Metric Description and Berry Phase Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Niu, Qian

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that elastic deformation in crystal can be described in the language of a metric. However, how the metric couples to the one-electron Hamiltonian in a deformed crystal is not very clear. By coordinate transformation from a Cartesian frame to lattice frame where all coordinates of ions are fixed, the metric emerges naturally both in the kinetic energy and potential energy of an electron. Besides, the velocity field of ions is also manifested in the Hamiltonian, which resembles the role of a vector potential. When the deformation slowly varies both in space and time, the wave-packet method can be used to study the Berry phase effect of deformation. This method applies to finite-strain cases and is accurate up to the first order of strain gradient. Different deformation effects are discussed, such as piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and curving effect of a two-dimensional material

  16. Effects of deformation on band-edge luminescence of hexagonal boron nitride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kuroda, Takashi; Kanda, Hisao

    2006-10-01

    The authors observed a drastic change in exciton-related luminescence in deformed hexagonal boron nitride single crystals. High quality single crystals that showed a free exciton luminescence band at 215nm were used as a starting material. They were pinched between aluminum plates and pressed with the tips of the first two fingers. The pressed crystals dominantly showed band-edge luminescence at the 227 instead of the 215nm band. The authors attribute this 227nm band to bound exciton luminescence caused by the stacking disorder produced by the mechanical deformation.

  17. Friction, deformation and fracture of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted with hemispherical and conical diamond riders sliding on the basal plane of silicon carbide. The results indicate that, when deformation is primarily elastic, the friction does not depend on crystallographic orientation and there is no detectable fracture or cracking. When, however, plastic deformation occurs, silicon carbide exhibits anisotropic friction and deformation behavior. Surface fracture crack patterns surrounding wear tracks are observed to be of three types. The crack-geometries of two types are generally independent of orientation, the third crack, however, depends on the orientation. All surface cracks extend into subsurface. Anisotropic friction, deformation and fracture on the basal plane are primarily controlled by the slip system and cleavage.

  18. Crystal orientation dependence of band matching in all-B2-trilayer current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance pseudo spin-valves using Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) Heusler alloy and NiAl spacer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiamin; Hono, K.; Furubayashi, T.; Takahashi, Y. K.; Sasaki, T. T.

    2015-05-07

    We have experimentally investigated the crystal orientation dependence of band matching in current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) pseudo-spin-valves using Co{sub 2}Fe(Ge{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}) (CFGG) Heusler alloy ferromagnetic layer and NiAl spacer. The high quality epitaxial CFGG/NiAl/CFGG all-B2-trilayers structure devices were fabricated on both MgO(001) and sapphire (112{sup ¯}0) single crystal substrates to create (001) and (110) crystal orientations. Same magneto-transport properties were observed from these two differently orientated devices indicating that there is no or little orientation dependence of band matching on MR output. We also found that all-B2-trilayer structure was free of lattice matching influence depending on the crystal orientation, which made it a good candidate for CPP-GMR device.

  19. The role of crystal orientation and surface proximity in the self-similar behavior of deformed Cu single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Judy; Ice, Gene E; Liu, W.

    2010-01-01

    We report on novel 3D spatially resolved X-ray diffraction microscopy studies of self-affine behavior in deformed single crystals. This study extends surface profile measurements of self-affined morphology changes in single crystals during deformation to include local lattice rotations and sub-surface behavior. Investigations were made on the spatial correlation of the local lattice rotations in 8% tensile deformed Cu single crystals oriented with [1 2 3], [1 1 1] and [0 0 1] axes parallel to the tensile axis. The nondestructive depth-resolved measurements were made over a length scale of one to hundreds of micrometers. Self-affined correlation was found both at the surface and below the surface of the samples. A universal exponent for the power-law similar to that observed with surface profile methods is found at the surface of all samples but crystallographically sensitive changes are observed as a function of depth. Correlation lengths of the self-affine behavior vary with the [1 2 3] crystal exhibiting the longest self-affine length scale of 70 m with only 18 m for the [1 1 1] and [0 0 1] crystals. These measurements illuminate the transition from surface-like to bulk-like deformation behavior and provide new quantitative information to guide emerging models of self-organized structures in plasticity.

  20. Differing effects of water fugacity deformation of quartzites and milky quartz single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holyoke, C. W.; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies of quartzite deformation by dislocation creep have documented a strong dependence of mechanical properties on pressure, which has been interpreted as a relationship between strain rate and water fugacity (Kronenberg and Tullis, 1984; Kohlstedt et al., 1995; Chernak et al. 2009). However, natural milky quartz single crystals deformed by basal slip can be water-weakened over a wide range of pressure (and water fugacities), with strengths that appear to depend on total water content at a fixed water fugacity. The difference of behavior between these two is perplexing since infrared spectra collected from quartzites and milky quartz single crystals indicate that they have the same forms of intragranular water and microstructures indicate the same slip system is activated. The only difference between these materials is that quartzites include populations of grains of all orientations, separated by grain boundaries. In order to resolve this discrepancy we have performed deformation experiments on a natural quartzite (Black Hills quartzite) and natural milky quartz single crystals oriented for easy slip on the basal slip system at identical conditions (800°C, strain rate = 10-6/s) with no added water. During each experiment cores of each material, which have a fixed water content, were subjected to pressure stepping; an initial deformation step was performed at 1.5 GPa, then the sample was unloaded and one or more deformation steps were performed at lower pressures (as low as 0.6 GPa) prior to returning to 1.5 GPa for a final deformation step. The strength of quartzite increases dramatically at lower pressure and lower water fugacity, but strength decreases again returning to high pressure during the final deformation step. The strength of milky quartz single crystals increases as well, but by far less than observed for quartzites. The water fugacity exponents (m) of the quartzite and single crystals are 1.9 and 0.8, respectively, (assuming power

  1. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  2. Deformation, Stress Relaxation, and Crystallization of Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers Below the Glass Transition Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Brow, Richard K.; Kim, Cheol W.; Reis, Signo T.

    2004-01-01

    The deformation and crystallization of Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 2SiO2 and Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 1.6SiO2 glass fibers subjected to a bending stress were measured as a function of time over the temperature range -50 to -150 C below the glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass fibers can be permanently deformed at temperatures about 100 C below T (sub)g, and they crystallize significantly at temperatures close to, but below T,, about 150 C lower than the onset temperature for crystallization for these glasses in the no-stress condition. The crystallization was found to occur only on the surface of the glass fibers with no detectable difference in the extent of crystallization in tensile and compressive stress regions. The relaxation mechanism for fiber deformation can be best described by a stretched exponential (Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt (KWW) approximation), rather than a single exponential model.The activation energy for stress relaxation, Es, for the glass fibers ranges between 175 and 195 kJ/mol, which is considerably smaller than the activation energy for viscous flow, E, (about 400 kJ/mol) near T, for these glasses at normal, stress-free condition. It is suspected that a viscosity relaxation mechanism could be responsible for permanent deformation and crystallization of the glass fibers below T,

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of Microalloying on Cleavage of Monocrystalline NiAl Using a Miniaturized Disk-Bend Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardell, Alan J.

    1997-01-01

    It was originally proposed to investigate the effect of microalloying on the ductility of monocrystalline NiAl. The idea was to deposit selected elements on oriented crystals of NiAl using magnetron sputtering, followed by annealing at high temperatures to produce the doped specimens. The project was terminated before that stage of the research was reached, but useful results needed for that study were obtained during the lifetime of the program. Those results are described in this report.

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Microalloying on Cleavage of Monocrystalline NiAl using a Miniaturized Disk-Bend Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardell, Alan J.

    1997-01-01

    It was originally proposed to investigate the effect of microalloying on the ductility of monocrystalline NiAl. The idea was to deposit selected elements on oriented crystals of NiAl using magnetron sputtering, followed by annealing at high temperatures to produce the doped specimens. The project was terminated before that stage of the research was reached, but useful results needed for that study were obtained during the lifetime of the program. Those results are described in this resort.

  5. Strengthening of NiAl matirix composites (Annual report October 1, 1994-November 30, 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenault, R.J.

    1995-11-30

    A detailed mechanism has been developed which will predict the formation of vacancy-producing jogged-screw dislocations. The motion of these screw dislocations is the thermally-activated rate-controlling mechanism for both the matrix and the NiAl matrix composites. With the exception of very small subgrain or grain sizes and Al2O3 particle size (0.5 micrometer), the internal stress is independent of stress and temperature. The increase in the internal stress caused by the reinforcement is the strengthening mechanism. The apparent unusual result of an increase in dislocation density due to relaxation of the thermal residual stress as the particle size increases in Al2O3/NiAl composites has been explained by a new model. This model, which employs FEM and crystal plasticity, is based on the low symmetry of the NiAl B2 crystal structure which results in a paucity of independent slip systems.

  6. The microstructure and properties of rapidly solidified, dispersion-strengthened NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jha, S. C.; Ray, R.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced rapid solidification technology for processing reactive and refractory alloys, utilized to produce large quantities of melt-spun filaments of NiAl, is presented. The melt-spun filaments are pulverized to fine particle sizes, and subsequently consolidated by hot extrusion or hot isostatic pressing. Rapid solidification process gives rise to very fine-grained microstructures. However, exposure to elevated temperature during hot consolidation leads to grain growth. Alloying agents such as borides, carbides, and tungsten can pin the grain boundaries and retard the grain growth. Various alloy compositions are investigated. The eventual goal is to utilize the hot-extruded and forged stock to grow single-crystal NiAl blades for advanced gas-turbine engine applications. Single-crystal NiAl, containing a uniform dispersion of carbide strengthening precipitates, is expected to lead to highly creep-resistant turbine blades, and is of considerable interest to the aerospace propulsion industry.

  7. A deformable Gay Berne model for the simulation of liquid crystals and soft materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccioli, Luca; Zannoni, Claudio

    2006-05-01

    We present a deformable Gay-Berne (DGB) pair potential for ellipsoidal particles that allows for dynamic fluctuations in their shape and interaction anisotropy. We investigate the effect that various intrinsic distributions of shape and interaction parameters have on the liquid crystal phases formed by a system of DGB particles. We show that deformability can stabilise smectic formation and that all mesomorphic phase transitions are accompanied by a change of molecular shape.

  8. Oxidation of ion-implanted NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Verink, E.D. Jr.; Withrow, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    The oxidation of NiAl is complicated by the formation of transient alumina phases which result in convoluted scales which are prone to spallation. We have investigated high-dose implantation of oxygen as a technique for forming a protective oxide layer on the surface of NiAl and thereby bypassing the conditions that lead to transient oxide formation. Single crystal specimens of high purity NiAl were implanted with 1 {times} 10{sup 18} {sup 18}O ions/cm{sup 2} at 160 keV. Implanted specimens were annealed for times ranging from 5 to 60 minutes in a reducing atmosphere. Oxidation experiments were conducted for periods ranging from 1 hour to 42 hours under both cyclic and isothermal conditions. Specimens in the as-implanted, annealed, and oxidized conditions were examined using Auger electron microscopy. Oxygen implantation followed by annealing was found to form an epitaxial oxide layer. This layer is stable for the duration of the oxidation experiments conducted in this study, and was found to result in reduced oxidation and improved resistance to scale spallation.

  9. Wave modes in shear-deformed two-dimensional plasma crystals.

    PubMed

    Ivlev, A V; Röcker, T B; Couëdel, L; Nosenko, V; Du, C-R

    2015-06-01

    A theory of wave modes in shear-deformed two-dimensional plasma crystals is presented. Modification of the dispersion relations upon the pure and simple shear, and the resulting effect on the onset of the mode-coupling instability, are studied. In particular, it is explained why the velocity fluctuation spectra measured in experiments with sheared crystals exhibit asymmetric "hot spots": It is shown that the coupling of the in-plane compressional and the out-of-plane modes, leading to the formation of an unstable hybrid mode and generation of the hot spots, is enhanced in a certain direction determined by deformation. PMID:26172809

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of the B2 compound NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.; Nathal, M. V.

    1993-01-01

    Considerable work has been performed on NiAl over the last three decades, with an extremely rapid growth in research on this intermetallic occurring in the last few years due to recent interest in this material for electronic and high temperature structural applications. However, many physical properties and the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms over certain temperature regimes are still in question. Part of this problem lies in the incomplete characterization of many of the alloys previously investigated. Fragmentary data on processing conditions, chemistry, microstructure and the apparent difficulty in accurately measuring composition has made direct comparison between individual studies sometimes tenuous. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize all available mechanical and pertinent physical properties on NiAl, stressing the most recent investigations, in an attempt to understand the behavior of NiAl and its alloys over a broad temperature range.

  11. Simulation to the Cyclic Deformation of Polycrystalline Aluminum Alloy Using Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Juan; Kang, Guozheng; Shi, Mingxing

    2013-01-01

    A crystal plasticity based finite element model (i.e., FE model) is used in this paper to simulate the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline aluminum alloy plates. The Armstrong-Frederick nonlinear kinematic hardening rule is employed in the single crystal constitutive model to capture the Bauschinger effect and ratcheting of aluminum single crystal presented under the cyclic loading conditions. A simple model of latent hardening is used to consider the interaction of dislocations between different slipping systems. The proposed single crystal constitutive model is implemented numerically into a FE code, i.e., ABAQUS. Then, the proposed model is verified by comparing the simulated results of cyclic deformation with the corresponding experimental ones of a face-centered cubic polycrystalline metal, i.e., rolled 5083 aluminum alloy. In the meantime, it is shown that the model is capable of predicting local heterogeneous deformation in single crystal scale, which plays an important role in the macroscopic deformation of polycrystalline aggregates. Under the cyclic loading conditions, the effect of applied strain amplitude on the responded stress amplitude and the dependence of ratcheting strain on the applied stress level are reproduced reasonably.

  12. On the elastic–plastic decomposition of crystal deformation at the atomic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Stukowski, Alexander; Arsenlis, A.

    2012-03-02

    Given two snapshots of an atomistic system, taken at different stages of the deformation process, one can compute the incremental deformation gradient field, F, as defined by continuum mechanics theory, from the displacements of atoms. However, such a kinematic analysis of the total deformation does not reveal the respective contributions of elastic and plastic deformation. We develop a practical technique to perform the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation field, F = FeFp, into elastic and plastic parts for the case of crystalline materials. The described computational analysis method can be used to quantify plastic deformation in a material due to crystal slip-based mechanisms in molecular dynamics and molecular statics simulations. The knowledge of the plastic deformation field, Fp, and its variation with time can provide insight into the number, motion and localization of relevant crystal defects such as dislocations. As a result, the computed elastic field, Fe, provides information about inhomogeneous lattice strains and lattice rotations induced by the presence of defects.

  13. On the elastic–plastic decomposition of crystal deformation at the atomic scale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stukowski, Alexander; Arsenlis, A.

    2012-03-02

    Given two snapshots of an atomistic system, taken at different stages of the deformation process, one can compute the incremental deformation gradient field, F, as defined by continuum mechanics theory, from the displacements of atoms. However, such a kinematic analysis of the total deformation does not reveal the respective contributions of elastic and plastic deformation. We develop a practical technique to perform the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation field, F = FeFp, into elastic and plastic parts for the case of crystalline materials. The described computational analysis method can be used to quantify plastic deformation in a material due tomore » crystal slip-based mechanisms in molecular dynamics and molecular statics simulations. The knowledge of the plastic deformation field, Fp, and its variation with time can provide insight into the number, motion and localization of relevant crystal defects such as dislocations. As a result, the computed elastic field, Fe, provides information about inhomogeneous lattice strains and lattice rotations induced by the presence of defects.« less

  14. Viscoplastic Deformation of Crystal-like Dusty Plasma Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fortov, V. E.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Goranskaya, D. N.; Ivanov, A. S.; Petrov, O. F.; Timirkhanov, R. A.

    2008-09-07

    The experimental investigation of a dusty plasma liquid without shearing forces is presented. The boundary value of coupling parameter was determinated, at which clusters began to form. The possible explanation of non-Newtonian behavior of dusty plasma liquid was suggested. The second part of the present work is devoted to the experimental study of viscoplastic flow in the dusty plasma crystal. It was for the first time the viscoplastic flow of dusty plasma crystal was obtained. The threshold type of this viscoplastic flow was demonstrated.

  15. Crystal-plastic deformation and recrystallization of peridotite controlled by the seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysiak, Agnes K.; Trepmann, Claudia A.

    2012-03-01

    Deformed peridotites from the Balmuccia complex, Northern Italy, have been investigated by light and electron microscopy (SEM/EBSD, TEM). The peridotites show a heterogeneous and partly recrystallized microfabric associated with cataclastic shear zones. Intracrystalline deformation microstructures (undulatory extinction, crinkly deformation lamellae, deformation bands, kink bands) and recrystallized grains along intragranular zones in large original grains record a sequence with an initial stage of inhomogeneous glide-controlled deformation in the low-temperature plasticity regime associated with brittle deformation and a subsequent stage of recovery and recrystallization. The microstructural evidence of deformation of olivine in the low-temperature field indicates high stresses on the order of several hundred MPa and accordingly high strain rates. Subsequent recovery and recrystallization requires decreasing stresses and strain rates, as there is no evidence for a complex thermal history with increasing temperatures. A locally occurring foam structure in aggregates of recrystallized olivine indicates grain growth at very low differential stresses at a late stage. Such a stress history with transiently high and then decaying stresses is characteristic for coseismic deformation and postseismic creep just below the base of the seismogenic zone. The associated occurrence of pseudotachylytes and microstructures generated by crystal-plastic mechanisms is explained by semi-brittle behavior at transient high stresses and strain rates during coseismic loading at depths, where during postseismic relaxation and in interseismic periods the rocks are behaving by crystal-plastic flow. The consideration of high-stress deformation and subsequent recrystallization processes at decaying stresses in peridotites is especially relevant for earthquake-driven deformation in the mantle.

  16. Nial and Nial-Based Composites Directionally Solidified by a Containerless Zone Process. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Steven M.

    1995-01-01

    A containerless electromagnetically levitated zone (CELZ) process has been used to directionally solidify NiAl and NiAl-based composites. The CELZ processing results in single crystal NiAl (HP-NiAl) having higher purity than commercially pure NiAl grown by a modified Bridgman process (CP-NiAl). The mechanical properties, specifically fracture toughness and creep strength, of the HP-NiAl are superior to binary CP-NiAl and are used as a base-line for comparison with the composite materials subsequently studied. Two-phase composite materials (NiAl-based eutectic alloys) show improvement in room temperature fracture toughness and 1200 to 1400 K creep strength over that of binary HP-NiAl. Metallic phase reinforcements produce the greatest improvement in fracture toughness, while intermetallic reinforcement produces the largest improvement in high temperature strength. Three-phase eutectic alloys and composite materials were identified and directionally solidified with the intent to combine the improvements observed in the two-phase alloys into one alloy. The room temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength (in air) serve as the basis for comparison between all of the alloys. Finally, the composite materials are discussed in terms of dominant fracture mechanism observed by fractography.

  17. Modeling Cyclic Deformation of HSLA Steels Using Crystal Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Xie, Chunlei

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-time scale modeling technique for analyzing cyclic plastic deformation in crystalline solids subject to periodic loading. An asymptotic expansion of the variables in the time domain, together with homogenization forms the basis of multi-time scaling. In the macroscopic scale analysis, the oscillatory behavior of the load is averaged out and neglected, and the rate of averaged material behavior is quite slow in cyclic deformation. Implicitly, this means that the periodicity of some variables may be assumed for the oscillatory potion of the material behavior may be approximated. In this formulation, the governing equations are divided into two initial-boundary value problems with two different time scale: one is long time scale problem for describing the smooth averaged solution (global problem) and the other is for the remaining oscillatory potion (local problem). For the global problem, long time increments, which are longer than one cycle period, can be used and this multi-time scaling becomes an effective integrator.

  18. Analysis of plastic deformation in silicon web crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitznagel, J. A.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Lien, S. Y.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical calculation of 111-plane 110-line slip activity in silicon web crystals generated by thermal stresses is in good agreement with etch pit patterns and X-ray topographic data. The data suggest that stress redistribution effects are small and that a model, similar to that proposed by Penning (1958) and Jordan (1981) but modified to account for dislocation annihilation and egress, can be used to describe plastic flow effects during silicon web growth.

  19. Deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic single crystals: Experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Z. Y.; Huang, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Small-sized crystals generally show deformation behaviour distinct from their bulk counterparts. In addition to dislocation slip, deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic (FCC) single crystals has been reported to follow a different mechanism which involves coherent emission of partial dislocations on successive { 111 } planes from free surface. The present work employed a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with a low stacking fault energy to systematically investigate the twin evolution in small-sized FCC single crystals. Micrometre-sized single crystal pillars of TWIP steel were fabricated by focus ion beam and then strained to different levels by compression experiments. Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization was carried out to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the deformation twins, which contribute to most of the plastic strain. Emissions of partial dislocations from free surface (surface sources) and pre-existing perfect dislocations inside the pillar (inner sources) are found as the essential processes for the formation of deformation twins. Accordingly, a physically-based model, which integrates source introduction methods and source activation criterions for partial dislocation emission, is developed to quantitatively predict the twin evolution. The model is able to reproduce the experimental twin evolution, in terms of the total twin formation, the twin morphology and the occurrence of twinning burst.

  20. Crystallographically controlled crystal-plastic deformation of zircon in shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Plastically-deformed zircons from various types of strained natural metamorphic rocks have been investigated in-situ by electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD), allowing crystallographic orientation mapping at high spatial resolution. Plastic deformation often forms under the control of grain-internal heterogeneities. At the crystal structure scale deformation is controlled by the physical anisotropy of the lattice. Three most common slip systems in zircon are [100]{010}, [010]{001} and [001]{010} (Leroux et. al., 1999; Reddy et. al., 2007). They are genetically connected with the main zircon crystallographic directions: [001] (c-axis), [100] and [010] (a and b axes). Atomic models show weak planes normal to these directions that preferably evolve to glide planes in the deforming crystal. The visualization of seismic (elastic) properties of zircon with the MATLAB toolbox MTEX shows a similar pattern. The slowest S-wave velocities are observed in directions parallel to [100], [010] and [001] crystallographic directions. The highest Young's modulus values lie in the same directions. In natural zircon grains, the common slip systems are preferably activated when zircon is hosted by rheologically comparatively weaker phases or a fine-grained matrix. In these cases zircon behaves as a rigid clast. During progressive deformation high deviatoric stresses together with high strain rates concentrate at crystal tips, as shown by numerical modeling. Softer host phases allow more degrees of freedom for zircon to be deformed according to its crystallographic and internal properties. These conclusions are supported by the misorientation axes density distribution maps, derived with MTEX. Deformed zircon hosted by a relatively soft phase (mostly biotite) develops a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), which has not been documented for zircon before. At the same time deformation of zircon hosted by a rheologically stronger matrix causes the activation of less

  1. The potential for ductility enhancement from surface and interface dislocation sources in NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.; Kim, J. T.; Larsen, M.; Gibala, R.

    1990-01-01

    Limited ductility and toughness of NiAl and related aluminides near room temperature pose major problems in their potential application as structural materials. An analysis of these problems is presented as part of a review of the flow and fracture behavior of binary NiAl. Following this discussion is a demonstration that conditions of elastic and plastic constraint associated with phase boundaries afforded by surface films, internal lamellae, or precipitates may introduce sufficient densities of mobile dislocations to enhance the ductility of NiAl-based materials by significant amounts. Examples of this behavior are presented for several model materials, including 001- and 123-oriented single crystals of oxide-coated NiAl, directionally solidified beta-gamma-prime (Ni70Al30) and beta-gamma (Ni50Fe30Al20) in situ composites, and several NiAl/precipitate systems. The nature of the resulting dislocation substructures and the effects of several materials variables are described.

  2. Influence of crystal orientation on hardness and nanoindentation deformation in ion-irradiated stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Terumitsu; Fujii, Katsuhiko; Fukuya, Koji; Takashima, Keisuke

    2011-10-01

    The influence of crystal orientation on hardness and the range of plastic deformation caused by nanoindentation was investigated in a solution annealed type 316 stainless steel irradiated with Fe 2+ ions. The hardness was a function of grain orientation and was correlated with the Taylor factor averaged over three normal directions of the contact surface of the Berkovich indenter. The transmission electron microscope observations of the deformation microstructure under the indentations showed that the range of plastic deformation reached up to 10 times the indent depth for unirradiated material and depended on the orientation relation between the contact surface of the indenter and the slip directions. The range of plastic deformation decreased as the damage structure developed in ion irradiation.

  3. Effect of surface alignment layer and polymer network on the Helfrich deformation in cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, H.; Yang, D.-K.; Cheng, K.-L.; Liang, C.-C.; Shiu, J.-W.; Tsai, C.-C.; Zola, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    We show that the Helfrich deformation can be used for fast response time, low driving voltage reflective displays by using cholesteric liquid crystals under short voltage pulses (˜10 ms). Rather than turning planar domains into focal conic domains through a nucleation process, as used in bistable modes, the fast voltage pulse only deforms the cholesteric planar layers to form wrinkled layers. Since the deformed state is formed through a homogeneous process, quick response times and low operating voltage can be achieved. We studied the effects of alignment layer and dispersed polymer on the stability of the Helfrich deformed cholesteric layers, and found that homogeneous alignment layer and polymer network can inhibit the nucleation process responsible for breaking the layers.

  4. The Influence of Grain Size and Crystal Content on Rheology and Deformation of Pyroclastic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquereau-Lebti, P.; Robert, G.; Grunder, A. L.; Russell, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    Pyroclastic deposits undergo variable degrees of sintering, viscous deformation of particles and loss of pore space, which combine to produce the dramatic textural variations that define welded facies. We here investigate the effects of grain size and crystal content on the rheology and welding of pyroclastic material.Uniaxial deformation experiments were conducted using sintered cores of natural rhyolite ash under conditions consistent with welding. Experiments were done in the University of British Columbia Volcanology Deformation Rig (VDR). This apparatus is designed to run experiments relevant to volcanology, by supporting low-load, high temperature, deformation experiments (Quane et al., 2004). We ran experiments at constant displacement rate (2.5.10-6 m.s-1), under ambient water pressure ("Dry"), at temperatures of 850 and 900°C and to maximal strain of 50%. Grain-size effect was investigated using sintered cores from three different sieving fractions of Rattlesnake Tuff (RST, Eastern Oregon, USA) ash: fine ash (grain size < 0.6 mm), coarse ash (0.6 to 2mm) and row unsieved ash. The effect of crystal content was explored using cores of sintered unsieved RST ash, variably enriched in crystals of feldspars and quartz.Unsieved and fine ash cores suffered higher total porosity reduction than coarse ash cores during deformation experiments. For cores of unsieved ash, porosity loss is facilitated by mechanical compaction, which includes orientation and organisation of different size clasts to a compact assemblage, without any deformation of individual particles. Isolated porosity decreases faster than connected porosity in coarse and fine ash cores, whereas cores of raw ash mainly loose connected porosity. This is also consistent with mechanical compaction for cores of unsieved ash, in which isolated porosity of weakly deformed individual pumice clasts or glass shards is maintained. Increasing strain causes a reduction in porosity and correlates with increase in

  5. The hierarchical characterization of deformation heterogeneities in compressed metal single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magid, Karen Ruth

    Plastic deformation is an inherently heterogeneous process whose understanding is still incomplete after more than 50 years of study. The traditional methods of analysis look at both bulk material deformation and properties and the microscale features which comprise the inherent deformation processes. A large amount of information occurring on the mesoscale, from 1 to 100 microns, has not been analyzed. Here we present the results from an x-ray diffraction technique with submicron spatial resolution used to analyze compressed metal single crystals. The mesoscopic structure of the inhomogeneous macroscopic deformation pattern was explored with selected area diffraction, using a focused synchrotron radiation polychromatic beam with a resolution of 1-3 mum. Single crystals of copper, molybdenum, and zinc were oriented for single slip tested to ˜2-14% strain in nearly uniaxial compression, using a specifically designed 6 degree of freedom compressive test device. The macroscopic strain field was monitored during the test by optical image correlation methods that mapped the strain field with a spatial resolution of about 100 mum. The copper and molybdenum crystals deformed unexpectedly, exhibiting significant amounts of secondary slip activity alongside the primary slip. Areas of interest from adjacent faces were identified from the image correlation and mapped for their orientation, excess defect density, and shear stress. The mesoscopic defect structure in the copper specimens consisted of broad, somewhat irregular primary bands that lay nominally parallel to (111), in an almost periodic distribution with a period of about 30 mum. These primary bands were dominant even in the region of conjugate strain. There were also broad conjugate defect bands, almost precisely perpendicular to the primary bands that tended to bridge primary bands and terminate at them. In addition, a tantalum bicrystal, previously compressed and characterized using electron back

  6. Effect of crystallographic orientation on plastic deformation of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrooke, Eboni F.

    Nickel-base superalloys, with gamma/gamma' microstructure, are the primary material used in turbines for aerospace applications. The blades in the hottest region of the turbine engine are made of single crystal Ni-base superalloys. It has been shown that the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of these materials is orientation dependent (also known as non-Schmid effect). The purpose of this research was to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of single crystal Ni-base superalloys as a function of crystallographic orientation in order to understand the factors that contribute to the non-Schmid effect. The superalloys in this study possessed alloying elements in amounts which defined them as 1st and 2nd generation superalloys. Tensile samples of various orientations were loaded to different strain levels. The mechanisms of plastic deformation were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of deformation bands as well as the dislocation structures using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was confirmed that the CRSS of the single crystals did not follow Schmid's law and the near <111> specimens showed the lowest values. The degree of non-Schmid behavior in the <111> specimens was diminished by HIP'ing, which resulted in closure of solidification pores. Furthermore, it was shown that the CRSS for the <100> loaded samples was smallest when loaded along the secondary dendrite arms. The slip analysis by optical microscopy showed that the deformation bands did not follow the expected {111} slip planes for all samples. Studies in SEM proved that those slip bands that followed the {111} planes were associated with extensive shearing of gamma' particles. In addition, it was found that the presence of tri-axial stress states within the macrostructure influenced the deformation path significantly. The TEM observations of deformed specimens revealed that plastic deformation took place mainly in the gamma channels in specimens

  7. Research on compensation of suction deformation error of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal.

    PubMed

    Tie, Guipeng; Dai, Yifan; Guan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Dengchao; Song, Bing

    2013-01-10

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals used in high power laser systems require high figure accuracy. Deformation caused by vacuum suction is one of the most significant factors affecting the final surface figure accuracy. It is difficult to compensate the error caused by the suction deformation when using a single point diamond flycutting method. This paper presents a spiral turning method to machine KDP crystals on a common ultraprecision lathe, and the transfer rule and compensation theory of the suction deformation error are studied. The in situ measurement of deformation error is accomplished with a displacement test apparatus, which can acquire submicron precision, and then compensates for it by utilizing the three-axis servo control technology. Meanwhile, cutting parameters are strictly controlled to achieve full-aperture ductile material removal. The compensation experiments for both reflected and transmitted wavefront error are carried out on a Φ270 mm KDP crystal and the transmission wavefront error of 0.591λ (peak-to-valley, λ = 632.8 nm) and 25 nm/cm (gradient root-mean-square) are obtained after one compensation with full-aperture surface roughness of about 2 nm RMS. PMID:23314625

  8. The effect of Zr on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of NiAl at 1000 K

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, B.A.; Noebe, R.D.; Rao, K.B.S.

    1998-04-01

    The effect of a 0.1 at.% alloying addition of Zr on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl was determined at 1,000 K and compared to that of binary NiAl. Samples of binary NiAl and the Zr-doped alloy were processed by either HIP consolidation or extrusion of prealloyed intermetallic powders. The cyclic stress response, cyclic stress-strain behavior, and strain-life relationships were all significantly influenced by the microalloying addition of Zr, regardless of the processing technique. A detailed examination of the post-tested low-cycle fatigue (LCF) samples was conducted by optical and electron microscopy to determine variations in fracture and deformation modes and to characterize any microstructural changes that occurred during LCF testing. Differences in LCF behavior due to the Zr addition are attributed to the strong effect that Zr has on modifying the deformation behavior of the intermetallic.

  9. The effect of Zr on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of NiAl at 1000 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, B. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Rao, K. B. S.

    1998-04-01

    The effect of a 0.1 at. % alloying addition of Zr on the low-cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl was determined at 1000 K and compared to that of binary NiAl. Samples of binary NiAl and the Zr-doped alloy were processed by either HIP consolidation or extrusion of prealloyed intermetallic powders. The cyclic stress response, cyclic stress-strain behavior, and strain-life relationships were all significantly influenced by the microalloying addition of Zr, regardless of the processing technique. A detailed examination of the post-tested low-cycle fatigue (LCF) samples was conducted by optical and electron microscopy to determine variations in fracture and deformation modes and to characterize any microstructural changes that occurred during LCF testing. Differences in LCF behavior due to the Zr addition are attributed to the strong effect that Zr has on modifying the deformation behavior of the intermetallic.

  10. Crystal plasticity based finite element modelling of large strain deformation in AM30 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadbakhsh, Adel; Inal, Kaan; Mishra, Raja K.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the finite strain plastic deformation of AM30 magnesium alloy has been simulated using the crystal plasticity finite element method. The simulations have been carried out using a rate-dependent elastic-viscoplastic crystal plasticity constitutive model implemented in a user defined material subroutine (UMAT) in the commercial software LS-DYNA. The plastic deformation mechanisms accounted for in the model are the slip systems in the matrix (parent grain), extension twinning systems and the slip systems inside the extension twinned regions. The parameters of the constitutive model have been calibrated using the experimental data. The calibrated model has then been used to predict the deformation of AM30 magnesium alloy in bending and simple shear. For the bending strain path, the effects of texture on the strain accommodated by the deformation mechanisms and bending moment have been investigated. For simple shear, the effects of texture on the relative activity of deformation mechanisms, shear stress and texture evolution have been investigated. Also, the effect of twinning on shear stress and texture evolution has been studied. The numerical analyses predicted a more uniform strain distribution during bending and simple shear for rolled texture compared with extruded texture.

  11. Integrated experimental and computational studies of deformation of single crystal copper at high strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, S.; Chandra, S.; Chavan, V. M.; Sharma, S.; Warrier, M.; Chaturvedi, S.; Patel, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-static (0.0033 s-1) and dynamic (103 s-1) compression experiments were performed on single crystal copper along ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ directions and best-fit parameters for the Johnson-Cook (JC) material model, which is an important input to hydrodynamic simulations for shock induced fracture, have been obtained. The deformation of single crystal copper along the ⟨110⟩ direction showed high yield strength, more strain hardening, and less strain rate sensitivity as compared to the ⟨100⟩ direction. Although the JC model at the macro-scale is easy to apply and describes a general response of material deformation, it lacks physical mechanisms that describe the influence of texture and initial orientation on the material response. Hence, a crystal plasticity model based on the theory of thermally activated motion of dislocations was used at the meso-scale, in which the evolution equations permit one to study and quantify the influence of initial orientation on the material response. Hardening parameters of the crystal plasticity model show less strain rate sensitivity along the ⟨110⟩ orientation as compared to the ⟨100⟩ orientation, as also shown by the JC model. Since the deformation process is inherently multiscale in nature, the shape changes observed in the experiments due to loading along ⟨100⟩ and ⟨110⟩ directions are also validated by molecular dynamics simulations at the nano-scale.

  12. Mechanisms of Photo-Induced Deformations of Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Nathan; Kuzyk, Mark; Neal, Jeremy; Luchette, Paul; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Over a century ago, Alexander Graham Bell invented the photophone, which he used to transmit mechanical information on a beam of light. We report on the use of an active Fabry-Perot interferometer to encode and detect mechanical information using the photomechanical effect of a liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) that is placed at a critical point between the reflectors. These are the first steps in the creation of ultra smart materials which require a large photomechanical response. Thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical. Only limited studies of the mechanisms of the photomechanical effect, such as photo-isomerization, photo-reorientation and thermal effects have been studied in azo-dye-doped LCEs and in azo-dye-doped polymer fibers have been reported. The focus of our present work is to use the Fabry-Perot transducer geometry to study the underlying mechanisms and to determine the relevant material parameters that are used to develop theoretical models of the response. We use various intensity-modulated optical wave forms to determine the frequency response of the material, which are used to predict the material response.

  13. Photo-Induced Deformations of Liquid Crystal Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Nathan; Kuzyk, Mark; Neal, Jeremy; Luchette, Paul; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Over a century ago, Alexander Graham Bell transmitted mechanical information on a beam of light using the ``photophone.'' We report on the use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to encode and detect mechanical information of an illuminated liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) that is placed at a critical point between the reflectors. Furthermore, we show that cascading of macroscopic LCE-interferometer devices is possible. These are the first steps in the creation of ultra smart materials. Such applications require materials with a large photomechanical response. Thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical. Only limited studies of the mechanisms of photomechanical effects have been studied in azo-dye-doped LCEs. The focus of our present work is to use the Fabry-Perot transducer geometry to study the underlying mechanisms and to determine the relevant material parameters that are used to develop theoretical models of the response. We use various intensity-modulated optical wave forms to determine the frequency response of the material, which are used to predict the material response in the time domain.

  14. Investigation of the origin of hot spots in deformed crystals: Ammonium perchlorate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elban, W. L.; Sandusky, H. W.; Beard, B. C.; Glancy, B. C.

    1993-07-01

    A number of single crystals of ammonium perchlorate (AP) were shock loaded near the reaction threshold to investigate the effects of concentrated lattice defects (dislocations) and differing crystal orientations on chemical reactivity. Large, optical quality crystals of pure AP were immersed in mineral oil and shocked through either the (001) or 210 surfaces by a detonator. Prior to shock loading, some crystals had localized regions of increased lattice defects and strain created by placing diamond pyramid (Vickers) hardness impressions into their exterior cleavage surfaces. High-speed photographs showed preferential cracking and luminosity near some of the hardness impressions. The photographs also revealed the occurrence of the same slip deformation identified previously from hardness testing. The shocked crystals were recovered, sometimes intact, for microstructural characterization and chemical analyses. Crystal orientation relative to the shock propagation direction changed the dynamic response and threshold for decomposition of the crystal, indicating the influence of material microstructure. Along these freshly cleaved surfaces, the XPS results showed enhanced lattice disruption and perchlorate decomposition as a result of the hardness impressions. The greatest decomposition was not immediately adjacent to the impressions, but near the tips of cracks and along slip planes emanating from the impressions several millimeters, or more, into the crystal.

  15. Envelope function method for electrons in slowly-varying inhomogeneously deformed crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Qian, Xiaofeng; Li, Ju

    2014-11-12

    We develop a new envelope-function formalism to describe electrons in slowly-varying inhomogeneously strained semiconductor crystals. A coordinate transformation is used to map a deformed crystal back to a geometrically undeformed structure with deformed crystal potential. The single-particle Schrödinger equation is solved in the undeformed coordinates using envelope function expansion, wherein electronic wavefunctions are written in terms of strain-parametrized Bloch functions modulated by slowly varying envelope functions. Adopting a local approximation of the electronic structure, the unknown crystal potential in the Schrödinger equation can be replaced by the strain-parametrized Bloch functions and the associated strain-parametrized energy eigenvalues, which can be constructed from unit-cell level ab initio or semi-empirical calculations of homogeneously deformed crystals at a chosen crystal momentum. The Schrödinger equation is then transformed into a coupled differential equation for the envelope functions and solved as a generalized matrix eigenvector problem. As the envelope functions are slowly varying, a coarse spatial or Fourier grid can be used to represent the envelope functions, enabling the method to treat relatively large systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method using a one-dimensional model, where we show that the method can achieve high accuracy in the calculation of energy eigenstates with relatively low cost compared to direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. We further derive envelope function equations that allow the method to be used empirically, in which case certain parameters in the envelope function equations will be fitted to experimental data. PMID:25336522

  16. The effect of crystal-plastic deformation on Ti concentration in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachlas, W. O.; Hirth, G.; Whitney, D. L.; Teyssier, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Quartz is a dominant phase controlling crustal rheology and strain localization, and the sensitivity of its recrystallization mechanisms to variations in temperature, pressure, and fluid activity make evaluation of these parameters crucial to reconstructing the deformation history of quartz-bearing rocks in the lithosphere. The advent of Ti in quartz thermobarometry provides a technique with potentially powerful applications for understanding the conditions at which rocks deform plastically in the crust. However, it is unclear how ductile deformation, specifically dislocation creep, affects Ti substitution in quartz and whether the Ti concentration in quartz accurately records the conditions at which quartz recrystallized. This study addresses these questions through a series of high P-T rock deformation experiments on precisely synthesized Ti-doped quartz aggregates to investigate the influence of strain and dynamic recrystallization on the concentration of Ti in quartz. Laboratory rock deformation experiments provide an ideal opportunity to study Ti solubility in deformed quartz because they allow for recrystallization to occur in a controlled environment; deformation experiments are conducted under isothermal and isobaric conditions at constant strain rate for increasing intervals of time to isolate the effect of strain on Ti chemistry of quartz. This study employs a novel doping synthesis method to produce a quartz aggregate consisting of a large population of quartz crystals doped with a precise Ti concentration where each individual crystal has a uniform dopant distribution. Deformation of a homogeneous starting material enables simulation of a retrograde solubility path, in which a sample with an initially high, uniform concentration is modified during deformation at conditions where the solubility is substantially lower. This enables observations to be made of the mechanisms responsible for mobilizing Ti through diffusion and exsolution to adjust to the

  17. Elastic deformation of nanometer-sized metal crystals in graphitic shells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.; Rodriguez-Manzo, J. A.; Banhart, F.

    2006-12-25

    The elastic deformation of nanometer-sized metal crystals is achieved by encapsulating them in carbon nanotubes or carbon onions. Electron irradiation of these core-shell particles leads to high pressure in their center due to a shrinkage of the graphitic shells. Pressures in the range of 10-30 GPa are found by measuring the decrease in lattice spacings in the encapsulated metal crystals. Hence, it is quantitatively shown how closed graphitic shells can be applied as compression cells on the nanoscale.

  18. Infrared absorption band in deformed qtz crystals analyzed by combining different microstructural methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, Holger; Thust, Anja; Behrens, Harald; Heilbronner, Renee; Kilian, Ruediger

    2016-04-01

    Natural single crystals of quartz have been experimentally deformed in two orientations: (1) normal to one prism-plane, (2) In O+ orientation at temperatures of 900 and 1000°C, pressures of 1.0 and 1.5 GPa, and strain rates of ~1 x 10-6s-1. The starting material is milky quartz, consisting of dry quartz (H2O contents of <150 H/106Si) with fluid inclusions (FI). During pressurization many FÍs decrepitate. Cracks heal and small neonate FÍs form, increasing the number of FÍs drastically. During subsequent deformation, the size of FÍs is further reduced (down to ~10 nm). Sample deformation occurs by dominant dislocation glide on selected slip systems, accompanied by some dynamic recovery. Strongly deformed regions show FTIR spectra with a pointed broad absorption band in the ~3400 cm-1 region as a superposition of molecular H2O bands and three discrete absorption bands (at 3367, 3400, and 3434 cm-1). In addition, there is a discrete absorption band at 3585 cm-1, which only occurs in deformed regions. The 3585 cm-1 band is reduced or even disappears after annealing. This band is polarized and represents structurally bound H, its H-content is estimated to be 1-3% of the total H2O-content and appears to be associated with dislocations. The H2O weakening effect in our FI-bearing natural quartz crystals is assigned to the processes of dislocation generation and multiplication at small FÍs. The deformation processes in these crystals represent a recycling of H2O between FÍs, dislocation generation at very small fluid inclusions, incorporation of structurally bound H into dislocation cores, and release of H2O from dislocations back into FÍs during recovery. Cracking and crack healing play an important role in the recycling process and imply a close interrelationship between brittle and crystal plastic deformation. The H2O weakening by this process is of a disequilibrium nature and thus depends on the amount of H2O available.

  19. Mechanical annealing and source-limited deformation in submicrometre-diameter Ni crystals.

    PubMed

    Shan, Z W; Mishra, Raja K; Syed Asif, S A; Warren, Oden L; Minor, Andrew M

    2008-02-01

    The fundamental processes that govern plasticity and determine strength in crystalline materials at small length scales have been studied for over fifty years. Recent studies of single-crystal metallic pillars with diameters of a few tens of micrometres or less have clearly demonstrated that the strengths of these pillars increase as their diameters decrease, leading to attempts to augment existing ideas about pronounced size effects with new models and simulations. Through in situ nanocompression experiments inside a transmission electron microscope we can directly observe the deformation of these pillar structures and correlate the measured stress values with discrete plastic events. Our experiments show that submicrometre nickel crystals microfabricated into pillar structures contain a high density of initial defects after processing but can be made dislocation free by applying purely mechanical stress. This phenomenon, termed 'mechanical annealing', leads to clear evidence of source-limited deformation where atypical hardening occurs through the progressive activation and exhaustion of dislocation sources. PMID:18157134

  20. The effect of various metallurgical parameters on the flow and fracture behavior of polycrystalline NiAl near the brittle-to-ductile transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of various metallurgical parameters such as interfaces, allowing additions, test temperature, and strain rate on the flow and fracture behavior of polycrystalline NiAl is summarized. From this study, a more complete understanding of the deformation and fracture behavior of polycrystalline NiAl near the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature has been developed. A mechanism for the BDTT is proposed that is based on the operation of localized dislocation climb processes that operate within the vicinity of the grain boundaries and provide the additional deformation mechanisms necessary for grain-to-grain compatibility during plastic deformation. Finally, methods for improving the low temperature mechanical behavior of NiAl were considered and reviewed within the context of the present knowledge of NiAl-based materials and the operative deformation and fracture mechanisms determined in this study. Special emphasis was placed on the use of second phases for improving low temperature properties.

  1. Electron Emission as a Probe of Plastic Deformation in Single Crystal Metals

    SciTech Connect

    J. Thomas Dickinson

    2007-09-28

    Work under this grant focused on the use of photoelectron emission as a probe of deformation processes in metals, principally single crystal and polycrystalline aluminum. Dislocations intersecting the surface produce patches of low work function metal which emit electrons when illuminated with the appropriate ultraviolet radiation. We have shown that changes in the photoemission signals during deformation can be used to identify the onset of strain localization. In some systems, the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution reflects the distribution of surface orientations, which depends on the competition between grain rotation and slip. Photoemission electron microscope images of shape memory alloys and thin films show marked changes in intensity and surface topography as the materal passes through its transition temperature. Photoelectron emission provides important information on the temporal progress of deformation processes that complements the spatial information provided by other techniques.

  2. Yielding and deformation behavior of the single crystal nickel-base superalloy PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, W. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Interrupted tensile tests were conducted to fixed plastic strain levels in 100 ordered single crystals of the nickel based superalloy PWA 1480. Testing was done in the range of 20 to 1093 C, at strain rate of 0.5 and 50%/min. The yield strength was constant from 20 to 760 C, above which the strength dropped rapidly and became a stong function of strain rate. The high temperature data were represented very well by an Arrhenius type equation, which resulted in three distinct temperature regimes. The deformation substructures were grouped in the same three regimes, indicating that there was a fundamental relationship between the deformation mechanisms and activation energies. Models of the yielding process were considered, and it was found that no currently available model was fully applicable to this alloy. It was also demonstrated that the initial deformation mechanism (during yielding) was frequently different from that which would be inferred by examining specimens which were tested to failure.

  3. Yielding and deformation behavior of the single crystal superalloy PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    Interrupted tensile tests were conducted to fixed plastic strain levels in 100 ordered single crystals of the nickel based superalloy PWA 1480. Testing was done in the range of 20 to 1093 C, at strain rate of 0.5 and 50 percent/min. The yield strength was constant from 20 to 760 C, above which the strength dropped rapidly and became a strong function of strain rate. The high temperature data were represented very well by an Arrhenius type equation, which resulted in three distinct temperature regimes. The deformation substructures were grouped in the same three regimes, indicating that there was a fundamental relationship between the deformation mechanisms and activation energies. Models of the yielding process were considered, and it was found that no currently available model was fully applicable to this alloy. It was also demonstrated that the initial deformation mechanism (during yielding) was frequently different from that which would be inferred by examining specimens which were tested to failure.

  4. Characterization of dislocation structures and deformation mechanisms in as-grown and deformed directionally solidified NiAl–Mo composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, J.; Bowers, M. L.; Brandes, M. C.; McCreary, V.; Robertson, Ian M.; Phani, P. Sudaharshan; Bei, H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; Mills, M. J.

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, directionally solidified (DS) NiAl–Mo eutectic composites were strained to plastic strain values ranging from 0% to 12% to investigate the origin of the previously observed stochastic versus deterministic mechanical behaviors of Mo-alloy micropillars in terms of the development of dislocation structures at different pre-strain levels. The DS composites consist of long, [1 0 0] single-crystal Mo-alloy fibers with approximately square cross-sections embedded in a [1 0 0] single-crystal NiAl matrix. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and computational stress state analysis were conducted for the current study. STEM of the as-grown samples (without pre-straining) reveal no dislocations in the investigated Mo-alloy fibers. In the NiAl matrix, on the other hand, a(1 0 0)-type dislocations exist in two orthogonal orientations: along the [1 0 0] Mo fiber axis, and wrapped around the fiber axis. They presumably form to accommodate the different thermal contractions of the two phases during cool down after eutectic solidification. At intermediate pre-strain levels (4–8%), a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are present in the Mo-alloy fibers and the pre-existing dislocations in the NiAl matrix seem to be swept toward the interphase boundary. Some of the dislocations in the Mo-alloy fibers appear to be transformed from a(1 0 0)-type dislocations present in the NiAl matrix. Subsequently, the transformed dislocations in the fibers propagate through the NiAl matrix as a(1 1 1) dislocations and aid in initiating additional slip bands in adjacent fibers. Thereafter, co-deformation presumably occurs by (1 1 1) slip in both phases. With a further increase in the pre-strain level (>10%), multiple a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are observed in many locations in the Mo-alloy fibers. Interactions between these systems upon subsequent deformation could lead to stable junctions and persistent dislocation sources. Finally, the transition from stochastic to

  5. Characterization of dislocation structures and deformation mechanisms in as-grown and deformed directionally solidified NiAl–Mo composites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kwon, J.; Bowers, M. L.; Brandes, M. C.; McCreary, V.; Robertson, Ian M.; Phani, P. Sudaharshan; Bei, H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; et al

    2015-02-26

    In this paper, directionally solidified (DS) NiAl–Mo eutectic composites were strained to plastic strain values ranging from 0% to 12% to investigate the origin of the previously observed stochastic versus deterministic mechanical behaviors of Mo-alloy micropillars in terms of the development of dislocation structures at different pre-strain levels. The DS composites consist of long, [1 0 0] single-crystal Mo-alloy fibers with approximately square cross-sections embedded in a [1 0 0] single-crystal NiAl matrix. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and computational stress state analysis were conducted for the current study. STEM of the as-grown samples (without pre-straining) reveal no dislocations inmore » the investigated Mo-alloy fibers. In the NiAl matrix, on the other hand, a(1 0 0)-type dislocations exist in two orthogonal orientations: along the [1 0 0] Mo fiber axis, and wrapped around the fiber axis. They presumably form to accommodate the different thermal contractions of the two phases during cool down after eutectic solidification. At intermediate pre-strain levels (4–8%), a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are present in the Mo-alloy fibers and the pre-existing dislocations in the NiAl matrix seem to be swept toward the interphase boundary. Some of the dislocations in the Mo-alloy fibers appear to be transformed from a(1 0 0)-type dislocations present in the NiAl matrix. Subsequently, the transformed dislocations in the fibers propagate through the NiAl matrix as a(1 1 1) dislocations and aid in initiating additional slip bands in adjacent fibers. Thereafter, co-deformation presumably occurs by (1 1 1) slip in both phases. With a further increase in the pre-strain level (>10%), multiple a/2(1 1 1)-type dislocations are observed in many locations in the Mo-alloy fibers. Interactions between these systems upon subsequent deformation could lead to stable junctions and persistent dislocation sources. Finally, the transition from stochastic to

  6. The influence of acceleration forces on nucleation, solidification, and deformation processes in tin single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, M. H.; Baldwin, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus was designed and assembled to directionally solidify single crystals under the influence of acceleration forces of various magnitudes. The investigation conducted showed that acceleration gradients produce a preferred growth orientation effect not previously observed for tin. Convection currents at approximately 5-g encourage multiple nucleation and subsequent random orientation of growth direction. Deformation effects such as recrystallization and twinning are observed at acceleration levels greater than 2-g.

  7. Experimental Deformation of Olivine Single Crystals at Mantle Pressures and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Raterron, P.; Amiguet, E; Chen, J; Li, L; Cordier, P

    2008-01-01

    Deformation experiments were carried out in a deformation-DIA high-pressure apparatus (D-DIA) on oriented San Carlos olivine single crystals, at pressure (P) ranging from 3.5 to 8.5 GPa, temperature (T) from 1373 to 1673 K, and in poor water condition. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) was maintained within the olivine stability field and contact with enstatite powder ensured an orthopyroxene activity aopx = 1. Two compression directions were tested, promoting either [1 0 0] slip alone or [0 0 1] slip alone in (0 1 0) crystallographic plane, here called, respectively, a-slip and c-slip. Constant applied stress (s) and specimen strain rates ({bar {var_epsilon}}) were monitored in situ using time-resolved X-ray synchrotron diffraction and radiography, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of run products revealed that dislocation creep was responsible for sample deformation. Comparison of the obtained high-P deformation data with the data obtained at room-P by Bai et al. [Bai, Q., Mackwell, S.L., Kohlstedt D.L., 1991, High-temperature creep of olivine single crystals. 1. Mechanical results for buffered samples, Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, 2441-2463] - on identical materials deformed at comparable T-sefO2-aopx conditions - allowed quantifying the P effect on a-slip and c-slip rheological laws. A slip transition with increasing pressure, from dominant a-slip to dominant c-slip, is documented. a-slip appears sensitive to pressure, which translates into the high activation volume V*{sub a} = 12 {+-} 4 cm{sup 3}/mol in the corresponding rheological law, while pressure has little effect on c-slip with V*{sub c} = 3 {+-} 4 cm{sup 3}/mol. These results may explain the discrepancy between olivine low-P and high-P deformation data which has been debated in the literature for more than a decade.

  8. Microstructures and Crystallographic Misorientation in Experimentally Deformed Natural Quartz Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thust, Anja; Heilbronner, Renée.; Stünitz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    Samples of natural milky quartz were deformed in a Griggs deformation apparatus at different confining pressures (700 MPa, 1000 MPa, 1500 MPa), with constant displacement rates of 1 * 10-6s-1, axial strains of 3 - 19%, and at a temperature of 900° C. The single crystal starting material contains a large number of H2O-rich fluid inclusions. Directly adjacent to the fluid inclusions the crystal is essentially dry (50-150H/106Si, determined by FTIR). The samples were cored from a narrow zone of constant 'milkyness' (i.e. same density of fluid inclusions) in a large single crystal in two different orientations (1) normal to one of the prism planes (⊥{m} orientation) and (2) 45° to and to (O+ orientation).During attaining of the experimental P and T conditions, numerous fluid inclusions decrepitate by cracking. Rapid crack healing produces regions of very small fluid inclusions ('wet' quartz domains). Only these regions are subsequently deformed by dislocation glide, dry quartz domains without cracking and decrepitation of fluid inclusions remain undeformed. Sample strain is not sufficient to cause recrystallization, so that deformation is restricted to dislocation glide. In experiments at lower temperatures (800, 700° C) or at lower strain rate (10-5s-1) there is abundant cracking and semi-brittle deformation, indicating that 900° C, (10-6s-1) represents the lower temperature end of crystal plastic deformation in these single crystals. Peak strengths (at 900° C) range between 150 and 250 MPa for most samples of both orientations. There is a trend of decreasing strength with increasing confining pressure, as described by Kronenberg and Tullis (1984) for quartzites, but the large variation in strength due to inhomogeneous sample strain precludes a definite analysis of the strength/pressure dependence in our single crystals. In the deformed samples, we can distinguish a number of microstructures and inferred different slip systems. In both orientations, deformation

  9. Shock induced chemistry in granular Ni/Al nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukara, Mathew; Germann, Timothy; Kober, Edward; Strachan, Alejandro

    Intermolecular reactive composites find diverse applications in defense, microelectronics and medicine, where strong, localized sources of heat are required. However, fundamental questions of the initiation and propagation mechanisms on the nanoscale remain to be addressed, which is a roadblock to their widespread application. Motivated by experimental work which has shown that high-energy ball milling can significantly improve the reactivity as well as the ease of ignition of Ni/Al inter-metallic composites, we present large scale (~ 41 million atom) molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced chemistry in granular Ni/Al nano-composites, which are designed to capture the microstructure that is obtained post milling. Shock propagation in these granular composites is observed to be extremely diffuse at low piston velocities, leading to a large inhomogeneity in the local stress states of the material. At higher piston velocities, the shock front is more homogeneous as a consequence of a change in the compaction mechanism; from plastic deformation mediated pore collapse at low piston velocities, to fluid filling of the pores at higher impact velocities. The flow of molten ejecta into the pores subsequently leads to the formation of vortices, where the reaction progresses much faster than in the bulk.

  10. Cyclic deformation leads to defect healing and strengthening of small-volume metal crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhang-Jie; Li, Qing-Jie; Cui, Yi-Nan; Liu, Zhan-Li; Ma, Evan; Li, Ju; Sun, Jun; Zhuang, Zhuo; Dao, Ming; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Suresh, Subra

    2015-11-01

    When microscopic and macroscopic specimens of metals are subjected to cyclic loading, the creation, interaction, and accumulation of defects lead to damage, cracking, and failure. Here we demonstrate that when aluminum single crystals of submicrometer dimensions are subjected to low-amplitude cyclic deformation at room temperature, the density of preexisting dislocation lines and loops can be dramatically reduced with virtually no change of the overall sample geometry and essentially no permanent plastic strain. This "cyclic healing" of the metal crystal leads to significant strengthening through dramatic reductions in dislocation density, in distinct contrast to conventional cyclic strain hardening mechanisms arising from increases in dislocation density and interactions among defects in microcrystalline and macrocrystalline metals and alloys. Our real-time, in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of tensile tests reveal that pinned dislocation lines undergo shakedown during cyclic straining, with the extent of dislocation unpinning dependent on the amplitude, sequence, and number of strain cycles. Those unpinned mobile dislocations moving close enough to the free surface of the thin specimens as a result of such repeated straining are then further attracted to the surface by image forces that facilitate their egress from the crystal. These results point to a versatile pathway for controlled mechanical annealing and defect engineering in submicrometer-sized metal crystals, thereby obviating the need for thermal annealing or significant plastic deformation that could cause change in shape and/or dimensions of the specimen. PMID:26483463

  11. Cyclic deformation leads to defect healing and strengthening of small-volume metal crystals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhang-Jie; Li, Qing-Jie; Cui, Yi-Nan; Liu, Zhan-Li; Ma, Evan; Li, Ju; Sun, Jun; Zhuang, Zhuo; Dao, Ming; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Suresh, Subra

    2015-01-01

    When microscopic and macroscopic specimens of metals are subjected to cyclic loading, the creation, interaction, and accumulation of defects lead to damage, cracking, and failure. Here we demonstrate that when aluminum single crystals of submicrometer dimensions are subjected to low-amplitude cyclic deformation at room temperature, the density of preexisting dislocation lines and loops can be dramatically reduced with virtually no change of the overall sample geometry and essentially no permanent plastic strain. This “cyclic healing” of the metal crystal leads to significant strengthening through dramatic reductions in dislocation density, in distinct contrast to conventional cyclic strain hardening mechanisms arising from increases in dislocation density and interactions among defects in microcrystalline and macrocrystalline metals and alloys. Our real-time, in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of tensile tests reveal that pinned dislocation lines undergo shakedown during cyclic straining, with the extent of dislocation unpinning dependent on the amplitude, sequence, and number of strain cycles. Those unpinned mobile dislocations moving close enough to the free surface of the thin specimens as a result of such repeated straining are then further attracted to the surface by image forces that facilitate their egress from the crystal. These results point to a versatile pathway for controlled mechanical annealing and defect engineering in submicrometer-sized metal crystals, thereby obviating the need for thermal annealing or significant plastic deformation that could cause change in shape and/or dimensions of the specimen. PMID:26483463

  12. Effect of water on olivine single crystal plasticity, deformed under upper mantle condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J.; Chen, J.; Raterron, P. C.; Holyoke, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    The earth upper mantle, mainly composed of olivine, is seismically anisotropic. Seismic anisotropy attenuation has been observed at 200km depth. Karato et al. (1992) attributed this attenuation to a transition between two deformation mechanisms, from dislocation creep above 200km to diffusion creep bellow 200km. This transition occurs because of hydroxyl concentration. Mainprice et al.(2005) predicted a change in LPO induced by a change of slip system, from [100] slip to [001] slip, though theoritical modeling. According to his study, pressure is the parameter inducing the slip system transition, which is responsible for the seismic anisotropy attenuation. Raterron et al. (2007) performed single crystal deformation experiment under anhydrous conditions and observe that slip system transition occurring around 8 GPa. However this pressure would correspond to 300km depth which doesn't match the seismic anisotropy attenuation depth, observed by seismologist. In this study, experiments have been performed to quantify the effects of water on olivine single crystals deformed using Deformation DIA press and synchrotron beam. Deformation was carried out in uniaxial compression along the so-called [110]c and [011]c crystallographic direction in order to activate [100](010) and [001](010) dislocation slip system respectively, at P ranging from 4 to 8GPa and T=1200°C. Both single crystals were loaded in the cell to directly compare their deformation in same condition of stress temperature and pressure. We used a sleeve (talc = enstatite + coesite + H2O) about the annulus of the single crystals as source of water in the assembly. Stress and specimen strain rates were calculated by in-situ X-ray diffraction and time resolved imaging, respectively. By direct comparison of single crystals strain rates, we observed that [110]c deform faster than [011]c bellow 5GPa. However above 6GPa [011]c deform faster. This revealed that [100](010) is the dominant slip system bellow 5GPa, and

  13. Semantic modeling of the structural and process entities during plastic deformation of crystals and rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Davarpanah, Armita

    2016-04-01

    We are semantically modeling the structural and dynamic process components of the plastic deformation of minerals and rocks in the Plastic Deformation Ontology (PDO). Applying the Ontology of Physics in Biology, the PDO classifies the spatial entities that participate in the diverse processes of plastic deformation into the Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity and Nonphysical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity classes. The Material_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes things such as microstructures, lattice defects, atoms, liquid, and grain boundaries, and the Immaterial_Physical_Plastic_Deformation_Entity class includes vacancies in crystals and voids along mineral grain boundaries. The objects under the many subclasses of these classes (e.g., crystal, lattice defect, layering) have spatial parts that are related to each other through taxonomic (e.g., Line_Defect isA Lattice_Defect), structural (mereological, e.g., Twin_Plane partOf Twin), spatial-topological (e.g., Vacancy adjacentTo Atom, Fluid locatedAlong Grain_Boundary), and domain specific (e.g., displaces, Fluid crystallizes Dissolved_Ion, Void existsAlong Grain_Boundary) relationships. The dynamic aspect of the plastic deformation is modeled under the dynamical Process_Entity class that subsumes classes such as Recrystallization and Pressure_Solution that define the flow of energy amongst the physical entities. The values of the dynamical state properties of the physical entities (e.g., Chemical_Potential, Temperature, Particle_Velocity) change while they take part in the deformational processes such as Diffusion and Dislocation_Glide. The process entities have temporal parts (phases) that are related to each other through temporal relations such as precedes, isSubprocessOf, and overlaps. The properties of the physical entities, defined under the Physical_Property class, change as they participate in the plastic deformational processes. The properties are categorized into dynamical, constitutive

  14. The determination of progressive deformation histories from antitaxial syntectonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Michael A.

    Antitaxial, syntectonic crystal fibres are modelled here as 'mechanically-passive' features, the fibres representing displacement paths, forming within a homogeneously deforming material. Evidence that many fibres develop in this way is widespread: asymptotic curvature, thinning of fibres, and strained old fibres. A measuring technique is proposed by which the complete deformation history (excluding translation) may be determined. The method involves the iterative unstraining of two complete fibres whose development began and ended simultaneously. A source of error is introduced by assuming that each of the two fibres developed at constant proportional rates, although synthetic examples suggest this error to be minimal. It is suggested that the kinematics of non-passive fibres are unobtainable since the rheologies and boundary conditions of the material involved are relatively unknown, and cannot be determined from geometry alone. Analysis of natural fibres found within the Ordovician slates in New Jersey, U.S.A. indicates that volume losses of up to 50% may occur during the formation of some slates. General constraints concerning the geometrical analysis of syntectonic crystal fibres are briefly discussed, and it is concluded that deformation histories must be interpreted with some modicum of caution.

  15. Experimental characterization and crystal plasticity modeling of heterogeneous deformation in polycrystalline {alpha}-Ti.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Barabash, R. I.; Yang, Y.; Bieler, T. R.; Crimp, M. A.; Eisenlohr, P.; Liu, W.; Ice, G. E.

    2011-03-01

    Grain-level heterogeneous deformation was studied in a polycrystalline {alpha}-Ti specimen deformed by four-point bending. Dislocation slip activity in the microstructure was investigated by surface slip trace analysis. Three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) was used to investigate subsurface lattice rotations and to identify geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). The slip systems of local GNDs were analyzed by studying the streaking directions of reflections in corresponding Laue patterns. The analysis performed in one grain indicated that the subsurface GNDs were from the same slip system identified using slip trace analysis in backscattered electron images. A crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model was used to simulate deformation of the same microstructural region. The predictions of dislocation slip activity match the general aspects of the experimental observations, including the ability to simulate the activation of different slip systems in grains where multiple slip systems were activated. Prediction of local crystal rotations, however, was the least accurate aspect of the CPFE model.

  16. Experimental characterization and crystal plasticity modeling of heterogeneous deformation in polycrystalline -Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Leyun; Barabash, Rozaliya; Yang, Y; Bieler, Prof T R; Crimp, Prof M A; Eisenlohr, P; Liu, W.; Ice, Gene E

    2011-01-01

    Grain-level heterogeneous deformation was studied in a polycrystalline {alpha}-Ti specimen deformed by four-point bending. Dislocation slip activity in the microstructure was investigated by surface slip trace analysis. Three-dimensional-X-ray diffraction (3D-XRD) was used to investigate subsurface lattice rotations and to identify geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). The slip systems of local GNDs were analyzed by studying the streaking directions of reflections in corresponding Laue patterns. The analysis performed in one grain indicated that the subsurface GNDs were from the same slip system identified using slip trace analysis in backscattered electron images. A crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model was used to simulate deformation of the same microstructural region. The predictions of dislocation slip activity match the general aspects of the experimental observations, including the ability to simulate the activation of different slip systems in grains where multiple slip systems were activated. Prediction of local crystal rotations, however, was the least accurate aspect of the CPFE model.

  17. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; Sutter, Peter W.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2014-12-29

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling upmore » of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). As a result, by comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps, we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps.« less

  18. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; Sutter, Peter W.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling up of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). By comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps.

  19. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; Sutter, Peter W.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2014-12-29

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling up of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). As a result, by comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps, we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps.

  20. Oxidation-driven surface dynamics on NiAl(100)

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hailang; Chen, Xidong; Li, Liang; Sutter, Peter W.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Atomic steps, a defect common to all crystal surfaces, can play an important role in many physical and chemical processes. However, attempts to predict surface dynamics under nonequilibrium conditions are usually frustrated by poor knowledge of the atomic processes of surface motion arising from mass transport from/to surface steps. Using low-energy electron microscopy that spatially and temporally resolves oxide film growth during the oxidation of NiAl(100) we demonstrate that surface steps are impermeable to oxide film growth. The advancement of the oxide occurs exclusively on the same terrace and requires the coordinated migration of surface steps. The resulting piling up of surface steps ahead of the oxide growth front progressively impedes the oxide growth. This process is reversed during oxide decomposition. The migration of the substrate steps is found to be a surface-step version of the well-known Hele-Shaw problem, governed by detachment (attachment) of Al atoms at step edges induced by the oxide growth (decomposition). By comparing with the oxidation of NiAl(110) that exhibits unimpeded oxide film growth over substrate steps we suggest that whenever steps are the source of atoms used for oxide growth they limit the oxidation process; when atoms are supplied from the bulk, the oxidation rate is not limited by the motion of surface steps. PMID:25548155

  1. Containerless drop tube solidification and grain refinement of NiAl3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Curreri, P. A.; Kelly, M.; Workman, G.; Smith, A. M.; Bond, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of undercooling Ni-Al alloys below the liquidus in order to produce a single phase peritectic structure by containerless drop tube solidification was studied. Containerless process is a technique for both high purity contamination free studies as well as for investigating the undercooling and rapid solidification of alloys by suppression of heterogeneous nucleation on container walls. In order to achieve large undercoolings one must avoid heterogeneous nucleation of crystallization. It was shown that the Marshall Space Flight Center drop tubes ae unique facilities for containerless solidification experiments and large undercoolings are possible with some alloys. The original goal of undercooling the liquid metal well below the liquidus to the peritectic temperature during containerless free to form primarily NiAl3 was achieved. The microstructures were interesting from another point of view. The microstructure from small diameter samples is greatly refined. Small dendrite arm spacings such as these could greatly facilitate the annealing and solid state transformation of the alloy to nearly 10% NiAl3 by reducing the distance over which diffusion needs to occur. This could minimize annealing time and might make it economically feasible to produce NiAl3 alloy.

  2. Crystal preferred orientation of an amphibole experimentally deformed by simple shear.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byeongkwan; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-01-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been widely observed in crust and mantle materials and plays a key role in the understanding of structure and flow patterns. Although seismic anisotropy can be explained by the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) of highly anisotropic minerals in the crust, that is, amphibole, experimental studies on the CPO of amphibole are limited. Here we present the results of novel experiments on simple shear deformation of amphibolite at high pressure and temperatures (1 GPa, 480-700 °C). Depending on the temperature and stress, the deformed amphibole produced three types of CPOs and resulted in a strong seismic anisotropy. Our data provide a new understanding of the observed seismic anisotropy. The seismic data obtained from the amphibole CPOs revealed that anomalous seismic anisotropy observed in the deep crust, subducting slab and mantle wedge can be attributed to the CPO of amphibole. PMID:25858349

  3. Crystal preferred orientation of an amphibole experimentally deformed by simple shear

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byeongkwan; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-01-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been widely observed in crust and mantle materials and plays a key role in the understanding of structure and flow patterns. Although seismic anisotropy can be explained by the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) of highly anisotropic minerals in the crust, that is, amphibole, experimental studies on the CPO of amphibole are limited. Here we present the results of novel experiments on simple shear deformation of amphibolite at high pressure and temperatures (1 GPa, 480–700 °C). Depending on the temperature and stress, the deformed amphibole produced three types of CPOs and resulted in a strong seismic anisotropy. Our data provide a new understanding of the observed seismic anisotropy. The seismic data obtained from the amphibole CPOs revealed that anomalous seismic anisotropy observed in the deep crust, subducting slab and mantle wedge can be attributed to the CPO of amphibole. PMID:25858349

  4. Influence of adsorbed fluids on the rolling contact deformation of MgO single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrane, K. F.

    1977-01-01

    Basic phenomena associated with rolling contact deformation were studied using MgO as a model bearing material. A hardened steel ball was rolled on MgO single crystals in slow-speed reciprocating motion and in high-speed circular motion. The resulting deformation was studied by dislocation etch-pit techniques. The presence of adsorbed fluids, such as silicone oil, white mineral oil, and toluene, with slow-speed sliding caused a dramatic change in slip mode and premature surface spalling compared with similar experiments in air or under water. In contrast, dimethyl formamide inhibited these slip processes. The results are consistent with the dependence of dislocation mobility on adsorbed species. High-speed hydrodynamic rolling with mineral oil lubrication produced a different slip phenomena entirely from the slow-speed rolling. The slip bands resembled those produced in tensile tests, and all slip apparently initiated at subsurface sites.

  5. Cyclic Deformation Behavior of Aged FeNiCoAlTa Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krooß, P.; Niendorf, T.; Karaman, I.; Chumlyakov, Y.; Maier, H. J.

    2012-11-01

    The cyclic deformation behavior of [001] oriented Fe-28Ni-17Co-11.5Al-2.5Ta (at.%) shape memory single crystals was investigated under tension. Dog-bone shaped specimens were tested up to 100 cycles after different aging heat treatments in order to characterize the cyclic stress-strain response and functional degradation. The smaller particles formed as a consequence of short aging for 1 h at 700°C, as compared to longer aging for 7 h, resulted in significantly enhanced resistance to cyclic degradation.

  6. Specific features of the force and thermal elastic deformations of chain molecules and their energetics in polymer crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsker, A. I.; Vettegren, V. I.; Kulik, V. B.; Gilyarov, V. L.; Polikarpov, Yu. I.; Karov, D. D.

    2016-04-01

    In polymer crystals (in particular, polyethylene), changes in the axial and contour lengths of skeletal interatomic bonds in chain molecules under mechanical loading (stretching) and heat treatment (heating) were measured using X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectrometry. The performed analysis of the measured force and temperature dependences gave theoretical descriptions of the deformation of a polymer crystal (the confirmation of the data available in the literature for mechanical loading and an original development for heating). The components of the potential energy of a deformed polymer crystal were determined both for stretching of skeletal bonds and for bending of chain molecules. It was found that there is a significant difference in the ratios of these components for a deformed polymer crystal under mechanical loading and during heating.

  7. Three sets of fine extinction bands in a tectonically deformed vein-quartz single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derez, Tine; Van der Donck, Tom; Pennock, Gill; Drury, Martyn; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Intracrystalline fine extinction bands (FEBs) in quartz, are narrow (less than 5µm thick), planar microstructures with a misorientation up to 5° with respect to the host crystal, occurring in closely spaced sets (spacing of 4-5μm). FEBs have been commonly attributed to a large range of brittle and/or crystal-plastic mechanisms, revealing considerable disagreement on the responsible crystal-plastic slip systems and the ambient conditions. Another question that arises, is whether or not the FEBs rotate from a basal plane orientation to orientations ranging between the basal and prism planes. Usually only one set of FEBs occurs in a single crystal, though two sets are observed, in particular with increasing strain. Tentatively, a maximum of two sets of sub-basal FEBs has been postulated to develop in a single quartz crystal in a tectonic context. However, we identified several crystals in naturally deformed vein-quartz containing three sets of FEBs. The vein-quartz has been deformed under sub-greenschist metamorphic conditions, during the late Palaeozoic Variscan orogeny, in the High-Ardenne slate belt (Belgium). The vein-quartz has been subjected to bulging dynamic recrystallisation and shows a high degree of undulatory extinction, abundant subgrains and wide extinction bands sub-parallel to the c-axis. We attempted to characterise these three sets of FEBs by means of light microscopy, EBSD-OIM and universal stage microscopy. In both cases studied the c-axis is inclined less than 8° with respect to the thin-section plane. The different sets of FEBs show a consistent orientation with respect to the c-axis. One set of FEBs deviates maximum 10° from the basal plane. The other two sets deviate between 15 and 35° from a basal plane orientation. Corresponding FEBs, at the same angle with respect to the c-axis, have similar morphologies. In relative EBSD orientation maps FEBs show a maximum misorientation of 3°, and have a lower pattern quality than the host crystal

  8. Plastic deformation of Mo(Si,Al){sub 2} single crystals with C40 structure

    SciTech Connect

    Moriwaki, M.; Ito, K.; Inui, H.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation behavior of single crystals of Mo(Si,Al){sub 2} with the C40 structure has been studied as a function of crystal orientation and Al content in the temperature range from room temperature to 1,500 C in compression. Plastic flow is possible only above 1,100 C for orientations where slip along <11{bar 2}0> on (0001) is operative and no other slip systems are observed over whole temperature range investigated. The critical resolved shear stress for basal slip decreases rapidly with increasing temperature and the Schmid law is valid. Basal slip appears to occur through a synchroshear mechanism, in which a-dislocations (b = 1/3 <11{bar 2}0>) dissociate into two synchro-partial dislocations with the identical Burgers vector (b = 1/6 <11{bar 2}0>) and each synchro-partial further dissociates into two partials on two adjacent planes.

  9. Room-temperature deformation behavior of a directionally solidified {beta} (B2)-(Ni-Fe-Al) intermetallic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A.; Kim, J.T.; Gibala, R.

    1997-01-01

    The room-temperature mechanical behavior of a directionally solidified columnar-grained, single-phase {beta} (B2)-(Ni-20 at. pct Fe-30 At. pct Al) intermetallic alloy deformed along the hard {l_angle}001{r_angle} direction has been characterized. The 0.2 pct offset compressive yield stress was found to be comparable to that of {l_angle}001{r_angle} single crystals of stoichiometric NiAl. The dislocation substructure consisted of a preponderance of long, straight a{l_angle}111{r_angle} screw dislocations on {l_brace}112{r_brace} planes, with cross-slip on {l_brace}123{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes. The superpartials were not resolved by weak-beam imaging conditions, indicating that the antiphase boundary (APB) energy of NiAl is not reduced significantly by the Fe addition. The dislocation substructure was analyzed as a function of strain and compared to the dislocation substructure in {l_angle}001{r_angle} NiAl and body-centered cubic (bcc) metals deformed at low homologous temperatures. The debris left behind by a{l_angle}111{r_angle} screw dislocations consisted of prismatic edge dipole loops 5 to 25 nm in diameter.

  10. Deformation, recrystallization, strength, and fracture of press-forged ceramic crystals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Sapphire and ruby were very difficult to press-forge because they deformed without cracking only in a limited temperature range before they melted. Spinel crystals were somewhat easier and MgO, CaO, and TiC crystals much easier to forge. The degree of recrystallization that occurred during forging (which was related to the ease and type of slip intersections) varied from essentially zero in Al2O3 to complete (i.e., random polycrystalline bodies were produced) in CaO. Forging of bi- and polycrystalline bodies produced incoherent bodies as a result of grain-boundary sliding. Strengths of the forged crystals were comparable to those of dense polycrystalline bodies of similar grain size. However, forged and recrystallized CaO crystals were ductile at lower temperatures than dense hot-pressed CaO. This behavior is attributed to reduced grain-boundary impurities and porosity. Fracture origins could be located, indicating that fracture in the CaO occurs internally as a result of surface work hardening caused by machining.-

  11. Zinc Single Crystal Deformation Experiments using a "6 Degrees of Freedom" Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D H; LeBlanc, M M; Florando, J N

    2006-05-11

    A new experimental technique to study crystallographic slip system activity in metallic single crystals deformed under a condition of uniaxial stress is applied to study the behavior of Zn single crystals. The experimental apparatus allows essentially unconstrained shape change of inherently anisotropic materials under a condition of uniaxial stress by allowing 3 translational and 3 rotational degrees of freedom during compression; hence we have named the experiment 6 degrees of freedom (6DOF). The experiments also utilize a 3-D digital image correlation system to measure full-field displacement fields, which are used to calculate strain and make direct observations of slip system activity. We show that the experimental results associated with a pristine zinc single crystal are precisely consistent with the theoretical predicted shape change (sample distortion) assuming that the most favored slip system on the basal plane is the only one that is active. Another experiment was performed on a processed and annealed Zn single crystal to investigate slip that is inconsistent with the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) theory. These experiments on zinc illustrate the ability of the 6DOF experiment, together with image correlation (IC) data, to measure slip system activity with a high degree of fidelity.

  12. Deformation and fracture of single-crystal and sintered polycrystalline silicon carbide produced by cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Hattori, Shuji; Okada, Tsunenori; Buckley, Donald H.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the deformation and fracture behavior of single-crystal and sintered polycrystalline SiC surfaces exposed to cavitation. Cavitation erosion experiments were conducted in distilled water at 25 C by using a magnetostrictive oscillator in close proximity (1 mm) to the surface of SiC. The horn frequency was 20 kHz, and the double amplitude of the vibrating disk was 50 microns. The results of the investigation indicate that the SiC (0001) surface could be deformed in a plastic manner during cavitation. Dislocation etch pits were formed when the surface was chemically etched. The number of defects, including dislocations in the SiC (0001) surface, increased with increasing exposure time to cavitation. The presence of intrinsic defects such as voids in the surficial layers of the sintered polycrystalline SiC determined the zones at which fractured grains and fracture pits (pores) were generated. Single-crystal SiC had superior erosion resistance to that of sintered polycrystalline SiC.

  13. Deformation of Diopside Single Crystal at Mantle Pressure, 1, Mechanical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Amiguet, E.; Raterron, P; Cordier, P; Couvy, H; Chen, J

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state deformation experiments were carried out in a deformation-DIA (D-DIA) high-pressure apparatus on oriented diopside single crystals, at pressure (P) ranging from 3.8 to 8.8 GPa, temperature (T) from 1100 to 1400 C, and differential stress ({sigma}) between 0.2 and 1.7 GPa. Three compression directions were chosen in order to test the activity of diopside dislocation slip systems, i.e., 1/2<1 1 0>{l_brace}1 {bar 1} 0{r_brace} systems activated together, both [1 0 0](0 1 0) and [0 1 0](1 0 0) systems together, or [0 0 1] dislocation slip activated in (1 0 0), (0 1 0) and {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. Constant applied stress and specimen strain rates ({var_epsilon}) were monitored in situ using time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation of the run products revealed that dislocation creep was responsible for sample deformation. Comparison of the present high-P data with those obtained at room-P by Raterron and Jaoul (1991) - on similar crystals deformed at comparable T-{sigma} conditions - allows quantifying the effect of P on 1/2<1 1 0>{l_brace} 1 {bar 1} 0{r_brace} activity. This translates into the activation volume V* = 17 {+-} 6 cm{sup 3}/mol in the corresponding creep power law. Our data also show that both 1/2<1 1 0> dislocation slips and [0 0 1] have comparable slip activities at mantle P and T, while [1 0 0](0 1 0) and [0 1 0](1 0 0) slip systems remain marginal. These results show that P has a significant effect on high-T dislocation creep in diopside, the higher the pressure the harder the crystal, and that this effect is stronger on 1/2<1 1 0> slip than on [0 0 1] slip.

  14. Spherical nanoindentation study of the deformation micromechanisms of LiTaO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Anasori, B.; Barsoum, M. W.; Sickafus, K. E.; Usov, I. O.

    2011-07-15

    Herein, spherical nanoindentation (NI) was used to investigate the room temperature deformation behavior of C-plane LiTaO{sub 3} single crystals loaded along the [0001] direction as a function of ion irradiation. When the NI load-displacement curves of 3 different nanoindenter radii (1.4 {mu}m, 5 {mu}m, and 21 {mu}m) were converted to NI stress-strain curves, good agreement between them was found. The surface first deforms elastically - with a Young's modulus of 205 {+-} 5 GPa, calculated from the stiffness versus contact radii curves and 207 {+-} 3 GPa measured using a Berkovich tip - and then plastically deforms at {approx_equal} 6 GPa. Repeated loading into the same location results in large, reproducible, fully reversible, nested hysteresis loops attributed to the formation of incipient kink bands (IKBs). The latter are coaxial fully reversible dislocation loops that spontaneously shrink when the load is removed. The IKBs most probably nucleate within the (1012) twins that form near the surface. The sharper radii resulted in twin nucleation at lower stresses. The changes in the reversible loops' shape and areas can be related to the width of the twins that form. The latter were proportional to the nanoindenter tip radii and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and by the fact that larger threshold stresses were needed for IKB nucleation with the smaller tip sizes. No effect of irradiation was observed on the NI response, presumably because of the mildness of the irradiation damage.

  15. Deformation-driven differentiation during in-situ crystallization of the Iguilid mafic intrusion (West African craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Julien; Diot, Hervé; Lo, Khalidou

    2015-04-01

    The 2.7 Ga Iguilid mafic body is a small (9x2 km) magmatic intrusion with preserved igneous textures and not affected by metamorphism and deformation. It intrudes the metamorphic Archean basement of the Amsaga domain in the West African craton in Mauritania. The dominant lithology is a gabbronorite with subordinate gabbros and norites. We investigated 45 oriented samples for fabric analysis, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses to explore the link between chemical differentiation and emplacement of the plutonic body. According to the limited variations in modal proportions and in major element compositions within the intrusion, the Iguilid pluton crystallized via an in-situ mechanism where solidification fronts progressively thickens from the rim to the core of the cooling intrusion and where the trace-element composition is controlled by the amount of interstitial liquid (containing most incompatible trace-elements) preserved between cumulus minerals before total solidification. An in-situ crystallization process alone normally does not produce chemical differentiation but the mafic cumulates at Iguilid have been deformed during their crystallization (i.e. when melt was still present). The vertical foliations and the randomly oriented lineations argue for horizontal flattening as the main deformation mechanism. We estimated the amount of trapped interstitial liquid preserved between the network of cumulate minerals with geochemical modelling in 12 samples and found that it is negatively correlated to the anisotropy degree determined by fabric analysis. The rocks located close to the margins of the intrusion were not deformed, probably because the degree of crystallization and, hence, the viscosity of the mush was too high. The most deformed rocks with the lowest trapped interstitial liquid content are found in the center of the intrusion where the crystal mushes were rich enough in melt to record significant strain. Deformation leaded to

  16. A combined crystal plasticity and graph-based vertex model of dynamic recrystallization at large deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellbin, Y.; Hallberg, H.; Ristinmaa, M.

    2015-06-01

    A mesoscale model of microstructure evolution is formulated in the present work by combining a crystal plasticity model with a graph-based vertex algorithm. This provides a versatile formulation capable of capturing finite-strain deformations, development of texture and microstructure evolution through recrystallization. The crystal plasticity model is employed in a finite element setting and allows tracing of stored energy build-up in the polycrystal microstructure and concurrent reorientation of the crystal lattices in the grains. This influences the progression of recrystallization as nucleation occurs at sites with sufficient stored energy and since the grain boundary mobility and energy is allowed to vary with crystallographic misorientation across the boundaries. The proposed graph-based vertex model describes the topological changes to the grain microstructure and keeps track of the grain inter-connectivity. Through homogenization, the macroscopic material response is also obtained. By the proposed modeling approach, grain structure evolution at large deformations as well as texture development are captured. This is in contrast to most other models of recrystallization which are usually limited by assumptions of one or the other of these factors. In simulation examples, the model is in the present study shown to capture the salient features of dynamic recrystallization, including the effects of varying initial grain size and strain rate on the transitions between single-peak and multiple-peak oscillating flow stress behavior. Also the development of recrystallization texture and the influence of different assumptions on orientation of recrystallization nuclei are investigated. Further, recrystallization kinetics are discussed and compared to classical JMAK theory. To promote computational efficiency, the polycrystal plasticity algorithm is parallelized through a GPU implementation that was recently proposed by the authors.

  17. Direct visualization of a guest-triggered crystal deformation based on a flexible ultramicroporous framework.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao-Long; Lin, Rui-Biao; He, Chun-Ting; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Feng, Ningdong; Wang, Qiang; Deng, Feng; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Host-guest composites may exhibit abnormal and/or controllable physical properties that are unavailable for traditional solids. However, it is still very difficult to control or visualize the occupancy and motion of the guest. Here we report a flexible ultramicroporous coordination polymer showing exceptional guest-responsive thermal-expansion properties. The vacant crystal exhibits constant and huge thermal expansion over a wide temperature range not only in vacuum but also in air, as its ultramicroporous channel excludes air adsorption even at 77 K. More interestingly, as demonstrated by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamic simulations and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, it selectively responds to the molecular rearrangement of N,N-dimethylformamide, leading to conformation reversion of the flexible ligand, which transfers these actions to deform the whole crystal lattice. These results illustrate that combination of ultramicroporous channel and flexible pore surface could be an effective strategy for the utilization of external physical and chemical stimuli. PMID:24067265

  18. Computational modelling of mesoscale dislocation patterning and plastic deformation of single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shengxu; El-Azab, Anter

    2015-07-01

    We present a continuum dislocation dynamics model that predicts the formation of dislocation cell structure in single crystals at low strains. The model features a set of kinetic equations of the curl type that govern the space and time evolution of the dislocation density in the crystal. These kinetic equations are coupled to stress equilibrium and deformation kinematics using the eigenstrain approach. A custom finite element method has been developed to solve the coupled system of equations of dislocation kinetics and crystal mechanics. The results show that, in general, dislocations self-organize in patterns under their mutual interactions. However, the famous dislocation cell structure has been found to form only when cross slip is implemented in the model. Cross slip is also found to lower the yield point, increase the hardening rate, and sustain an increase in the dislocation density over the hardening regime. Analysis of the cell structure evolution reveals that the average cell size decreases with the applied stress, which is consistent with the similitude principle.

  19. Crystal Plasticity Analysis of Texture Evolution of Pure Aluminum During Processing by a New Severe Plastic Deformation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajezade, Ali; Parsa, Mohammad Habibi; Mirzadeh, Hamed

    2016-02-01

    Texture evolution in a newly developed severe plastic deformation technique, named multi-axial incremental forging and shearing (MAIFS), was studied applying the visco-plastic self-consistent crystal plasticity formulation by consideration of macroscopic deformation history. The simulated texture evolutions revealed that although shear-like texture had developed by the MAIFS process, texture components rotated around normal to mid-plane section. This could be ascribed to the complex deformation history that naturally develops during processing by the MAIFS process. The increased complexity of the deformation history in the MAIFS process, compared to the techniques that are solely based on the simple shear deformation, causes more activated slip planes, which in turn can result in an enhanced grain refinement ability of this processing technique.

  20. Mesoscale Heterogeneity in the Plastic Deformation of a Copper Single Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Magid, K R; Florando, J N; Lassila, D H; LeBlanc, M M; Tamura, N; Morris Jr., J W

    2007-02-21

    The work reported here is part of a 'multiscale characterization' study intended to clarify the deformation pattern in a Cu single crystal deformed in compression. A copper single crystal was oriented for single slip in the (111)[{bar 1}01] slip system and tested to {approx}10% strain in uniaxial compression, using a specifically designed '6 degree of freedom' compressive test device to achieve uniaxial strain. The macroscopic strain field was monitored during the test by optical 'image correlation' methods that mapped the strain field with a spatial resolution of about 100 {micro}m. The strain field was measured on orthogonal surfaces, one of which (the x-face) was oriented perpendicular to [1{bar 2}1] and contained the [{bar 1}01] direction of the preferred slip system. The macroscopic strain produced is an inhomogeneous pattern of broad, crossed shear bands in the x-face. One, the primary band, lay parallel to (111). The second, the 'conjugate' band, was oriented perpendicular to (111) and contains no common slip plane of the fcc crystal. The mesoscopic structure of the inhomogeneous macroscopic deformation pattern was explored with selected area diffraction, using a focused synchrotron radiation polychromatic beam with a resolution of 1-3 {micro}m. Areas within the primary, conjugate and primary + conjugate strain regions of the x-face were identified and mapped for their orientation, excess defect density and shear stress. The mesoscopic defect structure consisted of broad, somewhat irregular primary bands that lay nominally parallel to (111) in a almost periodic distribution with a period of about 30 {micro}m. These primary bands were dominant even in the region of conjugate strain. There were also broad conjugate defect bands, almost precisely perpendicular to the primary bands that tended to bridge primary bands and terminate at them. The residual shear stresses were large (ranging to well above 500 MPa) and strongly correlated with the primary shear bands

  1. High-resolution microdiffraction study of notch-tip deformation in Mo single crystals using x-ray synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, G.; Habenschuss, A.; Bilello, J.C.; Rebonato, R.

    1989-12-31

    A new technique is presented for the determination of strain fields in single crystals, based on the simultaneous recording of the energy and position of a diffracted beam, with a resolution of 25 micrometers under current experimental conditions. The technique can be profitably used for perfect to highly deformed crystals, in materials as highly absorbing as Molybdenum, and allows a spatial resolution of one part in 10{sup 4}. Indications are given as to possible refinements and improvements of the method.

  2. High-resolution microdiffraction study of notch-tip deformation in Mo single crystals using x-ray synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, G.; Habenschuss, A. ); Bilello, J.C. ); Rebonato, R. . Physical Chemistry Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    A new technique is presented for the determination of strain fields in single crystals, based on the simultaneous recording of the energy and position of a diffracted beam, with a resolution of 25 micrometers under current experimental conditions. The technique can be profitably used for perfect to highly deformed crystals, in materials as highly absorbing as Molybdenum, and allows a spatial resolution of one part in 10{sup 4}. Indications are given as to possible refinements and improvements of the method.

  3. The tensile and fatigue deformation structures in a single crystal Ni-base superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V.; Gayda, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dislocation structures produced in Rene N4 crystals of various orientations deformed in tension and low cycle fatigue (LCF) at 760 and 980 degrees C were examined in order to elucidate the observed differences in stress-strain behavior. Specimens tensile tested at 760 degrees C displayed significant crystallographic orientation dependences in mechanical response but comparable inhomogeneous dislocation structures. LCF specimens of various orientations had comparable cyclic stress-strain curves and generally similar somewhat more homogeneous dislocation structures. Tensile specimens at the higher temperature had comparable mechanical response and corresponding similar quite homogeneous dislocation structures with gamma' faulting; and LCF specimens had orientation-dependent mechanical response but comparable homogeneous loose dislocation networks.

  4. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of the third-generation, single-crystal superalloy TMS-75: Deformation structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Ro, Y.; Koizumi, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Harada, H.; Okada, I.

    2004-06-01

    The deformation structure after the out-of-phase thermomechanical fatigue (OP TMF) of the single-crystal (SC), Ni-based superalloy TMS-75 has been studied. Mechanical experiments were performed at temperatures between 400 °C and 900 °C under different total strain ranges with varying hold times in the compression stage. The lives of TMF for samples with hold times of 10 and 60 minutes dropped drastically by one order of magnitude as compared with those without it. Different structures developed during TMF were correlated to the difference in mechanical behavior for the two cases. The dislocations in the γ phase and the stacking faults (SFs) in the γ‧ phase were quantitatively analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This work verified that shearing of the γ‧ precipitates occurred with a single-dislocation mechanism rather than a dislocation-reaction mechanism. The implications of this work on the design of superalloys are presented.

  5. Notch-tip deformation of Ni{sub 3}Al single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Schulson, E.M.; Xu, Y.

    1997-12-31

    In a recent paper on the deformation of notched polycrystals of Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al doped with boron, the authors showed that the notch sensitivity of this material is related to the suppression of plastic flow by the triaxial state of tensile stress induced by the notch. Cracks initiate on crystallographic slip planes at the tip of the notch, where the stress and inelastic strain are concentrated, and then propagate once the degree of triaxialty exceeds a critical level. The tensile strength appears to be controlled by crack initiation. To explore further the notch sensitivity of boron-doped Ni{sub 3}Al the authors performed new experiments using notched single crystals. This paper summarizes their observations.

  6. Deformation twinning evolution from a single crystal in a face-centered-cubic ternary alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Yang, Song; Guo, Dongming; Yuan, Boya; Guo, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Bi; Huo, Yanxia

    2015-01-01

    Deformation twinning evolution from a single crystal is conducted by molecular dynamics simulations, to elucidate a twinned face-centered-cubic alloy in an experiment with hardness up to 100 times as that of single crystals, and with ductility simultaneously. Critical twinning stress of cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) calculated is 1.38 GPa. All the twin boundaries are along the (11-1) orientation, except the one with the (-111) plane that supports the indentation, interpreting the unidirectional and boundary-free characteristics, confirmed in the experiment. Three twin thicknesses after unloading are 3.2, 3.5, and 16 nm, which is consistent with the experimentally repeated pattern of a lamellar twin with thickness larger than 12.7 nm, followed by one or several twins with thicknesses smaller than 12.7 nm. An inverse triangle of a twin combining with three twins generate a synergistic strengthening effect through the hardening and softening functions, illuminating the ultrahigh hardness demonstrated in the experiment. Twinning takes place in loading, and detwinning occurs in unloading, which expounds the high ductility observed in the experiment. PMID:26060979

  7. Light modulation in planar aligned short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, Svetlana P.; Samagin, Sergey A.; Pozhidaev, Evgeny P.; Kiselev, Alexei D.

    2015-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically modulation of light in a planar aligned deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) cell with subwavelength helix pitch, which is also known as a short-pitch DHFLC. In our experiments, the azimuthal angle of the in-plane optical axis and electrically controlled parts of the principal in-plane refractive indices are measured as a function of voltage applied across the cell. Theoretical results giving the effective optical tensor of a short-pitch DHFLC expressed in terms of the smectic tilt angle and the refractive indices of the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) are used to fit the experimental data. The optical anisotropy of the FLC material is found to be weakly biaxial. For both the transmissive and reflective modes, the results of fitting are applied to model the phase and amplitude modulation of light in the DHFLC cell. We demonstrate that if the thickness of the DHFLC layer is about 50 μ m , the detrimental effect of field-induced rotation of the in-plane optical axes on the characteristics of an axicon designed using the DHFLC spatial light modulator in the reflective mode is negligible.

  8. Light modulation in planar aligned short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Svetlana P; Samagin, Sergey A; Pozhidaev, Evgeny P; Kiselev, Alexei D

    2015-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically modulation of light in a planar aligned deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) cell with subwavelength helix pitch, which is also known as a short-pitch DHFLC. In our experiments, the azimuthal angle of the in-plane optical axis and electrically controlled parts of the principal in-plane refractive indices are measured as a function of voltage applied across the cell. Theoretical results giving the effective optical tensor of a short-pitch DHFLC expressed in terms of the smectic tilt angle and the refractive indices of the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) are used to fit the experimental data. The optical anisotropy of the FLC material is found to be weakly biaxial. For both the transmissive and reflective modes, the results of fitting are applied to model the phase and amplitude modulation of light in the DHFLC cell. We demonstrate that if the thickness of the DHFLC layer is about 50μm, the detrimental effect of field-induced rotation of the in-plane optical axes on the characteristics of an axicon designed using the DHFLC spatial light modulator in the reflective mode is negligible. PMID:26764706

  9. Deformation twinning evolution from a single crystal in a face-centered-cubic ternary alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Yang, Song; Guo, Dongming; Yuan, Boya; Guo, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Bi; Huo, Yanxia

    2015-01-01

    Deformation twinning evolution from a single crystal is conducted by molecular dynamics simulations, to elucidate a twinned face-centered-cubic alloy in an experiment with hardness up to 100 times as that of single crystals, and with ductility simultaneously. Critical twinning stress of cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) calculated is 1.38 GPa. All the twin boundaries are along the (11-1) orientation, except the one with the (-111) plane that supports the indentation, interpreting the unidirectional and boundary-free characteristics, confirmed in the experiment. Three twin thicknesses after unloading are 3.2, 3.5, and 16 nm, which is consistent with the experimentally repeated pattern of a lamellar twin with thickness larger than 12.7 nm, followed by one or several twins with thicknesses smaller than 12.7 nm. An inverse triangle of a twin combining with three twins generate a synergistic strengthening effect through the hardening and softening functions, illuminating the ultrahigh hardness demonstrated in the experiment. Twinning takes place in loading, and detwinning occurs in unloading, which expounds the high ductility observed in the experiment. PMID:26060979

  10. Shock wave compression and release of hexagonal-close-packed metal single crystals: Inelastic deformation of c-axis magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, J. M.; Renganathan, P.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2015-03-01

    To understand inelastic deformation mechanisms for shocked hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) metals, shock compression and release wave profiles, previously unavailable for hcp single crystals, were measured for c-axis magnesium crystals. The results show that the elastic-inelastic loading response is strongly time-dependent. Measured release wave profiles showed distinct peaked features, which are unusual for inelastic deformation during unloading of shocked metals. Numerical simulations show that pyramidal slip provides a reasonably good description of the inelastic loading response. However, { 10 1 ¯ 2 } twinning is needed to explain the unloading response. The results and analysis presented here provide insight into the relative roles of dislocation slip and deformation twinning in the response of shocked hcp metals.

  11. Atomic-scale configurations of synchroshear-induced deformation twins in the ionic MnS crystal

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Y. T.; Xue, Y. B.; Chen, D.; Wang, Y. J.; Zhang, B.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    Deformation twinning was thought as impossible in ionic compounds with rock-salt structure due to the charge effect on {111} planes. Here we report the presence and formation mechanism of deformation {111} twins in the rock-salt manganese sulphide (MnS) inclusions embedded in a hot-rolled stainless steel. Based on the atomic-scale mapping under aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, a dislocation-based mechanism involved two synchronized shear on adjacent atomic layers is proposed to describe the dislocation glide and consequently twinning formation. First-principles calculations of the energy barriers for twinning formation in MnS and comparing with that of PbS and MgO indicate the distinct dislocation glide scheme and deformation behaviors for the rock-salt compounds with different ionicities. This study may improve our understanding of the deformation mechanisms of rock-salt crystals and other ionic compounds. PMID:24874022

  12. Atomic-scale configurations of synchroshear-induced deformation twins in the ionic MnS crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. T.; Xue, Y. B.; Chen, D.; Wang, Y. J.; Zhang, B.; Ma, X. L.

    2014-05-01

    Deformation twinning was thought as impossible in ionic compounds with rock-salt structure due to the charge effect on {111} planes. Here we report the presence and formation mechanism of deformation {111} twins in the rock-salt manganese sulphide (MnS) inclusions embedded in a hot-rolled stainless steel. Based on the atomic-scale mapping under aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, a dislocation-based mechanism involved two synchronized shear on adjacent atomic layers is proposed to describe the dislocation glide and consequently twinning formation. First-principles calculations of the energy barriers for twinning formation in MnS and comparing with that of PbS and MgO indicate the distinct dislocation glide scheme and deformation behaviors for the rock-salt compounds with different ionicities. This study may improve our understanding of the deformation mechanisms of rock-salt crystals and other ionic compounds.

  13. Structure and magnetic properties of a Ni3(Al, Fe, Cr) single crystal subjected to high-temperature deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, N. V.; Rigmant, M. B.; Stepanova, N. N.; Davydov, D. I.; Shishkin, D. A.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Vinogradova, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of the Ni3(Al, Fe, Cr) single crystal subjected to high-temperature tensile deformation to failure at 850-900°C have been studied. No recrystallized grains and metastable phases were found. The rupture zone of the alloy subjected to deformation (at 900°C) to the highest degree demonstrates the fragmentation accompanied by rotation of atomic layers and changes of the chemical composition in the nickel and aluminum sublattices. Magnetic studies of the alloy have shown the existence of two Curie temperatures for samples cut from the rupture zone. Samples cut away from the rupture zone exhibit no additional magnetic transitions; twines and planar stacking faults in the alloy structure. The alloy deformed to the lower degree of deformation (at 850°C) also demonstrates twins; no ferromagnetic state was found to form.

  14. Review of the physical and mechanical properties and potential applications of the B2 compound NiAl: Unabridged version of a paper published in International materials review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noebe, Ronald D.; Bowman, Randy R.; Nathal, Michael V.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable work has been performed on NiAl over the last three decades, with an extremely rapid growth in research on this intermetallic occurring in the last few years due to recent interest in this material for electronic and high temperature structural applications. However, many physical properties and the controlling fracture and deformation mechanisms over certain temperature regimes are still in question. Part of this problem lies in the incomplete characterization of many of the alloys previously investigated. Fragmentary data on processing conditions, chemistry, microstructure and the apparent difficulty in accurately measuring composition has made direct comparison between individual studies sometimes tenuous. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize all available mechanical and pertinent physical properties on NiAl, stressing the most recent investigations, in an attempt to understand the behavior of NiAl and its alloys over a broad temperature range.

  15. Mapping mesoscale heterogeneity in the plastic deformation of a copper single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Magid, K. R.; Florando, J.N.; Lassila, D.H.; Leblanc, M.M.; Tamura, N.; Morris Jr, J. W.

    2008-10-01

    The work reported here is part of a 'multiscale characterization' study of heterogeneous deformation patterns in metals. A copper single crystal was oriented for single slip in the (111)[{bar 1}01] slip system and tested to {approx}10% strain in roughly uniaxial compression. The macroscopic strain field was monitored during the test by optical 'image correlation'. The strain field was measured on orthogonal surfaces, one of which (the x-face) was oriented perpendicular to [1{bar 2}1] and contained the [{bar 1}01] direction of the preferred slip system. The macroscopic strain developed in an inhomogeneous pattern of broad, crossed shear bands in the x-face. One, the primary band, lay parallel to (111). The second, the 'conjugate' band, was oriented perpendicular to (111) with an overall ({bar 1}01) habit that contains no common slip plane of the fcc crystal. The mesoscopic deformation pattern was explored with selected area diffraction, using a focused synchrotron radiation polychromatic beam with a resolution of 1-3 {micro}m. Areas within the primary, conjugate and mixed (primary + conjugate) strain regions of the x-face were identified and mapped for their orientation, excess defect density and shear stress. The mesoscopic defect structure was concentrated in broad, somewhat irregular primary bands that lay nominally parallel to (111) in an almost periodic distribution with a period of about 30 {micro}m. These primary bands were dominant even in the region of conjugate strain. There were also broad conjugate defect bands, almost precisely perpendicular to the primary bands, that tended to bridge primary bands and terminate at them. The residual shear stresses were large (ranging to well above 500 MPa) and strongly correlated with the primary shear bands; interband stresses were small. The maximum resolved shear stresses within the primary bands were oriented out of the plane of the bands, and, hence, could not recover the dislocation structure in the bands. The

  16. Simple models for intermittent deformation and slip avalanches: from crystals to granular materials and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, K.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Uhl, J.

    2011-12-01

    Slowly sheared solid or densely packed granular materials often deform in an intermittent way with slip avalanches. The distribution of sizes follows often a power law over a broad range of sizes. In these cases, universal (i.e. detail-independent) scaling behavior governs the statistics of the slip-avalanches. Under some conditions, there are also "characteristic" statistics associated with enhanced occurrence of system-size events, and long-term mode switching between power law and characteristic behavior. These dynamic regimes can be understood with basic micromechanical model for deformation of solids with only two tuning parameter: weakening and dissipation of elastic stress transfer. For granular materials the packing fraction plays the role of the dissipation parameter and it sets the size of the largest slip avalanche. The model can reproduce observed stress-strain curves, power spectra of acoustic emissions, statistics of slip avalanches, and geometrical properties of slip, with a continuous phase transition from brittle to ductile behavior. Exact universal predictions for the power law exponents of the avalanche size distributions, durations, power spectra of acoustic emissions, and scaling functions are extracted using an analytical mean field theory and renormalization group tools. For granular materials a dynamic phase diagram with solid-like behavior and large slip avalanches at large packing fractions, and fluid-like behavior at lower packing fractions is obtained. The results agree with recent experimental observations and simulations of the statistics of dislocation dynamics in sheared crystals such as ice [1], slip avalanches in sheared granular materials [2], and avalanches in magnetic and fault systems [3,4]. [1] K. A. Dahmen, Y. Ben-Zion, and J.T. Uhl, "A micromechanical model for deformation in solids with universal predictions for stress strain curves and slip avalanches", Physical Review Letters 102, 175501/1-4 (2009). [2] K. A. Dahmen, Y

  17. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-xiao; Wang, Gui-xian; Liu, Jing-shun; Zhang, Lun-yong; Wang, Wei; Li, Ze; Wang, Qi-xiang; Sun, Jian-fei

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50 μm. The morphology of the Ni-Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni-Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 particles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni-Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 precipitates and a Ni-Al-O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  18. Slow positron beam facility for investigations of plastically deformed metals and surface crystallization of silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heußer, H.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Wider, T.; Maier, K.

    1999-08-01

    The simple slow positron facility at Bonn university and two recent experiments are presented. The following data briefly summarises the technical specifications of the instrument: overall size: 150×150×80 cm 3positron source: 22Na (10 mCi) moderator: Kr (solid)energy filter: magnetic solenoid at 150 eV transport energyvacuum: high vacuum (10 -6 hPa) spot size: 3 mmcount rate: 3000 s -1 in 511 keV photopeak with BGO detector in coincidence for background suppression energy range: 0.15 to 12 keV with the sample at ground potential A sapphire plate which has, at 40 K (close to the moderator temperature of 37 K), a thermal conductivity comparable to that of copper (!) ensures both the electrical isolation and the thermal contact between the positron source and the He cryostat. With the moderator directly frozen onto the 22Na source the instrument reaches an efficiency better than 10 -4. Slow positrons are extremely sensitive probes for investigations on microstructure and on the onset of surface crystallization of anorganic glasses. The formation of crystallization nuclei on the surface and the growth of the nuclei into the bulk material was investigated on amorphous SiO 2. To this end specimens of amorphous silica were isothermally tempered at a temperature of 1773 K. In another experiment the back diffusion of positrons as a function of penetration depth was studied on weakly tensile deformed aluminium polycrystals. The role of dislocations and their effect on the mobility of positrons is in the center of this investigation.

  19. Strain Rate Dependency of Coarse Crystal Marble Under Uniaxial Compression: Strength, Deformation and Strain Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanrong; Huang, Da; Li, Xi'an

    2014-07-01

    Strain rate during testing, uniaxial or triaxial, has important influence on the measured mechanical properties of rocks. Uniaxial compression tests were performed at nine pre-specified static-to-quasistatic strain rates (ranging from 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-1 s-1) on coarse crystal marble. The aim is to gain deep insight into the influence of strain rate on characteristic stresses, deformation properties and conversion of strain energy of such rock. It is found that the strain rate of 5 × 10-3 s-1 is the threshold to delineate the failure modes the tested coarse marble behaves in. At a strain rate less than this threshold, single-plane shear and conjugate X-shaped shear are the main failure modes, while beyond this threshold, extensile and splitting failures are dominant. The stress for crack initiation, the critical stress for dilation, the peak stress, and Young's modulus are all found to increase with strain rate, with an exception that the above stresses and modulus appear relatively low compared to the strain rate in the range of between 1 × 10-4 and 5 × 10-3 s-1. The pre-peak absorbed strain energy, damage strain energy and elastic strain energy are found to increase with strain rate. In addition, the elastic strain energy stored before peak point favors brittle failure of the specimen, as the more stored elastic energy in the specimen, the stronger the fragmenting.

  20. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm. PMID:26452371

  1. Three-Dimensional Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulation of Hot Compressive Deformation Behaviors of 7075 Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei-Ting; Lin, Y. C.; Li, Ling; Shen, Lu-Ming; Wen, Dong-Xu

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) method is used to investigate the hot compressive deformation behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy. Based on the grain morphology and crystallographic texture of 7075 aluminum alloy, the microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) model was established by the pole figure inversion approach. In order to study the macroscopic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution, the CPFE simulations are performed on the established microstructure-based RVE model. It is found that the simulated stress-strain curves and deformation texture well agree with the measured results of 7075 aluminum alloy. With the increasing deformation degree, the remained initial weak Goss texture component tends to be strong and stable, which may result in the steady flow stress. The grain orientation and grain misorientation have significant effects on the deformation heterogeneity during hot compressive deformation. In the rolling-normal plane, the continuity of strain and misorientation can maintain across the low-angle grain boundaries, while the discontinuity of strain and misorientation is observed at the high-angle grain boundaries. The simulated results demonstrate that the developed CPFE model can well describe the hot compressive deformation behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy under elevated temperatures.

  2. Structural deformations on fluorophlogopite crystals of a pre-heated and experimentally shocked mica glass-ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Hiltl, M.; Hornemann, U.

    1998-07-10

    Shock experiments with the reflection method were carried out at room (T{sub room})- and pre-shock (T{sub pre}) temperatures of 300 and 600 deg. C at pressures ranging from 30 to 75 GPa to investigate the structural deformation on fluorophlogopite (KMg{sub 3}(Si{sub 3}AlO{sub 10})F{sub 2}) crystals of the Macor glass-ceramic. The recovered samples were examined by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM with respect to their microstructure. The examination shows that with increasing shock pressures and temperatures the crystals loose their morphology and undergo a transition into an amorphous state.

  3. Effect of anisotropic lattice deformation on the Kerr coefficient of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Tone, Hiroki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Yabu, Shuhei; Ozaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Hirotsugu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of anisotropic lattice deformation on the Kerr coefficient of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals (PSBP-LCs). PSBPs with orthorhombic and tetragonal symmetry were prepared by polymer-stabilizing a blue-phase liquid crystal under electrostriction. Both orthorhombic and tetragonal PSBPs showed smaller Kerr coefficients than the cubic PSBP, despite an increase in the unit cell volume caused by the elongation of the lattice along the direction of light propagation. Our results indicate that the Kerr coefficient of PSBPs is not determined simply by the volume of the unit lattice but by the lattice size perpendicular to the direction of light propagation. PMID:24580245

  4. Synthesis, characterization and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Choudry, M. |; Eastman, J.A.; DiMelfi, R.J.; Dollar, M.

    1996-11-01

    Nanocrystalline NiAl was produced from pre-cast alloys using an electron beam inert gas condensation system. In-situ compaction was carried out at 100-300 C under vacuum conditions. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition and homogeneity. Average grain sizes in the range 4-10 nm were found from TEM dark field analyses. A compression-cage fixture was designed to perform disk bend tests. These tests revealed substantial room temperature ductility in nanocrystalline NiAl, while coarse grained NiAl showed no measurable room temperature ductility.

  5. In situ TEM observations of cross-slip mechanism in NiAl with a soft orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Vailhe, C.; Douin, J.; Caillard, D.

    1997-12-31

    In situ experiences have been conducted in NiAl single crystals in the soft orientation, at room temperature, in order to investigate the glide process of [100] dislocations. The results show that dislocations have a kinked shape in agreement with what is expected from anisotropic elasticity. Intensive cross-slip is observed, leading to slip in non-crystallographic planes and dipole formation. The ductility of the alloy is then discussed.

  6. Dynamic instability of dislocation motion at high-strain-rate deformation of crystals with high concentration of point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashenko, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The motion of an ensemble of edge dislocations has been studied under conditions of high-strainrate deformation of a crystal with a high concentration of point defects. The conditions of existence of the region of dynamic instability of dislocation motion have been found. It has been shown that the existence of the region and its boundaries is determined by the proportion of the point defect concentration and the dislocation density.

  7. Strain Aging Behavior in NiAl Microalloyed with Interstitial and Substitutional Solutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Noebe R. D.; Kaufman, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic strain aging has been investigated in polycrystalline NiAl alloys containing combined additions of interstitial and substitutional impurities. The results indicate that strain aging can be enhanced in polycrystalline alloys containing concentrations of silicon or iron in excess of 0.15 at.% in addition to conventional levels of carbon. This co-doping leads to very dramatic strain aging events, comparable to those typically observed in single crystals. This effect will be discussed with respect to conventional theories of strain aging.

  8. Strain aging behavior in NiAl microalloyed with interstitial and substitutional solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.L.; Noebe, R.D.; Kaufman, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Dynamic strain aging has been investigated in polycrystalline NiAl alloys containing combined additions of interstitial and substitutional impurities. The results indicate that strain aging can be enhanced in polycrystalline alloys containing concentrations of silicon or iron in excess of 0.15 at.% in addition to conventional levels of carbon. This co-doping leads to very dramatic strain aging events, comparable to those typically observed in single crystals. This effect will be discussed with respect to conventional theories of strain aging.

  9. Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al composite high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Sorrell, Melford; Kelly, Kevin W.; Ma, Evan

    1998-09-01

    High-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMs) have a variety of potential applications in heat transfer, fluid mechanics, catalysts and other microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility to fabricate high performance particulate metal-matrix composite and intermetallic micromechanical structures using the LIGA process. Well-defined functionally graded Ni-Al2O3 and Ni-Al high-aspect-ratio microposts were electroformed into lithographically patterned PMMA holes from a nickel sulfamate bath containing submicron alumina and a diluted Watts bath containing microsized aluminum particles, respectively. SEM image analysis showed that the volume fraction of the alumina reached up to around 30% in the Ni-Al2O3 deposit. The Vickers microhardness of these composites is in the range of 418 through 545, which is higher than those of nickel microstructures from a similar particle-free bath and other Ni-based electrodeposits. In the work on Ni-Al electroplating, a newly developed diluted Watts bath was used to codeposit micron-sized aluminum particles. The intermetallic compound Ni3Al was formed by the reaction of nickel matrices and aluminum particles through subsequent annealing at 630 degrees Celsius. WDS and XRD analyses confirmed that the annealed coating is a two-phase (Ni-Ni3Al) composite. The maximum aluminum volume fraction reached 19% at a cathode current density of 12 mA cm-2, and the Vickers microhardness of the as-deposited coatings is in the range 392 - 515 depending on the amount of aluminum incorporated.

  10. 3D-Modeling of deformed halite hopper crystals: Object based image analysis and support vector machine, a first evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Marschallinger, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Halite hopper crystals are thought to develop by displacive growth in unconsolidated mud (Gornitz & Schreiber, 1984). The Alpine Haselgebirge, but also e.g. the salt deposits of the Rhine graben (mined at the beginning of the 20th century), comprise hopper crystals with shapes of cuboids, parallelepipeds and rhombohedrons (Görgey, 1912). Obviously, they deformed under oriented stress, which had been tried to reconstruct with respect to the sedimentary layering (Leitner et al., 2013). In the present work, deformed halite hopper crystals embedded in mudrock were automated reconstructed. Object based image analysis (OBIA) has been used successfully in remote sensing for 2D images before. The present study represents the first time that the method was used for reconstruction of three dimensional geological objects. First, manually a reference (gold standard) was created by redrawing contours of the halite crystals on each HRXCT scanning slice. Then, for OBIA, the computer program eCognition was used. For the automated reconstruction a rule set was developed. Thereby, the strength of OBIA was to recognize all objects similar to halite hopper crystals and in particular to eliminate cracks. In a second step, all the objects unsuitable for a structural deformation analysis were dismissed using a support vector machine (SVM) (clusters, polyhalite-coated crystals and spherical halites) The SVM simultaneously drastically reduced the number of halites. From 184 OBIA-objects 67 well shaped remained, which comes close to the number of pre-selected 52 objects. To assess the accuracy of the automated reconstruction, the result before and after SVM was compared to the reference, i.e. the gold standard. State-of the art per-scene statistics were extended to a per-object statistics. Görgey R (1912) Zur Kenntnis der Kalisalzlager von Wittelsheim im Ober-Elsaß. Tschermaks Mineral Petrogr Mitt 31:339-468 Gornitz VM, Schreiber BC (1981) Displacive halite hoppers from the dead sea

  11. Texture informed crystal plasticity finite element modeling of polycrystalline material deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Zhe

    Metallic materials, such as aluminum, ferrite, magnesium, are used in a wide variety of applications such as structure components of automobiles and plane industry, due to its high strength and low density. It is of great importance to understand the mechanical behavior of these structure metals, such as the relationship between the microstructure and the local deformation and stress state. In this study, a dislocation density based crystal plasticity finite element model has been developed and applied to aluminum and ferrite, respectively. The dislocation is represented as a square loop and its density and other related quantities is tracked explicitly as state variables, based on the crystal kinematics and dislocation related mechanisms. The dislocation generation and annihilation is modeled, in addition, the dislocation flux which is caused by the density gradient is also included in the model. The simulation is then conducted on both single and polycrystalline metallic materials using the initial measured sample texture. Both the experiment and the simulation results indicated localized plastic strain and dislocation patterning, which were controlled by the individual crystallite orientations and the grain boundary effects. The results also revealed that the level of concentrated stress at the grain boundaries depends on misorientation of the interface, besides, grain boundaries and triple junctions had higher hardening effects than the grain interiors. The interaction between the dislocation and the grain boundaries is also incorporated in the model. For the near grain boundary regions, particular consideration and finite element formula is applied to account for the additional activation energy term as well as the geometric compatibility of the grain boundary during dislocation penetration events, both of the energy term and the geometric barrier depend on the grain boundary character. The formulations applied here provide a reasonable methodology to

  12. Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular cleavage fracture.

  13. High temperature deformation of Ti[sub 5]Si[sub 3] single crystals with D8[sub 8] structure

    SciTech Connect

    Umakoshi, Y. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Nakashima, T. )

    1994-06-01

    Silicides with transition metals such as Mo, Nb, W and Ti whose melting temperatures are around or above 2,000 C have been of great interest as the potential candidates for refractory materials operating at more than 1,500 C. Ti[sub 5]Si[sub 3] is also a potential candidate as a refractory material because of its high melting temperature (about 2,130 C), low density (4.32g/cm[sup 3]), high strength and good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. It crystallizes in a hexagonal D8[sub 8] structure. In this paper the orientation and temperature dependence of yield stress of Ti[sub 5]Si[sub 3] single crystals are presented together with the deformation mechanism using these crystals.

  14. Sites of the N1 nitrogen paramagnetic centers in natural diamond crystals: Dissymmetrization of the structure as a result of plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titkov, S. V.; Mineeva, R. M.; Ryabchikov, I. D.; Speransky, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Using the method of EPR spectroscopy, it is shown that the N1 nitrogen centers (N-C-N+) are unevenly distributed over possible sites in natural brown crystals of plastically deformed diamonds. The influence of deformational dissymmetrization of the structure on the anisotropy of some physical properties of natural diamonds is discussed.

  15. Investigation of superplastic behavior of NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al duplex alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhenyun; Lin Dongliang; Gu Yuefeng; Shan Aidang

    1997-12-31

    The superplastic behavior of a NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al duplex alloy was investigated. It was found that the alloy exhibits superplastic behavior over a narrow temperature range, from 975 C to 1,025 C at the strain rate of 1.52 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}s{sup {minus}1}. A maximum tensile elongation of 149% was obtained at 1,000 C with the strain rate sensitivity up to 0.375. The superplastic deformation of the duplex alloy can be approximately described by an empirical equation of the form: {dot {var_epsilon}} = Ao{sup 2.67} exp({minus}303,000/RT). Optical microstructure and TEM observation show that the superplastic behavior mechanism of the investigated alloy is a process of continuous recovery and recrystallization during deformation.

  16. Crystal Plasticity Finite-Element Analysis of Deformation Behavior in Multiple-Grained Lead-Free Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, P.; Bieler, T. R.; Pourboghrat, F.; Lee, Tae-kyu

    2013-02-01

    The elastic and plastic anisotropy of the tin phase in a Pb-free tin-based solder joint has a very important effect on the reliability of solder joints. The crystal plasticity finite-element (CPFE) method takes into account the effect of anisotropy, and it can be used to solve crystal mechanical deformation problems under complicated external and internal boundary conditions imposed by inter- and intragrain micromechanical interactions. In this study, experimental lap-shear test results from the literature are used to calibrate the CPFE model. The spatial neighbor orientation relationships of the crystals were assessed by studying four different sets of orientations using a very simple model to establish a basis for further development of the model. Average shear strain and Schmid factor analyses were applied to study the activity of slip systems. Further optimization of model parameters using comparisons with experiments will be needed to identify more suitable rules for stress evolution among the 10 slip systems in Sn. By suppression of some of the slip systems the CPFE model is able to simulate heterogeneous deformation phenomena that are similar to those observed in experiments. This work establishes a basis for an incremental model development strategy based upon experiments, modeling, and comparative analysis to establish model parameters that could predict the slip processes that lead to damage evolution in lead-free solder joints.

  17. Deformation mechanisms of olivine single crystals compressed at 300 MPa and 800-1100°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, Patrick; Demouchy, Sylvie; Mussi, Alexandre; Tommasi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Rheology of mantle rocks at lithospheric temperatures remains poorly constrained, since most experimental studies on creep mechanisms of olivine single crystals ((MgFe)2SiO4, Pbnm) and polycrystalline olivine aggregates were performed at high-temperatures (T >> 1200oC). In this study, we have performed deformation experiments on oriented single crystals of San Carlos olivine and polycrystalline olivine aggregate at temperatures relevant of the uppermost mantle (ranging from 800o to 1090oC) in tri-axial compression. The experiments were carried out at a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a high-resolution gas-medium mechanical testing apparatus at various constant strain rates (from 7 × 10-6 s-1 to 1 × 10-4 s-1). Mechanical tests yield differential stresses ranging from 88 to 1076 MPa. All samples were deformed at constant displacement rate and for finite strains ranging from 4 to 23 %, to provide insight into possible effects of hardening, softening or stick-and-slip. The single crystals were compressed along several crystallographic directions to test the possibility of activating different slip systems (e.g. [100](001), [001](100), [001](010) and [100](010)). We will present the characterization of the dislocation microstructures performed in the TEM.

  18. Deformation luminescence produced during application and release of pressure on to gamma-irradiated CaF2:RE crystals.

    PubMed

    Kher, R S; Brahme, N; Banerjee, M; Dhoble, S J; Khokhar, M S K

    2006-01-01

    Calcium fluoride CaF2 is an interesting host lattice for rare earth (RE) activators. CaF2 crystals doped with different concentrations of Dy, Ce, Er and Gd have been grown by the Bridgman technique and their deformation luminescence (DL) induced by room temperature gamma irradiation has been recorded. When a uniaxial pressure is applied on to gamma-irradiated CaF2:RE crystals, initially the DL intensity increases with time, attains a maximum value and then it decreases with time. Although the DL intensity produced during the release of pressure is less, its rise and decay behaviours are similar to that obtained during the application of pressure. The DL intensity depends on dopant, concentration of dopant, irradiation doses and mass of the load or applied pressure. It is suggested that the moving dislocation produced during deformation of crystals capture holes from hole trapped centres (like perturbed Vk centre) and the subsequent radiative recombination of the dislocation holes with electrons give rise to DL. PMID:16698970

  19. Effect of Mo addition on the crystal texture and deformation twin formation in Zr-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Y. B.; Hwang, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Kwun, S. I.; Chae, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    The effect of Mo on the crystal texture of Zr-Nb and Zr-Nb-Mo alloys was studied. Molybdenum addition reduced the average sizes of the equiaxed α grains and the packets considerably. In the Zr-Nb alloy specimens free of Mo, the intensity of the normal basal texture increased with the initial grain size, which was attributed to the enhanced probability of twinning in coarse grains. Molybdenum also reduced the intensity of the normal basal texture of the Zr alloys, indicating a possible change in the mode of deformation caused by Mo addition. Moreover, the texture shift of the Zr alloys from ND-TD to ND-RD during annealing heat treatment was accelerated by Mo addition. Weakening of the normal basal texture in the cold-worked Mo-containing alloy, therefore, was attributed to the microstructural refinement and the change in the deformation mode.

  20. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator. PMID:26395721

  1. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  2. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal–transition metal and transition metal–metalloid (TM–M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM–M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  3. Crystallization-aided extraordinary plastic deformation in nanolayered crystalline Cu/amorphous Cu-Zr micropillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2013-07-01

    Metallic glasses are lucrative engineering materials owing to their superior mechanical properties such as high strength and great elastic strain. However, the Achilles' heel of metallic amorphous materials -- low plasticity caused by instantaneous catastrophic shear banding, significantly undercut their structural applications. Here, the nanolayered crystalline Cu/amorphous Cu-Zr micropillars with equal layer thickness spanning from 20-100 nm are uniaxially compressed and it is found that the Cu/Cu-Zr micropillars exhibit superhigh homogeneous deformation (>= 30% strain) rather than localized shear banding at room temperature. This extraordinary plasticity is aided by the deformation-induced devitrification via absorption/annihilation of abundant dislocations, triggering the cooperative shearing of shear transformation zones in glassy layers, which simultaneously renders the work-softening. The synthesis of such heterogeneous nanolayered structure not only hampers shear band generation but also provides a viable route to enhance the controllability of plastic deformation in metallic glassy composites via deformation-induced devitrification mechanism.

  4. Experimental Deformation of Olivine Single Crystal at Mantle P and T: Pressure Effect on Olivine Dislocation Slip-System Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R.; Girard, J.; Chen, J.; Amiguet, E.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic velocity anisotropies observed in the upper mantle are interpreted from lattice preferred orientations (LPO) produced experimentally in olivine, which depends on the dominant dislocation slip systems. At low pressure P<3 GPa, mantle temperature (T) and in dry conditions, olivine [100] dislocation slip dominates the less active [001] slip. This tends to align crystal fast velocity [100] axis with the principal shear direction. Yet recent high-pressure deformation experiments (Couvy et al., 2004, EJM, 16, 877; Raterron et al., 2007, Am. Min., 92, 1436; Raterron et al., 2008, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2008.07.026) show that [001](010) slip system dominates [100](010) system in the (P,T) range of the deep upper mantle. This may promote a shear-parallel slow-velocity [001] axis and may explain the seismic-velocity attenuation observed at depth >200 km (Mainprice et al., 2005, Nature, 433, 731). In order to further constrain the effect of P on olivine slip system activities, which is classically quantified by the activation volume V* in power creep laws, deformation experiments were carried out in poor water condition, at P>5 GPa and T=1400°C, on pure forsterite (Fo100) and San Carlos olivine crystals, using the Deformation-DIA apparatus at the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS (Upton, NY). Ten crystals were oriented in order to active either [100] slip alone or [001] slip alone in (010) plane, or both [100](001) and [001](100) systems together. Constant applied stress σ <300 MPa and specimen strain rates were monitored in situ using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively, for a total of 27 investigated steady state conditions. The obtained rheological data were compared with data previously obtained in comparable T and σ conditions, but at room P, by Darot and Gueguen (1981, JGR, 86, 6219) for Fo100 and by Bai et al. (1991, JGR, 96, 2441) for San Carlos olivine. This new set of data confirms previous deformation data

  5. Low strength of Earth's uppermost mantle inferred from tri-axial deformation experiments on dry olivine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, Sylvie; Tommasi, Andréa; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Cordier, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    We have performed tri-axial compression experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine with various orientations at temperatures relevant for the uppermost mantle, between 800 and 1090 °C. The experiments were carried out at a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a high-resolution gas-medium mechanical testing apparatus at various constant strain rates (from 7 × 10-6 s-1 to 1 × 10-4 s-1); they yield differential stresses ranging from 88 to 754 MPa. Unpolarized infrared spectroscopy analyses indicate that hydrogen concentration in the olivine lattice is very low (<0.5 ppm wt H2O) both before and after deformation. Transmission electron microscopy confirms plastic deformation by dislocation glide. [0 0 1] glide dominates regardless of the orientation of the crystals, even if very marginal [1 0 0] glide has also been activated in some samples. Orientation mapping by electron backscatter diffraction highlights significant local deviations from the original orientation in some samples associated with bending and deformation bands. These strain localizations suggest a heterogeneous mechanical behavior in this temperature range, which is favored by the strong mechanical anisotropy of the olivine crystal. The present experiments confirm that previous published high-temperature flow laws (i.e., power flow law) overestimate the strength of lithospheric mantle, since all samples deformed under stresses significantly lower than predicted by these flow laws. Based on the present results and on a compilation of previously published data on olivine deformation between 500 and 1000 °C, we propose a new semi-empirical exponential flow law applicable to the uppermost mantle: ɛ˙=1±0.2×106exp-{450±60×103}/{RT}12 where T is the absolute temperature, R is the gas constant, and σ is the differential stress in GPa. Subsequently, small fractions of melt or incorporation of hydrogen in olivine may not be required to reconcile natural observations indicating a limited strength

  6. Role of the static and dynamic aging of dislocations in the kinetics of deformation of doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, B. V.

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for calculating yield stresses in doped crystals and solid solutions with inclusion of the static and dynamic aging of dislocations. An analytical description of the kinetics of deformation of these materials in the vicinity of the upper yield stress has been proposed. The stage character of stress-strain curves due to the dislocation immobilization by impurity atmospheres formed around dislocations has been demonstrated. The theory is applicable to the calculation of the impurity and solid solution hardening of semiconductors, metals with body-centered cubic (bcc) structure, intermetallic compounds, and other materials.

  7. Features of the uniaxial elastic deformation of X-ray-irradiated p-Si crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlyk, B. V.; Lys, R. M. Didyk, R. I.; Shykorjak, J. A.

    2015-05-15

    Changes in the conductivity of p-Si single-crystals irradiated at room temperature during their mechanical compression and stress relief are studied. It is shown that irradiation is accompanied by the generation of point defects in silicon, which play the role of stoppers for dislocation motion. The effect of “radiation memory” in “electronic” silicon crystals is detected.

  8. Cyclic Plastic Deformation, Fatigue, and the Associated Micro-Mechanisms in Magnesium: From Single Crystal to Polycrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qin

    Magnesium and its alloys have received substantial interests as the government initiatives on energy saving and environment protection demand an increasing use of lightweight materials in structural parts, especially in transportation industries. A good understanding of fatigue behavior in magnesium is critical to ensure the reliability and durability of the magnesium components. Unlike the body centered cubic and face centered cubic metals, fundamental knowledge concerning the cyclic deformation and fatigue in hexagonal close packed magnesium is limited. The current research aims at a better understanding of the micro-mechanisms associated with the cyclic deformation and fatigue of magnesium. Magnesium single crystal was chosen to study the fundamental twinning/detwinning process while extruded polycrystalline pure magnesium was studied for the fatigue damage mechanisms. Cyclic deformation and the corresponding morphology evolution of {1 0 1¯ 2} twinning-detwinning-retwinning are, for the first time, characterized in magnesium single crystal under fully reserved strain-controlled tension-compression utilizing in situ optical microscopy. As loading cycles are increased, the activity of twinning-detwinning-retwinning gradually decreases. Microscopy after fatigue shows that the matrix region having experienced repeated twinning-detwinning cannot be completely detwinned to its original crystal orientation. Fragmented secondary tension twins are found to result from twin-twin interactions. Various twin-twin interaction structures exist in fatigued magnesium single crystal: quilted-looking twin structure, "apparent crossing" twin structure, and double tension twin structure. According to the crystallography of magnesium, twin-twin interactions are classified into Type I for two twin variants sharing the same zone axis and Type II for two twins with different zone axes. For Type I twin-twin interactions, one twin does not transmit across the twin boundary and into the

  9. Powder processing of NiAl for elevated temperature strength

    SciTech Connect

    Whittenberger, J.D.; Hebsur, M.; Grahle, P.; Arzt, E.; Behr, R.; Zoeltzer, K.

    1997-12-31

    In an effort to superimpose two different elevated temperature strengthening mechanisms in NiAl, one lot of an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) NiAl powder has been milled in liquid nitrogen (cryomilled) to introduce AlN particles at the grain boundaries, and a second lot of ODS powder was simply roasted in gaseous nitrogen as an alternative means to produce AlN reinforced grain boundaries. Powder from both of these lots as well as the starting material have been consolidated by hot extrusion and tested at 1,300 K. Both nitrogen roasting and cryomilling produced AlN within the ODS NiAl matrix which strengthened the alloy; however, based on the AlN content, cryomilling is more effective.

  10. Crystallization-aided extraordinary plastic deformation in nanolayered crystalline Cu/amorphous Cu-Zr micropillars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J. Y.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2013-01-01

    Metallic glasses are lucrative engineering materials owing to their superior mechanical properties such as high strength and great elastic strain. However, the Achilles' heel of metallic amorphous materials — low plasticity caused by instantaneous catastrophic shear banding, significantly undercut their structural applications. Here, the nanolayered crystalline Cu/amorphous Cu-Zr micropillars with equal layer thickness spanning from 20–100 nm are uniaxially compressed and it is found that the Cu/Cu-Zr micropillars exhibit superhigh homogeneous deformation (≥ 30% strain) rather than localized shear banding at room temperature. This extraordinary plasticity is aided by the deformation-induced devitrification via absorption/annihilation of abundant dislocations, triggering the cooperative shearing of shear transformation zones in glassy layers, which simultaneously renders the work-softening. The synthesis of such heterogeneous nanolayered structure not only hampers shear band generation but also provides a viable route to enhance the controllability of plastic deformation in metallic glassy composites via deformation-induced devitrification mechanism. PMID:23900595

  11. Low- cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline nial at 1000 k

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, B. A.; Noebe, R. D.

    1994-02-01

    The low-cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl was determined at 1000 K, a temperature above the monotonic brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT). Fully reversed, plastic strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on B2 intermetallic samples prepared by two fab-rication techniques: hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of prealloyed powders and extrusion of vacuum induction-melted [cast plus extruded (C+E)] castings. At 1000 K, in an air environment both the hot-isostatically pressed (“hipped”) and C + E samples cyclically softened throughout most of their fatigue lives, though the absolute change in stress was no greater than about 35 MPa. At this temperature, samples were insensitive to processing defects, which were a source of failure initiation in room-temperature tests. The processing method had a small effect on fatigue life; the lives of the hipped samples were about a factor of 3 shorter than the fatigue lives of the C+E NiAl. The C+E material also underwent dynamic grain growth during testing, while the hipped NiAl maintained a constant grain size. Stable fatigue-crack growth in both materials was intergranular in nature, while final fracture by tensile overload occurred by transgranular cleavage. However, at plastic strain ranges below 0.3 pct, the fatigue lives of the hipped NiAl were controlled by intergranular cavitation and creep processes such that the fatigue lives were shorter than anticipated. Finally, hipped samples tested in vacuum had a factor of 3 longer life than specimens tested in air. A comparison of NiAl to typical superalloys (which it may replace) showed that NiAl exhibited a superior fatigue life on a plastic strain basis but was inferior to most superalloys on a stress basis.

  12. Joining of NiAl to nickel-base alloys by transient liquid phase bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, Z.A.M.; Guan, Y.; Gale, W.F.

    1999-07-01

    A transmission and scanning electron microscope investigation is undertaken to study microstructural development during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of NiAl to Ni-base substrates. The bonds were produced through a conventional technique employing a Cu foil interlayer or a wide-gap technique using a composite preform containing powders of NiAl and Cu. The time required for completion of isothermal solidification was greatly reduced in wide-gap bonds as compared to conventional bonds. Microstructural features of conventional TLP bonds of polycrystalline-NiAl/Ni were controlled by the ratio of Al: Cu across the joint. The precipitation of the {sigma} phase encountered in polycrystalline-NiAl/Martin Marietta 247 superalloy (MM247) bonds was suppressed in wide-gap bonds of single crystal-NiAl(Hf) and MM247. In general, the extent of second phase precipitation, in the as-bonded condition, was greatly reduced by the use of the wide-gap technique. However, extensive precipitation of HfC and W-rich phases was observed after post-bond heat treatments.

  13. Atomistic simulation of point defects and diffusion in B2 NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, Y.; Farkas, D.

    1998-08-04

    NiAl is a strongly ordered compound with a large atomic size difference between the components. Due to these features it demonstrates the so-called triple-defect mechanism of compositional disorder with Ni anti-structural atoms in Ni-rich compositions and Ni vacancies in Al-rich compositions. Diffusion mechanisms in triple-defect compounds are more involved than in antisite disorder compounds. Because every Ni atom in the B2 structure is surrounded by Al atoms and vise versa, every nearest-neighbor (NN) jump of a vacancy induces local disorder, which is very unfavorable. The authors therefore have to consider diffusion of Ni and Al along their own sublattices by next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) vacancy jumps. Alternatively, one can think of cycled mechanisms in which the crystal order is destroyed only locally and temporarily, but is totally restored when the diffusion cycle is complete. In this study the authors apply molecular statics simulations to evaluate the energetics of the point defect formation and migration in NiAl by different mechanisms. The goal of their simulations is to predict the mechanisms that are the easiest, thus dominating, at different alloy compositions.

  14. Physicochemical investigation of NiAl with small molybdenum additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troshkina, V. A.; Kucherenko, L. A.; Fadeeva, V. I.; Aristova, N. M.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of four cast NiAl alloys, three of them containing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at. % Mo., were homogenized for 10, 10, and 140 hr at 1373, 1523 and 1273 K, respectively, then kept at 1073, 1173 and 1323 K for 60, 120 and 3 hr, respectively, and quenched in icy water. The precipitation of a metastable Ni3Mo phase was observed at temperatures between 1073 and 1523 K. Molybdenum substituted for nickel was found to inhibit the lattice disordering in NiAl at 1073 and 1523 K.

  15. Characterization and modeling of mechanical behavior of single crystal titanium deformed by split-Hopkinson pressure bar

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morrow, B. M.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Trujillo, C. P.; Martinez, D. T.; Addessio, F. L.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Lookman, T.; Cerreta, E. K.

    2016-07-01

    Single crystal titanium samples were dynamically loaded using split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and the resulting microstructures were examined. Characterization of the twins and dislocations present in the microstructure was conducted to understand the pathway for observed mechanical behavior. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to measure textures and quantify twinning. Microstructures were profusely twinned after loading, and twin variants and corresponding textures were different as a function of initial orientation. Focused ion beam (FIB) foils were created to analyze dislocation content using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Large amounts of dislocations were present, indicating that plasticity was achieved through slip andmore » twinning together. Viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) modeling was used to confirm the complex order of operations during deformation. The activation of different mechanisms was highly dependent upon crystal orientation. For [0001] and View the MathML source[101¯1]-oriented crystals, compressive twinning was observed, followed by secondary tensile twinning. Furthermore, dislocations though prevalent in the microstructure, contributed to final texture far less than twinning.« less

  16. The deformation micro-structures and the relationships of crystal orientation between olivine and antigorite in serpentinized peridotite from Toba area, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Y.; Morishita, T.; Wenk, H.-R.

    2012-04-01

    Foliated serpentinite with lattice preferred orientation (LPO) has strong elastic anisotropy, and is considered as a cause for seismic anisotropy observed in subduction zones (Katayama et al., 2009; Jung, 2011). However, deformation mechanisms of antigorite LPO are unclear. We measured crystal orientation of antigorite and olivine, to clarify the chronological relations between shear deformation and formation of antigorite LPO. The crystal orientations are measured by the U-stage optically. In addition, we try to measure the antigorite orientations by EBSD. The studied samples are from lenticular serpentinite bodies intruded in a Jurassic accretionary complex, Toba area, southwest Japan. Shear zones (

  17. Tendency of metallic crystals to amorphization in the process of severe (Megaplastic) deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glezer, A. M.; Sundeev, R. V.; Shalimova, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    The main features of the transition of crystalline Ni50Ti30Hf20, Ti50Ni25Cu25, Zr50Ni18Ti17Cu15, and Fe78B8.5Si9P4.5 alloys with various tendencies to amorphization into an amorphous state upon melt quenching and in the course of severe deformation in Bridgman anvils have been considered. The crystalline state of these alloys has been produced using various methods of annealing. In the iron-based alloy, single-phase and two-phase crystalline states have been studied. The nickel- and titanium-based alloys after annealing were in a single-phase crystalline state; the zirconium-based alloy, in a two-phase state. It is shown that at the same degree of deformation the rates of amorphization of crystalline alloys differ substantially; namely, the single-phase crystalline titanium- and iron-based alloys amorphize easily, whereas the Zr-based alloy amorphizes only poorly, just like the two-phase iron-based alloy. It can be assumed that the tendency to deformation-induced amorphization of crystalline alloys and the corresponding crystalline phases is mainly determined by three factors: mechanical, thermodynamic, and concentration-related.

  18. Preparation, glass forming ability, crystallization and deformation of (zirconium, hafnium)-copper-nickel-aluminum-titanium-based bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaofeng

    Multicomponent Zr-based bulk metallic glasses are the most promising metallic glass forming systems. They exhibit great glass forming ability and fascinating mechanical properties, and thus are considered as potential structural materials. One potential application is that they could be replacements of the depleted uranium for making kinetic energy armor-piercing projectiles, but the density of existing Zr-based alloys is too low for this application. Based on the chemical and crystallographic similarities between Zr and Hf, we have developed two series of bulk metallic glasses with compositions of (HfxZr1-x) 52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 and (HfxZr1-x) 57Cu20Ni8Al10Ti5 ( x = 0--1) by gradually replacing Zr by Hf. Remarkably increased density and improved mechanical properties have been achieved in these alloys. In these glasses, Hf and Zr play an interchangeable role in determining the short range order. Although the glass forming ability decreases continuously with Hf addition, most of these alloys remain bulk glass-forming. Recently, nanocomposites produced from bulk metallic glasses have attracted wide attention due to improved mechanical properties. However, their crystalline microstructure (the grain size and the crystalline volume fraction) has to be optimized. We have investigated crystallization of (Zr, Hf)-based bulk metallic glasses, including the composition dependence of crystallization paths and crystallization mechanisms. Our results indicate that the formation of high number density nanocomposites from bulk metallic glasses can be attributed to easy nucleation and slowing-down growth processes, while the multistage crystallization behavior makes it more convenient to control the microstructure evolution. Metallic glasses are known to exhibit unique plastic deformation behavior. At low temperature and high stress, plastic flow is localized in narrow shear bands. Macroscopic investigations of shear bands (e.g., chemical etching) suggest that the internal

  19. Confined crystallization, crystalline phase deformation and their effects on the properties of crystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haopeng

    With the recent advances in processing and catalyst technology, novel morphologies have been created in crystalline polymers and they are expected to substantially impact the properties. To reveal the structure-property relationships of some of these novel polymeric systems becomes the primary focus of this work. In the first part, using an innovative layer-multiplying coextrusion process to obtain assemblies with thousands of polymer nanolayers, dominating "in-plane" lamellar crystals were created when the confined poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layers were made progressively thinner. When the thickness was confined to 25 nanometers, the PEO crystallized as single, high-aspect-ratio lamellae that resembled single crystals. This crystallization habit imparted more than two orders of magnitude reduction in the gas permeability. The dramatic decrease in gas permeability was attributed to the reduced diffusion coefficient, because of the increase in gas diffusion path length through the in-plane lamellae. The temperature dependence of lamellar orientation and the crystallization kinetics in the confined nanolayers were also investigated. The novel olefinic block copolymer (OBC) studied in the second part consisted of long crystallizable sequences with low comonomer content alternating with rubbery amorphous blocks with high comonomer content. The crystallizable blocks formed lamellae that organized into space-filling spherulites even when the fraction of crystallizable block was so low that the crystallinity was only 7%. These unusual spherulites were highly elastic and recovered from strains as high as 300%. These "elastic spherulites" imparted higher strain recovery and temperature resistance than the conventional random copolymers that depend on isolated, fringed micellar-like crystals to provide the junctions for the elastomeric network. In the third part, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to obtain the temperature dependence of the free

  20. Phase-field-crystal modeling of glass-forming liquids: Spanning time scales during vitrification, aging, and deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Joel; Grant, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Two essential elements required to generate a glass transition within phase-field-crystal (PFC) models are outlined based on observed freezing behaviors in various models of this class. The central dynamic features of glass formation in simple binary liquids are qualitatively reproduced across 12 orders of magnitude in time by applying a physically motivated time scaling to previous PFC simulation results. New aspects of the equilibrium phase behavior of the same binary model system are also outlined, aging behavior is explored in the moderate and deeply supercooled regimes, and aging exponents are extracted. General features of the elastic and plastic responses of amorphous and crystalline PFC solids under deformation are also compared and contrasted.

  1. Phase-field-crystal modeling of glass-forming liquids: spanning time scales during vitrification, aging, and deformation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joel; Grant, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Two essential elements required to generate a glass transition within phase-field-crystal (PFC) models are outlined based on observed freezing behaviors in various models of this class. The central dynamic features of glass formation in simple binary liquids are qualitatively reproduced across 12 orders of magnitude in time by applying a physically motivated time scaling to previous PFC simulation results. New aspects of the equilibrium phase behavior of the same binary model system are also outlined, aging behavior is explored in the moderate and deeply supercooled regimes, and aging exponents are extracted. General features of the elastic and plastic responses of amorphous and crystalline PFC solids under deformation are also compared and contrasted. PMID:25019772

  2. Tensile Creep of Polycrystalline Near-Stoichiometric NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2002-01-01

    Long term tensile creep studies were conducted on binary NiAl in the temperature range 700-1200 K with the objectives of characterizing and understanding the creep mechanisms. Inverse and normal primary creep curves were observed depending on stress and temperature. It was concluded that the creep of NiAl is limited by dislocation mobility. The stress exponent for creep, n, increased from 5.5 at 1200 K to 13.9 at 700 K. The true activation energy for creep, Qc, was constant and equal to about 400 kJ per mole between 20 and 50 MPa but decreased to a constant value of 250 kJ per mole between 50 and 110 MPa. The activation energy was observed to be stress dependent above 110 MPa. The tensile creep results reported in this investigation were compared with compression creep data reported in the literature. A detailed discussion of the probable dislocation creep mechanisms governing compressive and tensile creep of NiAl is presented. It is concluded that the non-conservative motion of jogs on screw dislocations influenced the nature of the primary creep curves, where the climb of these jogs involves either the next nearest neighbor or the six-jump cycle vacancy diffusion mechanism. The probable nature of the atom vacancy exchange that occur within the core of an edge dislocation undergoing climb in NiAl are schematically examined.

  3. Thermal deformation of cryogenically cooled silicon crystals under intense X-ray beams: measurement and finite-element predictions of the surface shape.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Sánchez Del Río, Manuel; Monaco, Giulio; Detlefs, Carsten; Roth, Thomas; Chumakov, Aleksandr I; Glatzel, Pieter

    2013-07-01

    X-ray crystal monochromators exposed to white-beam X-rays in third-generation synchrotron light sources are subject to thermal deformations that must be minimized using an adequate cooling system. A new approach was used to measure the crystal shape profile and slope of several cryogenically cooled (liquid nitrogen) silicon monochromators as a function of beam power in situ and under heat load. The method utilizes multiple angular scans across the Bragg peak (rocking curve) at various vertical positions of a narrow-gap slit downstream from the monochromator. When increasing the beam power, the surface of the liquid-nitrogen-cooled silicon crystal deforms from a concave shape at low heat load to a convex shape at high heat load, passing through an approximately flat shape at intermediate heat load. Finite-element analysis is used to calculate the crystal thermal deformations. The simulated crystal profiles and slopes are in excellent agreement with experiments. The parameters used in simulations, such as material properties, absorbed power distribution on the crystal and cooling boundary conditions, are described in detail as they are fundamental for obtaining accurate results. PMID:23765298

  4. Thermal deformation of cryogenically cooled silicon crystals under intense X-ray beams: measurement and finite-element predictions of the surface shape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Sánchez del Río, Manuel; Monaco, Giulio; Detlefs, Carsten; Roth, Thomas; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Glatzel, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    X-ray crystal monochromators exposed to white-beam X-rays in third-generation synchrotron light sources are subject to thermal deformations that must be minimized using an adequate cooling system. A new approach was used to measure the crystal shape profile and slope of several cryogenically cooled (liquid nitrogen) silicon monochromators as a function of beam power in situ and under heat load. The method utilizes multiple angular scans across the Bragg peak (rocking curve) at various vertical positions of a narrow-gap slit downstream from the monochromator. When increasing the beam power, the surface of the liquid-nitrogen-cooled silicon crystal deforms from a concave shape at low heat load to a convex shape at high heat load, passing through an approximately flat shape at intermediate heat load. Finite-element analysis is used to calculate the crystal thermal deformations. The simulated crystal profiles and slopes are in excellent agreement with experiments. The parameters used in simulations, such as material properties, absorbed power distribution on the crystal and cooling boundary conditions, are described in detail as they are fundamental for obtaining accurate results. PMID:23765298

  5. Anisotropic friction, deformation, and fracture of single-crystal silicon carbide at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Anisotropic friction, deformation, and fracture studies were conducted with /0001/, /10(-1)0/, and /11(-2)0/ silicon carbide surfaces in sliding contact with diamond. The experiments were conducted with loads of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 N at a sliding velocity of 3 mm/min in mineral oil or in dry argon at room temperature. The 1010 direction on the basal /0001/ plane exhibits the lowest coefficient of friction and the greatest resistance to abrasion for silicon carbide. Anisotropic friction and deformation of the /0001/, /10(-1)0/, and /11(-2)0/ silicon carbide surfaces are primarily controlled by the slip system /10(-1)0/ 11(-2)0. The anisotropic fracture during sliding on the basal plane is due to surface cracking along /10(-1)0/ and subsurface cracking along /0001/. The fracture during sliding on the /11(-2)0/ or /10(-1)0/ surfaces is due to surface cracking along /0001/ and /11(-2)0/ or /10(-1)-1 and to subsurface cracking along /10(-1)0/.

  6. Interfacial Shear Strength of Cast and Directionally Solidified Nial-Sapphire Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Asthana, R.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating intermetallic NiAl-sapphire fiber composites by casting and zone directional solidification has been examined. The fiber-matrix interfacial shear strengths measured using a fiber push-out technique in both cast and directionally solidified composites are greater than the strengths reported for composites fabricated by powder cloth process using organic binders. Microscopic examination of fibers extracted from cast, directionally solidified (DS), and thermally cycled composites, and the high values of interfacial shear strengths suggest that the fiber-matrix interface does not degrade due to casting and directional solidification. Sapphire fibers do not pin grain boundaries during directional solidification, suggesting that this technique can be used to fabricate sapphire fiber reinforced NiAl composites with single crystal matrices.

  7. Deformation of Single Crystal Sample using D-DI Apparatus Coupled with Synchrotron X-rays: Insitu Stress and Strain Measurements at High Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, J.; Chen, J; Raterron, P; Holyoke, C

    2010-01-01

    We present a technique for high pressure and high temperature deformation experiment on single crystals, using the Deformation-DIA apparatus at the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS. While deformation experiments on polycrystalline samples using D-DIA in conjunction with synchrotrons have been previously reported, this technical paper focuses on single crystal application of the technique. Our single crystals are specifically oriented such that only [1 0 0] slip or [0 0 1] slip in (0 1 0) plane is allowed. Constant applied stress (sigma <300 MPa) and specimen strain rates were monitored using in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and radiography imaging, respectively. Rheological properties of each activated slip system in the crystals can be revealed using this technique. In this paper, we describe the principle of sample preparation (e.g. [1 1 0]c and [0 1 1]c orientations) to activate specific slip systems (i.e. [1 0 0](0 1 0) and [0 0 1](0 1 0), respectively), stress measurement and procedures of the deformation experiments.

  8. Effect of Processing Route on Strain Controlled Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Polycrystalline NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Lerch, B. A.; Noebe, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation examines the effects of manufacturing process on the total axial strain controlled low cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl at 1000 K, a temperature above the monotonic Brittle-to-Ductile Transition Temperature (BDTT). The nickel aluminide samples were produced by three different processing routes: hot isostatic pressing of pre- alloyed powders, extrusion of prealloyed powders, and extrusion of vacuum induction melted ingots. The LCF behavior of the cast plus extruded material was also determined at room temperature (below the BD77) for comparison to the high temperature data. The cyclic stress response, cyclic stress-strain behavior, and strain-life relationships were influenced by the alloy preparation technique and the testing temperature. Detailed characterization of the LCF tested samples was conducted by optical and electron microscopy to determine the variations in fracture and deformation modes and to determine any microstructural changes that occurred during LCF testing. The dependence of LCF properties on processing route was rationalized on the basis of starting microstructure, brittle-to-ductile transition temperature, deformation induced changes in the basic microstructure, deformation substructure, and synergistic interaction between the damage modes.

  9. Electromagnetic emission memory phenomena related to LiF ionic crystal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatou, C.; Tombras, G. S.; Ninos, D.; Hadjicontis, V.

    2008-04-01

    During the uniaxial compression of LiF ionic monocrystals, acoustic and electromagnetic emissions (EME) are detected. We observed that when the compression is performed in successive loading, unloading cycles and these emissions are being monitored, no new emissions will occur unless the maximum stress of the previous cycle is exceeded, meaning that the material presents memory characteristics. This is observed not only for the acoustic emission (AE), which is the well known Kaiser effect, but for the EME as well. In other words, the material appears to memorize and reveal the previously maximum stress it suffered while being deformed. The importance of an electromagnetic memory feature of a material can be related to various applications in material science, especially when the detection of AE is not feasible or gives false alert. Such cases may very well be earthquakes' predictive indications, monitoring of mines' stability, imminent landslides, etc.

  10. Extreme Decompression-induced Crystallization During the 2004-present Eruption of Mount St. Helens Implications for Shallow Deformation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Pallister, J. S.; Thornber, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Decompression-induced crystallization may control both the ascent rate and eruption style of hydrous magmas. While rapid magma evacuation accompanying plinian eruptions can transfer magma from storage regions to the surface with little modification other than degassing, slow to moderate rates of magma ascent permit efficient degassing and crystallization of both phenocryst (particularly plagioclase) and groundmass phases. In the extreme, very slow magma ascent leads to complete solidification of magma within the conduit, forming either plugs or large spines. Seven such spines extruded from Mount St. Helens from 2004 to present are remarkable for their carapaces of striated fault gouge. Examination of individual outcrops shows transitions from competent flow banded dacite to breccia, cataclasite, to finely comminuted and variably consolidated gouge. Field, hand specimen, and thin section observations of these cataclastic dome facies provide new constraints on interactions between rates of magma ascent, degassing, crystallization, and brittle fragmentation, interactions that control the dynamics of lava extrusion. Within the gouge zone, dome fragments are holocrystalline as the result of complete solidification along conduit margins prior to brittle fragmentation. Sequential breakage along the margin then created zones of breccia, cataclasite, and powdery fault gouge. Continued slip created narrow slickenside planes within the gouge that comprise thin (1 mm) zones of foliated ultracataclasite. The grain size reduction along these slip zones, the entrainment of shattered grains into foliated bands, and the rounding and abrasion of larger clasts outside the slickenside planes, show that the gouge zone developed as the result of large shear strains along the conduit margin. This inference is reasonable given a solidification depth of 400-500 m (estimated from experimental phase relations), above which brittle deformation was concentrated along the conduit margin. Near

  11. Spatial organization of plastic deformation in single crystals with different structure of slip dislocation

    SciTech Connect

    Kunitsyna, T. S.; Teplyakova, L. A. Koneva, N. A.; Poltaranin, M. A.

    2015-10-27

    It is established that different structure of slip dislocation at the end of the linear hardening stage results in different distribution of dislocation charges in the volume of a single crystal. In the alloy with a near atomic order the slip of single dislocations leads to formation of planar structures—layers with the excess density of dislocations. In the alloy with long-range atomic order the slip of superdislocations brings the formation of the system of parallel rod-like charged dislocation linking.

  12. Monoclinic deformation of the crystal lattice of hematite α-Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przeniosło, Radosław; Sosnowska, Izabela; Stękiel, Michał; Wardecki, Dariusz; Fitch, Andrew; B. Jasiński, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Lineshape analysis of high resolution synchrotron radiation diffraction patterns of polycrystalline α-Fe2O3 powders show distortions from trigonal (space group R-3c) symmetry. The symmetry lowering is observed for α-Fe2O3 polycrystalline powders from several commercial vendors. The experimental observations can be explained by assuming a monoclinic symmetry (space group C2/c). The relative differences between the monoclinic and the hexagonal lattice constants are of the order of 10-4. The monoclinic symmetry of the crystal structure of α-Fe2O3 (C2/c) is in agreement with magnetic space group analysis [American Mineralogist 95 (2010) 974].

  13. Influence of partial shape memory deformation on the burst character of its recovery in heated Ni-Fe-Ga-Co alloy crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, V. I.; Yakushev, P. N.; Malygin, G. A.; Averkin, A. I.; Pulnev, S. A.; Zograf, G. P.; Kustov, S. B.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2016-04-01

    Room-temperature stress-strain curves of Ni49Fe18Ga27Co6 alloy single crystals possessing shape memory (SM) have been studied. Specific features of these diagrams are revealed upon compressive loading of these single crystals in the [110] A direction. The influence of preliminary SM deformation on the process of its recovery during the reverse martensite transformation has been studied. It is established that SM deformation above 4.2% leads to a sharp increase in the shape recovery on heating and the process exhibits a burst character, involving motion of the entire crystal. The experimental data are analyzed and stress-strain curves are simulated in the framework of the theory of diffuse martensitic transitions.

  14. On the mechanism of deformation of an yttrium-aluminum garnet crystal surface under the action of a nanosecond broadband laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskii, N. E.; Zavedeev, E. V.; Senatskii, Yu. V.

    2015-04-01

    Craters on the surface of an yttrium-aluminum garnet crystal plate under irradiation by nanosecond laser pulses with an intensity of 109-1010 W/cm2 and a wide (˜500Å) spectrum have been studied. The mechanism of crater formation as a result of plastic deformation of the surface during the laser action has been discussed. The proposed mechanism takes into account specific features of nonlinear effects under the action of a broadband radiation on the medium. In the stimulated Brillouin scattering of pumping radiation, acoustic waves transform into shock waves, on the fronts of which stimulated Raman scattering develops. As a result, crystal lattice defects formed on the shock-wave fronts are dragged in the direction of pumping, which leads to a high-rate deformation of the crystal surface.

  15. A natural example of crystal-plastic deformation enhancing the incorporation of water into quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Gayle C.; DeSisto, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Water content of quartz in and around a greenschist facies mylonitic shear zone located in the western Adirondacks was analyzed by micro-FTIR spectroscopy. The shear zone is within a pegmatitic dike, which cuts across a granitic gneiss. The thickness of the shear zone varies along strike from 15 cm wide and encompassing all of the pegmatite dike at its northern most exposure to 5 cm wide approximately 10 m south, along strike. Microstructures, including quartz ribbons and recrystallized grains, indicate quartz and feldspar within the mylonite underwent dislocation creep. Infrared spectral analysis was carried out using a Nicolet micro-FTIR on mylonitic quartz ribbons, pegmatitic quartz and gneissic quartz. A small aperture size (56 μm by 50 μm) for the IR beam allowed optically clear regions of the quartz grains to be analyzed without any contribution from grain boundaries. The smallest dimension of the quartz ribbons is 0.3 mm, whereas the pegmatitic quartz has a grain size of 3 to 5 cm. Results show mylonitic quartz ribbons contain the most water (320 H:10 6 Si average, range of 50 to 1120 H:10 6 Si); pegmatite quartz contains much less water (30 H:10 6 Si average, range of 20-40 H:10 6 Si) and the gneissic quartz contained an intermediate amount (200 H:10 6 Si average, range of 20 to 870 H:10 6 Si). These data indicate that water was preferentially incorporated into the deformed quartz ribbons.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of Bauschinger's effect in deformed copper single crystal in different strain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Zhang, H.; Li, D. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic pre-strain may decrease the yield strength of metallic materials when stressed in the opposite direction, known as Bauschinger's effect, which could considerably influence the performance of the materials. However, various processes on microscopic level associated with the Bauschinger's effect are still not clear. In this study, defect generation, movement and annihilation in single crystal copper during cyclic tension-compression loading processes were simulated using the molecular dynamics method. It was observed that Bauschinger's effect was asymmetrical and the strain hardening was more profound during compression. After plastic compression, the tensile fracture strain was increased. The absorbed energy was self-adjusted during the tension-compression cycles and kept relatively stable during the loading cycles. Efforts were made to understand the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena.

  17. The high temperature deformation in cyclic loading of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Welsch, G.

    1989-01-01

    The high temperature cyclic stress softening response of the single crystal nickel-base superalloy PWA 1480 was investigated. Specimens oriented near the 001- and 111-lines were tested at 1050 C in low-cycle fatigue and then microstructurally evaluated. The 001- and 111-line specimens had dissimilar flow behavior in monotonic tensile tests, but comparable softening in low-cycle fatigue. This softening was accompanied by rapid generation of dislocation networks at the gamma-gamma-prime interfaces and by a slower time-dependent coarsening of gamma-prime precipitates. Due to the rapid formation of a dislocation substructure at the gamma-gamma-prime interfaces, the cyclic stress softening could be modeled with an existing theory which related cyclic stress to the evolving microstructure and dislocation structure.

  18. Irradiation-initiated plastic deformation in prestrained single-crystal copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Liang; Jian, Wu-Rong; E, Jun-Cheng; Ma, Hong-Hao; Luo, Sheng-Nian

    2016-02-01

    With large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the response of elastically prestrained single-crystal Cu to irradiation as regards the effects of prestrain magnitude and direction, as well as PKA (primary knock-on atom) energy. Under uniaxial tension, irradiation induces such defects as Frenkel pairs, stacking faults, twins, dislocations, and voids. Given the high dislocation concentration, twins and quad-stacking faults form through overlapping of different stacking faults. Voids nucleate via liquid cavitation, and dislocations around void play a lesser role in the void nucleation and growth. Dislocation density increases with increasing prestrain and PKA energy. At a given prestrain, there exists a critical PKA energy for dislocation activation, which decreases with increasing prestrain and depends on crystallographic direction of the applied prestrain.

  19. The specifics of radiative annihilation of self-trapped excitons in a KI-Tl crystal under low-temperature deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunkeyev, K. Sh.; Zhanturina, N. N.; Aimaganbetova, Z. K.; Barmina, A. A.; Myasnikova, L. N.; Sagymbaeva, Sh. Zh.; Sergeyev, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of low-temperature uniaxial deformation on the self-trapping-limited mean free path of excitons in a KI-Tl crystal was revealed from x-ray luminescence spectra. The analysis of the dependence of the intensity ratio of the Tl-center emission (2.85 eV) and the luminescence of self-trapped excitons (π-component; 3.3 eV) on the extent of low-temperature deformation showed that in the KI-Tl crystal (3 × 10-3 mol. %) the self-trapping-limited mean free path of excitons is comparable with the distance between Tl atoms (20-27)a under a deformation ɛ = 2%. As the compression increases to ɛ ≥ 2%-5%, the mean free path drops to (27-5.35)a. The results of modeling based on the continuum approximation showed that with increasing temperature and the degree of low-temperature deformation the height of the potential barrier for the exciton self-trapping drops, which is consistent with the reduction of the mean free path of excitons in the KI-Tl crystal.

  20. Long-distance laser propulsion and deformation- monitoring of cells in optofluidic photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Unterkofler, Sarah; Garbos, Martin K; Euser, Tijmen G; St J Russell, Philip

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a unique method for laser-propelling individual cells over distances of 10s of cm through stationary liquid in a microfluidic channel. This is achieved by using liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). HC-PCF provides low-loss light guidance in a well-defined single mode, resulting in highly uniform optical trapping and propulsive forces in the core which at the same time acts as a microfluidic channel. Cells are trapped laterally at the center of the core, typically several microns away from the glass interface, which eliminates adherence effects and external perturbations. During propagation, the velocity of the cells is conveniently monitored using a non-imaging Doppler velocimetry technique. Dynamic changes in velocity at constant optical powers up to 350 mW indicate stress-induced changes in the shape of the cells, which is confirmed by bright-field microscopy. Our results suggest that HC-PCF will be useful as a new tool for the study of single-cell biomechanics. PMID:23281270

  1. Compression and Tensile Creep of Binary NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2005-01-01

    Compression creep and long term tensile creep studies were conducted on cast and extruded binary NiAl in the temperature range 700-1200 K with the objectives of characterizing and understanding the creep mechanisms. Inverse and normal primary creep curves were observed in both compression and tension creep depending on stress and temperature although an asymmetrical response was observed under these two stress states. It was concluded that the primary creep of NiAl is limited by dislocation mobility. The stress exponents, n, for compression and tensile creep were similar varying between about 5 and 14. However, there were significant differences in the stress dependence of the activation energies for compression and tensile creep. The true activation energy for tensile creep, Q(sub c), was constant and equal to about 400 kJ/mol between 20 and 50 MPa but decreased to a constant value of 250 kJ/mol between 50 and 110 MPa. The activation energy was observed to be inversely stress dependent above 110 MPa. In contrast, Q(sub c) = 300 kJ/mol for compression creep was constant between 25 and 70 MPa and inversely dependent on the true stress above 70 MPa. A detailed discussion of the probable dislocation creep mechanisms governing compressive and tensile creep of NiAl is presented. It is concluded that the non-conservative motion of jogs on screw dislocations influenced the nature of the primary creep curves, where the climb of these jogs involves either the next nearest neighbor or the six-jump cycle vacancy diffusion mechanism. The probable natures of the atom-vacancy exchange that occur within the core of an edge dislocation undergoing climb in NiAl are schematically examined.

  2. Alloys based on NiAl for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedula, K. M.; Pathare, V.; Aslanidis, I.; Titran, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The NiAl alloys for potential high temperature applications were studied. Alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy techniques. Flow stress values at slow strain rates and high temperatures were measured. Some ternary alloying additions (Hf, Ta and Nb) were identified. The mechanism of strengthening in alloys containing these additions appears to be a form of particle dislocation interaction. The effects of grain size and stoichiometry in binary alloys are also presented.

  3. Point defects in the NiAl(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Lerch, D; Dössel, K; Hammer, L; Müller, S

    2009-04-01

    The stability of various point defects in NiAl(100) has been investigated by first-principles calculations. For Al-rich surfaces, Ni vacancies within the first Al layer are energetically most favourable. For Ni-rich surfaces, so-called double defects, consisting of both Ni-antisite atom in the first Al layer and a Ni vacancy within the second Ni layer, form the configuration of lowest energy, superior to singular Ni antisites. An additional and significant energy gain is found in both cases by mutual lateral interaction of the defects, when they are arranged in the diagonal direction. Respective [Formula: see text] ordered configurations were found as the most stable structures. A 50:50 mixture of both defect types turns out to be even lower in energy than the ideal Al-terminated NiAl(100) surface, proving the latter to be metastable only. This is in line with the often reported inability in experiments to prepare ideal NiAl(100) surfaces. PMID:21817482

  4. Effect of hydrogen on deformation structure and properties of CMSX-2 nickel-base single-crystal superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollar, M.; Bernstein, I. M.; Walston, S.; Prinz, F.; Domnanovich, A.

    1987-01-01

    Material used in this study was a heat of the alloy CMSX-2. This nickel-based superalloy was provided in the form of oriented single crystals, solutionized for 3 hrs at 1315 C. It was then usually heat treated as follows: 1050 C/16h/air cool + 850 C/48h/air cool. The resulting microstructure is dominated by cuboidal, ordered gamma precipitates with a volume fraction of about 75% and an average size of 0.5 microns. In brief, the most compelling hydrogen induced-changes in deformation structure are: (1) enhanced dislocation accumulation in the gamma matrix; and (2) more extensive cross-slip of superdislocations in the gamma precipitates. The enhanced dislocation density in gamma acts to decrease the mean free path of a superdislocation, while easier cross slip hinders superdislocation movement by providing pinning points in the form of sessile jobs. Both processes contribute to the increase of flow stress and the notable work hardening that occurs prior to fracture.

  5. Dating deformation - Lifetimes of phases vs. lifetimes of crystals and pulsed motion along fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sumit

    2016-04-01

    The timing of movement in a fault zone may be obtained either by dating minerals that grow in these zones or by determining the pressure - temperature - time history of the blocks lying on either side of the zone. Interpreting dates of minerals in the fault zone itself requires the assumption that the minerals grew during or close to the timing of movement, that there was a single pulse of movement, or that the ages have not been reset by later pulses of movement. Determining the P-T-t history of the overlying and underlying blocks, on the other hand, may provide a more comprehensive history but it is essential to determine exactly what stage of a P-T history is dated by a given isotopic system. In addition, information on lateral contiguity is missing from such data. Strengths and weaknesses of both approaches may be illustrated using a case study from the MCT zone in the Sikkim Himalaya. Lu-Hf dates of garnets from the underlying lesser Himalayan (LH) and overlying higher Himalayan (HH) rocks yield a systematic picture (Anczkiewicz et al., 2015), but the significance of these dates using the same isotopic system and same mineral are different in the two blocks. In the lower grade lesser Himalayan rocks, fractionated trace element patterns formed during growth of garnet are preserved. As a result, bulk of the Lu occurs at the cores of garnets and the well-defined ages mark the initiation of garnet growth along the prograde path rather than the peak of metamorphism in these rocks. In the higher grade HH rocks, although metamorphic temperatures were higher (750 - 800 °C) they did not cross the closure temperature of Lu and/or Hf diffusion in garnet. In these pelitic bulk compositions, growth of garnet is expected to have occurred at garnet grade conditions (~ 500 °C). Nevertheless, in the presence of melt and deformation, there is evidence that the garnet grains recrystallized and Lu was more homogeneously distributed within the grain. Therefore, the ages from

  6. The 1200 K compressive properties of N-containing NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, R. D.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a series of experiments to understand the role of N on the strength of NiAl, a heat of NiAl was enriched with N by melting and atomization to powder in a nitrogen atmosphere. Following consolidation of the powder by hot extrusion, 1200 K compressive properties were measured in air. Within the range of strain rates examined, 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -9) s(exp -1), the strength of the N-enriched NiAl was greater than that of a simple 15 micron grain size polycrystalline, binary NiAl alloy. For the most part the overall improvement in strength is ascribed to the fine grain size of the N-doped NiAl rather than the alloy chemistry; however, the alloy displayed a complex behavior exhibiting both weakening effects as well as strengthening ones.

  7. NiAl(110)/Cr(110) interface: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Li, J. C.; Zheng, W. T.; Jiang, Q.

    2006-05-01

    The optimal geometries, thermodynamic properties, and electronic structures of NiAl(110)/Cr(110) interface are studied using a first-principle density functional plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method. Surface energies of different NiAl surfaces are compared with those obtained based on the classical broken-bond rule. Simulation results indicate that the structure of Ni and Al placed in the hollow sites of Cr atoms at the interface is more thermodynamically stable, and the NiCr bonding is dominated by 3d electrons of Ni and Cr. It is found that NiAl(110)/Cr(110) alloying could lower brittleness of NiAl compounds. With simulated values of adhesion work and interface energy for NiAl(110)/Cr(110) system, its mechanical and thermodynamic properties are also discussed.

  8. Creep Deformation of B2 Alumindes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The creep resistance and elevated temperature deformation mechanisms in CoAl, FeAl, and NiAl are reviewed. The stress and temperature dependencies of the steady state creep rate, the primary creep behavior, the dislocation substructure, and the response during transient tests are used as the main indicators of the deformation processes. In single phase intermetallics, the influence of grain size, stoichiometry, and solid solution hardening have been examined. In addition, the effect of adding dispersoids, precipitates, and other types of reinforcements to improve creep strength are compared.

  9. Strain Partitioning into Dry and Wet Zones, and the Formation of Calcic Myrmekites in Syntectonic Syenites During High-T Crystallization/Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Toni, G. B.; Bitencourt, M. D. F.; Nardi, L. V. S.

    2014-12-01

    Myrmekites are fine intergrowths of (generally Na-rich) plagioclase and vermicular quartz developed on K-feldspar. The myrmekite-forming reaction is intimately related to deformation as it results in volume decrease and finer grainsize, thus enhancing plastic behaviour. In south Brazil, myrmekites are described in 642 Ma syntectonic syenites intrusive in a ca. 650 Ma collisional thrust pile comprised of granulite-facies gneisses. Syenites are porphyritic or fine-grained equigranular, with biotite, clinopyroxene (Cpx) and amphibole as mafic phases. They are variably deformed, and disposed in alternating m- to cm-thick layers. Within low-strain zones, well-developed magmatic foliation and lineation are marked by shape alignment of K-feldspar (Kf) and mafic minerals. Subgrains and recrystallized grains (ca. 0,5 mm) are common features at the border of Kf megacrysts, developed to different degrees. In highly deformed sites, the strain softening promoted by the inflow of late-magmatic fluids has lead to deformation partitioning into wet and dry zones, where different end-products are formed from a single syenite protolith. Within the dry zones, high-T recrystallization is abundant in both Kf and Cpx, but primary mineralogy is preserved. Within the wet zones the rock contains biotite and minor amphibole, but no Cpx. Kf megacrysts are progressively invaded by myrmekite (An38-43) mantles, especially along foliation-parallel faces. In their pressure shadows, 5mm-sized, subhedral plagioclase crystals (An44-48) containing irregular quartz inclusions are interpreted as crystallized from Ca-enriched, late-magmatic fluids which have destabilized Cpx. Large plagioclase crystals and myrmekite aggregates are further recrystallized, and the process has eventually lead to the formation of plagioclase-rich rocks restricted to m-thick bands. Deformation partitioning into dry and wet zones, and the fact that myrmekites are restricted to the latter demonstrate that fluids are the

  10. Processing, physical metallurgy and creep of NiAl + Ta and NiAl + Nb alloys. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Contractor Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathare, Viren M.

    1988-01-01

    Powder processed NiAl + Ta alloys containing 1, 2, and 4.5 at percent tantalum and NiAl + Nb alloys containing 1 and 2 at percent niobium were developed for improved creep properties. In addition, a cast alloy with 5 at percent tantalum was also studied. Hot extrusion parameters for processing alloys with 1 and 2 at percent of tantalum or niobium were designed. The NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy could be vacuum hot pressed successfully, even though it could not be extruded. All the phases in the multiphase alloys were identified and the phase transformations studied. The Ni2AlTa in NiAl + 4.5 at percent Ta alloy transforms into a liquid phase above 1700 K. Solutionizing and annealing below this temperature gives rise to a uniform distribution of fine second phase precipitates. Compressive creep properties were evaluated at 1300 K using constant load and constant velocity tests. In the higher strain rate region single phase NiAl + 1 at percent Ta and NiAl + 1 at percent Nb alloys exhibit a stress exponent of 5 characteristic of climb controlled dislocation creep. In slower strain rate regime diffusional creep becomes important. The two phase alloys containing 2 to 5 at percent Ta and 2 at percent Nb show considerable improvement over binary NiAl and single phase alloys. Loose dislocation networks and tangles stabilized by the precipitates were found in the as crept microstructure. The cast alloy which has larger grains and a distribution of fine precipitates shows the maximum improvement over binary NiAl.