Science.gov

Sample records for crystal optomechanical cavity

  1. Phoxonic crystals and cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; El-Jallal, Said; Pennec, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Phoxonic crystals are dual phononic/photonic crystals exhibiting simultaneously band gaps for both types of excitations. Therefore, they have the ability to confine phonons and photons in the same cavity and in turn allow the enhancement of their interaction. In this paper, we review some of our theoretical works on cavity optomechanical interactions in different types of phoxonic crystals, including two-dimensional, slab, and nanobeam structures. Two mechanisms are behind the phonon-photon interaction, namely the photoelastic and the moving interface effects. Coupling rates of a few MHz are obtained with high-frequency phonons of a few GHz. Finally, we give some preliminary results about the optomechanical interaction when a metallic nanoparticle is introduced into the cavity, giving rise to coupled photon-plasmon modes or, in the case of very small particles, to an enhancement of the electric field at the position of the particle. xml:lang="fr"

  2. Strong Optomechanical Coupling in Nanobeam Cavities based on Hetero Optomechanical Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhilei; Cui, Kaiyu; Li, Yongzhuo; Feng, Xue; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2015-01-01

    Nanobeam cavities based on hetero optomechanical crystals are proposed. With optical and mechanical modes separately confined by two types of periodic structures, the mechanical frequency is designed as high as 5.88 GHz. Due to the optical field and the strain field concentrated in the optomechanical cavity and resembling each other with an enhanced overlap, a high optomechanical coupling rate of 1.31 MHz is predicted. PMID:26530128

  3. Parametric Optomechanical Oscillations in Two-dimensional Slot-type High-Q Photonic Crystal Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng J.; Stein A.; Li, Y.; Aras, M.S.; Shepard, K.L.; Wong, C.W.

    2012-05-22

    We experimentally demonstrate an optomechanical cavity based on an air-slot photonic crystal cavity with optical quality factor Q{sub o} = 4.2 x 10{sup 4} and a small modal volume of 0.05 cubic wavelengths. The optical mode is coupled with the in-plane mechanical modes with frequencies up to hundreds of MHz. The fundamental mechanical mode shows a frequency of 65 MHz and a mechanical quality factor of 376. The optical spring effect, optical damping, and amplification are observed with a large experimental optomechanical coupling rate g{sub om}/2{pi} of 154 GHz/nm, corresponding to a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g*/2{pi} of 707 kHz. With sub-mW or less input power levels, the cavity exhibits strong parametric oscillations. The phase noise of the photonic crystal optomechanical oscillator is also measured.

  4. Cavity optomechanics with a nonlinear photonic-crystal nanomembrane

    SciTech Connect

    Makles, Kevin; Kuhn, Aurélien; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine; Antoni, Thomas; Braive, Rémy; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2014-12-04

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized a nanomembrane which could be used as a moving end mirror of a Fabry-Perot cavity. The high reflectivity and optimized mechanical properties of the membrane should allow us to demonstrate the mechanical ground state of the membrane. As any sub-micron mechanical resonator, our system demonstrates nonlinear dynamical effects. We characterize the mechanical response to a strong pump drive and observe a shift in the oscillation frequency and phase conjugation of the mechanical mode. Such nonlinear effects are expected to play a role in the quantum dynamics of the membrane as well.

  5. Optomechanic interactions in phoxonic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Oudich, Mourad; Pennec, Yan; El-Jallal, Said

    2014-12-15

    Phoxonic crystals are periodic structures exhibiting simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps, thus allowing the confinement of both excitations in the same cavity. The phonon-photon interaction can be enhanced due to the overlap of both waves in the cavity. In this paper, we discuss some of our recent theoretical works on the strength of the optomechanic coupling, based on both photoelastic and moving interfaces mechanisms, in different (2D, slabs, strips) phoxonic crystals cavities. The cases of two-dimensional infinite and slab structures will enable us to mention the important role of the symmetry and degeneracy of the modes, as well as the role of the materials whose photoelastic constants can be wavelength dependent. Depending on the phonon-photon pair, the photoelastic and moving interface mechanisms can contribute in phase or out-of-phase. Then, the main part of the paper will be devoted to the optomechanic interaction in a corrugated nanobeam waveguide exhibiting dual phononic/photonic band gaps. Such structures can provide photonic modes with very high quality factor, high frequency phononic modes of a few GHz inside a gap and optomechanical coupling rate reaching a few MHz.

  6. Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenehan, Sean Michael

    The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent experiments utilizing the optomechanical interaction to cool mechanical resonators to their motional quantum ground state allow for a variety of quantum engineering applications, including preparation of non-classical mechanical states and coherent optical to microwave conversion. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs), in which bandgaps for both optical and mechanical waves can be introduced through patterning of a material, provide one particularly attractive means for realizing strong interactions between high-frequency mechanical resonators and near-infrared light. Beyond the usual paradigm of cavity optomechanics involving isolated single mechanical elements, OMCs can also be fashioned into planar circuits for photons and phonons, and arrays of optomechanical elements can be interconnected via optical and acoustic waveguides. Such coupled OMC arrays have been proposed as a way to realize quantum optomechanical memories, nanomechanical circuits for continuous variable quantum information processing and phononic quantum networks, and as a platform for engineering and studying quantum many-body physics of optomechanical meta-materials. However, while ground state occupancies (that is, average phonon occupancies less than one) have been achieved in OMC cavities utilizing laser cooling techniques, parasitic absorption and the concomitant degradation of the mechanical quality factor fundamentally limit this approach. On the other hand, the high

  7. Non-linear mixing in coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities due to cross-coupling opto-mechanical mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Daniel Frank, Ian W.; Deotare, Parag B.; Bulu, Irfan; Lončar, Marko

    2014-11-03

    We investigate the coupling between mechanical and optical modes supported by coupled, freestanding, photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. We show that localized cavity modes for a given gap between the nanobeams provide weak optomechanical coupling with out-of-plane mechanical modes. However, we show that the coupling can be significantly increased, more than an order of magnitude for the symmetric mechanical mode, due to optical resonances that arise from the interaction of the localized cavity modes with standing waves formed by the reflection from thesubstrate. Finally, amplification of motion for the symmetric mode has been observed and attributed to the strong optomechanical interaction of our hybrid system. The amplitude of these self-sustained oscillations is large enough to put the system into a non-linear oscillation regime where a mixing between the mechanical modes is experimentally observed and theoretically explained.

  8. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Cavity-optomechanics” aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  9. Broadband tuning of optomechanical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhecker, Gustavo S.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Lee, Sunwoo; Lipson, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate broadband tuning of an optomechanical microcavity optical resonance by exploring the large optomechanical coupling of a double-wheel microcavity and its uniquely low mechanical stiffness. Using a pump laser with only 13 mW at telecom wavelengths we show tuning of the silicon nitride microcavity resonances over 32 nm. This corresponds to a tuning power efficiency of only 400 $\\mu$W/nm. By choosing a relatively low optical Q resonance ($\\approx$18,000) we prevent the cavity from reaching the regime of regenerative optomechanical oscillations. The static mechanical displacement induced by optical gradient forces is estimated to be as large as 60 nm.

  10. Strong optomechanical coupling in a slotted photonic crystal nanobeam cavity with an ultrahigh quality factor-to-mode volume ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Katharina; Seidler, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a one-dimensional silicon photonic crystal cavity in which a central slot is used to enhance the overlap between highly localized optical and mechanical modes. The optical mode has an extremely small mode volume of 0.017 $(\\lambda_{vac}/n)^3$, and an optomechanical vacuum coupling rate of 310 kHz is measured. With optical quality factors up to $1.2 \\cdot 10^5$, fabricated devices are in the resolved-sideband regime. The electric field has its maximum at the slot wall and couples to the in-plane breathing motion of the slot. The optomechanical coupling is thus dominated by the moving-boundary effect, which we simulate to be six times greater than the photoelastic effect, in contrast to most structures, where the photoelastic effect is often the primary coupling mechanism.

  11. A micropillar for cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

  12. A micropillar for cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2014-12-04

    Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

  13. Cavity optomechanics and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Mishkatul

    2009-05-01

    Cavity optomechanics is an emerging field at the intersection of quantum optics, atomic physics, nanoscience and gravitational wave interferometry. It involves cavities (with one or more mechanical degrees of freedom) driven by laser radiation. The ensuing optical control of macroscopic mechanical motion may have implications for precision sensing, coherent control of atoms and molecules, and quantum information processing. Due to recent innovations optomechanical physics has been realized in a variety of experimental systems spanning many orders of magnitude in mass and time-scales. In this talk, I will first introduce the basic paradigm of a laser-driven two mirror cavity used for cooling a vibrational mode. A three-mirror configuration recently implemented using a partially transmissive dielectric membrane in a high finesse cavity will then be discussed, and shown to be superior to the two-mirror design in a number of ways. One implication of the three-mirror configuration is the possibility of scaling optomechanical techniques to multiple oscillators. This topic will be explored by analysing the case of two membranes in a cavity where it will be shown that the collective(center-of-mass and breathing) modes of vibration can be cooled independently, analogous to a chain of trapped ions. Finally, future directions for possible applications to the control of atoms and molecules will be indicated briefly.

  14. Synchronization in an optomechanical cavity.

    PubMed

    Shlomi, Keren; Yuvaraj, D; Baskin, Ilya; Suchoi, Oren; Winik, Roni; Buks, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEO) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. Synchronization is observed when the optical power that is injected into the cavity is periodically modulated. A theoretical analysis based on the Fokker-Planck equation evaluates the expected phase space distribution (PSD) of the self-oscillating mechanical resonator. A tomography technique is employed for extracting PSD from the measured reflected optical power. Time-resolved state tomography measurements are performed to study phase diffusion and phase locking of the SEO. The detuning region inside which synchronization occurs is experimentally determined and the results are compared with the theoretical prediction. PMID:25871175

  15. Silicon Integrated Cavity Optomechanical Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Miao, Houxun; Michels, Thomas; Liu, Yuxiang; Srinivasan, Kartik; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    Cavity optomechanics enables measurements of mechanical motion at the fundamental limits of precision imposed by quantum mechanics. However, the need to align and couple devices to off-chip optical components hinders development, miniaturization and broader application of ultrahigh sensitivity chip-scale optomechanical transducers. Here we demonstrate a fully integrated and optical fiber pigtailed optomechanical transducer with a high Q silicon micro-disk cavity near-field coupled to a nanoscale cantilever. We detect the motion of the cantilever by measuring the resonant frequency shift of the whispering gallery mode of the micro-disk. The sensitivity near the standard quantum limit can be reached with sub-uW optical power. Our on-chip approach combines compactness and stability with great design flexibility: the geometry of the micro-disk and cantilever can be tailored to optimize the mechanical/optical Q factors and tune the mechanical frequency over two orders of magnitudes. Electrical transduction in addition to optical transduction was also demonstrated and both can be used to effectively cool the cantilever. Moreover, cantilevers with sharp tips overhanging the chip edge were fabricated to potentially allow the mechanical cantilever to be coupled to a wide range of off-chip systems, such as spins, DNA, nanostructures and atoms on clean surfaces.

  16. Strong optomechanical coupling in a slotted photonic crystal nanobeam cavity with an ultrahigh quality factor-to-mode volume ratio.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katharina; Seidler, Paul

    2016-06-27

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a one-dimensional silicon photonic crystal cavity in which a central slot is used to enhance the overlap between highly localized optical and mechanical modes. The optical mode has an extremely small mode volume of 0.017(λvac / n)3, and an optomechanical vacuum coupling rate of 310 kHz is measured for a mechanical mode at 2.69 GHz. With optical quality factors up to 1.2 × 105, fabricated devices are in the resolved-sideband regime. The electric field has its maximum at the slot wall and couples to the in-plane breathing motion of the slot. The optomechanical coupling is thus dominated by the moving-boundary effect, which we simulate to be six times greater than the photoelastic effect, in contrast to most structures, where the photoelastic effect is often the primary coupling mechanism. PMID:27410548

  17. Optimal State Estimation for Cavity Optomechanical Systems.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Witlef; Hofer, Sebastian G; Hoelscher-Obermaier, Jason; Riedinger, Ralf; Hammerer, Klemens; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate optimal state estimation for a cavity optomechanical system through Kalman filtering. By taking into account nontrivial experimental noise sources, such as colored laser noise and spurious mechanical modes, we implement a realistic state-space model. This allows us to obtain the conditional system state, i.e., conditioned on previous measurements, with a minimal least-squares estimation error. We apply this method to estimate the mechanical state, as well as optomechanical correlations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. The application of the Kalman filter is an important next step for achieving real-time optimal (classical and quantum) control of cavity optomechanical systems. PMID:26196621

  18. Unifying Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Laer, Raphaël; Baets, Roel; Van Thourhout, Dries

    2016-05-01

    So far, Brillouin scattering and cavity optomechanics have been mostly disconnected branches of research, although both deal with photon-phonon coupling. This begs for the development of a broader theory that contains both fields. Here, we derive the dynamics of optomechanical cavities from that of Brillouin-active waveguides. This explicit transition elucidates the link between phenomena such as Brillouin amplification and electromagnetically induced transparency. It proves that effects familiar from cavity optomechanics all have traveling-wave partners, but not vice versa. We reveal a close connection between two parameters of central importance in these fields: the Brillouin gain coefficient and the zero-point optomechanical coupling rate. This enables comparisons between systems as diverse as ultracold atom clouds, plasmonic Raman cavities, and nanoscale silicon waveguides. In addition, back-of-the-envelope calculations show that unobserved effects, such as photon-assisted amplification of traveling phonons, are now accessible in existing systems. Finally, we formulate both circuit- and cavity-oriented optomechanics in terms of vacuum coupling rates, cooperativities, and gain coefficients, thus reflecting the similarities in the underlying physics.

  19. Observing spin optodynamical analog of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Justin; Kohler, Jonathan; Spethmann, Nicolas; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cavity Optomechanics has been realized in many diverse systems and led to many interesting results such as ponderomotive squeezing of light, beyond-SQL measurement sensitivity, and squeezing of mechanical oscillators. Optical cavities also allow sensitive measurements of the spin of an atomic ensemble. It has been proposed to utilize this sensitivity to realize an analog of optomechanics by measuring the precession of small excitations of a spin-oscillator around a transverse magnetic field. I will present our recent work in which we realize optomechanical analogs in our system such as cavity-assisted cooling and amplification and optical spring shifts. In addition, the presence of a high-energy `ground state' of the spin oscillator allows the realization of an effective negative mass oscillator which is demonstrated by an inverted sideband asymmetry. In our ongoing work we attempt to realize coherent quantum noise cancelation by coupling spin oscillation with mechanical oscillation.

  20. Silicon optomechanical crystal resonator at millikelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenehan, Seán M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Gröblacher, Simon; Hill, Jeff T.; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Painter, Oskar

    2014-07-01

    Optical measurements of a nanoscale silicon optomechanical crystal cavity with a mechanical resonance frequency of 3.6 GHz are performed at subkelvin temperatures. We infer optical-absorption-induced heating and damping of the mechanical resonator from measurements of phonon occupancy and motional sideband asymmetry. At the lowest probe power and lowest fridge temperature (Tf=10 mK), the localized mechanical resonance is found to couple at a rate of γi/2π=400 Hz (Qm=9×106) to a thermal bath of temperature Tb≈270 mK. These measurements indicate that silicon optomechanical crystals cooled to millikelvin temperatures should be suitable for a variety of experiments involving coherent coupling between photons and phonons at the single quanta level.

  1. Vector cavity optomechanics in the parameter configuration of optomechanically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hao; Huang, Ya-Min; Wan, Liang-Liang; Wu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    We propose the concept of vector cavity optomechanics in which the polarization behavior of light fields is introduced to achieve optomechanical control. The steady states and optomechanically induced transparency are studied in the vector regime, and we show that the polarization of optical fields may be a powerful tool to identify the underlying physical process and control the signal of optomechanically induced transparency. In particular, the conditions for obtaining a linearly polarized output probe field is given, which reveal some nontrivial polarizing effects. Despite its conceptual simplicity, vector cavity optomechanics may entail a wide range of intriguing phenomena and uncover a novel understanding for optomechanical interaction.

  2. Cavity optomechanics -- beyond the ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The coupling of coherent optical systems to micromechanical devices, combined with breakthroughs in nanofabrication and in ultracold science, has opened up the exciting new field of cavity optomechanics. Cooling of the vibrational motion of a broad range on oscillating cantilevers and mirrors near their ground state has been demonstrated, and the ground state of at least one such system has now been reached. Cavity optomechanics offers much promise in addressing fundamental physics questions and in applications such as the detection of feeble forces and fields, or the coherent control of AMO systems and of nanoscale electromechanical devices. However, these applications require taking cavity optomechanics ``beyond the ground state.'' This includes the generation and detection of squeezed and other non-classical states, the transfer of squeezing between electromagnetic fields and motional quadratures, and the development of measurement schemes for the characterization of nanomechanical structures. The talk will present recent ``beyond ground state'' developments in cavity optomechanics. We will show how the magnetic coupling between a mechanical membrane and a BEC - or between a mechanical tuning fork and a nanoscale cantilever - permits to control and monitor the center-of-mass position of the mechanical system, and will comment on the measurement back-action on the membrane motion. We will also discuss of state transfer between optical and microwave fields and micromechanical devices. Work done in collaboration with Dan Goldbaum, Greg Phelps, Keith Schwab, Swati Singh, Steve Steinke, Mehmet Tesgin, and Mukund Vengallatore and supported by ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

  3. Sensitivity of cavity optomechanical field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, J.; Forstner, S.; Swaim, J.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Bowen, W. P.

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a technique for modeling cavity optomechanical field sensors. A magnetic or electric field induces a spatially varying strain across the sensor. The effect of this strain is accounted for by separating the mechanical motion of the sensor into eigenmodes, each modeled by a simple harmonic oscillator. The force induced on each oscillator can then be determined from an overlap integral between strain and the corresponding eigenmode, with the optomechanical coupling strength determining the ultimate resolution with which this force can be detected.

  4. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 105 and mode volumes <10(λ/n)3, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 104 intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g0/2π˜30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  5. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(λ/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  6. Fiber-Cavity Optomechanics with Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Kashkanova, Anna D.; Shkarin, Alexey B.; Hoch, Scott W.; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Harris, Jack G. E.

    2014-03-01

    In a typical optomechanical device, the resonance frequency of a cavity is coupled to mechanical motion through the radiation pressure force. To date, experimental cavities have predominately coupled to a resonant mechanical mode of a solid structure, often a lithographically-defined beam or membrane. We will describe our progress towards realizing an optomechanical device in which an optical fiber-cavity couples to the acoustic modes of superfluid helium. In this system, the optical modes and the acoustic modes of the superfluid are co-located between the mirrored ends of two fiber optic cables. Changes in the density of the superfluid change the effective length of the cavity which results in a standard, linear optomechanical coupling between the 300 MHz acoustic resonances and the 200 THz optical resonances. This type of device is motivated by the self-aligning nature of the acoustic and optical modes (which eases the difficulties of operating at cryogenic temperatures) and by the low optical and mechanical losses of superfluid helium. Although we expect the mechanical quality factor to be limited by acoustic radiation into the glass fiber, we will describe a proposal to realize a dual-band Bragg mirror to confine the optical and acoustic modes more efficiently. Supported by NSF Grant #1106110, ARO Grant #W911NF-13-1-0104, and the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  7. A microelectromechanically controlled cavity optomechanical sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Houxun; Srinivasan, Kartik; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2012-07-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been applied to many measurement problems in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. In parallel, cavity optomechanical systems have achieved quantum-limited displacement sensitivity and ground state cooling of nanoscale objects. By integrating a novel cavity optomechanical structure into an actuated MEMS sensing platform, we demonstrate a system with high-quality-factor interferometric readout, electrical tuning of the optomechanical coupling by two orders of magnitude and a mechanical transfer function adjustable via feedback. The platform separates optical and mechanical components, allowing flexible customization for specific scientific and commercial applications. We achieve a displacement sensitivity of 4.6 fm Hz-1/2 and a force sensitivity of 53 aN Hz-1/2 with only 250 nW optical power launched into the sensor. Cold-damping feedback is used to reduce the thermal mechanical vibration of the sensor by three orders of magnitude and to broaden the sensor bandwidth by approximately the same factor, to above twice the fundamental frequency of ≈40 kHz. The readout sensitivity approaching the standard quantum limit is combined with MEMS actuation in a fully integrated, compact, low-power, stable system compatible with Si batch fabrication and electronics integration.

  8. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only a key evidence of macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity-modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We present systematic studies on the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. The state generation method is general and it can be implemented with either optomechanical or electromechanical systems. The authors are supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. NSF-DMR-0956064 and the DARPA ORCHID program through AFOSR.

  9. Cavity mode frequencies and strong optomechanical coupling in two-membrane cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Xuereb, André; Malossi, Nicola; Vitali, David

    2016-08-01

    We study the cavity mode frequencies of a Fabry–Pérot cavity containing two vibrating dielectric membranes. We derive the equations for the mode resonances and provide approximate analytical solutions for them as a function of the membrane positions, which act as an excellent approximation when the relative and center-of-mass position of the two membranes are much smaller than the cavity length. With these analytical solutions, one finds that extremely large optomechanical coupling of the membrane relative motion can be achieved in the limit of highly reflective membranes when the two membranes are placed very close to a resonance of the inner cavity formed by them. We also study the cavity finesse of the system and verify that, under the conditions of large coupling, it is not appreciably affected by the presence of the two membranes. The achievable large values of the ratio between the optomechanical coupling and the cavity decay rate, g/κ , make this two-membrane system the simplest promising platform for implementing cavity optomechanics in the strong coupling regime.

  10. Quantum optics, cavity QED, and quantum optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meystre, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Quantum optomechanics provides a universal tool to achieve the quantum control of mechanical motion. It does that in devices spanning a vast range of parameters, with mechanical frequencies from a few Hertz to GHz, and with masses from 10-20 g to several kilos. Its underlying ideas can be traced back to the study of gravitational wave antennas, quantum optics, cavity QED and laser cooling which, when combined with the recent availability of advanced micromechanical and nanomechanical devices, opens a path to the realization of macroscopic mechanical systems that operate deep in the quantum regime. At the fundamental level this development paves the way to experiments that will lead to a more profound understanding of quantum mechanics; and from the point of view of applications, quantum optomechanical techniques will provide motion and force sensing near the fundamental limit imposed by quantum mechanics (quantum metrology) and significantly expand the toolbox of quantum information science. After a brief summary of key historical developments, the talk will give a broad overview of the current state of the art of quantum optomechanics, and comment on future prospects both in applied and in fundamental science. Work supported by NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuASAR and ORCHID programs.

  11. Reservoir engineering in microwave cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Florent; Clark, Jeremy; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond; Teufel, John

    2015-03-01

    Microwave cavity optomechanics is an architecture in which a freely suspended membrane modulates the frequency of a superconducting microwave resonant circuit. The resulting parametric interactions influence both the mechanical degree of freedom and the microwave light emerging from the cavity. Even at cryogenic temperatures, the mechanical oscillator resonating at 10 MHz is typically dominated by its thermal reservoir, washing out any quantum behavior. However, in the presence of coherent drives to the cavity, the bare mechanical properties can be overwhelmed by the strong opto-mechanical interactions from the light field. By choosing wisely the frequency and amplitude of the drives, one can engineer the environment seen by the mechanical oscillator, a technique known as ``reservoir engineering''. From an experimentalist point of view, I will discuss how using two-tone driving schemes, we exploit correlations in the vacuum noise to: (1) eliminate the backaction imparted on the mechanical quadrature being measured, a technique so-called Back-Action Evasion, or (2) strongly couple the mechanical mode to a squeezed microwave bath.

  12. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    2016-04-22

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only key evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We study systematically the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. We also discuss the experimental implementation of this scheme. PMID:27152802

  13. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only key evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We study systematically the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. We also discuss the experimental implementation of this scheme.

  14. A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform.

    PubMed

    Winger, M; Blasius, T D; Mayer Alegre, T P; Safavi-Naeini, A H; Meenehan, S; Cohen, J; Stobbe, S; Painter, O

    2011-12-01

    We present an integrated optomechanical and electromechanical nanocavity, in which a common mechanical degree of freedom is coupled to an ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal defect cavity and an electrical circuit. The system allows for wide-range, fast electrical tuning of the optical nanocavity resonances, and for electrical control of optical radiation pressure back-action effects such as mechanical amplification (phonon lasing), cooling, and stiffening. These sort of integrated devices offer a new means to efficiently interconvert weak microwave and optical signals, and are expected to pave the way for a new class of micro-sensors utilizing optomechanical back-action for thermal noise reduction and low-noise optical read-out. PMID:22273884

  15. Integrated III-V Photonic Crystal - Si waveguide platform with tailored optomechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvirkun, Viktor; Surrente, Alessandro; Raineri, Fabrice; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Raj, Rama; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Braive, Rémy

    2015-11-01

    Optomechanical systems, in which the vibrations of a mechanical resonator are coupled to an electromagnetic radiation, have permitted the investigation of a wealth of novel physical effects. To fully exploit these phenomena in realistic circuits and to achieve different functionalities on a single chip, the integration of optomechanical resonators is mandatory. Here, we propose a novel approach to heterogeneously integrate arrays of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavities on top of silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The optomechanical response of these devices is investigated and evidences an optomechanical coupling involving both dispersive and dissipative mechanisms. By controlling the optical coupling between the waveguide and the photonic crystal, we were able to vary and understand the relative strength of these couplings. This scalable platform allows for an unprecedented control on the optomechanical coupling mechanisms, with a potential benefit in cooling experiments, and for the development of multi-element optomechanical circuits in the framework of optomechanically-driven signal-processing applications.

  16. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters. PMID:27460277

  17. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters. PMID:27460277

  18. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters.

  19. Devil's staircase in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Dhayalan, Yuvaraj; Buks, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEOs) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. While the phase of SEOs randomly diffuses in time when the laser power injected into the cavity is kept constant, phase locking may occur when the laser power is periodically modulated in time. We investigate the dependence of phase locking on the amplitude and frequency of the laser-power modulation. We find that phase locking can be induced with a relatively low modulation amplitude provided that the ratio between the modulation frequency and the frequency of SEOs is tuned close to a rational number of relatively low hierarchy in the Farey tree. To account for the experimental results, a one-dimensional map, which allows evaluating the time evolution of the phase of SEOs, is theoretically derived. By calculating the winding number of the one-dimensional map, the regions of phase locking can be mapped in the plane of modulation amplitude and modulation frequency. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and the experimental findings yields a partial agreement.

  20. Intermittency in an optomechanical cavity near a subcritical Hopf bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchoi, Oren; Ella, Lior; Shtempluk, Oleg; Buks, Eyal

    2014-09-01

    We experimentally study an optomechanical cavity consisting of an oscillating mechanical resonator embedded in a superconducting microwave transmission line cavity. Tunable optomechanical coupling between the mechanical resonator and the microwave cavity is introduced by positioning a niobium-coated single-mode optical fiber above the mechanical resonator. The capacitance between the mechanical resonator and the coated fiber gives rise to optomechanical coupling, which can be controlled by varying the fiber-resonator distance. We study radiation-pressure-induced self-excited oscillation as a function of microwave driving parameters (frequency and power). Intermittency between limit-cycle and steady-state behaviors is observed with blue-detuned driving frequency. The experimental results are accounted for by a model that takes into account the Duffing-like nonlinearity of the microwave cavity. A stability analysis reveals a subcritical Hopf bifurcation near the region where intermittency is observed.

  1. Observation of generalized optomechanical coupling and cooling on cavity resonance.

    PubMed

    Sawadsky, Andreas; Kaufer, Henning; Nia, Ramon Moghadas; Tarabrin, Sergey P; Khalili, Farid Ya; Hammerer, Klemens; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-30

    Optomechanical coupling between a light field and the motion of a cavity mirror via radiation pressure plays an important role for the exploration of macroscopic quantum physics and for the detection of gravitational waves (GWs). It has been used to cool mechanical oscillators into their quantum ground states and has been considered to boost the sensitivity of GW detectors, e.g., via the optical spring effect. Here, we present the experimental characterization of generalized, that is, dispersive and dissipative, optomechanical coupling, with a macroscopic (1.5  mm)2-size silicon nitride membrane in a cavity-enhanced Michelson-type interferometer. We report for the first time strong optomechanical cooling based on dissipative coupling, even on cavity resonance, in excellent agreement with theory. Our result will allow for new experimental regimes in macroscopic quantum physics and GW detection. PMID:25679890

  2. Sensitivity and performance of cavity optomechanical field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan; Knittel, Joachim; Sheridan, Eoin; Swaim, Jon D.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2012-09-01

    This article describes in detail a technique for modeling cavity optomechanical field sensors. A magnetic or electric field induces a spatially varying stress across the sensor, which then induces a force on mechanical eigenmodes of the system. The force on each oscillator can then be determined from an overlap integral between magnetostrictive stress and the corresponding eigenmode, with the optomechanical coupling strength determining the ultimate resolution with which this force can be detected. Furthermore, an optomechanical magnetic field sensor is compared to other magnetic field sensors in terms of sensitivity and potential for miniaturization. It is shown that an optomechanical sensor can potentially outperform state-of-the-art magnetometers of similar size, in particular other sensors based on a magnetostrictive mechanism.

  3. Dynamic entanglement transfer in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Tiantian; Zhou, Rigui; Ian, Hou

    2015-08-01

    We give a theoretical study of a double-cavity system in which a mechanical resonator beam is coupled to two cavity modes on both sides through radiation pressures. The indirect coupling between the cavities via the resonator sets up a correlation in the optomechanical entanglements between the two cavities with the common resonator. This correlation initiates an entanglement transfer from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an intercavity photon-photon entanglement. Using numerical solutions, we show two distinct regimes of the optomechanical system, in which the indirect entanglement either builds up and eventually saturates or undergoes a death-and-revival cycle, after a time lapse for initiating the cooperative motion of the left and right cavity modes.

  4. Cavity optomechanics - Manipulating mechanical motion at the quantum level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Cavity optomechanics is a rapidly-growing field in which mechanical degrees of freedom are coupled to modes of the electromagnetic field inside optical or microwave resonators. These devices may lead to ultra-sensitive mass and force sensors, provide long-range interaction between distant qubits, and serve as probes of quantum mechanics at increasingly large mass and length scales [for a review see e.g. Physics Today 65, 29 (2012)]. Adapting laser-cooling techniques from atomic physics several experiments have recently observed mechanical motion close to the quantum ground-state. This paves the way for exploiting mechanical systems in the quantum regime. In this talk I will address three problems. First, I will demonstrate that signatures of the intrinsically nonlinear interaction between light and mechanical motion in cavity optomechanical systems can be observed even when the cavity line width exceeds the optomechanical coupling [PRL 111, 053603 (2013)]. Second, I will discuss optomechanical systems in which the position of a mechanical oscillator modulates the line width of the cavity [NJP 15, 045017 (2013) and PRA 88, 023850 (2013)]. Finally, I will present a recent study on synchronization in a self-sustained oscillator coupled to an external harmonic drive [arXiv:1307.7044]. Work done in collaboration with Kjetil Børkje, Christoph Bruder, Steven M. Girvin, John D. Teufel, Stefan Walter, and Talitha Weiss.

  5. Tunable optomechanically induced transparency in double quadratically coupled optomechanical cavities within a common reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, C.; Hou, B. P.; Lai, D. G.; Wu, D.

    2016-04-01

    We consider the optomechanically induced transparency in the double quadratically coupled optomechanical cavities within a common reservoir, in which the two cavities are driven by the coupling fields. It is shown that the probe transparency is improved by increasing the coupling field (the left coupling field) applied on the probing cavity, but the transparency position (the probe frequency of the maximal transparency) is shifted to high frequency. The coupling field (the right coupling field) applied on the other quadratically coupled cavity can lead to a low-frequency shift for the transparency position, which can be used to fix the transparency position by adjusting the right coupling field. We get the quantitative findings that the transparency position is exactly determined by the intensity difference between the two coupling fields. On the other hand, it is found that when the two coupled optomechanical cavities interact with their common reservoir, the cross decay induced by the common reservoir can improve the probe transparency and widen the transparency window. Finally, the effects of the environment's temperature on the transparency are investigated. This will be useful in cooling the membrane, squeezing and entangling the output fields.

  6. Sensing dispersive and dissipative forces by an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchoi, Oren; Buks, Eyal

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally study an optomechanical cavity that is formed between a mechanical resonator, which serves as a movable mirror, and a stationary on-fiber dielectric mirror. A significant change in the behavior of the system is observed when the distance between the fiber's tip and the mechanical resonator is made smaller than about 1 μ \\text{m} . The combined influence of Casimir force, Coulomb interaction due to trapped charges, and optomechanical coupling is theoretically analyzed. The comparison between experimental results and theory yields a partial agreement.

  7. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  8. Forced and self-excited oscillations of an optomechanical cavity.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Stav; Pandey, Ashok K; Shtempluck, Oleg; Buks, Eyal

    2011-10-01

    We experimentally study forced and self-excited oscillations of an optomechanical cavity, which is formed between a fiber Bragg grating that serves as a static mirror and a freely suspended metallic mechanical resonator that serves as a moving mirror. In the domain of small amplitude mechanical oscillations, we find that the optomechanical coupling is manifested as changes in the effective resonance frequency, damping rate, and cubic nonlinearity of the mechanical resonator. Moreover, self-excited oscillations of the micromechanical mirror are observed above a certain optical power threshold. A comparison between the experimental results and a theoretical model that we have recently derived and analyzed yields a good agreement. The comparison also indicates that the dominant optomechanical coupling mechanism is the heating of the metallic mirror due to optical absorption. PMID:22181294

  9. Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Cho, S. U.; Massel, F.; Tuorila, J.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Hakonen, P. J.; Sillanpää, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum-mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation-pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion.

  10. Cavity optomechanics mediated by a quantum two-level system

    PubMed Central

    Pirkkalainen, J.-M.; Cho, S.U.; Massel, F.; Tuorila, J.; Heikkilä, T.T.; Hakonen, P.J.; Sillanpää, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling electromagnetic waves in a cavity and mechanical vibrations via the radiation pressure of photons is a promising platform for investigations of quantum–mechanical properties of motion. A drawback is that the effect of one photon tends to be tiny, and hence one of the pressing challenges is to substantially increase the interaction strength. A novel scenario is to introduce into the setup a quantum two-level system (qubit), which, besides strengthening the coupling, allows for rich physics via strongly enhanced nonlinearities. Here we present a design of cavity optomechanics in the microwave frequency regime involving a Josephson junction qubit. We demonstrate boosting of the radiation–pressure interaction by six orders of magnitude, allowing to approach the strong coupling regime. We observe nonlinear phenomena at single-photon energies, such as an enhanced damping attributed to the qubit. This work opens up nonlinear cavity optomechanics as a plausible tool for the study of quantum properties of motion. PMID:25912295

  11. Integrated III-V Photonic Crystal--Si waveguide platform with tailored optomechanical coupling.

    PubMed

    Tsvirkun, Viktor; Surrente, Alessandro; Raineri, Fabrice; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Raj, Rama; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Braive, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Optomechanical systems, in which the vibrations of a mechanical resonator are coupled to an electromagnetic radiation, have permitted the investigation of a wealth of novel physical effects. To fully exploit these phenomena in realistic circuits and to achieve different functionalities on a single chip, the integration of optomechanical resonators is mandatory. Here, we propose a novel approach to heterogeneously integrate arrays of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavities on top of silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The optomechanical response of these devices is investigated and evidences an optomechanical coupling involving both dispersive and dissipative mechanisms. By controlling the optical coupling between the waveguide and the photonic crystal, we were able to vary and understand the relative strength of these couplings. This scalable platform allows for an unprecedented control on the optomechanical coupling mechanisms, with a potential benefit in cooling experiments, and for the development of multi-element optomechanical circuits in the framework of optomechanically-driven signal-processing applications. PMID:26567535

  12. Integrated III-V Photonic Crystal – Si waveguide platform with tailored optomechanical coupling

    PubMed Central

    Tsvirkun, Viktor; Surrente, Alessandro; Raineri, Fabrice; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Raj, Rama; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Braive, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Optomechanical systems, in which the vibrations of a mechanical resonator are coupled to an electromagnetic radiation, have permitted the investigation of a wealth of novel physical effects. To fully exploit these phenomena in realistic circuits and to achieve different functionalities on a single chip, the integration of optomechanical resonators is mandatory. Here, we propose a novel approach to heterogeneously integrate arrays of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavities on top of silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The optomechanical response of these devices is investigated and evidences an optomechanical coupling involving both dispersive and dissipative mechanisms. By controlling the optical coupling between the waveguide and the photonic crystal, we were able to vary and understand the relative strength of these couplings. This scalable platform allows for an unprecedented control on the optomechanical coupling mechanisms, with a potential benefit in cooling experiments, and for the development of multi-element optomechanical circuits in the framework of optomechanically-driven signal-processing applications. PMID:26567535

  13. Optomechanical Entanglement Between an Ion and an Optical Cavity Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.

    2016-04-01

    I study an optomechanical system in which the mechanical motion of a single trapped ion is coupled to a cavity field for the realization of a strongly quantum correlated two-mode system. I show that for large pump intensities the steady state photon number exhibits bistable behaviour. I further analyze the occurrence of normal mode splitting (NMS) due to mixing of the fluctuations of the cavity field and the fluctuations of the ion motion which indicates a coherent energy exchange. I also find that in the parameter regime where NMS exists, the steady state of the system shows continuous variable entanglement. Such a two-mode optomechanical system can be used for the realization of continuous variable quantum information interfaces and networks.

  14. Triple optomechanical induced transparency in a two-cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Chao, Wu; Li-Guo, Qin; Jun, Jing; Guo-Hong, Yang; Zhong-Yang, Wang

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical induced transparency (OMIT) phenomenon in a two-cavity system which is composed of two optomechanical cavities. Both of the cavities consist of a fixed mirror and a high-Q mechanical resonator, and they couple to each other via a common waveguide. We show that in the presence of a strong pump field applied to one cavity and a weak probe field applied to the other, a triple-OMIT can be observed in the output field at the probe frequency. The two mechanical resonators in the two cavities are identical, but they lead to different quantum interference pathways. The transparency windows are induced by the coupling of the two cavities and the optical pressure radiated to the mechanical resonators, which can be controlled via the power of the pump field and the coupling strength of the two cavities. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program, China (Grant No. XDB01010200), the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y321311401), and the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11347147 and 1547035).

  15. Floquet approach to bichromatically driven cavity-optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malz, Daniel; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    We develop a Floquet approach to solve time-periodic quantum Langevin equations in the steady state. We show that two-time correlation functions of system operators can be expanded in a Fourier series and that a generalized Wiener-Khinchin theorem relates the Fourier transform of their zeroth Fourier component to the measured spectrum. We apply our framework to bichromatically driven cavity optomechanical systems, a setting in which mechanical oscillators have recently been prepared in quantum-squeezed states. Our method provides an intuitive way to calculate the power spectral densities for time-periodic quantum Langevin equations in arbitrary rotating frames.

  16. Gain-enhanced optical cooling in cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; Faez, Sanli; Marquardt, Florian; Tureci, Hakan

    2013-03-01

    We study the optical cooling of the mechanical motion of the resonator mirror in a cavity-optomechanical system that contains an optical gain medium. We find that the optical damping caused by radiation pressure force is vanishingly small if the active medium is pumped incoherently above its lasing threshold. In addition, we find that the spontaneous emission of the active medium always tends to increase the final effective temperature of the mechanical motion. In the presence of an additional seeding signal, i.e. a coherent drive of fixed frequency within the width of the gain curve however, we find that the cooling rate can be enhanced significantly with respect to that of a passive cavity. We attribute this effect to a reduced effective optical damping in the presence of incoherent pumping.

  17. Low loss optomechanical cavities based on silicon oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrielli, A.; Pontin, A.; Cataliotti, F. S.; Marconi, L.; Marin, F.; Marino, F.; Pandraud, G.; Prodi, G. A.; Serra, E.; Bonaldi, M.

    2015-05-01

    In an optomechanical cavity the optical and mechanical degree of freedom are strongly coupled by the radiation pressure of the light. This field of research has been gathering a lot of momentum during the last couple of years, driven by the technological advances in microfabrication and the first observation of quantum phenomena. These results open new perspectives in a wide range of applications, including high sensitivity measurements of position, acceleration, force, mass, and for fundamental research. We are working on low frequency pondero-motive light squeezing as a tool for improving the sensitivity of audio frequency measuring devices such as magnetic resonance force microscopes and gravitational-wave detectors. It is well known that experiments aiming to produce and manipulate non-classical (squeezed) light by effect of optomechanical interaction need a mechanical oscillator with low optical and mechanical losses. These technological requirements permit to maximize the force per incoming photon exerted by the cavity field on the mechanical element and to improve the element's response to the radiation pressure force and, at the same time, to decrease the influence of the thermal bath. In this contribution we describe a class of mechanical devices for which we measured a mechanical quality factor up to 1.2 × 106 and with which it was possible to build a Fabry-Perot cavity with optical finesse up to 9 × 104. From our estimations, these characteristics meet the requirements for the generation of radiation squeezing and quantum correlations in the ˜ 100kHz region. Moreover our devices are characterized by high reproducibility to allow inclusion in integrated systems. We show the results of the characterization realized with a Michelson interferometer down to 4.2K and measurements in optical cavities performed at cryogenic temperature with input optical powers up to a few mW. We also report on the dynamical stability and the thermal response of the system.

  18. Design of tunable GHz-frequency optomechanical crystal resonators.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Hannes; Paraïso, Taofiq; Zang, Leyun; Painter, Oskar

    2016-05-30

    We present a silicon optomechanical nanobeam design with a dynamically tunable acoustic mode at 10.2 GHz. The resonance frequency can be shifted by 90 kHz/V2 with an on-chip capacitor that was optimized to exert forces up to 1 µN at 10 V operation voltage. Optical resonance frequencies around 190 THz with Q-factors up to 2.2 × 106 place the structure in the well-resolved sideband regime with vacuum optomechanical coupling rates up to g0/2π = 353 kHz. Tuning can be used, for instance, to overcome variation in the device-to-device acoustic resonance frequency due to fabrication errors, paving the way for optomechanical circuits consisting of arrays of optomechanical cavities. PMID:27410069

  19. Effect of phase noise on the generation of stationary entanglement in cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Abdi, M.; Barzanjeh, Sh.; Tombesi, P.; Vitali, D.

    2011-09-15

    We study the effect of laser phase noise on the generation of stationary entanglement between an intracavity optical mode and a mechanical resonator in a generic cavity optomechanical system. We show that one can realize robust stationary optomechanical entanglement even in the presence of non-negligible laser phase noise. We also show that the explicit form of the laser phase noise spectrum is relevant, and discuss its effect on both optomechanical entanglement and ground-state cooling of the mechanical resonator.

  20. Slot-mode optomechanical crystals with enhanced coupling and multimode functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Karen; Davanco, Marcelo; Srinivasan, Kartik

    A number of cavity optomechanics applications involve multiple interacting optical and mechanical modes. A key challenge in such systems is developing multimode platforms with both flexibility in the optical and mechanical designs and interactions as strong as those shown in single-mode systems. We thus present slot-mode optomechanical crystals, in which photonic and phononic crystal nanobeams separated by a narrow slot couple optomechanically. We pattern these beams to confine a low-loss optical mode in the slot and a mechanical breathing mode at the center of the mechanical beam. This structure has large optomechanical coupling rates and great design flexibility toward multimode systems. We demonstrate this in Si3N4 slot-mode devices, with 980 nm optical modes coupling to mechanical modes at 3.4 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 400 MHz. We use Si3N4 tensile stress to shrink slot widths to 24 nm, greatly enhancing optomechanical coupling. Finally, with this platform, we develop multimode systems with three-beam geometries, in which two different mechanical modes couple to one optical mode and two different optical modes couple to one mechanical mode. The authors acknowledge funding from DARPA (MESO) and the National Research Council Research Associateship Program.

  1. Cavity Optomechanics: Coherent Coupling of Light and Mechanical Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2012-06-01

    The mutual coupling of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom via radiation pressure has been a subject of interest in the context of quantum limited displacements measurements for Gravity Wave Detection for many decades, however light forces have remained experimentally unexplored in such systems. Recent advances in nano- and micro-mechanical oscillators have for the first time allowed the observation of radiation pressure phenomena in an experimental setting and constitute the expanding research field of cavity optomechanics [1]. These advances have allowed achieving to enter the quantum regime of mechanical systems, which are now becoming a third quantum technology after atoms, ions and molecules in a first and electronic circuits in a second wave. In this talk I will review these advances. Using on-chip micro-cavities that combine both optical and mechanical degrees of freedom in one and the same device [2], radiation pressure back-action of photons is shown to lead to effective cooling [3-6]) of the mechanical oscillator mode using dynamical backaction, which has been predicted by Braginsky as early as 1969 [4]. This back-action cooling exhibits many close analogies to atomic laser cooling. With this novel technique the quantum mechanical ground state of a micromechanical oscillator has been prepared with high probability using both microwave and optical fields. In our research this is reached using cryogenic precooling to ca. 800 mK in conjunction with laser cooling, allowing cooling of micromechanical oscillator to only motional 1.7 quanta, implying that the mechanical oscillator spends about 40% of its time in the quantum ground state. Moreover it is possible in this regime to observe quantum coherent coupling in which the mechanical and optical mode hybridize and the coupling rate exceeds the mechanical and optical decoherence rate [7]. This accomplishment enables a range of quantum optical experiments, including state transfer from light to mechanics

  2. Quantum entanglement and teleportation in pulsed cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, Sebastian G.; Wieczorek, Witlef; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Hammerer, Klemens

    2011-11-15

    Entangling a mechanical oscillator with an optical mode is an enticing and yet a very challenging goal in cavity optomechanics. Here we consider a pulsed scheme to create Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type entanglement between a traveling-wave light pulse and a mechanical oscillator. The entanglement can be verified unambiguously by a pump-probe sequence of pulses. In contrast to schemes that work in a steady-state regime under a continuous-wave drive, this protocol is not subject to stability requirements that normally limit the strength of achievable entanglement. We investigate the protocol's performance under realistic conditions, including mechanical decoherence, in full detail. We discuss the relevance of a high mechanical Qf product for entanglement creation and provide a quantitative statement on which magnitude of the Qf product is necessary for a successful realization of the scheme. We determine the optimal parameter regime for its operation and show it to work in current state-of-the-art systems.

  3. Optomechanical cooling and trapping in a three-mirror cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Uys, H.; Meystre, P.

    2008-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of optomechanical cooling and trapping of a moving mirror located inside a cavity with two fixed end mirrors, substantiating recent experiment and theory [1]. This three-mirror configuration turns out to have technological as well as physical advantages over the usual two-mirror set-up. We consider fully as well as partially reflective middle mirrors [2,3]. In the latter case we find two regimes, one dissipative and the other dispersive, depending on the placement of the middle mirror. This allows us to propose a two-color cooling and trapping scheme that improves on current configurations. [1] J. D. Thompson et. al, arXiv:0707.1724v2[quant-ph](2007). [2] M. Bhattacharya and P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,073601 (2007). [3] M. Bhattacharya, H. Uys and P. Meystre, arXiv:0708.4078v1 [quant-ph] (2007).

  4. Cavity-less on-chip optomechanics using excitonic transitions in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hajime; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ohta, Ryuichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    The hybridization of semiconductor optoelectronic devices and nanomechanical resonators provides a new class of optomechanical systems in which mechanical motion can be coupled to light without any optical cavities. Such cavity-less optomechanical systems interconnect photons, phonons and electrons (holes) in a highly integrable platform, opening up the development of functional integrated nanomechanical devices. Here we report on a semiconductor modulation-doped heterostructure-cantilever hybrid system, which realizes efficient cavity-less optomechanical transduction through excitons. The opto-piezoelectric backaction from the bound electron-hole pairs enables us to probe excitonic transition simply with a sub-nanowatt power of light, realizing high-sensitivity optomechanical spectroscopy. Detuning the photon energy from the exciton resonance results in self-feedback cooling and amplification of the thermomechanical motion. This cavity-less on-chip coupling enables highly tunable and addressable control of nanomechanical resonators, allowing high-speed programmable manipulation of nanomechanical devices and sensor arrays.

  5. Cavity-less on-chip optomechanics using excitonic transitions in semiconductor heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hajime; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ohta, Ryuichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The hybridization of semiconductor optoelectronic devices and nanomechanical resonators provides a new class of optomechanical systems in which mechanical motion can be coupled to light without any optical cavities. Such cavity-less optomechanical systems interconnect photons, phonons and electrons (holes) in a highly integrable platform, opening up the development of functional integrated nanomechanical devices. Here we report on a semiconductor modulation-doped heterostructure-cantilever hybrid system, which realizes efficient cavity-less optomechanical transduction through excitons. The opto-piezoelectric backaction from the bound electron-hole pairs enables us to probe excitonic transition simply with a sub-nanowatt power of light, realizing high-sensitivity optomechanical spectroscopy. Detuning the photon energy from the exciton resonance results in self-feedback cooling and amplification of the thermomechanical motion. This cavity-less on-chip coupling enables highly tunable and addressable control of nanomechanical resonators, allowing high-speed programmable manipulation of nanomechanical devices and sensor arrays. PMID:26477487

  6. Cavity-less on-chip optomechanics using excitonic transitions in semiconductor heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hajime; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ohta, Ryuichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The hybridization of semiconductor optoelectronic devices and nanomechanical resonators provides a new class of optomechanical systems in which mechanical motion can be coupled to light without any optical cavities. Such cavity-less optomechanical systems interconnect photons, phonons and electrons (holes) in a highly integrable platform, opening up the development of functional integrated nanomechanical devices. Here we report on a semiconductor modulation-doped heterostructure–cantilever hybrid system, which realizes efficient cavity-less optomechanical transduction through excitons. The opto-piezoelectric backaction from the bound electron–hole pairs enables us to probe excitonic transition simply with a sub-nanowatt power of light, realizing high-sensitivity optomechanical spectroscopy. Detuning the photon energy from the exciton resonance results in self-feedback cooling and amplification of the thermomechanical motion. This cavity-less on-chip coupling enables highly tunable and addressable control of nanomechanical resonators, allowing high-speed programmable manipulation of nanomechanical devices and sensor arrays. PMID:26477487

  7. Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi

    2015-12-15

    Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.

  8. Pulsed Excitation Dynamics of an Optomechanical Crystal Resonator near Its Quantum Ground State of Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenehan, Seán M.; Cohen, Justin D.; MacCabe, Gregory S.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Painter, Oskar

    2015-10-01

    Using pulsed optical excitation and read-out along with single-phonon-counting techniques, we measure the transient backaction, heating, and damping dynamics of a nanoscale silicon optomechanical crystal cavity mounted in a dilution refrigerator at a base temperature of Tf≈11 mK . In addition to observing a slow (approximately 740-ns) turn-on time for the optical-absorption-induced hot-phonon bath, we measure for the 5.6-GHz "breathing" acoustic mode of the cavity an initial phonon occupancy as low as ⟨n ⟩=0.021 ±0.007 (mode temperature Tmin≈70 mK ) and an intrinsic mechanical decay rate of γ0=328 ±14 Hz (Qm≈1.7 ×107). These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of using short pulsed measurements for a variety of quantum optomechanical applications despite the presence of steady-state optical heating.

  9. Cavity Optomechanics with High-Stress Silicon Nitride Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dalziel Joseph

    There has been a barrage of interest in recent years to marry the fields of nanomechanics and quantum optics. Mechanical systems provide sensitive and scalable architectures for sensing applications ranging from atomic force microscopy to gravity wave interferometry. Optical resonators driven by low noise lasers provide a quiet and well-understood means to read-out and manipulate mechanical motion, by way of the radiation pressure force. Taken to an extreme, a device consisting of a high-Q nanomechanical oscillator coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity may enable ground-state preparation of the mechanical element, thus paving the way for a new class of quantum technology based on chip-scale phononic devices coupled to optical photons. By way of mutual coupling to the optical field, this architecture may enable coupling of single phonons to real or artificial atoms, an enticing prospect because of the vast "quantum optics toolbox" already developed for cavity quantum electrodynamics. The first step towards these goals --- ground-state cooling of the mechanical element in a "cavity optomechanical" system --- has very recently been realized in a cryogenic setup. The work presented in this thesis describes an effort to extend this capability to a room temperature apparatus, so that the usual panoply of table-top optical/atomic physics tools can be brought to bear. This requires a mechanical oscillator with exceptionally low dissipation, as well as careful attention to extraneous sources of noise in both the optical and mechanical componentry. Our particular system is based on a high- Q, high-stress silicon nitride membrane coupled to a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. The purpose of this thesis is to record in detail the procedure for characterizing/modeling the physical properties of the membrane resonator, the optical cavity, and their mutual interaction, as well as extraneous sources of noise related to multimode thermal motion of the oscillator, thermal motion

  10. High-Q silicon carbide photonic-crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonathan Y.; Lu, Xiyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate one-dimensional photonic-crystal nanobeam cavities in amorphous silicon carbide. The fundamental mode exhibits intrinsic optical quality factor as high as 7.69 × 104 with mode volume ˜ 0.60 ( λ / n ) 3 at wavelength 1.5 μm. A corresponding Purcell factor value of ˜104 is the highest reported to date in silicon carbide optical cavities. The device exhibits great potential for integrated nonlinear photonics and cavity nano-optomechanics.

  11. From cavity QED with quantum gases to optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsch, Helmut

    2011-10-03

    We study the nonlinear coupled dynamics of ultra-cold quantum gases trapped in the light field of high Q optical resonators. In the very low temperature limit the quantum nature of both, light and ultra-cold matter play equally important roles. Using the dynamically generated entanglement and properly designed measurements procedures of the light field allows controlled preparation of many-body atomic states as e.g. atom number squeezed states or Schroedinger cat states. If one traps the particles inside the optical cavity, one can create a optical potential, which is a quantized and a dynamical variable itself. In addition it mediates controllable long range interactions. The self-consistent solution for light and particles the includes new classes of quantum many-body states as super-solid states and polaron like excitations. In the deep trap limit the collective coupling of the particles and the field can be tailored to reproduce a wide range of optomechanic Hamiltonians with linear, quadratic or even higher order couplings in an environment very close to zero temperature.

  12. Duality and bistability in an optomechanical cavity coupled to a Rydberg superatom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong; Wang, Zhi-Hai; Ren, Chun-Nian; Gao, Hang; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2015-02-01

    We study the steady-state behaviors of a typical optomechanical cavity coupled to cold Rydberg atoms with dipole-dipole interactions. The interacting atoms are described as one superatom of three collective states in a ladder configuration in the limit of a strong dipole blockade and a weak cavity field. We find that this hybrid system exhibits phenomena of conditional duality and nonlinear bistability in terms of mirror displacement, number of cavity photons, and Rydberg population, depending on the detuning of the cavity field, the strength of the optical driving field, and the number of cold atoms. It is of particular interest that the two branches of relevant curves may intersect to yield a nontrivial duality and bistability. Such correlated optical, mechanical, and atomic responses arise from the efficient feedback between atom-light and optomechanical interactions and have realistic applications, e.g., in realizing accurate optomechanical detection or attaining deterministic single photons.

  13. Tensile-strained InxGa1-xP membranes for cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Garrett D.; Yu, Pen-Li; Gärtner, Claus; Siquans, Karoline; Moghadas Nia, Ramon; Schmöle, Jonas; Hoelscher-Obermaier, Jason; Purdy, Thomas P.; Wieczorek, Witlef; Regal, Cindy A.; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the optomechanical properties of tensile-strained ternary InxGa1-xP nanomembranes grown on GaAs. This material system combines the benefits of highly strained membranes, similar to those based on stoichiometric silicon nitride, with the unique properties of thin-film semiconductor single crystals, as previously demonstrated with suspended GaAs. Here, we employ lattice mismatch in epitaxial growth to impart an intrinsic tensile strain to a monocrystalline thin film (approximately 30 nm thick). These structures exhibit mechanical quality factors of 2 × 106 or beyond at room temperature and 17 K for eigenfrequencies up to 1 MHz, yielding Q × f products of 2 × 1012 Hz for a tensile stress of ˜170 MPa. Incorporating such membranes in a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, we extract an upper limit to the total optical loss (including both absorption and scatter) of 40 ppm at 1064 nm and room temperature. Further reductions of the In content of this alloy will enable tensile stress levels of 1 GPa, with the potential for a significant increase in the Q × f product, assuming no deterioration in the mechanical loss at this composition and strain level. This materials system is a promising candidate for the integration of strained semiconductor membrane structures with low-loss semiconductor mirrors and for realizing stacks of membranes for enhanced optomechanical coupling.

  14. Bistability and Entanglement of a Two-Mode Cavity Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Taha; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Ling

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the bistable properties and the entanglement in a two-mode cavity optomechanical system. Our results show that the bistable regime in terms of pumping amplitude can be adjusted by tuning the detunning. Although the two modes of the cavity interact with the same mechanical mode, there is no entanglement between them, while the two modes entangle with the mechanical mode seperately.

  15. Two-fluid model of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the cavity optomechanical regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Dan; Zhang, Keye; Meystre, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    We analyze an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a high-Q optical cavity driven by a feeble optical field. The dynamics of the resulting collective density excitation of the condensate are formally analogous to the central model system of cavity optomechanics: a radiation pressure driven mechanical oscillator [Brennecke et al., Science 322, 235 (2008)]. However, although BEC-based optomechanical systems have several desirable properties, one must also take into account the effect of atom-atom interactions. We treat these interactions via a two-fluid model that retains the intuitive appeal of the non-interacting two-mode description. We find that the Bogoliubov excitation spectrum of this system comprises a gapped upper branch and a lower branch that can include an unstable excitation mode. [4pt] D. S. Goldbaum, K. Zhang and P. Meystre, Two-fluid model of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the cavity optomechanical regime, arXiv:0911.3234.

  16. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-01-01

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window. PMID:27349325

  17. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Shui

    2016-06-01

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window.

  18. Properties of linear entropy of the atom in a tripartite cavity-optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Q. H.; Nie, W. J.; Xu, J.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, N. R.; Yan, Q. R.; Chen, A.; Liu, N. H.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of linear entropy of an atom in a tripartite cavity-optomechanical system consisting of a two-level atom in a high-finesse optical cavity with a vibrating mirror at one end. The influence of atomic coherence on the time evolution of linear entropy is examined. It is shown that a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger like state can be generated. Moreover, it is found that the entanglement between the atom and the subsystem of field and mirror can be controlled by atomic coherence and the parameters of optomechanical coupling coefficient and atom-field coupling strength.

  19. Polariton Resonances for Ultrastrong Coupling Cavity Optomechanics in GaAs/AlAs Multiple Quantum Wells.

    PubMed

    Jusserand, B; Poddubny, A N; Poshakinskiy, A V; Fainstein, A; Lemaitre, A

    2015-12-31

    Polariton-mediated light-sound interaction is investigated through resonant Brillouin scattering experiments in GaAs/AlAs multiple-quantum wells. Photoelastic coupling enhancement at exciton-polariton resonance reaches 10(5) at 30 K as compared to a typical bulk solid room temperature transparency value. When applied to GaAs based cavity optomechanical nanodevices, this result opens the path to huge displacement sensitivities and to ultrastrong coupling regimes in cavity optomechanics with couplings g(0) in the range of 100 GHz. PMID:26765028

  20. Large cooperativity and microkelvin cooling with a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Mingyun; Singh, Vibhor; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    In cavity optomechanics, light is used to control mechanical motion. A central goal of the field is achieving single-photon strong coupling, which would enable the creation of quantum superposition states of motion. Reaching this limit requires significant improvements in optomechanical coupling and cavity coherence. Here we introduce an optomechanical architecture consisting of a silicon nitride membrane coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting microwave cavity. Exploiting their large quality factors, we achieve an optomechanical cooperativity of 146,000 and perform sideband cooling of the kilohertz-frequency membrane motion to 34±5 μK, the lowest mechanical mode temperature reported to date. The achieved cooling is limited only by classical noise of the signal generator, and should extend deep into the ground state with superconducting filters. Our results suggest that this realization of optomechanics has the potential to reach the regimes of ultra-large cooperativity and single-photon strong coupling, opening up a new generation of experiments. PMID:26450772

  1. Large cooperativity and microkelvin cooling with a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mingyun; Singh, Vibhor; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-10-01

    In cavity optomechanics, light is used to control mechanical motion. A central goal of the field is achieving single-photon strong coupling, which would enable the creation of quantum superposition states of motion. Reaching this limit requires significant improvements in optomechanical coupling and cavity coherence. Here we introduce an optomechanical architecture consisting of a silicon nitride membrane coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting microwave cavity. Exploiting their large quality factors, we achieve an optomechanical cooperativity of 146,000 and perform sideband cooling of the kilohertz-frequency membrane motion to 34+/-5 μK, the lowest mechanical mode temperature reported to date. The achieved cooling is limited only by classical noise of the signal generator, and should extend deep into the ground state with superconducting filters. Our results suggest that this realization of optomechanics has the potential to reach the regimes of ultra-large cooperativity and single-photon strong coupling, opening up a new generation of experiments.

  2. Large cooperativity and microkelvin cooling with a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mingyun; Singh, Vibhor; Blanter, Yaroslav M; Steele, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    In cavity optomechanics, light is used to control mechanical motion. A central goal of the field is achieving single-photon strong coupling, which would enable the creation of quantum superposition states of motion. Reaching this limit requires significant improvements in optomechanical coupling and cavity coherence. Here we introduce an optomechanical architecture consisting of a silicon nitride membrane coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting microwave cavity. Exploiting their large quality factors, we achieve an optomechanical cooperativity of 146,000 and perform sideband cooling of the kilohertz-frequency membrane motion to 34±5 μK, the lowest mechanical mode temperature reported to date. The achieved cooling is limited only by classical noise of the signal generator, and should extend deep into the ground state with superconducting filters. Our results suggest that this realization of optomechanics has the potential to reach the regimes of ultra-large cooperativity and single-photon strong coupling, opening up a new generation of experiments. PMID:26450772

  3. Cavity optomechanics with ultrahigh-Q crystalline microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, J.; Schliesser, A.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2010-09-15

    We present the observation of optomechanical coupling in crystalline whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators. The high purity of the material enables optical quality factors in excess of 10{sup 10} and finesse exceeding 10{sup 6}, as well as mechanical quality factors greater than 10{sup 5}. Ultrasensitive displacement measurements reveal mechanical radial modes at frequencies up to 20 MHz, corresponding to unprecedentedly high sideband factors (>100). In combination with the weak intrinsic mechanical damping this renders crystalline WGM microresonators promising for experiments in the classical and quantum regime of optomechanics.

  4. Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam

    PubMed Central

    Leijssen, Rick; Verhagen, Ewold

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between mechanical and optical degrees of freedom is strongly enhanced by using subwavelength optical mode profiles. We realize an optomechanical system based on a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam, which combines such highly confined optical fields with a low-mass mechanical mode. Analyzing the transduction of motion and effects of radiation pressure we find the system exhibits a photon-phonon coupling rate g0 /2π ≈ 11.5 MHz, exceeding previously reported values by an order of magnitude. We show that the large optomechanical interaction enables detecting thermal motion with detection noise below that at the standard quantum limit, even in broad bandwidth devices, important for both sensor applications as well as measurement-based quantum control. PMID:26522751

  5. Optical and mechanical mode tuning in an optomechanical crystal with light-induced thermal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Urrios, D.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; Capuj, N. E.; Griol, A.; Puerto, D.; Martínez, A.; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2014-09-07

    We report on the modification of the optical and mechanical properties of a silicon 1D optomechanical crystal cavity due to thermo-optic effects in a high phonon/photon population regime. The cavity heats up due to light absorption in a way that shifts the optical modes towards longer wavelengths and the mechanical modes to lower frequencies. By combining the experimental optical results with finite-difference time-domain simulations, we establish a direct relation between the observed wavelength drift and the actual effective temperature increase of the cavity. By assuming that the Young's modulus decreases accordingly to the temperature increase, we find a good agreement between the mechanical mode drift predicted using a finite element method and the experimental one.

  6. State transfer and entanglement of two mechanical oscillators in coupled cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Taha; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Ling

    2014-08-01

    We investigate coupled two-cavity optomechanical systems to show their potential usages by revealing the physical processes. Under two conditions, we deduce the correspondingly effective Hamiltonian with beam splitter type and nondegenerate parametric-down conversion type, respectively. Including the whole interactions, we show that the state transfer and the stationary entanglement between the two mechanical resonators can be achieved.

  7. Quantum backaction and noise interference in asymmetric two-cavity optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanay, Yariv; Sankey, Jack C.; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of cavity damping asymmetries on backaction in a "membrane-in-the-middle" optomechanical system, where a mechanical mode modulates the coupling between two photonic modes. We show that when the energy difference between the optical modes dominates (i.e., in the adiabatic limit) this system generically realizes a dissipative optomechanical coupling, with an effective position-dependent photonic damping rate. The resulting quantum noise interference can be used to ground-state cool a mechanical resonator in the unresolved sideband regime. We explicitly demonstrate how quantum noise interference controls linear backaction effects and show that this interference persists even outside the adiabatic limit. For a one-port cavity in the extreme bad cavity limit, the interference allows one to cancel all linear backaction effects. This allows continuous measurements of position-squared, with no stringent constraints on the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength. In contrast, such a complete cancellation is not possible in the good cavity limit. This places strict bounds on the optomechanical coupling required for quantum nondemolition measurements of mechanical energy, even in a one-port device.

  8. The properties of Stokes and anti-Stokes processes in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Bo; Fu, Chang-Bao; Gu, Kai-Hui; Wang, Rong; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2013-11-01

    We study the nonlinear Stokes and anti-Stokes processes of a weak probe field relevant to normal mode splitting (NMS) in a double-cavity optomechanical system where a membrane oscillator is shared by two identical cavities. The two cavity modes experience an optomechanical coupling of same amplitudes but opposite signs when the membrane deviates from its equilibrium position due to the radiation pressures arising from two strong pump fields. Our calculations show that the critical power of left-cavity pump field above which the double-cavity system enters the NMS regime can be easily controlled by adjusting the right-cavity pump field in power. In addition, we show that various NMS features can be well examined by focusing on the spectral structure of an anti-Stokes signal generated in the four-wave-mixing process arising from optomechanical coupling. Last but not least we note that the anti-Stokes signal's generation is accompanied by the Stokes signal's amplification (absorption) in the absence (presence) of right-cavity pump field.

  9. Dynamical Two-Mode Squeezing of Thermal Fluctuations in a Cavity Optomechanical System.

    PubMed

    Pontin, A; Bonaldi, M; Borrielli, A; Marconi, L; Marino, F; Pandraud, G; Prodi, G A; Sarro, P M; Serra, E; Marin, F

    2016-03-11

    We report the experimental observation of two-mode squeezing in the oscillation quadratures of a thermal micro-oscillator. This effect is obtained by parametric modulation of the optical spring in a cavity optomechanical system. In addition to stationary variance measurements, we describe the dynamic behavior in the regime of pulsed parametric excitation, showing an enhanced squeezing effect surpassing the stationary 3 dB limit. While the present experiment is in the classical regime, our technique can be exploited to produce entangled, macroscopic quantum optomechanical modes. PMID:27015479

  10. Molecular cavity optomechanics as a theory of plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelli, Philippe; Galland, Christophe; Piro, Nicolas; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2016-02-01

    The exceptional enhancement of Raman scattering by localized plasmonic resonances in the near field of metallic nanoparticles, surfaces or tips (SERS, TERS) has enabled spectroscopic fingerprinting down to the single molecule level. The conventional explanation attributes the enhancement to the subwavelength confinement of the electromagnetic field near nanoantennas. Here, we introduce a new model that also accounts for the dynamical nature of the plasmon-molecule interaction. We thereby reveal an enhancement mechanism not considered before: dynamical backaction amplification of molecular vibrations. We first map the system onto the canonical Hamiltonian of cavity optomechanics, in which the molecular vibration and the plasmon are parametrically coupled. We express the vacuum optomechanical coupling rate for individual molecules in plasmonic ‘hot-spots’ in terms of the vibrational mode's Raman activity and find it to be orders of magnitude larger than for microfabricated optomechanical systems. Remarkably, the frequency of commonly studied molecular vibrations can be comparable to or larger than the plasmon's decay rate. Together, these considerations predict that an excitation laser blue-detuned from the plasmon resonance can parametrically amplify the molecular vibration, leading to a nonlinear enhancement of Raman emission that is not predicted by the conventional theory. Our optomechanical approach recovers known results, provides a quantitative framework for the calculation of cross-sections, and enables the design of novel systems that leverage dynamical backaction to achieve additional, mode-selective enhancements. It also provides a quantum mechanical framework to analyse plasmon-vibrational interactions in terms of molecular quantum optomechanics.

  11. Strong vacuum squeezing from bichromatically driven Kerrlike cavities: from optomechanics to superconducting circuits

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Rafael; de Valcárcel, Germán J.

    2016-01-01

    Squeezed light, displaying less fluctuation than vacuum in some observable, is key in the flourishing field of quantum technologies. Optical or microwave cavities containing a Kerr nonlinearity are known to potentially yield large levels of squeezing, which have been recently observed in optomechanics and nonlinear superconducting circuit platforms. Such Kerr-cavity squeezing however suffers from two fundamental drawbacks. First, optimal squeezing requires working close to turning points of a bistable cycle, which are highly unstable against noise thus rendering optimal squeezing inaccessible. Second, the light field has a macroscopic coherent component corresponding to the pump, making it less versatile than the so-called squeezed vacuum, characterised by a null mean field. Here we prove analytically and numerically that the bichromatic pumping of optomechanical and superconducting circuit cavities removes both limitations. This finding should boost the development of a new generation of robust vacuum squeezers in the microwave and optical domains with current technology. PMID:26916946

  12. High-Q silicon carbide photonic-crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jonathan Y.; Lu, Xiyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate one-dimensional photonic-crystal nanobeam cavities in amorphous silicon carbide. The fundamental mode exhibits intrinsic optical quality factor as high as 7.69 × 10{sup 4} with mode volume ∼0.60(λ/n){sup 3} at wavelength 1.5 μm. A corresponding Purcell factor value of ∼10{sup 4} is the highest reported to date in silicon carbide optical cavities. The device exhibits great potential for integrated nonlinear photonics and cavity nano-optomechanics.

  13. Nonadiabatic optomechanical Hamiltonian of a moving dielectric membrane in a cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, H. K.; Law, C. K.

    2011-08-15

    We formulate a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian in order to describe the interaction between a moving dielectric membrane and radiation pressure. Such a Hamiltonian is derived without making use of the single-mode adiabatic approximation, and linear approximation and hence, it enables us to incorporate multimode effects in cavity optomechanics. By performing a second quantization, we show how a set of generalized Fock states can be constructed to represent quantum states of the membrane and cavity field. In addition, we discuss examples showing how photon scattering among different cavity modes would modify the interaction strengths and the mechanical frequency of the membrane.

  14. Cooling of a mirror in cavity optomechanics with a chirped pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Law, C. K.

    2011-11-15

    We investigate the response of a harmonically confined mirror to an optical pulse in cavity optomechanics. We show that when the pulsed coupling strength takes the form of a chirped pulse, thermal fluctuations of the mirror can be significantly transferred to the cavity field. In addition, the frequency modulation of the pulse could enable a better cooling performance by suppressing the sensitivity of the dependence of detuning and pulse areas. Using numerical investigations, we find that the pulsed cooling is mainly limited by the cavity-field decay rate.

  15. Cavity optomechanics with micromirrors: Progress towards the measurement of quantum radiation pressure noise and ponderomotive squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripe, Jonathan; Singh, Robinjeet; Corbitt, Thomas; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Advanced LIGO is predicted to be limited by quantum noise at intermediate and high frequencies when it reaches design sensitivity. The quantum noise, including radiation pressure noise at intermediate frequencies, will need to be reduced in order to increase the sensitivity of future gravitational wave interferometers. We report recent progress towards measuring quantum radiation pressure noise in a cryogenic optomechanical cavity. The low noise microfabricated mechanical oscillator and cryogenic apparatus allow direct broadband thermal noise measurements which test thermal noise models and damping mechanisms. We also progress toward the measurement of the ponderomotive squeezing produced by the optomechanical cavity and the reduction of radiation pressure noise using squeezed light. These techniques may be applicable to an upgrade of Advanced LIGO or the next generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  16. Mechanical squeezing and photonic anti-bunching in a coupled two-cavity optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiu-Hua; Xiao, Yin; Yu, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scheme for generating the squeezing of a mechanical mode and the anti-bunching of photonic modes in an optomechanical system. In this system, there are two photonic modes (the left cavity-mode and the right cavity-mode) and one mechanical mode. Both the left cavity-mode and the right cavity-mode are driven by two lasers, respectively. The power of the driving lasers and the detuning between them play a key role in generating squeezing of the mechanical mode. We find that the squeezing of the mechanical mode can be achieved even at a high temperature by increasing the power of the driving lasers. We also find that the cavity-modes can show photonic anti-bunching under suitable conditions. PMID:27607612

  17. Slowing and stopping light with an optomechanical crystal array

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D. E.; Safavi-Naeini, A. H.; Painter, O.; Hafezi, M.

    2010-10-07

    The ability to coherently store and retrieve optical information in a rapidly tunable manner is an important ingredient for all-optical information processing. In the classical domain, this optical buffering is necessary to manage information flow in complex networks. In quantum information processing, such a system can also serve as a long-term memory capable of storing the full quantum information contained in an optical pulse. Here we suggest a novel approach to light storage involving an optical waveguide coupled to an optomechanical crystal array, where light in the waveguide can be dynamically and reversibly mapped into long-lived mechanical vibrations in the array. This technique enables large bandwidths and long storage and delay times in a compact, on-chip platform.

  18. Quantum state transfer between an optomechanical cavity and a diamond nuclear spin ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Run-Ying

    2016-08-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, where quantum information can be efficiently stored (retrieved) into (from) the nuclear spin ensemble assisted by a mechanical resonator in a dispersive regime. Our scheme works for a broad range of cavity frequencies and might have potential applications in employing the nuclear spin ensemble as a memory in quantum information processing. The feasibility of our protocol is analyzed using currently available parameters.

  19. Quantum state transfer between an optomechanical cavity and a diamond nuclear spin ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Run-Ying

    2016-05-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, where quantum information can be efficiently stored (retrieved) into (from) the nuclear spin ensemble assisted by a mechanical resonator in a dispersive regime. Our scheme works for a broad range of cavity frequencies and might have potential applications in employing the nuclear spin ensemble as a memory in quantum information processing. The feasibility of our protocol is analyzed using currently available parameters.

  20. Optomechanics of two- and three-dimensional soft photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Dwarak

    Soft photonic crystals are a class of periodic dielectric structures that undergo highly nonlinear deformation due to strain or other external stimulus such as temperature, pH etc. This can in turn dramatically affect optical properties such as light transmittance. Moreover certain classes of lithographically fabricated structures undergo some structural distortion due to the effects of processing, eventually affecting the optical properties of the final photonic crystal. In this work, we study the deformation mechanics of soft photonic crystal structures using realistic physics-based models and leverage that understanding to explain the optomechanics of actual 2-D and 3-D soft photonic crystals undergoing similar symmetry breaking nonlinear deformations. We first study the optomechanics of two classes of 3-D soft photonic crystals: (1) hydrogel and (2) elastomer based material systems. The hydrogel based inverse face-centered-cubic structure undergoes swelling with change in pH of the surrounding fluid. The inverse structure is a network of bulky domains with thin ligament-like connections, and it undergoes a pattern transformation from FCC to L11 as a result of swelling. A continuum scale poroelasticity based coupled fluid-diffusion FEM model is developed to accurately predict this mechanical behavior. Light transmittance simulation results qualitatively explain the experimentally observed trends in the optical behavior with pH change. The elastomer based, lithographically fabricated material experiences shrinkage induced distortion upon processing. This behavior is modeled using FEM with the material represented by a neo-Hookean constitutive law. The light transmittance calculations for normal incidence are carried out using the transfer matrix method and a good comparison is obtained for the positions of first and second order reflectance peaks. A unit cell based approach is taken to compute the photonic bandstructure to estimate light propagation through the

  1. Parametric generation of quadrature squeezing of mirrors in cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Law, C. K.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a method to generate quadrature-squeezed states of a moving mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that when the cavity is driven by an external field with a large detuning, the moving mirror behaves as a parametric oscillator. We show that parametric resonance can be reached approximately by modulating the driving field amplitude at a frequency matching the frequency shift of the mirror. The parametric resonance leads to an efficient generation of squeezing, which is limited by the thermal noise of the environment.

  2. Real-time emission spectrum from a hybrid atom-optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran

    Hybrid quantum systems are promising candidates for opening new avenues for quantum technologies [G. Kurizki et. al, PNAS, 112 (13), 3866-3873 (2015)]. Hybrid atom-optomechanical (HAOM) systems set an intriguing example in this context. From the perspective of practical utilizations of these HAOM systems in future quantum devices, it is crucial to fully understand the excitation dynamics as well as the spectral features of these systems. In this poster, I'll present my calculations of single-photon time-dependent (TD) spectrum emitted by such a HAOM system in a strong atom-cavity as well as strong cavity-mechanics (strong-strong) coupling regime [``Real-time emission spectrum from a hybrid atom-optomechanical cavity'', Imran M. Mirza, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 32 (8), 1604-1614 (2015)]. In order to make the system more realistic the effects of dissipation through the mechanical oscillator, optical cavity and spontaneous emission from the two-level emitter are also incorporated. The TD spectrum reveals some novel features that are not possible to observe otherwise. For instance, time order in which different side bands appears which explains different photon-phonon interactions responsible for the production of distinct spectral resonances. .

  3. Controlling the opto-mechanics of a cantilever in an interferometer via cavity loss

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidsfeld, A. von Reichling, M.

    2015-09-21

    In a non-contact atomic force microscope, based on interferometric cantilever displacement detection, the optical return loss of the system is tunable via the distance between the fiber end and the cantilever. We utilize this for tuning the interferometer from a predominant Michelson to a predominant Fabry-Pérot characteristics and introduce the Fabry-Pérot enhancement factor as a quantitative measure for multibeam interference in the cavity. This experimentally easily accessible and adjustable parameter provides a control of the opto-mechanical interaction between the cavity light field and the cantilever. The quantitative assessment of the light pressure acting on the cantilever oscillating in the cavity via the frequency shift allows an in-situ measurement of the cantilever stiffness with remarkable precision.

  4. Cavity Optomechanics with synthetic Landau levels of ultra cold Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sankalpa; Padhi, Bikash

    2014-03-01

    Ultra cold fermionic atoms placed in a synthetic magnetic field arrange themselves in Landau levels. We theoretically study the optomechanical interaction between the light field and collective excitations of such fermionic atoms in synthetic magnetic field by placing them in side a Fabry Perot cavity. We derive the effective hamiltonian for particle hole excitations from a filled Landau level using a bosonization technique and obtain an expression for the cavity transmission spectrum. Using this we show that the cavity transmission spectrum demonstrates cold atom analogue of Subnikov de Hass oscillation in electronic condensed matter systems. We discuss the experimental consequences for this oscillation for such system and the related optical bistability. Ref. Bikash Padhi and Sankalpa Ghosh, Physical Review Letters, Vol 111, 043603 (2013) PDA Grant, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

  5. Controllable optical bistability in a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose–Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamideh Kazemi, Seyedeh; Ghanbari, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    The optical bistability (OB) in a two-mode optomechanical system with a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is studied. By investigating the behavior of steady state solutions, we show that how OB develops in the system for a certain range of cavity-pump detunings and pump amplitudes. We then investigate the effects of the decay rate of the cavity photons and coupling strength between the cavity and the BEC as well as the pump-atom detuning on the optical behaviour of the system. We find that one can control the OB threshold and width of the bistability curve via adjusting properly the coupling strength and the detuning. By applying Routh–Hurwitz criterion, we then derive stability conditions for different branches of the OB curve. Moreover, by introducing an effective potential for the system, a simple physical interpretation is obtained.

  6. Piezoelectric tuning of narrowband perfect plasmonic absorbers via an optomechanic cavity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ao; Yang, Kecheng; Yu, Hongbin; Tan, Xiaochao; Li, Junyu; Zhou, Lun; Liu, Huan; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Feng; Zhu, Alexander Yutong; Guo, Qiushi; Yi, Fei

    2016-06-15

    Optical antennas enable the control of light-matter interaction on the nanometer scale. Efficient on-chip electrical switching of plasmonic resonances is a crucial step toward the integration of optical antennas into practical optoelectronic circuits. We propose and numerically investigate the on-chip low-voltage linear electrical tuning of a narrowband optical antenna perfect absorber via a piezoelectric optomechanic cavity. Near unity absorption is realized by an array of gold nanostrip antennas separated from a membrane-based deformable backreflector by a small gap. A narrow linewidth of 33 nm at 2.58 μm is realized through the coupling between the plasmonic mode and photonic mode in the cavity-enhanced antenna structure. An aluminum nitride piezoelectric layer enabled efficient actuation of the backreflector and therefore changed the gap size, allowing for the tuning of the spectral absorption. The peak wavelength can be shifted linearly by 250 nm with 10 V of tuning voltage, and the tuning range is not limited by the pull-in effect. The polarization dependence of the nanostrip antenna coupled with the optomechanic cavity allows the use of our device as a voltage tunable polarization control device. PMID:27304293

  7. All-optical transistor based on a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-11-15

    We propose a scheme of an all-optical transistor based on a coupled Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system. The calculated results show that, in such an optomechanical system, the transmission of the probe beam is strongly dependent on the optical pump power. Therefore, the optical pump field can serve as a ''gate'' field of the transistor, effectively controlling the propagation of the probe field (the ''signal'' field). The scheme proposed here may have potential applications in optical communication and quantum information processing.

  8. Probing anharmonicity of a quantum oscillator in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latmiral, Ludovico; Armata, Federico; Genoni, Marco G.; Pikovski, Igor; Kim, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a way of measuring with high precision the anharmonicity of a quantum oscillator coupled to an optical field via radiation pressure. Our protocol uses a sequence of pulsed interactions to perform a loop in the phase space of the mechanical oscillator, which is prepared in a thermal state. We show how the optical field acquires a phase depending on the anharmonicity. Remarkably, one only needs small initial cooling of the mechanical motion to probe even small anharmonicities. Finally, by applying tools from quantum estimation theory, we calculate the ultimate bound on the estimation precision posed by quantum mechanics and compare it with the precision obtainable with feasible measurements such as homodyne and heterodyne detection on the cavity field. In particular we demonstrate that homodyne detection is nearly optimal in the limit of a large number of photons of the field and we discuss the estimation precision of small anharmonicities in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Polariton Resonances for Ultrastrong Coupling Cavity Optomechanics in GaAs /AlAs Multiple Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusserand, B.; Poddubny, A. N.; Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Fainstein, A.; Lemaitre, A.

    2015-12-01

    Polariton-mediated light-sound interaction is investigated through resonant Brillouin scattering experiments in GaAs /AlAs multiple-quantum wells. Photoelastic coupling enhancement at exciton-polariton resonance reaches 105 at 30 K as compared to a typical bulk solid room temperature transparency value. When applied to GaAs based cavity optomechanical nanodevices, this result opens the path to huge displacement sensitivities and to ultrastrong coupling regimes in cavity optomechanics with couplings g0 in the range of 100 GHz.

  10. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices. PMID:26346448

  11. Acceleration Sensing, Feedback Cooling, and Nonlinear Dynamics with Nanoscale Cavity-Optomechanical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Alexander Grey

    Light has long been used for the precise measurement of moving bodies, but the burgeoning field of optomechanics is concerned with the interaction of light and matter in a regime where the typically weak radiation pressure force of light is able to push back on the moving object. This field began with the realization in the late 1960's that the momentum imparted by a recoiling photon on a mirror would place fundamental limits on the smallest measurable displacement of that mirror. This coupling between the frequency of light and the motion of a mechanical object does much more than simply add noise, however. It has been used to cool objects to their quantum ground state, demonstrate electromagnetically-induced-transparency, and modify the damping and spring constant of the resonator. Amazingly, these radiation pressure effects have now been demonstrated in systems ranging 18 orders of magnitude in mass (kg to fg). In this work we will focus on three diverse experiments in three different optomechanical devices which span the fields of inertial sensors, closed-loop feedback, and nonlinear dynamics. The mechanical elements presented cover 6 orders of magnitude in mass (ng to fg), but they all employ nano-scale photonic crystals to trap light and resonantly enhance the light-matter interaction. In the first experiment we take advantage of the sub-femtometer displacement resolution of our photonic crystals to demonstrate a sensitive chip-scale optical accelerometer with a kHz-frequency mechanical resonator. This sensor has a noise density of approximately 10 micro-g/rt-Hz over a useable bandwidth of approximately 20 kHz and we demonstrate at least 50 dB of linear dynamic sensor range. We also discuss methods to further improve performance of this device by a factor of 10. In the second experiment, we used a closed-loop measurement and feedback system to damp and cool a room-temperature MHz-frequency mechanical oscillator from a phonon occupation of 6.5 million down to

  12. Steady-state mechanical squeezing in a hybrid atom-optomechanical system with a highly dissipative cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    Quantum squeezing of mechanical resonator is important for studying the macroscopic quantum effects and the precision metrology of weak forces. Here we give a theoretical study of a hybrid atom-optomechanical system in which the steady-state squeezing of the mechanical resonator can be generated via the mechanical nonlinearity and cavity cooling process. The validity of the scheme is assessed by simulating the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature numerically. The scheme is robust against dissipation of the optical cavity, and the steady-state squeezing can be effectively generated in a highly dissipative cavity. PMID:27091072

  13. Steady-state mechanical squeezing in a hybrid atom-optomechanical system with a highly dissipative cavity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    Quantum squeezing of mechanical resonator is important for studying the macroscopic quantum effects and the precision metrology of weak forces. Here we give a theoretical study of a hybrid atom-optomechanical system in which the steady-state squeezing of the mechanical resonator can be generated via the mechanical nonlinearity and cavity cooling process. The validity of the scheme is assessed by simulating the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature numerically. The scheme is robust against dissipation of the optical cavity, and the steady-state squeezing can be effectively generated in a highly dissipative cavity. PMID:27091072

  14. Optomechanical and crystallization phenomena visualized with 4D electron microscopy: interfacial carbon nanotubes on silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, David J; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-05-12

    With ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), we report observation of the nanoscopic crystallization of amorphous silicon nitride, and the ultrashort optomechanical motion of the crystalline silicon nitride at the interface of an adhering carbon nanotube network. The in situ static crystallization of the silicon nitride occurs only in the presence of an adhering nanotube network, thus indicating their mediating role in reaching temperatures close to 1000 degrees C when exposed to a train of laser pulses. Under such condition, 4D visualization of the optomechanical motion of the specimen was followed by quantifying the change in diffraction contrast of crystalline silicon nitride, to which the nanotube network is bonded. The direction of the motion was established from a tilt series correlating the change in displacement with both the tilt angle and the response time. Correlation of nanoscopic motion with the picosecond atomic-scale dynamics suggests that electronic processes initiated in the nanotubes are responsible for the initial ultrafast optomechanical motion. The time scales accessible to UEM are 12 orders of magnitude shorter than those traditionally used to study the optomechanical motion of carbon nanotube networks, thus allowing for distinctions between the different electronic and thermal mechanisms to be made. PMID:20377202

  15. In-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Yongchao; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, a nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) mechanism is proposed to drive the in-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. The corresponding interactions between optical resonances and rotations are investigated. This is the first in-plane rotational tuning of the PhC cavities, which benefits from the flexible design of NEMS actuators. In experiments, more than 18 linewidths of the third order TE even mode corresponding to 0.037 mrad of the shrinking angle between the two nanobeam cavities are demonstrated; this study provides one more mechanical degree of freedom for the practical optomechanical interactions.

  16. Optomechanical coupling in phoxonic-plasmonic slab cavities with periodic metal strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Huang, Yin-Chen; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical (OM) coupling of submicron cavities formed in one-dimensional phoxonic-plasmonic slabs. The phoxonic-plasmonic slabs are structured by depositing periodic Ag strips onto the top surfaces of dielectric GaAs slabs to produce dual band gaps for both electromagnetic and acoustic waves, thereby inducing the coupling of surface plasmons with photons for tailoring the OM coupling. We quantify the OM coupling by calculating the temporal modulation of the optical resonance wavelength with the acoustic phonon-induced photoelastic (PE) and moving-boundary (MB) effects. We also consider the appearance of a uniform Ag layer on the bottom surface of the slabs to modulate the photonic-plasmonic coupling. The results show that the PE and MB effects can be constructive or destructive in the overall OM coupling, and their magnitudes depend not only on the quality factors of the resonant modes but also on the mode area, mode overlap, and individual symmetries of the photonic-phononic mode pairs. Lowering the mode area could be effective for enhancing the OM coupling of subwavelength photons and phonons. This study introduces possible engineering applications to achieve enhanced interaction between photons and phonons in nanoscale OM devices.

  17. Optomechanical coupling in phoxonic–plasmonic slab cavities with periodic metal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Huang, Yin-Chen; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical (OM) coupling of submicron cavities formed in one-dimensional phoxonic–plasmonic slabs. The phoxonic–plasmonic slabs are structured by depositing periodic Ag strips onto the top surfaces of dielectric GaAs slabs to produce dual band gaps for both electromagnetic and acoustic waves, thereby inducing the coupling of surface plasmons with photons for tailoring the OM coupling. We quantify the OM coupling by calculating the temporal modulation of the optical resonance wavelength with the acoustic phonon-induced photoelastic (PE) and moving-boundary (MB) effects. We also consider the appearance of a uniform Ag layer on the bottom surface of the slabs to modulate the photonic–plasmonic coupling. The results show that the PE and MB effects can be constructive or destructive in the overall OM coupling, and their magnitudes depend not only on the quality factors of the resonant modes but also on the mode area, mode overlap, and individual symmetries of the photonic–phononic mode pairs. Lowering the mode area could be effective for enhancing the OM coupling of subwavelength photons and phonons. This study introduces possible engineering applications to achieve enhanced interaction between photons and phonons in nanoscale OM devices.

  18. Laser optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weijian; Gerke, Stephen Adair; Ng, Kar Wei; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23 nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors. PMID:26333804

  19. Laser optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weijian; Adair Gerke, Stephen; Wei Ng, Kar; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-09-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23 nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors.

  20. Laser optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weijian; Adair Gerke, Stephen; Wei Ng, Kar; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23 nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors. PMID:26333804

  1. Force sensing based on coherent quantum noise cancellation in a hybrid optomechanical cavity with squeezed-vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F.; Naderi, M. H.; Roknizadeh, R.; Vitali, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers.

  2. Optical microfiber-based photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Yi-zhi; Andrews, Steve; Li, Zhi-yuan; Ding, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Using a focused ion beam milling technique, we fabricate broad stop band (∼10% wide) photonic crystal (PhC) cavities in adiabatically-tapered silica fibers. Abrupt structural design of PhC mirrors efficiently reduces radiation loss, increasing the cavity finesse to ∼7.5. Further experiments and simulations verify that the remaining loss is mainly due to Ga ion implantation. Such a microfiber PhC cavity probably has potentials in many light-matter interaction applications.

  3. Thermal noise and optomechanical features in the emission of a membrane-coupled compound cavity laser diode

    PubMed Central

    Baldacci, Lorenzo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Masini, Luca; Arcangeli, Andrea; Colangelo, Francesco; Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a compound optical cavity as linear displacement detector, by measuring the thermal motion of a silicon nitride suspended membrane acting as the external mirror of a near-infrared Littrow laser diode. Fluctuations in the laser optical power induced by the membrane vibrations are collected by a photodiode integrated within the laser, and then measured with a spectrum analyzer. The dynamics of the membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator is investigated as a function of air pressure and actuator displacement in a homodyne configuration. The high Q-factor (~3.4 · 104 at 8.3 · 10−3 mbar) of the fundamental mechanical mode at ~73 kHz guarantees a detection sensitivity high enough for direct measurement of thermal motion at room temperature (~87 pm RMS). The compound cavity system here introduced can be employed as a table-top, cost-effective linear displacement detector for cavity optomechanics. Furthermore, thanks to the strong optical nonlinearities of the laser compound cavity, these systems open new perspectives in the study of non-Markovian quantum properties at the mesoscale. PMID:27538586

  4. Thermal noise and optomechanical features in the emission of a membrane-coupled compound cavity laser diode.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, Lorenzo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Masini, Luca; Arcangeli, Andrea; Colangelo, Francesco; Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a compound optical cavity as linear displacement detector, by measuring the thermal motion of a silicon nitride suspended membrane acting as the external mirror of a near-infrared Littrow laser diode. Fluctuations in the laser optical power induced by the membrane vibrations are collected by a photodiode integrated within the laser, and then measured with a spectrum analyzer. The dynamics of the membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator is investigated as a function of air pressure and actuator displacement in a homodyne configuration. The high Q-factor (~3.4 · 10(4) at 8.3 · 10(-3) mbar) of the fundamental mechanical mode at ~73 kHz guarantees a detection sensitivity high enough for direct measurement of thermal motion at room temperature (~87 pm RMS). The compound cavity system here introduced can be employed as a table-top, cost-effective linear displacement detector for cavity optomechanics. Furthermore, thanks to the strong optical nonlinearities of the laser compound cavity, these systems open new perspectives in the study of non-Markovian quantum properties at the mesoscale. PMID:27538586

  5. Coupled External Cavity Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ~10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ~105× improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays. PMID:23129575

  6. Optical nanofiber-based photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Nayak, K P; Zhang, Pengfei; Hakuta, K

    2014-01-15

    We demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal (PhC) cavities on optical nanofibers using femtosecond laser ablation. PhC cavities with cavity lengths varying from 0.54 to 3.43 mm are fabricated by controlling the profile of the nanocrater array formed on the nanofiber. Such PhC cavities show high transmission of 87% for a finesse of 39. For higher finesse values from 150 to 500, the transmission can still be maintained at 20%-25%. Due to the strong confinement of the field and the efficient coupling to single-mode optical fibers, such nanofiber-based PhC cavities may become an interface between quantum and classical networks. PMID:24562114

  7. Collapse of the superradiant phase and multiple quantum phase transitions for Bose-Einstein condensates in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhimei; Lian, Jinling; Liang, J.-Q.; Yu, Yanmei; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the multiple stable macroscopic quantum states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optomechanical cavity with pump-cavity field detuning and atom-photon interaction following the experimental realization of the quantum phase transition [Nature (London) 464, 1301 (2010), 10.1038/nature09009]. The spin-coherent-state variational method is useful in exploring the multistability since it has the advantage of including both normal and inverted pseudospin states. In the blue detuning regime the usual transition from normal to superradiant phases still exists, however, when the atom-field coupling increases to a certain value, called the turning point, the superradiant phase collapses due to the resonant damping of the mechanical oscillator. As a consequence, the system undergoes at this point an additional phase transition to the normal phase of the atomic population inversion state. In particular, the superradiant phase disappears completely at strong photon-phonon interaction, resulting in the direct atomic population transfer between two atomic levels. Moreover, the coupling-induced collapse and revival of the superradiant state are also found in the red detuning region.

  8. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  9. Photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Quiring, W.; Al-Hmoud, M.; Reuter, D.; Zrenner, A.; Rai, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-07-27

    We report about the fabrication and analysis of high Q photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky-contacts. The structures are based on GaAs n-i membranes with an InGaAs quantum well in the i-region and nanostructured low ohmic metal top-gates. They are designed for photocurrent readout within the cavity and fast electric manipulations. The cavity structures are characterized by photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy under resonant excitation. We find strong cavity resonances in the photocurrent spectra and surprisingly high Q-factors up to 6500. Temperature dependent photocurrent measurements in the region between 4.5 K and 310 K show an exponential enhancement of the photocurrent signal and an external quantum efficiency up to 0.26.

  10. Stable planar mesoscopic photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Magno, G; Monmayrant, A; Grande, M; Lozes-Dupuy, F; Gauthier-Lafaye, O; Calò, G; Petruzzelli, V

    2014-07-15

    Mesoscopic self-collimation (MSC) in mesoscopic photonic crystals with high reflectivity is exploited to realize a novel high Q-factor cavity by means of mesoscopic PhC planar mirrors. These mirrors efficiently confine a mode inside a planar Fabry-Perot-like cavity, that results from a beam focusing effect that stabilizes the cavity even for small beam sizes, resembling the focusing behavior of curved mirrors. Moreover, they show an improved reflectivity with respect to their standard distributed Bragg reflector counterparts that allows higher compactness. A Q-factor higher than 10⁴ has been achieved for an optimized 5-period-long mirror cavity. The optimization of the Q-factor and the performances in terms of energy storage, field enhancement, and confinement are detailed. PMID:25121692

  11. High-Q side-coupled semi-2D-photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhao; Liu, Weixi; Shi, Yaocheng; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    High-Q semi-2D-photonic crystal cavities with a tapered edge and side-coupled bus waveguide are demonstrated. With a quadratic design, the unloaded cavity presents a theoretical ultrahigh quality factor up to 6.7 × 10(7) for the condition that there are mere 34 holes in the propagated direction, which is pretty close to the 2D and 1D counterpart. Combined with a side-coupled bus waveguide, an all-pass-type cavity with a loaded quality factor (Q) of over 2.4 × 10(4) and an extinction ratio over 10 dB are experimentally demonstrated. An experimental loaded Q up to 1.1 × 10(5) are also achieved by tuning the coupling between the cavity and the bus waveguide, which is much larger than any reported surface-mode cavity. This cavity is quite suitable for sensors, filters and especially optomechanical devices thanks to the mechanical stability of the cavity and flexibility of the bus waveguide. PMID:27194203

  12. High-Q side-coupled semi-2D-photonic crystal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhao; Liu, Weixi; Shi, Yaocheng; He, Sailing

    2016-01-01

    High-Q semi-2D-photonic crystal cavities with a tapered edge and side-coupled bus waveguide are demonstrated. With a quadratic design, the unloaded cavity presents a theoretical ultrahigh quality factor up to 6.7 × 107 for the condition that there are mere 34 holes in the propagated direction, which is pretty close to the 2D and 1D counterpart. Combined with a side-coupled bus waveguide, an all-pass-type cavity with a loaded quality factor (Q) of over 2.4 × 104 and an extinction ratio over 10 dB are experimentally demonstrated. An experimental loaded Q up to 1.1 × 105 are also achieved by tuning the coupling between the cavity and the bus waveguide, which is much larger than any reported surface-mode cavity. This cavity is quite suitable for sensors, filters and especially optomechanical devices thanks to the mechanical stability of the cavity and flexibility of the bus waveguide. PMID:27194203

  13. Piezo-optomechanical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbatore Balram, Krishna; Davanco, Marcelo; Ilic, B. Robert; Srinivasan, Kartik

    Coherent links between the optical, radio frequency (RF), and mechanical domains are critical for applications ranging from quantum state transfer between the RF and optical domains to signal processing in the acoustic domain for microwave photonics. We develop such a piezo optomechanical circuit platform in GaAs, in which localized and interacting 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. GaAs allows us to exploit the photoelastic effect to engineer cavities with strong optomechanical coupling (g0/2 π ~ 1.1 MHz) and the piezoelectric effect to couple RF fields to mechanical motion through surface acoustic waves, which are routed on-chip using phononic crystal waveguides. This platform enables optical readout of electrically-injected mechanical states with an average coherent intracavity phonon number as small as ~0.05 and the ability to drive mechanical motion with equal facility through either the optical or electrical channel. This is used to demonstrate a novel acoustic wave interference effect in which optically-driven motion is completely cancelled by electrically-driven motion, and vice versa. As an application of this, we present time-domain measurements of optically-controlled acoustic pulse propagation. Secondary Affiliation is Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

  14. Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, Thomas; Ottaway, David; Innerhofer, Edith; Pelc, Jason; Mavalvala, Nergis

    2006-08-15

    We report on experimental observation of radiation-pressure induced effects in a high-power optical cavity. These effects play an important role in next-generation gravitational wave detectors, as well as in quantum nondemolition interferometers. We measure the properties of an optical spring, created by coupling of an intense laser field to the pendulum mode of a suspended mirror, and also the parametric instability (PI) that arises from the coupling between acoustic modes of the cavity mirrors and the cavity optical mode. We measure an unprecedented optical rigidity of K=(3.08{+-}0.09)x10{sup 4} N/m, corresponding to an optical rigidity that is 6000 times stiffer than the mechanical stiffness, and PI strength R{approx_equal}3. We measure the unstable nature of the optical spring resonance, and demonstrate that the PI can be stabilized by feedback to the frequency of the laser source.

  15. Cavity quantum optomechanics of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice: Normal-mode splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.

    2009-10-15

    We consider the dynamics of a movable mirror (cantilever) of a cavity coupled through radiation pressure to the light scattered from ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. Scattering from different atomic quantum states creates different quantum states of the scattered light, which can be distinguished by measurements of the displacement spectrum of the cantilever. We show that for large pump intensities the steady-state displacement of the cantilever shows bistable behavior. Due to atomic back action, the displacement spectrum of the cantilever is modified and depends on the position of the condensate in the Brillouin zone. We further analyze the occurrence of splitting of the normal mode into three modes due to mixing of the mechanical motion with the fluctuations of the cavity field and the fluctuations of the condensate with finite atomic two-body interaction.

  16. Controlled coupling of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Solomon, Glenn S.; Waks, Edo

    2013-04-01

    We present a method to control the resonant coupling interaction in a coupled-cavity photonic crystal molecule by using a local and reversible photochromic tuning technique. We demonstrate the ability to tune both a two-cavity and a three-cavity photonic crystal molecule through the resonance condition by selectively tuning the individual cavities. Using this technique, we can quantitatively determine important parameters of the coupled-cavity system such as the photon tunneling rate. This method can be scaled to photonic crystal molecules with larger numbers of cavities, which provides a versatile method for studying strong interactions in coupled resonator arrays.

  17. Nano-scale optical actuation based on two-dimensional heterostructure photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Zhou, Guangya; Chau, Fook Siong; Tian, Feng; Deng, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) actuators using electrostatic forces are facing the bottleneck of the electromagnetic interference which greatly degrades their performances. On the contrary, the hybrid circuits driven by optical gradient forces which are immune to the electromagnetic interference show prominent advantages in communication, quantum computation, and other application systems. In this paper we propose an optical actuator utilizing the optical gradient force generated by a hetero-structure photonic crystal cavity. This type of cavity has a longitudinal air-slot and characteristics of ultrahigh quality factor (Q) and ultra-small mode volume (V) which is capable of producing a much larger force compared with the waveguide-based structures. Due to the symmetry property, attractive optical gradient force is generated. Additionally, the optomechanical coefficient (gom) of this cavity is two orders of magnitude larger than that of the coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities. The 2D hetero-structure cavity, comb drives, folded beam suspensions and the displacement sensor compose the whole device. The cavity serves as the optical actuator whilst the butt-coupled waveguide acts as the displacement sensor which is theoretically proved to be insensitive to the temperature variations. As known, the thermo-optic effect prevails especially in the cavity-based structures. The butt-coupled waveguide can be used to decouple the thermal effect and the optoemchanical effect (OM) with the aid of comb drives. The results demonstrate that the proposed optical gradient force actuator show great potential in the future of all-optical reconfigurable circuits.

  18. Fabrication and Testing of Microfluidic Optomechanical Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kewen; Kim, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Junhwan; Lee, Wonsuk; Liu, Jing; Fan, Xudong; Carmon, Tal; Bahl, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Cavity optomechanics experiments that parametrically couple the phonon modes and photon modes have been investigated in various optical systems including microresonators. However, because of the increased acoustic radiative losses during direct liquid immersion of optomechanical devices, almost all published optomechanical experiments have been performed in solid phase. This paper discusses a recently introduced hollow microfluidic optomechanical resonator. Detailed methodology is provided to fabricate these ultra-high-Q microfluidic resonators, perform optomechanical testing, and measure radiation pressure-driven breathing mode and SBS-driven whispering gallery mode parametric vibrations. By confining liquids inside the capillary resonator, high mechanical- and optical- quality factors are simultaneously maintained. PMID:24962013

  19. Coherent coupling between radiofrequency, optical and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-05-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1,550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radiofrequency field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic-crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Together with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which radiofrequency-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical and mechanical domains.

  20. Gigahertz Modulation of a Photonic Crystal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aaron Karim Taylor

    Photonic crystal (PtC) cavities are an increasingly important way to create all optical methods to control optical data. Not only must the data be controlled, but interfacing it with high frequency electrical signals is particularly interesting especially if this occurs in the 1.55microm telecom band. We present an experiment that uses Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to modulate the frequency of the guided mode of an L3-cavity PtC created on a silicon slab. This work has the potential to interface optical and electrical signals via a mechanical strain wave operating at gigahertz frequencies. Defects are carefully designed into a triangular lattice PtC to realize a waveguide coupled optical cavity. The cavity can be experimentally accessed through grating couplers excited by polarized light at 10° incidence from normal. The optical components are fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator platform, with light confined to the silicon slab region. Through transmission experiments, the L3 cavity was found to have a narrow resonance characterized by a Lorentzian distribution. A quality factor of 165 centered at 6255cm --1 (1.599microm) was measured. Aluminum interdigitated transducers (IDTs) were fabricated through a lithography liftoff process. Their ability to create SAWs requires a piezoelectric medium. As silicon does not have this property, growth of a thin ZnO film was required. The transducers were measured using a network analyzer and were found to produce Rayleigh SAWs at a frequency of 179MHz and a wavelength of 24microm. The acoustic energy traveled 70microm to the target optical device. The L3 cavity has dimensions of around 4microm a side - less than 1/2 a SAW wavelength. Modulation of the L3 PtC resonant frequency was monitored through a repeat of the transmission experiment but with RF excitation of the IDTs at the SAW frequency. A broadening of the transmission spectrum was expected. Unfortunately no change in the fitting parameters could be measured

  1. Quantum optomechanical heat engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Meystre, Pierre

    2014-04-18

    We investigate theoretically a quantum optomechanical realization of a heat engine. In a generic optomechanical arrangement the optomechanical coupling between the cavity field and the oscillating end mirror results in polariton normal mode excitations whose character depends on the pump detuning and the coupling strength. By varying that detuning it is possible to transform their character from phononlike to photonlike, so that they are predominantly coupled to the thermal reservoir of phonons or photons, respectively. We exploit the fact that the effective temperatures of these two reservoirs are different to produce an Otto cycle along one of the polariton branches. We discuss the basic properties of the system in two different regimes: in the optical domain it is possible to extract work from the thermal energy of a mechanical resonator at finite temperature, while in the microwave range one can in principle exploit the cycle to extract work from the blackbody radiation background coupled to an ultracold atomic ensemble. PMID:24785017

  2. Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  3. Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew

    Cavity optomechnics studies the interaction of cavity confined photons with mechanical motion. The emergence of sophisticated nanofabrication technology has led to experimental demonstrations of a wide range of novel optomechanical systems that exhibit strong optomechanical coupling and allow exploration of interesting physical phenomena. Many of the studies reported so far are focused on interaction of photons with localized mechanical modes. For my doctoral research, I did experimental investigations to extend this study to propagating phonons. I used surface travelling acoustic waves as the mechanical element of my optomechanical system. The optical cavities constitute an optical racetrack resonator and photonic crystal nanocavity. This dissertation discusses implementation of this surface acoustic wave based optomechanical system and experimental demonstrations of important consequences of the optomechanical coupling. The discussion focuses on three important achievements of the research. First, microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers were co-integrated with an optical racetrack resonator on a piezoelectric aluminum nitride film deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength was achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this paradigm were investigated for efficient optmechanical coupling. Second, the optomechanical coupling was pushed further into the sideband resolved regime by integrating the high frequency surface acoustic wave transducers with a photonic crystal nanocavity. This device was used to demonstrate optomecahnically induced transparency and absorption, one of the interesting consequences of cavity optomechanics. Phase coherent interaction of the acoustic wave with multiple nanocavities was also explored. In a related experiment, the photonic crystal nanoscavity was placed inside an acoustic

  4. Single-polariton optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Juan; Ciuti, Cristiano; Favero, Ivan

    2014-01-10

    This Letter investigates a hybrid quantum system combining cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics. The Hamiltonian problem of a photon mode coupled to a two-level atom via a Jaynes-Cummings coupling and to a mechanical mode via radiation pressure coupling is solved analytically. The atom-cavity polariton number operator commutes with the total Hamiltonian leading to an exact description in terms of tripartite atom-cavity-mechanics polarons. We demonstrate the possibility to obtain cooling of mechanical motion at the single-polariton level and describe the peculiar quantum statistics of phonons in such an unconventional regime. PMID:24483897

  5. Tunable Optomechanically Induced Absorption in a Hybrid Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Zhao, Yun-Hui; He, Zhi; Yao, Chun-Mei

    2016-03-01

    We study the tunable optomechanically induced absorption (OMIA) with the quantized field in the system, which consists of a driven cavity and a mechanical resonator with a super-conducting charge qubit via Jaynes-Cummings interaction. Such a OMIA can be achieved by controlling the strength of the Jaynes-Cummings interaction. Moreover, our work shows this OMIA for the quantized fields can be robust against cavity decay in somehow. With the combination of optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), our proposal may have paved a new avenue towards quantum photon router.

  6. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Kneisel, P.

    2007-08-09

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was build. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 {mu}m of Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120 deg. C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  7. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    W. Singer; X. Singer; P. Kneisel

    2007-09-01

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was built. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 mu-m of Buffered Chanical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120°C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  8. Hybrid optomechanics for Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, B.; Lo Gullo, N.; De Chiara, G.; Palma, G. M.; Paternostro, M.

    2014-06-01

    We review the physics of hybrid optomechanical systems consisting of a mechanical oscillator interacting with both a radiation mode and an additional matterlike system. We concentrate on the cases embodied by either a single or a multi-atom system (a Bose-Einstein condensate, in particular) and discuss a wide range of physical effects, from passive mechanical cooling to the set-up of multipartite entanglement, from optomechanical nonlocality to the achievement of non-classical states of a single mechanical mode. The reviewed material showcases the viability of hybridised cavity optomechanical systems as basic building blocks for quantum communication networks and quantum state-engineering devices, possibly empowered by the use of quantum and optimal control techniques. The results that we discuss are instrumental to the promotion of hybrid optomechanical devices as promising experimental platforms for the study of nonclassicality at the genuine mesoscopic level.

  9. Slow light in nonlinear photonic crystal coupled-cavity waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Na; Wang, Yige; Ren, Qingqing; Zhu, Li; Yuan, Minmin; An, Guimin

    2014-04-01

    Nonlinear photonic crystals can be formed by inserting Kerr-type nonlinear dielectric rods into perfect photonic crystals. Based on nonlinear photonic crystal, nonlinear photonic crystal coupled-cavity waveguide is constructed and its slow light properties are studied by using the Plane Wave expansion Method (PWM). Both single-defect coupled cavity and two-defect coupled cavity are proposed to optimize slow light properties. The result shows that using single-defect coupled cavity in waveguide is beneficial to obtain larger Normalized Delay-Bandwidth Product (NDBP) but it contributes little to decrease the group velocity of light and enlarging Q factor and delay time; While using two-defect cavity in waveguide can efficiently reduce the group velocity of light and enlarge Q factor and delay time. Compared to normal structures, our new designed nonlinear photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguide owns group velocity that is three magnitudes smaller than the vacuum speed of light. Delay time is of magnitude order of 10 ns and Q factor is of magnitude order of 1000, it means less loss and higher ability of storing energy.

  10. Response of a mechanical oscillator in an optomechanical cavity driven by a finite-bandwidth squeezed vacuum excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfipour, H.; Shahidani, S.; Roknizadeh, R.; Naderi, M. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the displacement and momentum fluctuations spectra of the movable mirror in a standard optomechanical system driven by a finite-bandwidth squeezed vacuum light accompanying a coherent laser field. Two cases in which the squeezed vacuum is generated by degenerate and nondegenerate parametric oscillators (DPO and NDPO) are considered. We find that for the case of finite-bandwidth squeezed vacuum injection, the two spectra exhibit unique features, which strongly differ from those of broadband squeezing excitation. In particular, the spectra exhibit a three-peaked and a four-peaked structure, respectively, for the squeezing injection from DPO and NDPO. Besides, some anomalous characteristics of the spectra such as squeezing-induced pimple, hole burning, and dispersive profile are found to be highly sensitive to the squeezing parameters and the temperature of the mirror. We also evaluate the mean-square fluctuations in position and momentum quadratures of the movable mirror and analyze the influence of the squeezing parameters of the input field on the mechanical squeezing. It will be shown that the parameters of driven squeezed vacuum affects the squeezing. We find the optimal mechanical squeezing is achievable via finite-bandwidth squeezed vacuum injection which is affected by the intensity of squeezed vacuum. We also show that the phase of incident squeezed vacuum determines whether position or momentum squeezing occurs. Our proposed scheme not only provides a feasible experimental method to detect and characterize squeezed light by optomechanical systems, but also suggests a way for controllable transfer of squeezing from an optical field to a mechanical oscillator.

  11. Performance of Large grain and Single Crystal Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Sekutowicz, Jacek

    2006-07-01

    We have fabricated and tested several single and one multi-cell cavity made from large grain niobium of four different ingots. Two cavities at a frequency of ~ 2.2 GHz were made from single crystal sheets. Large grain material was used for four single cell cavities of the HG â and OC shapes, a 7-cell cavity of the HG â shape â all resonating at 1500 MHz â and an ILC_LL single cell cavity at 1300 MHz. We began to explore also different chemical polishing baths such as a 1:1:1 and a 1:1:2 buffered solution and explored the change of cavity performance as a function of material removal. The results from these preliminary investigations are reported in this contribution.

  12. Controlling interactions between coupled photonic crystal cavities using photochromic tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tao; Bose, Ranojoy; Solomon, Glenn; Waks, Edo

    2013-03-01

    Strongly coupled photonic crystal (PhC) resonator systems provide a promising platform for studying cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) using semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). These device structures enable important applications such as photon blockade, quantum simulation, quantum-optical Josephson interferometer, and quantum phase transition of light. Many of these applications require the ability to accurately tune the resonant frequencies of individual cavities in the array, which provides a method to control their coupling interactions. This tuning method must be sufficiently local to address individual cavities spaced by less than 1 micron spatial separation. Here, we present a method for controlling the coupling interaction of photonic crystal cavity arrays by using a local and reversible photochromic tuning technique. By locally altering the refractive index of the photochromic material all-optically, the coupling interaction between two cavity modes could be modified over a tuning range as large as 700 GHz. By using this technique, we demonstrate the ability to couple photonic crystal cavities with a normal mode splitting of only 31.50 GHz. We further demonstrate that this tuning method can be extended to control the coupling interaction in larger cavity arrays.

  13. Spin–cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Patrick M.; Bracker, Allan S.; Carter, Samuel G.; Sweeney, Timothy M.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G.; Economou, Sophia E.; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin–cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet–triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network. PMID:26184654

  14. Spin-cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Vora, Patrick M; Bracker, Allan S; Carter, Samuel G; Sweeney, Timothy M; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G; Economou, Sophia E; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin-cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet-triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network. PMID:26184654

  15. Optomechanics: Vibrations copying optical chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciamanna, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical oscillation in a microtoroidal optical cavity transfers chaos from a pump to a probe laser beam with a different wavelength. Through stochastic resonance, the combination of noise and internal chaotic dynamics leads to amplification of optomechanically induced light self-oscillations.

  16. Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Deepak; Waks, Edo; Solomon, Glenn; Fourkas, John T.

    2010-04-12

    We demonstrate reversible tuning of a photonic crystal cavity resonance using a thin photochromic film composed of spiropyran and polymethylmethacrylate that serves as a photosensitive cladding layer. Exposure of spiropyran to ultraviolet light results in smooth redshift of the cavity resonance that can be reversed by exposure to visible wavelength light. We achieve a reversible resonance shift of up to 2.7 nm, which can be performed locally on individual cavities. The resonance shift over multiple successive UV and visible light exposures is studied to determine the repeatability of the photochromic film.

  17. Multifunctional optomechanical dynamics in integrated silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan

    Light can generate forces on matter. The nature of these forces is electromagnetic force, or Lorentz force. The emergence and rapid progress of nanotechnology provided an unprecedented platform where the very feeble optical forces began to play significant roles. The interactions between light and matter in nanoscale has been the focus of almost a decade of active theoretical and experimental investigations, which are still ongoing and constitute a whole new burgeoning branch of nanotechnology, nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS). In such context, the general goal of my research is to generate, enhance and control optical forces on silicon photonics platforms, with a focus on developing new functionalities and demonstrating novel effects, which will potentially lead to a new class of silicon photonic devices for a broad spectrum of applications. In this dissertation, the concept of optical force and the general background of the NOMS research area are first introduced. The general goal of the silicon photonics research area and the research presented in this dissertation is then described. Subsequently, the fundamental theory for optical force is summarized. The different methods to calculate optical forces are enumerated and briefly reviewed. Integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG) devices have been successfully fabricated and the enhanced optical forces experimentally measured for the first time. All-optical amplification of RF signals has been successfully demonstrated. The optical force generated by one laser is used to mechanically change the optical path and hence the output power of another laser. In addition, completely optically tunable mechanical nonlinear behavior has been demonstrated for the first time and systematically studied. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities has been demonstrated with a "photon see-saw" device. This photon see-saw is a novel multicavity optomechanical device which consists of two photonic crystal

  18. Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

  19. Polarization converting textures of nematic liquid crystal in glass cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiahui; Xu, Miao; Ren, Hongwen

    2014-01-01

    When a nematic liquid crystal (LC) is filled in a glass cavity, the LC molecules present azimuthal orientations in the cavity. If the surface of the cavity is coated with a homeotropic polyimide, then the LC molecules exhibit radial orientations. By treating the LC on one side of the cavity with homogeneous alignment, the former orientations change to a twisted-azimuthal texture, while the latter orientations change to a twisted-radial texture. Both textures are verified experimentally, and they can convert a linearly polarization light to an azimuthal and/or radial polarization light, depending on the polarization direction of the incident light. In contrast to previous approaches, various LC textures can be easily formed in a cavity, and the fabrication procedure is simple. Since the LC texture is confined in a cavity, an array pattern of the texture can be obtained, if the employed substrate has multiple cavities. A LC with twisted-azimuthal and/or twisted-radial textures in a cavity array has potential applications in phase modulation, polarization compensating, sharp focus, and material processing.

  20. Enhanced photodetection in graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shiue, Ren-Jye; Englund, Dirk; Gan, Xuetao; Li, Luozhou; Yao, Xinwen; Gao, Yuanda; Hone, James; Szep, Attila; Walker, Dennis

    2013-12-09

    We demonstrate the controlled enhancement of photoresponsivity in a graphene photodetector by coupling to slow light modes in a long photonic crystal linear defect cavity. Near the Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary, spectral coupling of multiple cavity modes results in broad-band photocurrent enhancement from 1530 nm to 1540 nm. Away from the BZ boundary, individual cavity resonances enhance the photocurrent eight-fold in narrow resonant peaks. Optimization of the photocurrent via critical coupling of the incident field with the graphene-cavity system is discussed. The enhanced photocurrent demonstrates the feasibility of a wavelength-scale graphene photodetector for efficient photodetection with high spectral selectivity and broadband response.

  1. Liquid crystal dynamics in a photonic crystal cavity created by selective microfluidic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Casas Bedoya, A; Mahmoodian, S; Monat, C; Tomljenovic-Hanic, S; Grillet, C; Domachuk, P; Mägi, E C; Eggleton, B J; van der Heijden, R W

    2010-12-20

    A microfluidic double heterostructure cavity is created in a silicon planar photonic crystal waveguide by selective infiltration of a liquid crystal. The spectral evolution of the cavity resonances probed by evanescent coupling reveals that the liquid crystal evaporates, even at room temperature, despite its relatively low vapor pressure of 5 × 10(-3) Pa. We explore the infiltration and evaporation dynamics of the liquid crystal within the cavity using a Fabry-Perot model that accounts for the joint effects of liquid volume reduction and cavity length variation due to liquid evaporation. While discussing how the pattern of the infiltrated liquid can be optimized to restrict evaporation, we find that the experimental behavior is consistent with basic microfluidic relations considering the small volumes of liquids and large surface areas present in our structure. PMID:21197006

  2. Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.

  3. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  4. Sensitivity of optical mass sensor enhanced by optomechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yong

    2015-03-23

    Optical mass sensors based on cavity optomechanics employ radiation pressure force to drive mechanical resonator whose mechanical susceptibility can be described by nonlinear optical transmission spectrum. In this paper, we present an optical mass sensor based on a two-cavity optomechanical system where the mechanical damping rate can be decreased by adjusting a pump power so that the mass sensitivity which depends on the mechanical quality factor has been enhanced greatly. Compared with that of an optical mass sensor based on single-cavity optomechanics, the mass sensitivity of the optical mass sensor is improved by three orders of magnitude. This is an approach to enhance the mass sensitivity by means of optomechanical coupling, which is suitable for all mass sensor based on cavity optomechanics. Finally, we illustrate the accurate measurement for the mass of a few chromosomes, which can be achieved based on the current experimental conditions.

  5. Optical modulator based on coupled photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimovich, Pavel G.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.

    2016-07-01

    We propose and numerically investigate an optical signal modulator based on two-photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled through a waveguide. The suggested modulator shifts the resonant frequency over a scalable range. We design a compact optical modulator based on photonic crystal nanobeams cavities that exhibits high stability to manufacturing. Photonic crystal waveguide tuning in the low-intensity region of the resonant mode is demonstrated. The advantages of the suggested approach over the single-resonator optical modulator approaches include the possibilities to shift the modulator frequency over a scalable range that depends on switching energy level and to effectively electrically tune the device in the low-intensity region of the resonant mode.

  6. Dynamical localization of matter waves in optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, Muhammad; Ammar Yasir, Kashif; Saif, Farhan

    2014-11-01

    We explain dynamical localization of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in optomechanics both in position and in momentum space. The experimentally realizable optomechanical system is a Fabry-Pérot cavity with one moving end mirror driven by a single mode standing field. In our study we analyze variations in modulation strength and effective Planck’s constant. Keeping in mind present day experimental advancements, we suggest parameteric values to observe the phenomenon in the laboratory.

  7. Dielectric matrices with air cavities as a waveguide photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Skripal', A. V.; Merdanov, M. K.; Gorlitskii, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    Frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient of a microwave photonic crystal that represents a structure containing alternating layers of ceramic material (Al2O3) with a relatively large number of cavities and foam plastic are studied in the presence and absence of distortions of the periodicity of a photonic structure. The frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient can be analyzed using a model of effective medium that makes it possible to consider the interaction of electromagnetic wave and photonic crystal using a transfer matrix of a 1D photonic crystal. The band character of the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficient of the photonic crystal related to the periodicity of the photonic crystal in the transverse plane for the waveguide with a standard cross section is not manifested in a certain range of material permittivities.

  8. Dynamics and transmissivity of optomechanical system in squeezed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, K.; Khan, M. A.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.

    2015-10-01

    Cavity quantum optomechanics offers the potential to explore quantum nature and characteristics in microscopic and nanoquantum systems. In this area, various experimental setup trends to explore, while theoretical approaches seek to lead the concrete bases for these amazing characteristics. In this paper, we present the dynamic features, stabilization and the optical response (transmission) properties of an optomechanical system in the squeezed environment theoretically. Particularly, we calculate optical intensity transmission coefficient of the optomechanical system. The optomechanical system has driven coherently with the external laser field.

  9. Optomechanical Metamaterials: Dirac polaritons, Gauge fields, and Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peano, Vittorio; Schmidt, Michael; Marquardt, Florian

    2014-03-01

    Freestanding photonic crystals can be used to trap both light and mechanical vibrations. These ``optomechanical crystal'' structures have already been experimentally demonstrated to yield strong coupling between a photon mode and a phonon mode, co-localized at a single defect site. Future devices may feature a regular superlattice of such defects, turning them into ``optomechanical arrays.'' We predict that tailoring the optomechanical band structure of such arrays can be used to implement Dirac physics of photons and phonons, to create a photonic gauge field via mechanical vibrations, and to observe a novel optomechanical instability. ERC Starting Grant OPTOMECH and via the DARPA program ORCHID.

  10. Analysis of photonic crystal double heterostructure resonant cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Adam

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals represent a versatile technology platform for constructing photonic integrated circuits. Low-loss and small footprint waveguides and cavities can be combined to make delay lines, modulators, filters and lasers for efficient optical signal processing. However, this diverse functionality comes at the expense of higher complexity in both the fabrication and themodeling of these devices. This Thesis discusses the finite-difference time-domain numerical modeling of large quality factor photonic crystal cavities for chip-scale laser applications. In Chapter 2 the role of the quality factor in estimating laser threshold is derived starting from Maxwell's equations. Expressions for modal loss and gain are derived. Chapter 3 discusses methods for extracting the quality factor from finite-difference time-domain simulations. Even with large-scale parallel computing, only a short record of the time evolution of the fields can be recorded. To get around this issue, Pade functions are fitted to the available data in the frequency domain. Once the analysis tools have been described and demonstrated, they are applied to the photonic crystal double heterostructure cavity which has been shown to have quality factors in excess of one million and mode volumes on the order of a cubic wavelength. A detailed description of the spectral and modal properties of heterostructure cavities is presented, and a method for mode discrimination is discussed. The effect of heat sinking dielectric lower substrates on the optical loss of the heterostructure cavity is investigated, and it is seen that the quality factor is significantly reduced as the index of the lower substrate is increased. A modified heterostructure cavity with glide plane symmetry is shown to have significantly reduced out-of-plane leakage. An optimized design is proposed for continuous wave edge-emitting laser operation. Finally, a novel approach for laser simulation is introduced in which a

  11. Quantum Optomechanical Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Meystre, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    We investigate theoretically a quantum optomechanical realization of a heat engine. The coupling between the cavity field and the mechanical resonator results in normal mode excitations whose quantum character depends on the pump detuning and on the coupling strength. By varying that detuning it is possible to transform their character from predominantly phonon-like into photon-like modes of different frequencies and coupled to two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures. We exploit this property to propose an Otto cycle along one branch of the normal modes and calculate its total work and efficiency. We discuss basic properties of that scheme for different optomechanical systems: in the optical domain it is possible to extract work from the thermal energy of a mechanical resonator, while in the microwave range one can in principle exploit the cycle to extract work from the blackbody radiation background coupled to an ultra-cold atomic ensemble. We ackowledge financial support from National Basic Research Program of China, NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  12. Photonic Crystal Cavities in Cubic (3C) Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulaski, Marina; Babinec, Thomas; Buckley, Sonia; Rundquist, Armand; Provine, J.; Alassaad, Kassem; Ferro, Gabriel; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2014-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) combines many of the outstanding material properties of other well-known optical and quantum optical materials, including strong optical nonlinearity, high Young's modulus, and a host of optically-active crystalline defects, in a single CMOS-compatible platform. For many applications in classical and quantum information processing, the material properties of the cubic silicon carbide polytype (3C-SiC) in particular are advantageous. We therefore present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor and small mode volume planar photonic crystal cavities in cubic 3C-SiC thin films (200 nm). We demonstrate cavity resonances across the infrared telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1.25 - 1.6 μm. Finally, we highlight our progress developing higher Q/V nanobeam cavities, as well as extending this optical cavity platform towards integration with SiC color centers. PECASE Grant ECCS-10 25811, NSF Grant ECS-9731293, Stanford Graduate Fellowship, National Science Graduate Fellowship.

  13. Dynamic stabilization of an optomechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, H.; Wright, E. M.; Meystre, P.

    2014-10-01

    Quantum optomechanics offers the potential to investigate quantum effects in macroscopic quantum systems in extremely well-controlled experiments. In this paper we discuss one such situation, the dynamic stabilization of a mechanical system such as an inverted pendulum. The specific example that we study is a "membrane-in-the-middle" mechanical oscillator coupled to a cavity field via a quadratic optomechanical interaction, with cavity damping the dominant source of dissipation. We show that the mechanical oscillator can be dynamically stabilized by a temporal modulation of the radiation pressure force. We investigate the system both in the classical and quantum regimes highlighting similarities and differences.

  14. Narrow bandpass tunable terahertz filter based on photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    He, Jinglong; Liu, Pingan; He, Yalan; Hong, Zhi

    2012-02-20

    We have fabricated a very narrow bandpass tunable terahertz (THz) filter based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. Since the filter consists of silicon wafers and air spacers, it has a very high quality factor of about 1500. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the passband is only about 200 MHz, and the peak transmission is higher than -4 dB. Besides, the central frequency can be tuned rapidly over the entire bandgap with the length of cavity adjusted by a motorized linear stage. Further analytical calculations indicate that a high-Q tunable filter with both high peak transmission and wide tunable range is possible if thinner silicon layers are used. PMID:22358169

  15. Temperature insensitive mass sensing of mode selected phononic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Li, Feng; Liu, Yongshun; Shu, Fengfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Wu, Yihui

    2015-12-01

    Phononic crystal cavities with high quality (Q) factors are attractive in both signal processing and sensing applications. In this paper, 2D phononic crystal point defect cavities are fabricated on silicon slabs by micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. An electrode design method is proposed to enhance displacements of the point defect modes. Then the method is applied to design MEMS resonators with different port numbers, among which Q factor as high as 21 300 is obtained in air. Multiport resonators with transmission measurements are proved to be advantageous over one-port resonators with impedance measurements in frequency resolution. A temperature insensitive resonant mass sensor is designed based on a two-port resonator. Two defect modes with strong responses in the two-port resonator are combined to compensate environmental temperature interference. The temperature compensation experiment reveals that temperature interference is effectively compensated from mass measurement and the mass sensitivity of the sensor is 5.4 Hz ng-1. The conclusion of mode selection or sensing mechanism will help to design resonators or sensors with high performances.

  16. Double photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorovitch, Pierre; Sciancalepore, Corrado; Bakir, Badhise Ben; Letartre, Xavier; Seassal, Christian

    2013-03-01

    The periodic patterning of the optical medium achieved through photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) can be employed for controlling the resonant coupling of external radiation continuum to above-the-light-line flat edges of the folded band structure in strongly corrugated waveguides, resulting in high reflectivity for an efficient quasi-3D light harnessing. Recently, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) emitting in C-band using a double set of one-dimensional Si/SiO2 photonic crystals as compact, flexible, and power efficient mirrors have been realized within a mass-scale fabrication paradigm by employing standard 200-mm microelectronics pilot lines. Conceived as the basic building block for photonics-on-silicon back-end integration of group III-V laser microsources, the extreme flexibility of the novel photonic architecture enables to perform a tailored modal selection of the optical cavity, including polarization and far-field control. It also offers a wide range of functionality, such as on-chip optical routing and a variety of efficient wavelength tuning-trimming schemes. Device compactness ensures a considerable reduction in the device footprint, power consumption, and parasitics. Furthermore, high fabrication yields obtained thanks to the state-of-the-art molecular wafer bonding of III-V alloys on silicon conjugate excellent device performances with cost-effective high-throughput production, indicating strong perspective industrial potential.

  17. Atom mediated sensing in a hybrid optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Steven; Bariani, Francesco; Singh, Swati; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2014-05-01

    A primary difficulty in implementing quantum optomechanical protocols is the requirement to operate in the good cavity limit, i.e., where the cavity linewidth is far smaller than the mechanical frequency. We explore a hybrid two cavity approach in which a membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical cavity is coupled to a second, atomic cavity. Specifically, we show that it is possible to detect the motion of the membrane via an indirect measurement of the atoms. In the case of a non-ideal optomechanical cavity, we show that the sensitivity can be enhanced via this indirect detection. Finally, we investigate the quantum limitations of such a measurement scheme. Supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from AFOSR and the DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from ARO, the US Army Research Office, and by NSF. M. V. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  18. Single crystal niobium tubes for particle colliders accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James E

    2013-02-28

    The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred °C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 °C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 °C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was

  19. Preliminary results from single crystal and very large crystal niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Kneisel; G.R. Myneni; G. Ciovati; J. Sekutowicz; T. Carneiro

    2005-05-01

    We have fabricated and tested several single cell cavities using material from very large grain niobium ingots. In one case the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. This activity had a dual purpose: to investigate the influence of grain boundaries on the often observed Q-drop at gradients E{sub acc} > 20 MV/m in the absence of field emission, and to study the possibility of using ingot material for cavity fabrication without going through the expensive rolling process. The sheets for these cavities were cut from the ingot by wire electro-discharge machining (EDM) and subsequently formed into half-cells by deep drawing. The following fabrication steps were standard: machining of weld recesses, electron beam welding of beam pipes onto the half cells and final equator weld to join both half cell/beam pipe subunits. The cavities showed heavy Q-disease caused by the EDM. After hydrogen degassing at 800 C for 3 hrs in UHV and about 200 {micro}m total removals from the inner surface by BCP 1:1:1, the cavities showed promising results, however, the Q-drop was still present. In the two cavities made from large grain material accelerating gradients of 30 MV/m have been reached. After ''in-situ'' baking the Q-drop disappeared. The smaller cavities made from single crystal material showed very low residual resistances and accelerating gradients up to E{sub acc} = 45 MV/m were reached (one of the highest ever achieved), corresponding to a peak surface magnetic fields (B{sub p}) of 160 mT. In one rf test at 2 K, a B{sub p} = 185 mT was reached for few hundred milliseconds, close to the theoretical critical field of this material.

  20. Robust spin squeezing preservation in photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wo-Jun; Li, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xing; Xie, Ying-Mao

    2016-08-01

    We show that the robust spin squeezing preservation can be achieved by utilizing detuning modification for an ensemble of N separate two-level atoms embedded in photonic crystal cavities (PCC). In particular, we explore the different dynamical behaviors of spin squeezing between isotropic and anisotropic PCC cases when the atomic frequency is inside the band gap. In both cases, it is shown that the robust preservation of spin squeezing is completely determined by the formation of bound states. Intriguingly, we find that unlike the isotropic case where steady-state spin squeezing varies smoothly when the atomic frequency moves from the inside to the outside band edge, a sudden transition occurs for the anisotropic case. The present results may be of direct importance for, e.g. quantum metrology in open quantum systems.

  1. The nonclassical effects in coupled optomechanical array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenjun; Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wenzhao; Yousif, Taha; Zhou, Ling

    2015-07-01

    We investigate a coupled array of ? identical cavity optomechanical systems. By adiabatically eliminating the cavity fields, we derive an effective Hamiltonian of the ? phonon modes coupled via XX form. We show further that the coupled mechanical oscillators can be used to transmit state and the single mode of the oscillator and the two-mode of neighbor oscillators can exhibit squeezing simultaneously. Under the suitable regime of parameters, the phonon blockade is exhibited.

  2. Phonon Cooling by an Optomechanical Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ying; Bariani, F.; Meystre, P.

    2015-11-01

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single precooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits us to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  3. High-Q silicon-on-insulator slot photonic crystal cavity infiltrated by a liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric

    2013-12-16

    We report the experimental realization of a high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration infiltrated by a liquid. Loaded Q-factor of 23 000 is measured at telecom wavelength. The intrinsic quality factor inferred from the transmission spectrum is higher than 200 000, which represents a record value for slot photonic crystal cavities on SOI, whereas the maximum of intensity of the cavity is roughly equal to 20% of the light transmitted in the waveguide. This result makes filled slot photonic crystal cavities very promising for silicon-based light emission and ultrafast nonlinear optics.

  4. High-Q silicon-on-insulator slot photonic crystal cavity infiltrated by a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric

    2013-12-01

    We report the experimental realization of a high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration infiltrated by a liquid. Loaded Q-factor of 23 000 is measured at telecom wavelength. The intrinsic quality factor inferred from the transmission spectrum is higher than 200 000, which represents a record value for slot photonic crystal cavities on SOI, whereas the maximum of intensity of the cavity is roughly equal to 20% of the light transmitted in the waveguide. This result makes filled slot photonic crystal cavities very promising for silicon-based light emission and ultrafast nonlinear optics.

  5. Integrated waveguide-DBR microcavity opto-mechanical system.

    PubMed

    Pruessner, Marcel W; Stievater, Todd H; Khurgin, Jacob B; Rabinovich, William S

    2011-10-24

    Cavity opto-mechanics exploits optical forces acting on mechanical structures. Many opto-mechanics demonstrations either require extensive alignment of optical components for probing and measurement, which limits the number of opto-mechanical devices on-chip; or the approaches limit the ability to control the opto-mechanical parameters independently. In this work, we propose an opto-mechanical architecture incorporating a waveguide-DBR microcavity coupled to an in-plane micro-bridge resonator, enabling large-scale integration on-chip with the ability to individually tune the optical and mechanical designs. We experimentally characterize our device and demonstrate mechanical resonance damping and amplification, including the onset of coherent oscillations. The resulting collapse of the resonance linewidth implies a strong increase in effective mechanical quality-factor, which is of interest for high-resolution sensing. PMID:22109043

  6. Lithographic wavelength control of an external cavity laser with a silicon photonic crystal cavity-based resonant reflector.

    PubMed

    Liles, Alexandros A; Debnath, Kapil; O'Faolain, Liam

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a new design for external cavity hybrid lasers consisting of a III-V semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with fiber reflector and a photonic crystal (PhC)-based resonant reflector on SOI. The silicon reflector is composed of an SU8 polymer bus waveguide vertically coupled to a PhC cavity and provides a wavelength-selective optical feedback to the laser cavity. This device exhibits milliwatt-level output power and side-mode suppression ratios of more than 25 dB. PMID:26974073

  7. Quantum Optomechanics of a Bose-Einstein Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, H.; Goldbaum, D. S.; Buchmann, L.; Meystre, P.

    2011-06-03

    We investigate the cavity optomechanical properties of an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate, where the role of the mechanical element is played by spin-wave excitations. We show how this system can be described by a single rotor that can be prepared deep in the quantum regime under realizable experimental conditions. This system provides a bottom-up realization of dispersive rotational optomechanics, and opens the door to the direct observation of quantum spin fluctuations.

  8. Using interference for high fidelity quantum state transfer in optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2012-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of a two-cavity optomechanical system (e.g. a single mechanical resonator coupled to both a microwave and an optical cavity), investigating how interference can be used to perform mechanically-mediated quantum state transfer between the two cavities. We show that this optomechanical system possesses an effective ``mechanically-dark'' mode which is immune to mechanical dissipation; utilizing this feature allows highly efficient transfer of intra-cavity states, as well as of itinerant photon states. Simple analytic expressions for the fidelity of transferring both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states are provided. Our work has relevance to ongoing experimental efforts in quantum optomechanics (e.g., C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 264, 012025 (2011); A. H. Safavi-Naeini and O. Painter, New J. Phys. 13, 013017 (2011)).

  9. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  10. Solitons in optomechanical arrays.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jing-Hui; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying

    2016-06-15

    We show that optical solitons can be obtained with a one-dimensional optomechanical array that consists of a chain of periodically spaced identical optomechanical systems. Unlike conventional optical solitons, which originate from nonlinear polarization, the optical soliton here stems from a new mechanism, namely, phonon-photon interaction. Under proper conditions, the phonon-photon induced nonlinearity that refers to the optomechanical nonlinearity will exactly compensate the dispersion caused by photon hopping of adjacent optomechanical systems. Moreover, the solitons are capable of exhibiting very low group velocity, depending on the photon hopping rate, which may lead to many important applications, including all-optical switches and on-chip optical architecture. This work may extend the range of optomechanics and nonlinear optics and provide a new field to study soliton theory and develop corresponding applications. PMID:27304261

  11. Synthesis of optical spring potentials in optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatyer, Harry J.; Guccione, Giovanni; Cho, Young-Wook; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method for tailoring the potential experienced by a moveable end mirror in a cavity optomechanical system by specifying the spectral properties of the input field. We show that by engineering the power spectral density of the cavity input field, a desired force function can be approximated, with the accuracy of the approximation limited only by the linewidth of the cavity. The very general technique presented here could have applications in many kinds of optomechanical systems, particularly those used for sensing and metrology. We demonstrate the method by applying it to improve the sensitivity of a particular gravity measurement.

  12. Mode analysis of photonic crystal L3 cavities in self-suspended lithium niobate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Diziain, Séverine Geiss, Reinhard; Zilk, Matthias; Schrempel, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Pertsch, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-12-16

    We report on a multimodal analysis of photonic crystal L3 cavities milled in lithium niobate free-standing membranes. The classical L3 cavity geometry is compared to an L3 cavity containing a second lattice superimposed on the primary one. Those two different geometries are investigated in terms of vertical radiation and quality (Q) factor for each mode of the cavities. Depending on the cavity geometry, some modes undergo an enhancement of their vertical radiation into small angles while other modes experience a higher Q factor. Experimental characterizations are corroborated by three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulations.

  13. Cavity magnomechanics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X

    2016-03-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  14. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  15. Nanoimplantation and Purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Becher, Christoph; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Meijer, Jan; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the controlled creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers via ion implantation at the center of a photonic crystal cavity which is fabricated in an ultrapure, single crystal diamond membrane. High-resolution placement of NV centers is achieved using collimation of a 5 keV-nitrogen ion beam through a pierced tip of an atomic force microscope. We demonstrate coupling of the implanted NV centers' broad band fluorescence to a cavity mode and observe Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission. The results are in good agreement with a master equation model for the cavity coupling.

  16. Flexible nanomembrane photonic-crystal cavities for tensilely strained-germanium light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jian; Cui, Xiaorui; Wang, Xiaowei; Sookchoo, Pornsatit; Lagally, Max G.; Paiella, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Flexible photonic-crystal cavities in the form of Si-column arrays embedded in polymeric films are developed on Ge nanomembranes using direct membrane assembly. The resulting devices can sustain large biaxial tensile strain under mechanical stress, as a way to enhance the Ge radiative efficiency. Pronounced emission peaks associated with photonic-crystal cavity resonances are observed in photoluminescence measurements. These results show that ultrathin nanomembrane active layers can be effectively coupled to an optical cavity, while still preserving their mechanical flexibility. Thus, they are promising for the development of strain-enabled Ge lasers, and more generally uniquely flexible optoelectronic devices.

  17. Photonic crystal cavities for resonant evanescent field trapping of single bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leest, Thijs; Heldens, Jeroen; van der Gaag, Bram; Caro, Jaap

    2012-06-01

    In monitoring the quality of drinking water with respect to the presence of hazardous bacteria there is a strong need for on-line sensors that allow quick identification of bacterium species at low cost. In this respect, the combination of photonics and microfluidics is promising for lab-on-a-chip sensing of these contaminants. Photonic crystal slabs have proven to form a versatile platform for controlling the flow of light and creating resonant cavities on a wavelength scale. The goal of our research is to use photonic crystal cavities for optical trapping of microorganisms in water, exploiting the enhanced evanescent field of the cavity mode. We optimize the H0, H1 and L3 cavities for optical trapping of bacteria in water, by reducing out-of-plane losses and taking into account the trapping-induced resonance shift and the in-plane coupling with photonic crystal waveguides. The cavities are fabricated on silicon-on-insulator material, using e-beam lithography and dry etching. A fluidic channel is created on top of the photonic crystal using dry film resist techniques. Transmission measurements show clear resonances for the cavities in water. In the present state of our research, we demonstrate optical trapping of 1 μm diameter polystyrene beads for the three cavities, with estimated trapping forces on the order of 0.7 pN.

  18. Hybrid quantum systems with ultracold spins and optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Date, Aditya; Schwab, Keith; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    Linear cavity optomechanics has enabled radiation pressure cooling and sensing of mechanical resonators at the quantum limits. However, exciting and unrealized avenues such as generating massive macroscopic nonclassical states, quantum signal transduction, and phonon-based manybody physics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. In our group, we are exploring three approaches to realizing strong optomechanical nonlinearities - i. using atomically thin graphene membranes, ii. coupling optomechanical systems with ultracold atomic spins, and iii. using microtoroidal optomechanical resonators strongly coupled to atoms trapped in their evanescent fields. We describe our progress in each of these efforts and discuss ongoing studies on various aspects of quantum enhanced metrology, nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum transduction using these novel hybrid quantum systems. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  19. Lasing from active optomechanical resonators

    PubMed Central

    Czerniuk, T.; Brüggemann, C.; Tepper, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Glavin, B. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Akimov, A. V.; Bayer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator’s optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations—photons, phonons and electrons—can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge. PMID:25008784

  20. Optomechanics in a Millikelvin Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauer, Bradley; MacDonald, Allison; Popowich, Greg; Kim, Paul; Fredrick, Aron; Rojas, Xavier; Davis, John

    2015-03-01

    As advances in technology continue to improve the quality and reduce the size of nanofabricated devices, we edge closer and closer to the prospect of observing quantized motion of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator. Measurements of such devices, which consist of billions to trillions of atoms, would provide an excellent test of the scales at which quantum mechanics is applicable. However, due to their relatively large effective masses, these devices must be cooled to mK temperatures to reach their quantum ground state. The field of cavity optomechanics, which has already achieved quantum limited measurement sensitivity, provides a promising avenue for performing such measurements. To this end, we have designed a tapered fiber optomechanical coupling apparatus, with full 3D control and real time imaging of the coupling environment, on the base plate of a dilution refrigerator. This experiment is capable of passively cooling devices to temperatures below 10 mK, at which oscillators with resonance frequencies as low as 150 MHz will be cooled to single phonon occupancy. In this talk, I will present preliminary measurements from this cutting edge system.

  1. Lasing from active optomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Czerniuk, T; Brüggemann, C; Tepper, J; Brodbeck, S; Schneider, C; Kamp, M; Höfling, S; Glavin, B A; Yakovlev, D R; Akimov, A V; Bayer, M

    2014-01-01

    Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator's optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations--photons, phonons and electrons--can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge. PMID:25008784

  2. A polarization converter array using a twisted-azimuthal liquid crystal in cylindrical polymer cavities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiahui; Xu, Miao; Ren, Hongwen; Wang, Qionghua

    2013-07-01

    We report a simple method to prepare an array of polarization converters using a twisted-azimuthal nematic liquid crystal (NLC) in cylindrical polymer cavities. When a NLC is filled in a cylindrical polymer cavity, LC in the cavity presents concentrically circular orientations. By treating LC on one side of the cavity with homogeneous alignment, a twisted-azimuthal texture is formed. Such a LC texture can convert a linear polarization light to either radial or azimuthal polarization light depending on the polarization direction of the incident light. The LC surface on the other side of the cavity is convex, so the light after passing through the cavity can be focused as well. The LC texture can be fixed firmly using polymer network. In comparison with previous polarization converters, our polarization converter has the merits of individually miniature size, array of pattern, and lens character. Our polarization converter array has potential applications in tight focusing, imaging, and material processing. PMID:23842407

  3. Deterministic coupling of delta-doped nitrogen vacancy centers to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jonathan C.; Cui, Shanying; Zhang, Xingyu; Russell, Kasey J.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Bracher, David O.; Ohno, Kenichi; McLellan, Claire A.; Alemán, Benjamin; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania; Andrich, Paolo; Awschalom, David; Aharonovich, Igor

    2014-12-29

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to ∼24 000 and mode volume V ∼ 0.47(λ/n){sup 3} as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of ∼20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.

  4. Opto-mechanics with sub-wavelength grating-membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haitan; Kemiktarak, Utku; Stambaugh, Corey; Durand, Mathieu; Lawall, John; Taylor, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    We fabricate highly reflective sub-wavelength grating membranes using stoichiometric silicon nitride. We achieve a grating reflectivity of 99.6% with a membrane mechanical frequency of ~1 MHz. We integrate the grating-membrane into a Fabry-Perot cavity and investigate its opto-mechanical properties. We also consider the prospect of using them for three mode opto-mechanics experiments where the two optical cavity modes are coupled through a mechanical mode. We acknowledge support from DARPA QuASAR and the NSF-funded Physics Frontier Center at the Joint Quantum Institute, and also CNST at NIST.

  5. Development of Large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Cavity Technology at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, P.; Myneni, G. R.; Ciovati, G.; Sekutowicz, J.; Carneiro, T.

    2007-08-01

    Approximately two years ago we started to develop high performance niobium accelerating cavities based on large grain or single crystal high purity niobium. We have fabricated and tested 15 single cell cavities of various shapes and frequencies between 1300 MHz and 2300 MHz using material from a total of 9 different very large grain niobium ingots from four niobium suppliers. The materials differed not only in grain sizes, but also in RRR — value and in the amount of Ta contained in the material. In one ingot supplied by CBMM the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. A single crystal 1300 MHz mono-cell cavity was also produced at DESY by rolling out a single crystal to the size required for this cavity. It was sent to Jlab for surface treatment and testing. In addition, we have fabricated three 7-cell cavities: two of the Jlab high gradient (HG) shape and one of the ILC Low Loss shape. Two 9-cell TESLA shape cavities are presently in fabrication at Jlab and are close to completion.

  6. Development of large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Cavity Technology at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; J. Sekutowicz; T. Carneiro; G. Ciovati

    2006-10-31

    Approximately two years ago we started to develop high performance niobium accelerating cavities based on large grain or single crystal high purity niobium. We have fabricated and tested 15 single cell cavities of various shapes and frequencies between 1300 MHz and 2300 MHz using material from a total of 9 different very large grain niobium ingots from four niobium suppliers. The materials differed not only in grain sizes, but also in RRR ? value and in the amount of Ta contained in the material. In one ingot supplied by CBMM the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. A single crystal 1300 MHz mono-cell cavity was also produced at DESY by rolling out a single crystal to the size required for this cavity. It was sent to Jlab for surface treatment and testing. In addition, we have fabricated three 7-cell cavities: two of the Jlab high gradient (HG) shape and one of the ILC Low Loss shape. Two 9-cell TESLA shape cavities are presently in fabrication at Jlab and are close to completion.

  7. A computational study of dielectric photonic-crystal-based accelerator cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, C. A.

    Future particle accelerator cavities may use dielectric photonic crystals to reduce harmful wakefields and increase the accelerating electric field (or gradient). Reduced wakefields are predicted based on the bandgap property of some photonic crystals (i.e. frequency-selective reflection/transmission). Larger accelerating gradients are predicted based on certain dielectrics' strong resistance to electrical breakdown. Using computation, this thesis investigated a hybrid design of a 2D sapphire photonic crystal and traditional copper conducting cavity. The goals were to test the claim of reduced wakefields and, in general, judge the effectiveness of such structures as practical accelerating cavities. In the process, we discovered the following: (1) resonant cavities in truncated photonic crystals may confine radiation weakly compared to conducting cavities (depending on the level of truncation); however, confinement can be dramatically increased through optimizations that break lattice symmetry (but retain certain rotational symmetries); (2) photonic crystal cavities do not ideally reduce wakefields; using band structure calculations, we found that wakefields are increased by flat portions of the frequency dispersion (where the waves have vanishing group velocities). A complete comparison was drawn between the proposed photonic crystal cavities and the copper cavities for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC); CLIC is one of the candidates for a future high-energy electron-positron collider that will study in greater detail the physics learned at the Large Hadron Collider. We found that the photonic crystal cavity, when compared to the CLIC cavity: (1) can lower maximum surface magnetic fields on conductors (growing evidence suggests this limits accelerating gradients by inducing electrical breakdown); (2) shows increased transverse dipole wakefields but decreased longitudinal monopole wakefields; and (3) exhibits lower accelerating efficiencies (unless

  8. Ultrastrong optomechanics incorporating the dynamical Casimir effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nation, P. D.; Suh, J.; Blencowe, M. P.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a superconducting circuit comprising a dc superconducting quantum interference device with a mechanically compliant arm embedded in a coplanar microwave cavity that realizes an optomechanical system with a degenerate or nondegenerate parametric interaction generated via the dynamical Casimir effect. For experimentally feasible parameters, this setup is capable of reaching the single-photon ultrastrong-coupling regime while simultaneously possessing a parametric coupling strength approaching the renormalized cavity frequency. This opens up the possibility of observing the interplay between these two fundamental nonlinearities at the single-photon level.

  9. Opto-mechanical design of a buckling cavity in a novel high-performance outside-plant robust field installable single-mode fibre connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks provide an ideal means to reach the goal the European Union has set to provide 50 % of the households with a broadband connection faster than 100 Mb/s. Deployment of FTTH networks, which is still costly today, could be significantly boosted by novel ferrule-less connectors which don't require highly skilled personnel and allow installation in the field. We propose a ferrule-less connector in which two single-mode fibres (SMFs) are aligned and maintain physical contact by ensuring that at least one fibre is in a buckled state. To this end, we design a cavity in which a fibre can buckle in a controlled way. Using finite element analysis simulations to investigate the shape of the formed buckle for various buckling cavity lengths, we show that it can be accurately approximated by a cosine function. In addition, the optical performance of a buckled SMF is investigated by bending loss calculations and simulations. We show a good agreement between the analytical and the simulated bending loss results for a G.652 fibre at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Buckling cavity lengths smaller than 20 mm should be avoided to keep the optical bending loss due to buckling below 0.1 dB. In this case the cavity height should at least be 2 mm to avoid mechanical confinement of the fibre.

  10. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  11. Optical-response properties in levitated optomechanical systems beyond the low-excitation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Aixi; Lan, Yueheng

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the optical-response properties of a levitated optomechanical cavity coupled to a higher order excited atomic medium. The cavity field driven through the atom-field interaction is responsible for trapping a dielectric nanosphere, whose steady-state position is biased by the Coulomb force between the nanosphere and the cavity wall. We show that the phenomena of optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) and amplification can be generated from the output probe field in the presence of an effective optomechanical coupling between the nanosphere and the cavity field. Further, the width of the transparency window increases with increasing strength of the effective optomechanical coupling, which is controlled easily by varying the Coulomb interaction and the radius of the nanosphere. In particular, when the higher order excitation of the atomic medium is included, a large driving of the atomic ensemble but a relatively small atom-field detuning can be applied to help observe the OMIT behavior in the hybrid system.

  12. Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities

    PubMed Central

    Pagliano, Francesco; Cho, YongJin; Xia, Tian; van Otten, Frank; Johne, Robert; Fiore, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both single-photon emission and the strong coupling regime have been demonstrated, further progress has been hampered by the inability to control the coherent evolution of the cavity quantum electrodynamics system in real time, as needed to produce and harness charge–photon entanglement. Here using the ultrafast electrical tuning of the exciton energy in a photonic crystal diode, we demonstrate the dynamic control of the coupling of a single exciton to a photonic crystal cavity mode on a sub-nanosecond timescale, faster than the natural lifetime of the exciton. This opens the way to the control of single-photon waveforms, as needed for quantum interfaces, and to the real-time control of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. PMID:25503405

  13. Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Pagliano, Francesco; Cho, YongJin; Xia, Tian; van Otten, Frank; Johne, Robert; Fiore, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both single-photon emission and the strong coupling regime have been demonstrated, further progress has been hampered by the inability to control the coherent evolution of the cavity quantum electrodynamics system in real time, as needed to produce and harness charge-photon entanglement. Here using the ultrafast electrical tuning of the exciton energy in a photonic crystal diode, we demonstrate the dynamic control of the coupling of a single exciton to a photonic crystal cavity mode on a sub-nanosecond timescale, faster than the natural lifetime of the exciton. This opens the way to the control of single-photon waveforms, as needed for quantum interfaces, and to the real-time control of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. PMID:25503405

  14. Fiber-optic integration and efficient detection schemes for optomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Justin D.

    With the advent of the laser in the year 1960, the field of optics experienced a renaissance from what was considered to be a dull, solved subject to an active area of development, with applications and discoveries which are yet to be exhausted 55 years later. Light is now nearly ubiquitous not only in cutting-edge research in physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in modern technology and infrastructure. One quality of light, that of the imparted radiation pressure force upon reflection from an object, has attracted intense interest from researchers seeking to precisely monitor and control the motional degrees of freedom of an object using light. These optomechanical interactions have inspired myriad proposals, ranging from quantum memories and transducers in quantum information networks to precision metrology of classical forces. Alongside advances in micro- and nano-fabrication, the burgeoning field of optomechanics has yielded a class of highly engineered systems designed to produce strong interactions between light and motion. Optomechanical crystals are one such system in which the patterning of periodic holes in thin dielectric films traps both light and sound waves to a micro-scale volume. These devices feature strong radiation pressure coupling between high-quality optical cavity modes and internal nanomechanical resonances. Whether for applications in the quantum or classical domain, the utility of optomechanical crystals hinges on the degree to which light radiating from the device, having interacted with mechanical motion, can be collected and detected in an experimental apparatus consisting of conventional optical components such as lenses and optical fibers. While several efficient methods of optical coupling exist to meet this task, most are unsuitable for the cryogenic or vacuum integration required for many applications. The first portion of this dissertation will detail the development of robust and efficient methods of optically coupling

  15. Parity-time-symmetry enhanced optomechanically-induced-transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Jiang, Yunfeng; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-08-01

    We propose and analyze a scheme to enhance optomechanically-induced-transparency (OMIT) based on parity-time-symmetric optomechanical system. Our results predict that an OMIT window which does not exist originally can appear in weak optomechanical coupling and driving system via coupling an auxiliary active cavity with optical gain. This phenomenon is quite different from these reported in previous works in which the gain is considered just to damage OMIT phenomenon even leads to electromagnetically induced absorption or inverted-OMIT. Such enhanced OMIT effects are ascribed to the additional gain which can increase photon number in cavity without reducing effective decay. We also discuss the scheme feasibility by analyzing recent experiment parameters. Our work provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation and slow light operation, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum optical device.

  16. Parity-time-symmetry enhanced optomechanically-induced-transparency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlin; Jiang, Yunfeng; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze a scheme to enhance optomechanically-induced-transparency (OMIT) based on parity-time-symmetric optomechanical system. Our results predict that an OMIT window which does not exist originally can appear in weak optomechanical coupling and driving system via coupling an auxiliary active cavity with optical gain. This phenomenon is quite different from these reported in previous works in which the gain is considered just to damage OMIT phenomenon even leads to electromagnetically induced absorption or inverted-OMIT. Such enhanced OMIT effects are ascribed to the additional gain which can increase photon number in cavity without reducing effective decay. We also discuss the scheme feasibility by analyzing recent experiment parameters. Our work provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation and slow light operation, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum optical device. PMID:27489193

  17. Parity-time-symmetry enhanced optomechanically-induced-transparency.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlin; Jiang, Yunfeng; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze a scheme to enhance optomechanically-induced-transparency (OMIT) based on parity-time-symmetric optomechanical system. Our results predict that an OMIT window which does not exist originally can appear in weak optomechanical coupling and driving system via coupling an auxiliary active cavity with optical gain. This phenomenon is quite different from these reported in previous works in which the gain is considered just to damage OMIT phenomenon even leads to electromagnetically induced absorption or inverted-OMIT. Such enhanced OMIT effects are ascribed to the additional gain which can increase photon number in cavity without reducing effective decay. We also discuss the scheme feasibility by analyzing recent experiment parameters. Our work provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation and slow light operation, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum optical device. PMID:27489193

  18. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-04-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities.

  19. Effective bichromatic potential for ultra-high Q-factor photonic crystal slab cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Alpeggiani, Filippo Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Gerace, Dario

    2015-12-28

    We introduce a confinement mechanism in photonic crystal slab cavities, which relies on the superposition of two incommensurate one-dimensional lattices in a line-defect waveguide. It is shown that the resulting photonic profile realizes an effective quasi-periodic bichromatic potential for the electromagnetic field confinement yielding extremely high quality (Q) factor nanocavities, while simultaneously keeping the mode volume close to the diffraction limit. We apply these concepts to pillar- and hole-based photonic crystal slab cavities, respectively, and a Q-factor improvement by over an order of magnitude is shown over existing designs, especially in pillar-based structures. Thanks to the generality and easy adaptation of such confinement mechanism to a broad class of cavity designs and photonic lattices, this work opens interesting routes for applications where enhanced light–matter interaction in photonic crystal structures is required.

  20. Directional impulse response of a large cavity inside a sonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Spiousas, Ignacio; Eguia, Manuel C

    2012-10-01

    Both temporal and directional responses of a cavity inside a two-dimensional sonic crystal are investigated. The size of the cavity is large compared to the lattice parameter and the wavelength for the frequency range of interest. Hence, a hybrid method to compute the response is proposed, combining multiscattering theory for the calculation of the reflective properties of the sonic crystal with a modified ray-tracing algorithm for the sound propagation within the cavity. The response of this enclosure displays resonances for certain frequency bands that depend on the geometry of the lattice and the cavity. When a full band gap exists in the sonic crystal, rays cannot propagate through the medium and total reflection occurs for all incidence angles, leading to strong resonances with an isotropic intensity field inside the cavity. When only some propagation directions are forbidden, total reflection occurs for certain ranges of incidence angles, and resonances can also be elicited but with a highly anisotropic intensity field. The spectrum of resonances of the cavity is strongly affected by changes in the lattice geometry, suggesting that they can be tailored to some extent, a feature that can lead to potential applications in architectural acoustics. PMID:23039550

  1. Preservation Macroscopic Entanglement of Optomechanical Systems in non-Markovian Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dynamics of an optomechanical system under the non-Markovian environment. In the weak optomechanical single-photon coupling regime, we provide an analytical approach fully taking into account the non-Markovian memory effects. When the cavity-bath coupling strength crosses a certain threshold, an oscillating memory state for the classical cavity field is formed. Due to the existence of the non-decay optical bound state, a nonequilibrium optomechanical thermal entanglement is preserved even without external driving laser. Our results provide a potential usage to generate and protect entanglement via non-Markovian environment. PMID:27032674

  2. Preservation Macroscopic Entanglement of Optomechanical Systems in non-Markovian Environment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dynamics of an optomechanical system under the non-Markovian environment. In the weak optomechanical single-photon coupling regime, we provide an analytical approach fully taking into account the non-Markovian memory effects. When the cavity-bath coupling strength crosses a certain threshold, an oscillating memory state for the classical cavity field is formed. Due to the existence of the non-decay optical bound state, a nonequilibrium optomechanical thermal entanglement is preserved even without external driving laser. Our results provide a potential usage to generate and protect entanglement via non-Markovian environment. PMID:27032674

  3. Preservation Macroscopic Entanglement of Optomechanical Systems in non-Markovian Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    We investigate dynamics of an optomechanical system under the non-Markovian environment. In the weak optomechanical single-photon coupling regime, we provide an analytical approach fully taking into account the non-Markovian memory effects. When the cavity-bath coupling strength crosses a certain threshold, an oscillating memory state for the classical cavity field is formed. Due to the existence of the non-decay optical bound state, a nonequilibrium optomechanical thermal entanglement is preserved even without external driving laser. Our results provide a potential usage to generate and protect entanglement via non-Markovian environment.

  4. Wavelength-controlled external-cavity laser with a silicon photonic crystal resonant reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, A. A.; Liles, Alexandros A.; Persheyev, Saydulla; Debnath, Kapil; O'Faolain, Liam

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of an alternative design of external-cavity hybrid lasers consisting of a III-V Semiconductor Optical Amplifier with fiber reflector and a Photonic Crystal (PhC) based resonant reflector on SOI. The Silicon reflector comprises a polymer (SU8) bus waveguide vertically coupled to a PhC cavity and provides a wavelength-selective optical feedback to the laser cavity. This device exhibits milliwatt-level output power and sidemode suppression ratio of more than 25 dB.

  5. Resonance Cavities in Parallel-Hetero Perturbation Photonic Crystal Waveguide Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-07-01

    We design a series of W1 waveguide-like parallel-hetero cavities (PHCs) made from the combination of parallelhetero perturbation (PHP) waveguides and photonic crystal waveguides and investigate their optical properties. Spectral properties are calculated numerically using the three-dimensional finite-difierence time-domain method. The resonant frequencies and quality factors are obtained for each type of PHC and comparisons are made among different types of PHC, which is helpful for predicting and understanding the properties of PHC and designing PHC based high-performance cavities. The PHCs can broaden the category of cavity design and find interesting applications in integrated optical devices and solid state lasers.

  6. A photonic crystal cavity-optical fiber tip nanoparticle sensor for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambat, Gary; Rajasekhar Kothapalli, Sri; Khurana, Aman; Provine, J.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Cheng, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; Harris, James; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Sam Gambhir, Sanjiv; Vučković, Jelena

    2012-05-01

    We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presence and concentration can be detected through modified cavity properties. Our sensor can detect both gold and iron oxide nanoparticles and can be utilized for molecular sensing applications in biomedicine.

  7. Ultrasensitive gas-phase chemical sensing based on functionalized photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Fegadolli, William S; Jones, William M; Scherer, Axel; Li, Mo

    2014-01-28

    Photonic crystal nanobeam cavities with high-quality factors are very sensitive to the changes of the dielectric properties of their surroundings. Utilizing this high sensitivity and by applying chemical functionalization, an ultrasensitive chemical sensor for gases based on a nanobeam cavity was demonstrated. A limit of detection of 1.5 parts-per-billion (ppb) in ambient conditions, determined from the noise level of the system, was achieved for nerve agent simulant methyl salicylate. The nanobeam cavity's nonlinear thermo-optical bistability is also utilized to realize a threshold detector for cumulative chemical exposure. PMID:24299609

  8. The optomechanical instability in the quantum regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Max; Kubala, Björn; Marquardt, Florian

    2008-09-01

    We consider a generic optomechanical system, consisting of a driven optical cavity and a movable mirror attached to a cantilever. Systems of this kind (and analogues) have been realized in many recent experiments. It is well known that these systems can exhibit an instability towards a regime where the cantilever settles into self-sustained oscillations. In this paper, we briefly review the classical theory of the optomechanical instability, and then discuss the features arising in the quantum regime. We solve numerically a full quantum master equation for the coupled system, and use it to analyze the photon number, the cantilever's mechanical energy, the phonon probability distribution and the mechanical Wigner density, as a function of experimentally accessible control parameters. When a suitable dimensionless 'quantum parameter' is sent to zero, the results of the quantum mechanical model converge towards the classical predictions. We discuss this quantum-to-classical transition in some detail.

  9. Multimode circuit optomechanics near the quantum limit

    PubMed Central

    Massel, Francesco; Cho, Sung Un; Pirkkalainen, Juha-Matti; Hakonen, Pertti J.; Heikkilä, Tero T.; Sillanpää, Mika A.

    2012-01-01

    The coupling of distinct systems underlies nearly all physical phenomena. A basic instance is that of interacting harmonic oscillators, giving rise to, for example, the phonon eigenmodes in a lattice. Of particular importance are the interactions in hybrid quantum systems, which can combine the benefits of each part in quantum technologies. Here we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system having three degrees of freedom, consisting of a microwave cavity and two micromechanical beams with closely spaced frequencies around 32 MHz and no direct interaction. We record the first evidence of tripartite optomechanical mixing, implying that the eigenmodes are combinations of one photonic and two phononic modes. We identify an asymmetric dark mode having a long lifetime. Simultaneously, we operate the nearly macroscopic mechanical modes close to the motional quantum ground state, down to 1.8 thermal quanta, achieved by back-action cooling. These results constitute an important advance towards engineering of entangled motional states. PMID:22871806

  10. Optomechanical down-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeblacher, Simon; Hofer, Sebastian; Wieczorek, Witlef; Vanner, Michael; Hammerer, Klemens; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2011-03-01

    One of the central interactions in quantum optics is two-mode squeezing, also known as down-conversion. It has been used in a multitude of pioneering experiments to demonstrate non-classical states of light and it is at the heart of generating quantum entanglement in optical fields. Here we demonstrate first experimental results towards the optomechanical analogue, in which an optical and a mechanical mode interact via a two-mode squeezing operation. In addition, we make use of the fact that large optomechanical coupling strengths provide access to an interaction regime beyond the rotating wave approximation. This allows for simultaneous cooling of the mechanical mode, which will eventually enable the preparation of pure initial mechanical states and is hence an important precondition to achieve the envisioned optomechanical entanglement.

  11. Optomechanical Dirac physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Peano, V.; Marquardt, F.

    2015-02-01

    Recent progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow the realization of optomechanical arrays, i.e. periodic arrangements of interacting optical and vibrational modes. We show that photons and phonons on a honeycomb lattice will produce an optically tunable Dirac-type band structure. Transport in such a system can exhibit transmission through an optically created barrier, similar to Klein tunneling, but with interconversion between light and sound. In addition, edge states at the sample boundaries are dispersive and enable controlled propagation of photon-phonon polaritons.

  12. Performance of the x-ray free-electron laser oscillator with crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Kim, K.-J.; Shvyd'Ko, Yu.; Fawley, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator are presented that include the frequency-dependent Bragg crystal reflectivity and the transverse diffraction and focusing using the two-dimensional FEL code GINGER. A review of the physics of Bragg crystal reflectors and the x-ray FEL oscillator is made, followed by a discussion of its numerical implementation in GINGER. The simulation results for a two-crystal cavity and realistic FEL parameters indicate ˜109 photons in a nearly Fourier-limited, ps pulse. Compressing the electron beam to 100 A and 100 fs results in comparable x-ray characteristics for relaxed beam emittance, energy spread, and/or undulator parameters, albeit in a larger radiation bandwidth. Finally, preliminary simulation results indicate that the four-crystal FEL cavity can be tuned in energy over a range of a few percent.

  13. Dispersionless gaps and cavity modes in photonic crystals containing hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chun-hua; Ding, Yaqiong; Jiang, Hai-tao; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Zhan-shan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically study dispersionless gaps and cavity modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals composed of hyperbolic metamaterials and dielectric. Bragg gaps in conventional all-dielectric photonic crystals are always dispersive because propagating phases in two kinds of dielectrics decrease with incident angle. Here, based on phase variation compensation between a hyperbolic metamaterial layer and an isotropic dielectric layer, the dispersion of the gap can be offset and thus a dispersionless gap can be realized. Moreover, the dispersionless property of such gap has a wide parameter space. The dispersionless gap can be used to realize a dispersionless cavity mode. The dispersionless gaps and cavity modes will possess significant applications for all-angle reflectors, high-Q filters excited with finite-sized sources, and nonlinear wave mixing processes.

  14. Design of quasi-one-dimensional phononic crystal cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ingi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-08-01

    We propose and design a phononic crystal (PnC) cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation. A strongly confined acoustic field in the cavity enhances light-sound interaction, which results in efficient phase modulation of light. As one of the possible configurations, an acoustic cavity formed in a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) PnC was investigated. By carefully tuning geometrical parameters, we successfully designed a high-Q cavity mode for a longitudinal wave within a complete phononic band gap. The acoustic Q was calculated to be as high as 9.5 × 104. This enables efficient optical modulation by a factor of 2.5 compared with a bar-type structure without PnCs.

  15. Organic crystals bearing both channels and cavities formed from tripodal adamantane molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Masahide; Iekushi, Akitaka; Katagiri, Kosuke; Ohara, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Azumaya, Isao

    2013-08-01

    Three adamantane-based tripodal molecules bearing either a benzene, pyridine, or toluene unit (1-3) form molecular organic networks (1a-3a) with internal spaces, via intermolecular non-covalent interactions such as CH/π, CH/N, and CH/O interactions in the solid state. Crystals of 1a and 2a formed both one-dimensional channels and cavities, where guest molecules were encapsulated. The channels were derived from the alignment of the hexagonal cavities formed from six component molecules, while cavities formed between the 2D layers. In contrast, 3a contained only cavities built from the six component molecules, which correspond to the spaces which connected to form channels in 1a and 2a.

  16. Optomechanical accelerometers and gravity gradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Felipe

    2016-04-01

    Compact optical cavities can be combined with highly stable mechanical oscillators to yield accelerometers and gravity gradiometers of exquisite sensitivity, which are also traceable to the SI. We have incorporated Fabry-Pérot fiber-optic micro-cavities onto low-loss monolithic fused-silica mechanical oscillators for gradiometry, acceleration, and force sensing. These devices consist solely of a glass oscillator and fiber optics to inject and read out the coherent optical signal, making them very simple and compatible with space applications. We have demonstrated displacement sensitivities better than 200 am/√Hz with these fiber-optic micro-sensors. This translates into broadband acceleration noise floors below 100 nano-g/√Hz over a 10kHz, when combined with compact high frequency mechanical oscillators. Similarly, we have developed monolithic oscillators with resonance frequencies near and below 10 Hz, yielding measurement sensitivities better than 10‑9 m/s2. We will introduce our sensor concepts and present results on our fiber-optic displacement sensors and novel optomechanical devices.

  17. A quantum optomechanical interface beyond the resolved sideband limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, James S.; Khosla, Kiran; Madsen, Lars S.; Vanner, Michael R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical oscillators which respond to radiation pressure are a promising means of transferring quantum information between light and matter. Optical–mechanical state swaps are a key operation in this setting. Existing proposals for optomechanical state swap interfaces are only effective in the resolved sideband limit. Here, we show that it is possible to fully and deterministically exchange mechanical and optical states outside of this limit, in the common case that the cavity linewidth is larger than the mechanical resonance frequency. This high-bandwidth interface opens up a significantly larger region of optomechanical parameter space, allowing generation of non-classical motional states of high-quality, low-frequency mechanical oscillators.

  18. Modeling of Fano resonances in the reflectivity of photonic crystal cavities with finite spot size excitation.

    PubMed

    Vasco, J P; Vinck-Posada, H; Valentim, P T; Guimãraes, P S S

    2013-12-16

    We study the reflectivity spectra of photonic crystal slab cavities using an extension of the scattering matrix method that allows treating finite sizes of the spot of the excitation beam. The details of the implementation of the method are presented and then we show that Fano resonances arise as a consequence of the electromagnetic interference between the discrete contribution of the fundamental cavity mode and the continuum contribution of the light scattered by the photonic crystal pattern. We control the asymmetry lineshape of the Fano resonance through the polarization of the incident field, which determines the relative phase between the two electromagnetic contributions to the interference. We analyse the electric field profile inside and outside of the crystal to help in the understanding of the dependence on polarization of the reflectivity lineshape. We also study with our implementation the dependence of the Fano resonances on the size of the incident radiation spot. PMID:24514709

  19. Linear negative dispersion with a gain doublet via optomechanical interactions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayi; Zhao, Chunnong; Ma, Yiqiu; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2015-05-15

    Optical cavities containing a negative dispersion medium have been proposed as a means of improving the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors through the creation of white-light signal recycling cavities. Here we demonstrate that negative dispersion can be realized using an optomechanical cavity pumped by a blue detuned doublet. We used an 85-mm cavity with an intracavity silicon nitride membrane. Tunable negative dispersion is demonstrated, with a phase derivative dφ/df from -0.14  Deg·Hz(-1) to -4.2×10(-3)  Deg·Hz(-1). PMID:26393733

  20. Entanglement of Coupled Optomechanical Systems Improved by Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Guixia; Xiao, Ruijie; Zhou, Ling

    2016-04-01

    A scheme to generate the stationary entanglement of two distant coupled optical cavities placed optical parametric amplifiers is proposed. We study how the optical parametric amplifiers can affect the entanglement behaviors of the movable mirrors and the cavity fields. With the existence of optical parametric amplifiers, we show that larger stationary entanglement of optical and mechanical modes can be obtained and the entanglement increases with the increasing parametric gain. Especially, the degree of entanglement between the two cavity fields is more pronouncedly enhanced. Moreover, for a fixed parametric gain, the entanglement of distant cavity optomechanical systems increases as the input laser power is increased.

  1. Entanglement of Coupled Optomechanical Systems Improved by Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Guixia; Xiao, Ruijie; Zhou, Ling

    2016-08-01

    A scheme to generate the stationary entanglement of two distant coupled optical cavities placed optical parametric amplifiers is proposed. We study how the optical parametric amplifiers can affect the entanglement behaviors of the movable mirrors and the cavity fields. With the existence of optical parametric amplifiers, we show that larger stationary entanglement of optical and mechanical modes can be obtained and the entanglement increases with the increasing parametric gain. Especially, the degree of entanglement between the two cavity fields is more pronouncedly enhanced. Moreover, for a fixed parametric gain, the entanglement of distant cavity optomechanical systems increases as the input laser power is increased.

  2. Tunable bistability in hybrid Bose-Einstein condensate optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Cavity-optomechanics, a rapidly developing area of research, has made a remarkable progress. A stunning manifestation of optomechanical phenomena is in exploiting the mechanical effects of light to couple the optical degree of freedom with mechanical degree of freedom. In this report, we investigate the controlled bistable dynamics of such hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside high-finesse optical cavity with one moving-end mirror and is driven by a single mode optical field. The numerical results provide evidence for controlled optical bistability in optomechanics using transverse optical field which directly interacts with atoms causing the coupling of transverse field with momentum side modes, exited by intra-cavity field. This technique of transverse field coupling is also used to control bistable dynamics of both moving-end mirror and BEC. The report provides an understanding of temporal dynamics of moving-end mirror and BEC with respect to transverse field. Moreover, dependence of effective potential of the system on transverse field has also been discussed. To observe this phenomena in laboratory, we have suggested a certain set of experimental parameters. These findings provide a platform to investigate the tunable behavior of novel phenomenon like electromagnetically induced transparency and entanglement in hybrid systems. PMID:26035206

  3. Slow light in dual-periodic photonic crystals based slotted-waveguide coupled cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Na; Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Cheng; Yan, Shu

    2016-09-01

    Considering the capacity of the nanoscale width area with the low-refractive index can confine light waves, the dual-periodic slotted photonic crystals, which is constructed by coupling low-refractive index's slotted-waveguide with high-refractive index's cavity is proposed in this paper. The best slow light properties and the optimal slotted-waveguide coupled cavity are achieved by adjusting the slotted-width and the period of cavity respectively. In this structure, the slow-light properties are simulated by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE), the result reveals that the group velocities are all three orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum, the slowest value is 7.96 ×10-4 c when the slotted-width is 0.54a and the period of cavity is 0.95a. Moreover, the corresponding Normalized Delay-Bandwidth Product (NDBP) values are larger than 0.24. Besides, the slotted-waveguide coupled cavity can be reconfigured, which accordingly changes the corresponding slow-light property. At last, the numerical results provide a new thought and method for decreasing group velocity and potential application for optical buffer in photonic crystals field.

  4. Optical bistability and second-harmonic generation in thin film coupled cavity photonic crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Liyong

    This thesis deals with design, fabrication and modeling of bistable and multi-stable switching dynamics and second-harmonic generation in two groups of thin film coupled cavity photonic crystal structures. The first component studies optical bistability and multistability in such structures. Optical bistability and multistability are modelled by a nonlinear transfer matrix method. The second component is focused on the modelling and experimental measurement of second-harmonic generation in such structures. It is found that coupled cavity structures can reduce the threshold and index change for bistable operation, but single cavity structures can do the same. However, there is a clear advantage in using coupled cavity structures for multistability in that the threshold for multistability can be reduced. Second-harmonic generation is enhanced by field localization due to the resonant effect at the fundamental wavelength in single and coupled cavity structures by simulated and measured results. The work in this thesis makes three significant contributions. First, in the successful fabrication of thin film coupled cavity structures, the simulated linear transmissions of such structures match those of the fabricated structures almost exactly. Second, the newly defined figure of merit at the maximum transmission point on the bistable curve can be used to compare the material damage tolerance to any other Kerr effect nonlinear gate. Third, the simulated second-harmonic generation agrees excellently with experimental results. More generally optical thin film fabrication has commercial applications in many industry sections, such as electronics, opto-electronics, optical coating, solar cell and MEMS.

  5. Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... The tooth may hurt even without stimulation (spontaneous toothache). If irreversible damage to the pulp occurs and ... To detect cavities early, a dentist inquires about pain, examines the teeth, probes the teeth with dental instruments, and may take x-rays. People should ...

  6. Cross-Kerr effect on an optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Jin, Da-Yu; Qiu, Yueyin; Lam, Chi-Hang; You, J. Q.

    2016-02-01

    We study the cross-Kerr (CK) effect on an optomechanical system driven by two-tone fields. We show that in the presence of the CK effect, a bistable behavior of the mean photon number in the cavity becomes more robust against the fluctuations of the frequency detuning between the cavity mode and the control field. The bistability can also be turned into a tristability within the experimentally accessible range of the system parameters. Also, we find that the symmetric profile of the optomechanically induced transparency is broken and the zero-absorption point is shifted in the presence of the CK effect. This shift can be used to measure the strength of the CK effect and the asymmetric absorption profiles can be employed to engineer a high quality factor of the cavity.

  7. Generating large steady-state optomechanical entanglement by the action of Casimir force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, WenJie; Lan, YueHeng; Li, Yong; Zhu, ShiYao

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we study an optomechanical device consisting of a Fabry-Pérot cavity with two dielectric nanospheres trapped near the cavity mirrors by an external driving laser. In the condition where the distances between the nanospheres and cavity mirrors are small enough, the Casimir force helps the optomechanical coupling to induce a steady-state optomechanical entanglement of the mechanical and optical modes in a certain regime of parameters. We investigate in detail the dependence of the steady-state optomechanical entanglement on external control parameters of the system, i.e., the effective detuning, the pump powers of the cavity, the cavity decay rate and the wavelength of the driving field. It is found that the large steady-state optomechanical entanglement, i.e. E N = 5.76, can be generated with experimentally feasible parameters, i.e. the pump power P = 18.2 μW, the cavity decay rate κ = 0.5 MHz and the wavelength of the laser λ L=1064 nm, which should be checked by optical measurement.

  8. Optical side-band cooling of a low frequency optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Eerkens, H J; Buters, F M; Weaver, M J; Pepper, B; Welker, G; Heeck, K; Sonin, P; de Man, S; Bouwmeester, D

    2015-03-23

    For experimental investigations of macroscopic quantum superpositions and the possible role of gravitational effects on the reduction of the corresponding quantum wave function it is beneficial to consider large mass, low frequency optomechanical systems. We report optical side-band cooling from room temperature for a 1.5×10⁻¹⁰ kg (mode mass), low frequency side-band resolved optomechanical system based on a 5 cm long Fabry-Perot cavity. By using high-quality Bragg mirrors for both the stationary and the micromechanical mirror we are able to construct an optomechanical cavity with an optical linewidth of 23 kHz. This, together with a resonator frequency of 315 kHz, makes the system operate firmly in the side-band resolved regime. With the presented optomechanical system parameters cooling close to the ground state is possible. This brings us one step closer to creating and verifying macroscopic quantum superpositions. PMID:25837139

  9. Lateral shearing optical gradient force in coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Deng, Jie; Zhao, Yunshan; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-04-01

    We report the experimental observation of lateral shearing optical gradient forces in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) controlled dual-coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. With an on-chip integrated NEMS actuator, the coupled cavities can be mechanically reconfigured in the lateral direction while maintaining a constant coupling gap. Shearing optical gradient forces are generated when the two cavity centers are laterally displaced. In our experiments, positive and negative lateral shearing optical forces of 0.42 nN and 0.29 nN are observed with different pumping modes. This study may broaden the potential applications of the optical gradient force in nanophotonic devices and benefit the future nanooptoelectromechanical systems.

  10. All-optical transistor using a photonic-crystal cavity with an active Raman gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, V. G.; Myslivets, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a design of an all-optical transistor based on a one-dimensional photonic-crystal cavity doped with a four-level N-type active Raman gain medium. The calculated results show that in a photonic-crystal cavity of this kind transmission and reflection of the probe (Raman) beam are strongly dependent on the optical switching power. Transmission and reflection of the probe beam can be greatly amplified or attenuated. Therefore the optical switching field can serve as a gate field of the transistor to effectively control propagation of the weak probe field. It is shown that the group velocity of the probe pulse can be controlled in the range from subluminal (slow light) to superluminal (fast light).

  11. Design and analysis of photonic crystal micro-cavity based optical sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Amit Kumar; Dutta, Hemant Sankar; Pal, Suchandan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the design of a two-dimensional photonic crystal micro-cavity based integrated-optic sensor platform is proposed. The behaviour of designed cavity is analyzed using two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The structure is designed by deliberately inserting some defects in a photonic crystal waveguide structure. Proposed structure shows a quality factor (Q) of about 1e5 and the average sensitivity of 500nm/RIU in the wavelength range of 1450 - 1580 nm. Sensing technique is based on the detection of shift in upper-edge cut-off wavelength for a reference signal strength of -10 dB in accordance with the change in refractive index of analyte.

  12. Asymmetric tunable Fabry-Perot cavity using switchable polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal optical Bragg mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Kedar S.; Dupont, Laurent; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis

    2012-03-01

    Optical properties of an asymmetric Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity interferometer made up of a conventional metallic mirror and a polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal (PSCLC) Bragg mirror have been investigated. The first FP cavity design comprises a gold mirror, an isotropic layer made up of the polymer glue, a quarter wave plate to convert the input linearly polarized modes into the circularly polarized modes inside the cavity, and the PSCLC Bragg mirror, all sandwiched between two indium tin oxide glass plates. The second FP cavity has a layer of conducting polymer deposited on the quarter-wave plate to apply the electric field only to the cholesteric stack. To have reflectivity above 95% in visible range we implement 30 layers of cholesteric liquid crystal in a planar Grandjean texture. The device compactness and the mirror parallelism due to the monolithic fabrication of FP are advantageous from the technical point of view. We test the FP tunability by shifting the resonance wavelength through an entire period; by applying electric field and/or by varying the temperature.

  13. Second harmonic generation in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Sonia Radulaski, Marina; Vučković, Jelena; Biermann, Klaus

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation at telecommunications wavelengths in photonic crystal cavities in (111)-oriented GaAs. We fabricate 30 photonic crystal structures in both (111)- and (100)-oriented GaAs and observe an increase in generated second harmonic power in the (111) orientation, with the mean power increased by a factor of 3, although there is a large scatter in the measured values. We discuss possible reasons for this increase, in particular, the reduced two photon absorption for transverse electric modes in (111) orientation, as well as a potential increase due to improved mode overlap.

  14. Photonic crystal nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam integrated cavity for refractive index sensing with high figure of merit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daquan; Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng

    2015-06-01

    Sensitivities (S) and quality factors (Q) have been trade-offs in optical resonator sensors, and optimal geometry that maximizes both factors is under active development. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an optical sensor based on photonic crystal (PhC) nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam integrated cavity (NPQIC) with high figure of merit (FOM). Both high sensitivity (S) of 451 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and Q-factor >7000 in water at telecom wavelength range have been achieved simultaneously, which features a sensor figure of merit (FOM) >2000, an order of magnitude improvement over previous photonic crystal sensors.

  15. CONTACT: sensors for aerospace and Fano-resonance photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Zhou, Weidong; Chow, Alice

    2010-04-01

    CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative program between the Air Force Research Laboratory and seven Texas universities focused on four research areas in aerospace. This paper summarizes recent developments in one of those areas, sensors, for eventual use in aircraft and spacecraft. We report direct measurement of spectrally selective absorption properties of PbSe and PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in Si nanomembrane photonic crystal cavities on flexible plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The interaction of CQD absorption with photonic crystal Fano resonances is presented both analytically and experimentally for use in wavelength selective sensors.

  16. Vertical cavity lasing from melt-grown crystals of cyano-substituted thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Yanagi, Hisao; Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu; Sasaki, Fumio

    2015-10-19

    Vertical-cavity organic lasers are fabricated with melt-grown crystals of a cyano-substituted thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer. Due to lying molecular orientation, surface-emitting lasing is achieved even in the half-cavity crystal grown on a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) under optical pumping at room temperature. Anticrossing splits in angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest the formation of exciton-polaritons between the cavity photons and the confined Frenkel excitons. By constructing the full-cavity structure sandwiched between the top and bottom DBRs, the lasing threshold is reduced to one order, which is as low as that of the half cavity. Around the threshold, the time profile of the full-cavity emission is collapsed to a pulsed shape accompanied by a finite turn-on delay. We discuss these observed characteristics in terms of a polariton contribution to the conventional photon lasing.

  17. Spontaneous-emission control by local density of states of photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Ye-Jin; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Chen, Wei; Liu, An-Jin; Zheng, Wan-Hua

    2011-02-01

    The local density of states (LDOS) of two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) defect cavity is studied. The results show that the LDOS in the centre is greatly reduced, while the LDOS at the point off the centre (for example, at the point (0.3a, 0.4a), where a is the lattice constant) is extremely enhanced. Further, the disordered radii are introduced to imitate the real devices fabricated in our experiment, and then we study the LDOS of PhC cavity with configurations of different disordered radii. The results show that in the disordered cavity, the LDOS in the centre is still greatly reduced, while the LDOS at the point (0.3a, 0.4a) is still extremely enhanced. It shows that the LDOS analysis is useful. When a laser is designed on the basis of the square lattice PhC rod cavity, in order to enhance the spontaneous emission, the active materials should not be inserted in the centre of the cavity, but located at positions off the centre. So LDOS method gives a guide to design the positions of the active materials (quantum dots) in the lasers.

  18. Characterization of defect cavities and channel-drop filters in the three dimensional woodpile photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieler, Daniel Paul

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are devices with the ability to confine electromagnetic (EM) waves due to their EM bandgap. The three-dimensional woodpile PC studied in this dissertation is appealing because unlike its two-dimensional counter parts, it is able to confine and guide EM waves in all three dimensions. This dissertation examines the fundamental properties of resonant cavities and use of cavities and waveguides (WGs) to create channel-drop filters in the woodpile PC. Resonant cavities are a major building block of photonic integrated circuits devices. Therefore it is important to understand how to control the properties of their resonant modes, such as quality factor (Q), resonant frequency, magnitude, and mode shape. This dissertation examines the effects of incident EM wave polarization, cavity size, cavity permittivity, cavity confinement, material loss, and lattice disorder on the properties of the resonant mode. Channel-drop filters are devices that can be used to transfer EM energy of a specific frequency from one WG to another. Channel-drop filters could be used to optically add or remove a specific carrier frequency from a fiber optic cable transporting many carrier frequencies. Channel-drop filters made from a PC are able to perform this task completely optically. This would speed up the optical network since conversion of the optical signal to an electronic signal is not required. In this dissertation six channel-drop filter configurations are examined. These structures are made both in a single stacking layer and separated by many layers. Five of the structures demonstrated good energy transfer from the input (bus) WG to the output (drop) WG. The ability to control the frequency and Q of the transferred EM mode is achieved by varying the cavity size and confinement.

  19. Bi-directional conversion between microwave and optical frequencies in a piezoelectric optomechanical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainsencher, Amit; Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G. A.; Cleland, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the principles of design, fabrication, and operation of a piezoelectric optomechanical crystal with which we demonstrate bi-directional conversion of energy between microwave and optical frequencies. The optomechanical crystal has an optical mode at 1523 nm co-located with a mechanical breathing mode at 3.8 GHz, with a measured optomechanical coupling strength gom/2π of 115 kHz. The breathing mode is driven and detected by curved interdigitated transducers that couple to a Lamb mode in suspended membranes on either end of the optomechanical crystal, allowing the external piezoelectric modulation of the optical signal as well as the converse, the detection of microwave electrical signals generated by a modulated optical signal. We compare measurements to theory where appropriate.

  20. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  1. Selective crystallization of urea-functionalized capsules with tunable anion-binding cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Remy, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    Herein we report crystallization of self-assembled capsules functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups as a means for selective separation of sulfate anion. The high complementarity and the rigid environment found in such crystalline systems impart strong discrimination between anions of different shape, like sulfate and sulfite, or anions of the same shape but slightly different size, like sulfate and selenate, with selectivity that exceeds that observed in sulfate-binding protein. Similar to natural receptors, these crystalline capsules completely isolate the anions from the aqueous solvent by encapsulating them inside rigid cavities lined with complementary hydrogen-bonding groups. Furthermore, the capsules are made from flexible building blocks, whose structure and relative orientation in the crystal can be allosterically regulated to fine-tune the anion selectivity. These characteristics suggest that crystallization of such urea-functionalized capsules from simple and flexible components represents a particularly promising approach for selective anion separation from highly competitive aqueous environments.

  2. Design of high-Q polystyrene nonlinear cavity for ultrafast all-optical switching in mid-infrared photonic crystal slabs with cavity-waveguide structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Rezaei, B.; Soltani Vala, A.; Kalafi, M.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we design a nonlinear cavity with ultrafast response speed material in photonic crystal slabs for all-optical switching. We consider triangular lattice photonic crystal slab made from air holes in anisotropic Tellurium background which is on top of Teflon substrate. The cavity itself is then created by enlarging one of the air holes and infiltrating it with polystyrene. Optimization of structural parameters yields a single mode cavity with quality factor of Q=2.5×10, by using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and filter diagonalization approach. This shows great enhancement compared with previous studies in which organic polymer materials have been used. In order to study the coupling characteristic of cavity mode and waveguides, the nonlinear cavity is placed between two waveguides, symmetrically. At the end, we used the FDTD method to investigate shift magnitude of cavity mode resonance frequency under pump light. The designed structure can be helpful to achieve extremely fast response speed in all-optical switching devices with high efficiency in the mid-infrared wavelength range.

  3. Single-nanoparticle detection with slot-mode photonic crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng; Kita, Shota; Lončar, Marko; Quan, Qimin; Li, Yihang

    2015-06-29

    Optical cavities that are capable for detecting single nanoparticles could lead to great progress in early stage disease diagnostics and the study of biological interactions on the single-molecule level. In particular, photonic crystal (PhC) cavities are excellent platforms for label-free single-nanoparticle detection, owing to their high quality (Q) factors and wavelength-scale modal volumes. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-Q (>10{sup 4}) slot-mode PhC nanobeam cavity, which is able to strongly confine light in the slotted regions. The enhanced light-matter interaction results in an order of magnitude improvement in both refractive index sensitivity (439 nm/RIU) and single-nanoparticle sensitivity compared with conventional dielectric-mode PhC cavities. Detection of single polystyrene nanoparticles with radii of 20 nm and 30 nm is demonstrated in aqueous environments (D{sub 2}O), without additional laser and temperature stabilization techniques.

  4. Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han; Zhang, Jin-Qian-Nan; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Hui

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel two-dimensional photonic crystal structure consisting of two line defect waveguides and a cavity to realize mode conversion based on the coupling effect. The W1/cavity/W2 structure breaks the spatial symmetry and successfully converts the even (odd) mode to the odd (even) mode in the W2 waveguide during the forward (backward) transmission. When considering the incidence of only the even mode, the optical diode effect emerges and achieves approximate 35 dB unidirectionality at the resonant frequency. Moreover, owing to the narrow bandpass feature and the flexibility of the tuning cavity, utilization of the proposed structure as a wavelength filter is demonstrated in a device with a Y-branch splitter. Here, we provide a heuristic design for a mode converter, optical diode, and wavelength filter derived from the coupling effect between a cavity and adjacent waveguides, and expect that the proposed structure can be applied as a building block in future all-optical integrated circuits. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372037 and 61307069), Beijing Excellent Ph. D. Thesis Guidance Foundation, China (Grant No. 20131001301), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013021017-3).

  5. High-sensitivity and high-Q-factor glass photonic crystal cavity and its applications as sensors.

    PubMed

    Siraji, Ashfaqul Anwar; Zhao, Yang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the properties of a planar photonic crystal cavity on glass and its applications as sensors. An airbridged twofold defect cavity on Schott glass background and Gorilla glass substrate has been designed for high Q-factor up to 4459. The average sensitivity of the cavity resonance to background refractive index is 388 nm/Refractive Index Unit. The resonant wavelength is sensitive to background temperature by 18.5 pm/°C. The designed sensors show much higher sensitivity than those based on waveguide interferometers or photonic bandgap structures without cavity resonance. The results are also useful for experimental studies of glass photonic devices. PMID:25831371

  6. All-optical diode structure based on asymmetrical coupling by a micro-cavity and FP cavity at two sides of photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yun-Feng; Jia, Chen; He, Xing-Dao

    2016-06-01

    A high efficiency all-optical diode based on photonic crystal (PC) waveguide has been proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The structure is asymmetrically coupled by a micro-cavity containing nonlinear Kerr medium and a FP cavity at sides of PC waveguide. Because of interference between two cavities, Fano peak and FP peak can both appear in transmission spectra and unidirectional transmission can be achieved. The working wavelength can set between two peaks and near to the Fano peak. For forward launch with suitable light intensity, nonlinear Kerr effect of micro-cavity can been excited. It will result in red shift of Fano peak and achieving forward transmission. But for backward launch, a stronger incidence light is needed to the excite Kerr effect due to the design of asymmetric structure. This design has many advantages, including high maximum transmittance, high transmittance contrast ratio, low power threshold, short response time, and ease of integration.

  7. High-Q silicon photonic crystal cavity for enhanced optical nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Dharanipathy, Ulagalandha Perumal; Tonin, Mario; Houdré, Romuald; Minkov, Momchil Savona, Vincenzo

    2014-09-08

    We fabricate and experimentally characterize an H0 photonic crystal slab nanocavity with a design optimized for maximal quality factor, Q = 1.7 × 10{sup 6}. The cavity, fabricated from a silicon slab, has a resonant mode at λ = 1.59 μm and a measured Q-factor of 400 000. It displays nonlinear effects, including high-contrast optical bistability, at a threshold power among the lowest ever reported for a silicon device. With a theoretical modal volume as small as V = 0.34(λ/n){sup 3}, this cavity ranks among those with the highest Q/V ratios ever demonstrated, while having a small footprint suited for integration in photonic circuits.

  8. Exponential localization of moving end mirror in optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar Yasir, Kashif; Ayub, Muhammad; Saif, Farhan

    2014-09-01

    We discuss the dynamics of moving end mirror of an optomechanical system that consists of a Fabry-Perot cavity loaded with dilute condensate and driven by a single-mode optical field. It is shown that quantum mechanical phenomenon of dynamical localization occurs both in position and momentum space for moving end mirror in the system. The parametric dependencies of dynamical localization are discussed. We also provide a set of parameters which makes this phenomenon experimentally feasible.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Christopher Paul; Rey, Isabella H; Welna, Karl; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    Slow light has been one of the hot topics in the photonics community in the past decade, generating great interest both from a fundamental point of view and for its considerable potential for practical applications. Slow light photonic crystal waveguides, in particular, have played a major part and have been successfully employed for delaying optical signals(1-4) and the enhancement of both linear(5-7) and nonlinear devices.(8-11) Photonic crystal cavities achieve similar effects to that of slow light waveguides, but over a reduced band-width. These cavities offer high Q-factor/volume ratio, for the realization of optically(12) and electrically(13) pumped ultra-low threshold lasers and the enhancement of nonlinear effects.(14-16) Furthermore, passive filters(17) and modulators(18-19) have been demonstrated, exhibiting ultra-narrow line-width, high free-spectral range and record values of low energy consumption. To attain these exciting results, a robust repeatable fabrication protocol must be developed. In this paper we take an in-depth look at our fabrication protocol which employs electron-beam lithography for the definition of photonic crystal patterns and uses wet and dry etching techniques. Our optimised fabrication recipe results in photonic crystals that do not suffer from vertical asymmetry and exhibit very good edge-wall roughness. We discuss the results of varying the etching parameters and the detrimental effects that they can have on a device, leading to a diagnostic route that can be taken to identify and eliminate similar issues. The key to evaluating slow light waveguides is the passive characterization of transmission and group index spectra. Various methods have been reported, most notably resolving the Fabry-Perot fringes of the transmission spectrum(20-21) and interferometric techniques.(22-25) Here, we describe a direct, broadband measurement technique combining spectral interferometry with Fourier transform analysis.(26) Our method stands out

  10. Nanobeam cavities for Reconfigurable Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deotare, Parag B.

    We investigate the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of high quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, with theoretical quality factors of 1.4 x 107 in silicon, operating at ˜ 1550 nm. By detecting the cross-polarized resonantly scattered light from a normally incident laser beam, we measure a quality factor of nearly 7.5 x 105. We show on-chip integration of the cavities using waveguides and an inverse taper geometry based mode size converters, and also demonstrate tuning of the optical resonance using thermo-optic effect. We also study coupled cavities and show that the single nanobeam cavity modes are coupled into even and odd superposition modes. Using electrostatic force and taking advantage of the highly dispersive nature of the even mode to the nanobeam separation, we demonstrate dynamically reconfigurable optical filters tunable continuously and reversibly over a 9.5 nm wavelength range. The electrostatic force, obtained by applying bias voltages directly to the nanobeams, is used to control the spacing between the nanobeams, which in turn results in tuning of the cavity resonance. The observed tuning trends were confirmed through simulations that modeled the electrostatic actuation as well as the optical resonances in our reconfigurable geometries. Finally we demonstrate reconfiguration of coupled cavities by using optical gradient force induced mechanical actuation. Propagating waveguide modes that exist over wide wavelength range are used to actuate the structures and in that way control the resonance of a localized cavity mode. Using this all-optical approach, more than 18 linewidths of tuning range is demonstrated. Using an on-chip temperature self-referencing method that we developed, we determined that 20% of the total tuning was due to optomechanical reconfiguration and the rest due to thermo-optic effects. By operating the device at frequencies higher than the thermal cut-off, we show high speed operation dominated by

  11. Vibrational states of a water molecule in a nano-cavity of beryl crystal lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Elena S.; Torgashev, Victor I.; Gorshunov, Boris P.; Lebedev, Vladimir V.; Shakurov, Gil'man S.; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Pestrjakov, Efim V.; Thomas, Victor G.; Fursenko, Dimitry A.; Prokhorov, Anatoly S.; Dressel, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Low-energy excitations of a single water molecule are studied when confined within a nano-size cavity formed by the ionic crystal lattice. Optical spectra are measured of manganese doped beryl single crystal Mn:Be3Al2Si6O18, that contains water molecules individually isolated in 0.51 nm diameter voids within the crystal lattice. Two types of orientation are distinguished: water-I molecules have their dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the c axis and dipole moments of water-II molecules are parallel to the c-axis. The optical conductivity σ(ν) and permittivity ɛ'(ν) spectra are recorded in terahertz and infrared ranges, at frequencies from several wavenumbers up to ν = 7000 cm-1, at temperatures 5-300 K and for two polarizations, when the electric vector E of the radiation is parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. Comparative experiments on as-grown and on dehydrated samples allow to identify the spectra of σ(ν) and ɛ'(ν) caused exclusively by water molecules. In the infrared range, well-known internal modes ν1, ν2, and ν3 of the H2O molecule are observed for both polarizations, indicating the presence of water-I and water-II molecules in the crystal. Spectra recorded below 1000 cm-1 reveal a rich set of highly anisotropic features in the low-energy response of H2O molecule in a crystalline nano-cavity. While for E∥c only two absorption peaks are detected, at ˜90 cm-1 and ˜160 cm-1, several absorption bands are discovered for E⊥c, each consisting of narrower resonances. The bands are assigned to librational (400-500 cm-1) and translational (150-200 cm-1) vibrations of water-I molecule that is weakly coupled to the nano-cavity "walls." A model is presented that explains the "fine structure" of the bands by a splitting of the energy levels due to quantum tunneling between the minima in a six-well potential relief felt by a molecule within the cavity.

  12. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting laser based on commercial epitaxial wafer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Qi, Aiyi; Zhang, Jianxin; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Wanhua

    2013-04-01

    A lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting laser (LC-PCSEL) with airholes of cone-like shape etched near to the active layer is fabricated. It employs only a simple commercial epitaxial wafer without DBR and needs no wafer bonding technique. Surface emitting lasing action at 1575 nm with power of 1.8 mW is observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production of electrically driven PCSELs with low cost. Additionally, Fano resonance is utilized to analyze aperture equivalence of PC, and energy distribution in simplified laser structure is simulated to show oscillation and transmission characteristics of laser. PMID:23571974

  13. On-chip spectroscopy with thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Gao, Boshen; Siddiqui, Mahmudur R.; Shi, Zhimin; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods are a sensitive way to determine the chemical composition of potentially hazardous materials. Here, we demonstrate that thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities can be used as a compact high-resolution on-chip spectrometer. We have used such a chip-scale spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of both acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in the 1550 nm spectral band and show that we can discriminate between the two chemical species even though the two materials have spectral features in the same spectral region. Our results pave the way for the development of chip-size chemical sensors that can detect toxic substances.

  14. Flat top liquid crystal tunable filter using coupled Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Alboon, Shadi A; Lindquist, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a coupled Fabry-Perot cavities filter, using the liquid crystal as the tunable medium, is investigate to achieve tunable flat top filtering performance across the C and L bands. A tandem coupled Fabry-Perot is presented for a tunable passband filter with flat top and minimum ripple in the passband. The overall tuning range of the filter is 172 nm. Several designs are shown with comparable performance to the commercial available 100 GHz fixed single channel filters. PMID:18521153

  15. Optical Nonreciprocity in Optomechanical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Robinson, Jacob T.; Lipson, Michal

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that optomechanical devices can exhibit nonreciprocal behavior when the dominant light-matter interaction takes place via a linear momentum exchange between light and the mechanical structure. As an example, we propose a microscale optomechanical device that can exhibit a nonreciprocal behavior in a microphotonic platform operating at room temperature. We show that, depending on the direction of the incident light, the device switches between a high and low transparency state with more than a 20 dB extinction ratio.

  16. Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazono, Evan; Zhong, Tian; Craiciu, Ioana; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories.

  17. A compact photonic crystal micro-cavity on a single-mode lithium niobate photonic wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lutong; Zhang, Shaomei; Hu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The properties of the guided modes, including the single-mode conditions and the coupling of different polarized modes in the single-crystal lithium niobate photonic wires, were analyzed in detail. One-dimensional photonic crystal micro-cavities with several different patterns, which could be used as an ultra-compact optical filter, were designed and simulated in order to get high transmission at the resonant wavelength and the best preferment. The designed structure, with the whole size of 6.5 × 0.7 μm2, was fabricated on a single-mode photonic wire. A measured peak transmission of 0.34 at 1400 nm, an extinction ratio of 12.5 dB and a Q factor of 156 were obtained. The measured transmission spectrum was basically consistent with the simulation, although a slight shift of resonant wavelength occurred due to the fabrication errors.

  18. Design and Construction of Cryogenic Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghun; Underwood, Mitchell; Mason, David; Jayich, Andrew; Kashkanova, Anya; Harris, Jack

    2013-03-01

    One key challenge to observing quantum phenomena in a macroscopic mechanical oscillator is reaching its ground state. To achieve the low temperatures required for this, we utilize resolved sideband laser cooling of a few hundred kHz mechanical oscillator with high mechanical Q (a Si3N4 membrane) inside a high finesse optical cavity, in addition to cryogenically reducing the bath temperature. Realizing high Q and high finesse cavity optomechanical devices in a cryogenic environment requires overcoming a number of challenges. In this talk, we describe the design and construction of such a device working at a bath temperature of 300 mK (in a 3He refrigerator) and suited for operation at lower temperatures (in a dilution refrigerator). The design incorporates in-situ commercial piezo actuators (manufactured by Janssen Precision Engineering) to couple externally prepared laser light into the cold optical cavity. The design also incorporates filtering cavities to suppress classical laser noise, and acoustic and seismic isolation of the experiment.

  19. Experimental opto-mechanics with levitated nanoparticles: towards quantum control and thermodynamic cycles (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesel, Nikolai; Blaser, Florian; Delic, Uros; Grass, David; Dechant, Andreas; Lutz, Eric; Bathaee, Marzieh; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Combining optical levitation and cavity optomechanics constitutes a promising approach to prepare and control the motional quantum state of massive objects (>10^9 amu). This, in turn, would represent a completely new type of light-matter interface and has, for example, been predicted to enable experimental tests of macrorealistic models or of non-Newtonian gravity at small length scales. Such ideas have triggered significant experimental efforts to realizing such novel systems. To this end, we have recently successfully demonstrated cavity-cooling of a levitated sub-micron silica particle in a classical regime at a pressure of approximately 1mbar. Access to higher vacuum of approx. 10^-6 mbar has been demonstrated using 3D-feedback cooling in optical tweezers without cavity-coupling. Here we will illustrate our strategy towards trapping, 3D-cooling and quantum control of nanoparticles in ultra-high vacuum using cavity-based feedback cooling methods and clean particle loading with hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. We will also discuss the current experimental progress both in 3D-cavity cooling and HCPCF-based transport of nanoparticles. As yet another application of cavity-controlled levitated nanoparticles we will show how to implement a thermodynamic Sterling cycle operating in the underdamped regime. We present optimized protocols with respect to efficiency at maximum power in this little explored regime. We also show that the excellent level of control in our system will allow reproducing all relevant features of such optimized protocols. In a next step, this will enable studies of thermodynamics cycles in a regime where the quantization of the mechanical motion becomes relevant.

  20. Exciton dynamics in a site-controlled quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jarlov, C. Lyasota, A.; Ferrier, L.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kapon, E.

    2015-11-09

    Exciton and cavity mode (CM) dynamics in site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots (QDs), integrated with linear photonic crystal membrane cavities, are investigated for a range of temperatures and photo-excitation power levels. The absence of spurious multi-excitonic effects, normally observed in similar structures based on self-assembled QDs, permits the observation of effects intrinsic to two-level systems embedded in a solid state matrix and interacting with optical cavity modes. The coupled exciton and CM dynamics follow the same trend, indicating that the CM is fed only by the exciton transition. The Purcell reduction of the QD and CM decay times is reproduced well by a theoretical model that includes exciton linewidth broadening and temperature dependent non-radiative processes, from which we extract a Purcell factor of 17 ± 5. For excitation powers above QD saturation, we show the influence of quantum wire barrier states at short delay time, and demonstrate the absence of multiexcitonic background emission.

  1. Escaped-radial configuration with a twist: lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals confined to cylindrical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Joonwoo; Kang, Louis; Davidson, Zoey S.; Lohr, Matthew; Beller, Daniel A.; Kamien, Randall D.; Lubensky, Tom C.; Yodh, A. G.; Collings, Peter J.

    2014-03-01

    We report new chiral-symmetry-broken configurations of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) confined to cylindrical cavities with a homeotropic boundary condition. In order to relieve high splay deformation in the center of the cylinder with the homeotropic boundary condition, many nematic LCs adopt an escaped-radial configuration where LC directors are radial near the cavity wall but parallel to the cylindrical axis near the center. Interestingly, we find that achiral lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) having an unusually small twist modulus can have a configuration that is both escaped and twisted radially. Sunset Yellow FCF, a nematic LCLC, is introduced into capillaries coated with a homeotropic alignment layer, and its configurations are investigated by polarized optical microscopy and numerical calculations. Additionally, we discuss other newly observed structures: 1) domain-wall-like defects separating regions of opposite handedness in the twisted- and escaped-radial configuration and 2) another chiral configuration having a double helix of disclination lines along the cylindrical axis. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation: DGE-1321851, DMR-1104707, DMR-1205463, and MRSEC DMR-1120901.

  2. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, P.; Güttinger, J.; Noury, A.; Vergara-Cruz, J.; Bachtold, A.

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz-1/2. This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz-1/2 with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface.

  3. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices

    PubMed Central

    Weber, P.; Güttinger, J.; Noury, A.; Vergara-Cruz, J.; Bachtold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz−1/2. This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz−1/2 with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface. PMID:27502017

  4. Nonlinear optomechanical measurement of mechanical motion.

    PubMed

    Brawley, G A; Vanner, M R; Larsen, P E; Schmid, S; Boisen, A; Bowen, W P

    2016-01-01

    Precision measurement of nonlinear observables is an important goal in all facets of quantum optics. This allows measurement-based non-classical state preparation, which has been applied to great success in various physical systems, and provides a route for quantum information processing with otherwise linear interactions. In cavity optomechanics much progress has been made using linear interactions and measurement, but observation of nonlinear mechanical degrees-of-freedom remains outstanding. Here we report the observation of displacement-squared thermal motion of a micro-mechanical resonator by exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of the radiation-pressure interaction. Using this measurement we generate bimodal mechanical states of motion with separations and feature sizes well below 100 pm. Future improvements to this approach will allow the preparation of quantum superposition states, which can be used to experimentally explore collapse models of the wavefunction and the potential for mechanical-resonator-based quantum information and metrology applications. PMID:26996234

  5. Nonlinear optomechanical measurement of mechanical motion

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, G. A.; Vanner, M. R.; Larsen, P. E.; Schmid, S.; Boisen, A.; Bowen, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Precision measurement of nonlinear observables is an important goal in all facets of quantum optics. This allows measurement-based non-classical state preparation, which has been applied to great success in various physical systems, and provides a route for quantum information processing with otherwise linear interactions. In cavity optomechanics much progress has been made using linear interactions and measurement, but observation of nonlinear mechanical degrees-of-freedom remains outstanding. Here we report the observation of displacement-squared thermal motion of a micro-mechanical resonator by exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of the radiation-pressure interaction. Using this measurement we generate bimodal mechanical states of motion with separations and feature sizes well below 100 pm. Future improvements to this approach will allow the preparation of quantum superposition states, which can be used to experimentally explore collapse models of the wavefunction and the potential for mechanical-resonator-based quantum information and metrology applications. PMID:26996234

  6. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices.

    PubMed

    Weber, P; Güttinger, J; Noury, A; Vergara-Cruz, J; Bachtold, A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz(-1/2). This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz(-1/2) with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface. PMID:27502017

  7. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of macromolecular domain cavities and microstructure of single-crystal calcite tooth plates of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Robach, J S; Stock, S R; Veis, A

    2005-07-01

    The calcite plates and prisms in Lytechinus variegatus teeth form a complex biocomposite and employ a myriad of strengthening and toughening strategies. These crystal elements have macromolecule-containing internal cavities that may act to prevent cleavage. Transmission electron microscopy employing a small objective aperture was used to quantify several characteristics of these cavities. Cavity diameters ranged from 10 to 225 nm, the mean cavity diameter was between 50 and 60 nm, and cavities comprised approximately 20% of the volume of the crystal. Some cavities exhibited faceting and trace analysis identified these planes as being predominately of {1014} type. Through focus series of micrographs show the cavities were homogeneously distributed throughout the foil. The electron beam decomposed a substance within cavities and this suggests that these cavities are filled with a hydrated organic phase. PMID:15890529

  8. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-01-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. PMID:27108814

  9. Local thermal resonance control of GaInP photonic crystal membrane cavities using ambient gas cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Sergei Lian, Jin; Yüce, Emre; Mosk, Allard P.; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaelle; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2015-04-27

    We perform spatially dependent tuning of a GaInP photonic crystal cavity using a continuous wave violet laser. Local tuning is obtained by laser heating of the photonic crystal membrane. The cavity resonance shift is measured for different pump positions and for two ambient gases: He and N{sub 2}. We find that the width of the temperature profile induced in the membrane depends strongly on the thermal conductivity of the ambient gas. For He gas, a narrow spatial width of the temperature profile of 2.8 μm is predicted and verified in experiment.

  10. A closed-cycle dilution refrigerator with free-space and fiber optical access for quantum optomechanics experiments at 25mK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeblacher, Simon; Wieczorek, Witlef; Christ, Peter; Buehler, Matthias; Wernicke, Doreen; Hoehne, Jens; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2011-03-01

    We report on the operation of a closed-cycle dilution refrigerator for quantum optomechanics experiments at 25mK. The dilution fridge is accessible both via free-space as well as fiber coupling, allowing us to perform a variety of optical experiments at low temperatures. It is designed to vibrationally isolate the experiment allowing for stable operation of a high-finesse optical cavity. This enables us to perform cavity-optomechanics experiments at ultra-low temperatures.

  11. Ultralow-Noise SiN Trampoline Resonators for Sensing and Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Christoph; Müller, Tina; Bourassa, Alexandre; Sankey, Jack C.

    2016-04-01

    In force sensing, optomechanics, and quantum motion experiments, it is typically advantageous to create lightweight, compliant mechanical elements with the lowest possible force noise. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of high-aspect-ratio, nanogram-scale Si3 N4 "trampolines" having quality factors above 4 ×107 and ringdown times exceeding 5 min (mHz linewidth). These devices exhibit thermally limited force noise sensitivities below 20 aN /Hz1 /2 at room temperature, which is the lowest among solid-state mechanical sensors. We also characterize the suitability of these devices for high-finesse cavity readout and optomechanics applications, finding no evidence of surface or bulk optical losses from the processed nitride in a cavity achieving finesse 40,000. These parameters provide access to a single-photon cooperativity C0˜8 in the resolved-sideband limit, wherein a variety of outstanding optomechanics goals become feasible.

  12. Investigations of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties of Single Crystal Niobium for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gnäupel-Herold; Ganapati Rao Myneni; Richard E. Ricker

    2007-06-01

    This work investigates properties of large grained, high purity niobium with respect to the forming of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities from such large grained sheets. The yield stresses were examined using tensile specimens that were essentially single crystals in orientations evenly distributed in the standard projection triangle. No distinct yield anisotropy was found, however, vacuum annealing increased the yield strength by a factor 2..3. The deep drawing forming operation of the half cells raises the issues of elastic shape changes after the release of the forming tool (springback) and residual stresses, both of which are indicated to be negligible. This is a consequence of the low yield stress (< 100 MPa) and the large thickness (compared to typical thicknesses in sheet metal forming). However, the significant anisotropy of the transversal plastic strains after uniaxial deformation points to potentially critical thickness variations for large grained / single crystal half cells, thus raising the issue of controlling grain orientation or using single crystal sheet material.

  13. Bulk vertical micromachining of single-crystal sapphire using inductively coupled plasma etching for x-ray resonant cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.-C.; Lin, P.-T.; Mikolas, D. G.; Tsai, Y.-W.; Wang, Y.-L.; Fu, C.-C.; Chang, S.-L.

    2015-01-01

    To provide coherent x-ray sources for probing the dynamic structures of solid or liquid biological substances on the picosecond timescale, a high-aspect-ratio x-ray resonator cavity etched from a single crystal substrate with a nearly vertical sidewall structure is required. Although high-aspect-ratio resonator cavities have been produced in silicon, they suffer from unwanted multiple beam effects. However, this problem can be avoided by using the reduced symmetry of single-crystal sapphire in which x-ray cavities may produce a highly monochromatic transmitted x-ray beam. In this study, we performed nominal 100 µm deep etching and vertical sidewall profiles in single crystal sapphire using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. The large depth is required to intercept a useful fraction of a stopped-down x-ray beam, as well as for beam clearance. An electroplated Ni hard mask was patterned using KMPR 1050 photoresist and contact lithography. The quality and performance of the x-ray cavity depended upon the uniformity of the cavity gap and therefore verticality of the fabricated vertical sidewall. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such deep, vertical etching of single-crystal sapphire. A gas mixture of Cl2/BCl3/Ar was used to etch the sapphire with process variables including BCl3 flow ratio and bias power. By etching for 540 min under optimal conditions, we obtained an x-ray resonant cavity with a depth of 95 µm, width of ~30 µm, gap of ~115 µm and sidewall profile internal angle of 89.5°. The results show that the etching parameters affected the quality of the vertical sidewall, which is essential for good x-ray resonant cavities.

  14. Optomechanical Enhancement of Doubly Resonant 2D Optical Nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fei; Ren, Mingliang; Reed, Jason C; Zhu, Hai; Hou, Jiechang; Naylor, Carl H; Johnson, A T Charlie; Agarwal, Ritesh; Cubukcu, Ertugrul

    2016-03-01

    Emerging two-dimensional semiconductor materials possess a giant second order nonlinear response due to excitonic effects while the monolayer thickness of such active materials limits their use in practical nonlinear devices. Here, we report 3300 times optomechanical enhancement of second harmonic generation from a MoS2 monolayer in a doubly resonant on-chip optical cavity. We achieve this by engineering the nonlinear light-matter interaction in a microelectro-mechanical system enabled optical frequency doubling device based on an electrostatically tunable Fabry-Perot microresonator. Our versatile optomechanical approach will pave the way for next generation efficient on-chip tunable light sources, sensors, and systems based on molecularly thin materials. PMID:26854706

  15. Robust entanglement via optomechanical dark mode: adiabatic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Wang, Ying-Dan; Huang, Sumei; Clerk, Aashish

    2013-03-01

    Entanglement is a powerful resource for studying quantum effects in macroscopic objects and for quantum information processing. Here, we show that robust entanglement between cavity modes with distinct frequencies can be generated via a mechanical dark mode in an optomechanical quantum interface. Due to quantum interference, the effect of the mechanical noise is cancelled in a way that is similar to the electromagnetically induced transparency. We derive the entanglement in the strong coupling regime by solving the quantum Langevin equation using a perturbation theory approach. The entanglement in the adiabatic scheme is then compared with the entanglement in the stationary state scheme. Given the robust entanglement schemes and our previous schemes on quantum wave length conversion, the optomechanical interface hence forms an effective building block for a quantum network. This work is supported by DARPA-ORCHID program, NSF-DMR-0956064, NSF-CCF-0916303, and NSF-COINS.

  16. Optomechanical interface for probing matter-wave coherence

    PubMed Central

    Xuereb, André; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Paternostro, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We combine matter-wave interferometry and cavity optomechanics to propose a coherent matter–light interface based on mechanical motion at the quantum level. We demonstrate a mechanism that is able to transfer non-classical features imprinted on the state of a matter-wave system to an optomechanical device, transducing them into distinctive interference fringes. This provides a reliable tool for the inference of quantum coherence in the particle beam. Moreover, we discuss how our system allows for intriguing perspectives, paving the way to the construction of a device for the encoding of quantum information in matter-wave systems. Our proposal, which highlights previously unforeseen possibilities for the synergistic exploitation of these two experimental platforms, is explicitly based on existing technology, available and widely used in current cutting-edge experiments. PMID:24287490

  17. Deterministic synthesis of mechanical NOON states in ultrastrong optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrí, V.; Garziano, L.; Ridolfo, A.; Di Stefano, O.; Savasta, S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a protocol for the deterministic preparation of entangled NOON mechanical states. The system is constituted by two identical, optically coupled optomechanical systems. The protocol consists of two steps. In the first, one of the two optical resonators is excited by a resonant external π -like Gaussian optical pulse. When the optical excitation coherently partly transfers to the second cavity, the second step starts. It consists of sending simultaneously two additional π -like Gaussian optical pulses, one at each optical resonator, with specific frequencies. In the optomechanical ultrastrong coupling regime, when the coupling strength becomes a significant fraction of the mechanical frequency, we show that NOON mechanical states with quite high Fock states can be deterministically obtained. The operating range of this protocol is carefully analyzed. Calculations have been carried out taking into account the presence of decoherence, thermal noise, and imperfect cooling.

  18. Dark state in a nonlinear optomechanical system with quadratic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yue-Xin; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    We consider a hybrid system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device with nonlinear quadratic radiation pressure coupled to an atomic ensemble. By considering the collective excitation, we show that this system supports nontrivial, nonlinear dark states. The coupling strength can be tuned via the lasers that ensure the population transfer adiabatically between the mechanical modes and the collective atomic excitations in a controlled way. In addition, we show how to detect the dark-state resonance by calculating the single-photon spectrum of the output fields and the transmission of the probe beam based on two-phonon optomechanically induced transparency. Possible application and extension of the dark states are also discussed. Supported by the National Fundamental Research Program of China (Grants No. 2011CB921200 and No. 2011CBA00200), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01030200), and NSFC (Grants No. 61275122 and 11474266).

  19. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon’s polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072

  20. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072

  1. Optomechanically induced transparency in a membrane-in-the-middle setup at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuza, M.; Biancofiore, C.; Bawaj, M.; Molinelli, C.; Galassi, M.; Natali, R.; Tombesi, P.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in a room temperature cavity optomechanics setup formed by a thin semitransparent membrane within a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Due to destructive interference, a weak probe field is completely reflected by the cavity when the pump beam is resonant with the motional red sideband of the cavity. Under this condition we infer a significant slowing down of light of hundreds of microseconds, which is easily tuned by shifting the membrane along the cavity axis. We also observe the associated phenomenon of electromagnetically induced amplification which occurs due to constructive interference when the pump is resonant with the blue sideband.

  2. Vectorial near-field imaging of a GaN based photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    La China, F. Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lotti, F.; Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M.; Vico Triviño, N.; Carlin, J.-F.; Butté, R.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-09-07

    We report a full optical deep sub-wavelength imaging of the vectorial components of the electric local density of states for the confined modes of a modified GaN L3 photonic crystal nanocavity. The mode mapping is obtained with a scanning near-field optical microscope operating in a resonant forward scattering configuration, allowing the vectorial characterization of optical passive samples. The optical modes of the investigated cavity emerge as Fano resonances and can be probed without the need of embedded light emitters or evanescent light coupling into the nanocavity. The experimental maps, independently measured in the two in-plane polarizations, turn out to be in excellent agreement with numerical predictions.

  3. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with ultralow threshold and large power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Jianxin; Qi, Aiyi; Liu, Lei; Fu, Feiya; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-03-01

    The Bragg diffraction condition of surface-emitting lasing action is analyzed and Γ2-1 mode is chosen for lasing. Two types of lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (LC-PCSELs) based on the PhC band edge mode lateral resonance and vertical emission to achieve electrically driven surface emitting laser without distributed Bragg reflectors in the long wavelength optical communication band are designed and fabricated. Deep etching techniques, which rely on the active layer being or not etched through, are adopted to realize the LC-PCSELs on the commercial AlGaInAs/InP multi-quantum-well (MQW) epitaxial wafer. 1553.8 nm with ultralow threshold of 667 A/cm2 and 1575 nm with large power of 1.8 mW surface emitting lasing actions are observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production with low cost of electrically driven PCSELs.

  4. Preservation of quantum correlation between separated nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in photonic-crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. L.; An, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Chengjie; Feng, M.; Oh, C. H.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum correlation between two initially entangled nitrogen-vacancy centers (NVCs) embedded in photonic-crystal cavities (PCCs). We find that a finite quantum correlation is preserved even asymptotically when the transition frequency of the NVC is within the band gap of the PCC, which is quantitatively different from the result of approaching zero under the Born-Markovian approximation. In addition, once the transition frequency of NVC is far beyond the band gap of the PCC, the quantum correlation initially prepared in NVC will be fully transferred to the reservoirs in the long-time limit. Our result reveals that the interplay between the non-Markovian effect of the structured reservoirs and the existence of emitter-field bound state plays an essential role in such quantum correlation preservation. This feature may open new perspectives for devising active decoherence-immune solid-state optical devices.

  5. Plasmonic crystal cavity on single-mode optical fiber end facet for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaolong; Yi, Hui; Long, Jing; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Jie; Yang, Tian

    2016-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices on single-mode optical fiber (SMF) end facets are desired for label-free biosensing, due to flexible light delivery, in vivo inspection capability, and seamless integration with fiber-optic communication techniques. We report a plasmonic crystal cavity structure that has a steep resonance near the plasmonic bandedge, a fabrication process to efficiently transfer and align the structure onto a bare SMF end facet, and characterization of its sensing performance. With a sensitivity of 571 nm RIU-1, a figure of merit of 68 RIU-1 and a real-time refractive index detection limit of 3.5 × 10-6 RIU, our sensors can be readily applied in common SPR biosensing experiments. They are over an order of magnitude more sensitive than reported modified-end multimode fiber SPR devices, while there are no reports on previous SMF end facet devices' detection limits which have very low figures of merit.

  6. Invited Article: Precision nanoimplantation of nitrogen vacancy centers into diamond photonic crystal cavities and waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukraft, M.; Zheng, J.; Schröder, T.; Mouradian, S. L.; Walsh, M.; Trusheim, M. E.; Bakhru, H.; Englund, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a self-aligned lithographic technique for precision generation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers within photonic nanostructures on bulk diamond substrates. The process relies on a lithographic mask with nanoscale implantation apertures for NV creation, together with larger features for producing waveguides and photonic nanocavities. This mask allows targeted nitrogen ion implantation, and precision dry etching of nanostructures on bulk diamond. We demonstrate high-yield generation of single NVs at pre-determined nanoscale target regions on suspended diamond waveguides. We report implantation into the mode maximum of diamond photonic crystal nanocavities with a single-NV per cavity yield of ˜26% and Purcell induced intensity enhancement of the zero-phonon line. The generation of NV centers aligned with diamond photonic structures marks an important tool for scalable production of optically coupled spin memories.

  7. Optical nonreciprocity and optomechanical circulator in three-mode optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Li, Yong

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of optical nonreciprocal response in a three-mode optomechanical system where one mechanical mode is optomechanically coupled to two linearly coupled optical modes simultaneously. The optical nonreciprocal behavior is induced by the phase difference between the two optomechanical coupling rates, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the three-mode optomechanical system. Moreover, the three-mode optomechanical system can also be used as a three-port circulator for two optical modes and one mechanical mode, which we refer to as an optomechanical circulator.

  8. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas; Minkov, Momchil Savona, Vincenzo; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo

    2014-12-08

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength λ∼1.3 μm, with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  9. Ultralow mode-volume photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for high-efficiency coupling to individual carbon nanotube emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, R.; Imamura, S.; Ohta, R.; Ishii, A.; Liu, X.; Shimada, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-11-01

    The unique emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are attractive for achieving increased functionality in integrated photonics. In addition to being room-temperature telecom-band emitters that can be directly grown on silicon, they are ideal for coupling to nanoscale photonic structures. Here we report on high-efficiency coupling of individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes to silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Photoluminescence images of dielectric- and air-mode cavities reflect their distinctly different mode profiles and show that fields in the air are important for coupling. We find that the air-mode cavities couple more efficiently, and estimated spontaneous emission coupling factors reach a value as high as 0.85. Our results demonstrate advantages of ultralow mode-volumes in air-mode cavities for coupling to low-dimensional nanoscale emitters.

  10. Ultralow mode-volume photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for high-efficiency coupling to individual carbon nanotube emitters

    PubMed Central

    Miura, R.; Imamura, S.; Ohta, R.; Ishii, A.; Liu, X.; Shimada, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    The unique emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are attractive for achieving increased functionality in integrated photonics. In addition to being room-temperature telecom-band emitters that can be directly grown on silicon, they are ideal for coupling to nanoscale photonic structures. Here we report on high-efficiency coupling of individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes to silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Photoluminescence images of dielectric- and air-mode cavities reflect their distinctly different mode profiles and show that fields in the air are important for coupling. We find that the air-mode cavities couple more efficiently, and estimated spontaneous emission coupling factors reach a value as high as 0.85. Our results demonstrate advantages of ultralow mode-volumes in air-mode cavities for coupling to low-dimensional nanoscale emitters. PMID:25420679

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Naeini, A H; Mayer Alegre, T P; Chan, J; Eichenfield, M; Winger, M; Lin, Q; Hill, J T; Chang, D E; Painter, O

    2011-04-01

    Controlling the interaction between localized optical and mechanical excitations has recently become possible following advances in micro- and nanofabrication techniques. So far, most experimental studies of optomechanics have focused on measurement and control of the mechanical subsystem through its interaction with optics, and have led to the experimental demonstration of dynamical back-action cooling and optical rigidity of the mechanical system. Conversely, the optical response of these systems is also modified in the presence of mechanical interactions, leading to effects such as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and parametric normal-mode splitting. In atomic systems, studies of slow and stopped light (applicable to modern optical networks and future quantum networks) have thrust EIT to the forefront of experimental study during the past two decades. Here we demonstrate EIT and tunable optical delays in a nanoscale optomechanical crystal, using the optomechanical nonlinearity to control the velocity of light by way of engineered photon-phonon interactions. Our device is fabricated by simply etching holes into a thin film of silicon. At low temperature (8.7 kelvin), we report an optically tunable delay of 50 nanoseconds with near-unity optical transparency, and superluminal light with a 1.4 microsecond signal advance. These results, while indicating significant progress towards an integrated quantum optomechanical memory, are also relevant to classical signal processing applications. Measurements at room temperature in the analogous regime of electromagnetically induced absorption show the utility of these chip-scale optomechanical systems for optical buffering, amplification, and filtering of microwave-over-optical signals. PMID:21412237

  12. Single-photon scattering in an optomechanical Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. H.; Law, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate an optomechanical system which realizes the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model known in cavity QED. Such a system consists of a single photon and an optomechanical cavity with two optical cavity modes and one mechanical mode. Under the resonance condition when the mechanical frequency is close to the frequency difference between the optical modes, the photon and phonons can be strongly coupled. We present an analytic solution of single-photon scattering and show that the spectrum of the scattered photon exhibits excitation-number-dependent Rabi splitting of the JC model. In addition, we examine the response of the mechanical mode to a sequence of single photons, with one photon in the cavity at a time. We show that sequential photon scattering can efficiently excite the mechanical mode and generate sub-Poisson phonon statistics.

  13. Quantum state transfer in optomechanical arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moraes Neto, G. D.; Andrade, F. M.; Montenegro, V.; Bose, S.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum state transfer between distant nodes is at the heart of quantum processing and quantum networking. Stimulated by this, we propose a scheme where one can achieve quantum state transfer with a high fidelity between sites in a cavity quantum optomechanical network. In our lattice, each individual site is composed of a localized mechanical mode which interacts with a laser-driven cavity mode via radiation pressure, while photons hop between neighboring sites. After diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of each cell, we show that the system can be reduced to an effective Hamiltonian of two decoupled bosonic chains, and therefore we can apply the well-known results in quantum state transfer together with an additional condition on the transfer times. In fact, we show that our transfer protocol works for any arbitrary joint quantum state of a mechanical and an optical mode. Finally, in order to analyze a more realistic scenario we take into account the effects of independent thermal reservoirs for each site. By solving the standard master equation within the Born-Markov approximation, we reassure both the effective model and the feasibility of our protocol.

  14. Degenerate parametric oscillation in quantum membrane optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Mónica; Sánchez Muñoz, Carlos; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The promise of innovative applications has triggered the development of many modern technologies capable of exploiting quantum effects. But in addition to future applications, such quantum technologies have already provided us with the possibility of accessing quantum-mechanical scenarios that seemed unreachable just a few decades ago. With this spirit, in this work we show that modern optomechanical setups are mature enough to implement one of the most elusive models in the field of open system dynamics: degenerate parametric oscillation. Introduced in the eighties and motivated by its alleged implementability in nonlinear optical resonators, it rapidly became a paradigm for the study of dissipative phase transitions whose corresponding spontaneously broken symmetry is discrete. However, it was found that the intrinsic multimode nature of optical cavities makes it impossible to experimentally study the model all the way through its phase transition. In contrast, here we show that this long-awaited model can be implemented in the motion of a mechanical object dispersively coupled to the light contained in a cavity, when the latter is properly driven with multichromatic laser light. We focus on membranes as the mechanical element, showing that the main signatures of the degenerate parametric oscillation model can be studied in state-of-the-art setups, thus opening the possibility of analyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking and enhanced metrology in one of the cleanest dissipative phase transitions. In addition, the ideas put forward in this work would allow for the dissipative preparation of squeezed mechanical states.

  15. Ultrasensitive and compact tunable electro-optic filter in a 2D silicon photonic-crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimy, Mehdi N.; Naziri, Mohammad; Andalib, Alireza; Daie Kuzekanani, Ziaddin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we designed and simulated a high Q-factor photonic crystal cavity with a PN junction to demonstrate a high-sensitivity and high tunable electro-optic filter (EOF). For this purpose, we used a cavity based on 2D photonic crystal structures and created a PN junction with 1 μm width in the center of the cavity to change the refractive index of it. The electro-optic sensitivity of the cavity was improved by reducing modal volume and scattering power. Reverse bias in the range of (‑3.88 V–0.288 V) is applied to the PN junction and the output spectrum is investigated for various bias voltages. The output wavelengths of designed EOF can be tuned by manipulating cavity cells. In final response of EOF the maximum transmission efficiency is more than 93%, the overall Q-factor is more than 14 500. The whole device fits in a compact 102.6 μm2 (17.4 μm  ×  5.9 μm) footprint.

  16. An opto-mechanical coupled-ring reflector driven by optical force for lasing wavelength control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Cai, H.; Chin, L. K.; Huang, J. G.; Gu, Y. D.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Ser, W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an opto-mechanical coupled-ring reflector driven by optical gradient force is applied in an external-cavity tunable laser. A pair of mutually coupled ring resonators with a free-standing arc serves as a movable reflector. It obtains a 13.3-nm wavelength tuning range based on an opto-mechanical lasing-wavelength tuning coefficient of 127 GHz/nm. The potential applications include optical network, on-chip optical trapping, sensing, and biology detection.

  17. Photothermal self-oscillation and laser cooling of graphene optomechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Barton, Robert A; Storch, Isaac R; Adiga, Vivekananda P; Sakakibara, Reyu; Cipriany, Benjamin R; Ilic, B; Wang, Si Ping; Ong, Peijie; McEuen, Paul L; Parpia, Jeevak M; Craighead, Harold G

    2012-09-12

    By virtue of their low mass and stiffness, atomically thin mechanical resonators are attractive candidates for use in optomechanics. Here, we demonstrate photothermal back-action in a graphene mechanical resonator comprising one end of a Fabry-Perot cavity. As a demonstration of the utility of this effect, we show that a continuous wave laser can be used to cool a graphene vibrational mode or to power a graphene-based tunable frequency oscillator. Owing to graphene's high thermal conductivity and optical absorption, photothermal optomechanics is efficient in graphene and could ultimately enable laser cooling to the quantum ground state or applications such as photonic signal processing. PMID:22889415

  18. Diabolical points in multi-scatterer optomechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Chesi, Stefano; Wang, Ying-Dan; Twamley, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Diabolical points, which originate from parameter-dependent accidental degeneracies of a system's energy levels, have played a fundamental role in the discovery of the Berry phase as well as in photonics (conical refraction), in chemical dynamics, and more recently in novel materials such as graphene, whose electronic band structure possess Dirac points. Here we discuss diabolical points in an optomechanical system formed by multiple scatterers in an optical cavity with periodic boundary conditions. Such configuration is close to experimental setups using micro-toroidal rings with indentations or near-field scatterers. We find that the optomechanical coupling is no longer an analytic function near the diabolical point and demonstrate the topological phase arising through the mechanical motion. Similar to a Fabry-Perot resonator, the optomechanical coupling can grow with the number of scatterers. We also introduce a minimal quantum model of a diabolical point, which establishes a connection to the motion of an arbitrary-spin particle in a 2D parabolic quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling. PMID:25588627

  19. Cavity optoelectromechanical system combining strong electrical actuation with ultrasensitive transduction

    SciTech Connect

    McRae, Terry G.; Lee, Kwan H.; Harris, Glen I.; Knittel, Joachim; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2010-08-15

    A cavity optoelectromechanical system is reported which combines the ultrasensitive transduction of cavity optomechanical systems with the electrical actuation of nanoelectromechanical systems. Ultrasensitive mechanical transduction is achieved via optomechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 {mu}N are realized, facilitating strong actuation with ultralow dissipation. A scanning probe microscope is implemented, capable of characterizing the mechanical modes. The integration of electrical actuation into optomechanical devices is an enabling step toward the regime of quantum nonlinear dynamics and provides capabilities for quantum control of mechanical motion.

  20. Deterministic and robust entanglement of nitrogen-vacancy centers using low-Q photonic-crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Janik; Kabuss, Julia; Knorr, Andreas; Benson, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    We propose an experiment to generate deterministic entanglement between separate nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers mediated by the mode of a photonic crystal cavity. Using numerical simulations, the applicability and robustness of the entanglement operation to parameter regimes achievable with the present technology are investigated. We find that even with moderate cavity Q factors of 104 a concurrence of c >0.6 can be achieved within a time of tmax≈150 ns, while Q factors of 105 promise c >0.8. Most importantly, the investigated scheme is relatively insensitive to spectral diffusion and differences between the optical transition frequencies of the used NV centers.

  1. Quantum cloning based on iSWAP gate with nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, A.-Peng; Wen, Jing-Ji; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Su, Shi-Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2014-12-01

    we propose a scheme for physical implementation for the optimal asymmetric (symmetric) 1→2 universal quantum cloning, the optimal symmetric economical 1→3 phase-covariant cloning and the optimal asymmetric (symmetric) real state cloning based on an iSWAP gate between separated nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers embedded inphotonic crystal cavities. This two-qubit iSWAP gate is produced by the long-range interaction between two distributed NV centers mediated by the vacuum fields of the cavities. The analysis results show that our scheme is efficient and may be useful for scalable quantum information processing.

  2. Optomechanical correlations and signal self-amplification in interferometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohadon, P.-F.; Verlot, P.; Tavernarakis, A.; Briant, T.; Heidmann, A.

    2010-05-01

    Radiation pressure exerted by light in interferometric measurements is responsible for displacements of mirrors which appear as an additional back-action noise and limit the sensitivity of the measurement. We experimentally study these effects by monitoring in a very high-finesse optical cavity the displacements of a mirror with a sensitivity at the 10-20 m/ level. This very high sensitivity is a step towards the observation of fundamental quantum effects of radiation pressure such as the standard quantum limit in interferometric measurements. We report the observation of optomechanical correlations between two optical beams sent into the same moving mirror cavity. We also observed a self-amplification of a signal, which is a consequence of dynamical back-action of radiation pressure in a detuned cavity, and may improve the interferometric measurement sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit.

  3. Mechanical Resonators for Quantum Optomechanics Experiments at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norte, R. A.; Moura, J. P.; Gröblacher, S.

    2016-04-01

    All quantum optomechanics experiments to date operate at cryogenic temperatures, imposing severe technical challenges and fundamental constraints. Here, we present a novel design of on-chip mechanical resonators which exhibit fundamental modes with frequencies f and mechanical quality factors Qm sufficient to enter the optomechanical quantum regime at room temperature. We overcome previous limitations by designing ultrathin, high-stress silicon nitride (Si3 N4 ) membranes, with tensile stress in the resonators' clamps close to the ultimate yield strength of the material. By patterning a photonic crystal on the SiN membranes, we observe reflectivities greater than 99%. These on-chip resonators have remarkably low mechanical dissipation, with Qm˜108, while at the same time exhibiting large reflectivities. This makes them a unique platform for experiments towards the observation of massive quantum behavior at room temperature.

  4. Mechanical Resonators for Quantum Optomechanics Experiments at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Norte, R A; Moura, J P; Gröblacher, S

    2016-04-01

    All quantum optomechanics experiments to date operate at cryogenic temperatures, imposing severe technical challenges and fundamental constraints. Here, we present a novel design of on-chip mechanical resonators which exhibit fundamental modes with frequencies f and mechanical quality factors Q_{m} sufficient to enter the optomechanical quantum regime at room temperature. We overcome previous limitations by designing ultrathin, high-stress silicon nitride (Si_{3}N_{4}) membranes, with tensile stress in the resonators' clamps close to the ultimate yield strength of the material. By patterning a photonic crystal on the SiN membranes, we observe reflectivities greater than 99%. These on-chip resonators have remarkably low mechanical dissipation, with Q_{m}∼10^{8}, while at the same time exhibiting large reflectivities. This makes them a unique platform for experiments towards the observation of massive quantum behavior at room temperature. PMID:27104723

  5. Squeezed light and correlated photons from dissipatively coupled optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilda, Dainius; Nunnenkamp, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically the squeezing spectrum and second-order correlation function of the output light for an optomechanical system in which a mechanical oscillator modulates the cavity linewidth (dissipative coupling). We find strong squeezing coinciding with the normal-mode frequencies of the linearized system. In contrast to dispersive coupling, squeezing is possible in the resolved-sideband limit simultaneously with sideband cooling. The second-order correlation function shows damped oscillations, whose properties are given by the mechanical-like, the optical-like normal mode, or both, and can be below shot-noise level at finite times, {g}(2)(τ )\\lt 1.

  6. Optomechanical considerations for realistic tolerancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Eric; Sasián, José; Youngworth, Richard N.

    2013-09-01

    Optical tolerancing simulation has improved so that the modeling of optomechanical accuracy can better predict as-built performance. A key refinement being proposed within this paper is monitoring formal interference fits and checking lens elements within their mechanical housings. Without proper checks, simulations may become physically unrealizable and pessimistic, thereby resulting in lower simulated yields. An improved simulation method has been defined and demonstrated in this paper with systems that do not have barrel constraints. The demonstration cases clearly show the trend of the beneficial impact with yield results, as a yield increase of 36.3% to 39.2% is garnered by one example. Considerations in simulating the realistic optomechanical system will assist in controlling cost and providing more accurate simulation results.

  7. Cavity quantum electro-optics

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Mankei

    2010-06-15

    The quantum dynamics of the coupling between a cavity optical field and a resonator microwave field via the electro-optic effect is studied. This coupling has the same form as the optomechanical coupling via radiation pressure, so all previously considered optomechanical effects can in principle be observed in electro-optic systems as well. In particular, I point out the possibilities of laser cooling of the microwave mode, entanglement between the optical mode and the microwave mode via electro-optic parametric amplification, and back-action-evading optical measurements of a microwave quadrature.

  8. Sensing of mechanical motion at the quantum level via a hybrid atom-optomechanical setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Hyojun; Bariani, Francesco; Singh, Swati; Vengalattore, Mukund; Meystre, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    We consider a hybrid quantum system in which an optomechanical cavity is coupled to a Fabry-Pérot cavity containing a trapped cold atomic ensemble. We show that it is possible to cool the mechanics to the ground state from room temperature outside the resolved-sideband regime by optically coupling it to the internal levels of the atoms. We also find that while in the familiar homodyne detection of small displacements this system exhibits the same standard quantum limit as traditional cavity optomechanics, it is possible to engineer the optical response of the atoms so as to realize a back-action evading measurement scheme. We acknowledge financial support from NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  9. Optomechanical fiber gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Onur; Akkaya, Onur Can; Ra, Hyejun; Digonnet, Michel; Kino, Gordon; Solgaard, Olav

    2009-10-01

    We report a miniature mechanical gyroscope that utilizes optical means to detect rotation-induced displacements in a mechanical structure. It utilizes the Foucault pendulum principle used in some existing MEMS gyroscopes: a rotating reference frame induces a Coriolis force that oscillates the structure about an axis orthogonal to the driving-mode axis. The main difference with similar MEMS gyroscopes is that this rotation-induced oscillation is sensed using a pair of high-finesse fiber Fabry-Perot displacement sensors instead of a capacitive device. The drive axis is also driven by radiation pressure inside a set of auxiliary fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, making this device immune to electromagnetic interference. Calculations predict that a rotation sensitivity on the order of 1°/h/Hz1/2 is achievable. We show that this structure solves several problems associated with MEMS gyroscopes utilizing electrostatic sensing methods.

  10. Remote macroscopic entanglement on a photonic crystal architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flayac, H.; Minkov, M.; Savona, V.

    2015-10-01

    The outstanding progress in nanostructure fabrication and cooling technologies allows what was unthinkable a few decades ago: bringing single-mode mechanical vibrations to the quantum regime. The coupling between photon and phonon excitations is a natural source of nonclassical states of light and mechanical vibrations, and its study within the field of cavity optomechanics is developing lightning fast. Photonic crystal cavities are highly integrable architectures that have demonstrated the strongest optomechanical coupling to date and should therefore play a central role for such hybrid quantum-state engineering. In this context, we propose a realistic heralding protocol for the on-chip preparation of remotely entangled mechanical states, relying on the state-of-the-art optomechanical parameters of a silicon-based nanobeam structure. Pulsed sideband excitation of a Stokes process, combined with single-photon detection, allows the writing of a delocalized mechanical Bell state in the system, signatures of which can then be read out in the optical field. A measure of entanglement in this protocol is provided by the visibility of a characteristic quantum interference pattern in the emitted light.

  11. Demonstration of the reversed dissipation regime in cavity electro-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanov, A. K.; Toth, L. D.; Bernier, N. R.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    Cavity optomechanical phenomena, such as cooling, amplification or optomechanically induced transparency, emerge due to a strong imbalance in the dissipation rates of the parametrically coupled electromagnetic and mechanical resonators. Here we explore experimentally for the first time the reversed dissipation regime where the mechanical energy relaxation rate exceeds the energy decay rate of the electromagnetic cavity. We demonstrate optomechanically induced modifications of the microwave cavity resonance frequency and decay rate as well as mechanically-induced amplification of the electromagnetic mode and self-sustained oscillations (maser action) with high spectral purity of emitted microwave tone.

  12. Generation of a plastic crystal including methane rotator within metal-organic cavity by forcible gas adsorption.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Satoshi; Nakata, Ei-ichi; Saito, Teruo; Akatsuka, Takamasa

    2005-03-01

    The structural determination of saturated adsorbed methane inside a metal-organic cavity by the forcible pressure swing adsorption method (ca. 13 MPa) through a gas-adsorption equilibrium state gives a methane inclusion crystal even at 298 K. The adsorbed methane molecules regularly locate in the pocket-like narrow corners of the necks of the 1-D channel without disorder. The thermal motion of the pseudo-spherical methane molecules seems to be effectively suppressed in its translation mode but allowed rotation. In cooling to 90 K, the crystal structure remained essentially unchanged while the thermal motion decreased, indicating that a lower temperature reduces the rotation of the adsorbed pseudo-spherical methane. The observed crystal structure could also be influenced by a reduction of the vibrational magnitude, and a phase transition from a static disordered structure to an ordered state might occur. The observed crystal state at a higher temperature should have a plastic crystal nature in terms of the randomness of the orientation of incorporated guests. The single-crystal adsorbent is effective for crystallographic observation of the thermal activated guest forced into regular alignment in the crystal lattice, which can be used as a model of the supercritical fluid. PMID:15732976

  13. Nanophotonic reservoir computing with photonic crystal cavities to generate periodic patterns.

    PubMed

    Fiers, Martin Andre Agnes; Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Wyffels, Francis; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Reservoir computing (RC) is a technique in machine learning inspired by neural systems. RC has been used successfully to solve complex problems such as signal classification and signal generation. These systems are mainly implemented in software, and thereby they are limited in speed and power efficiency. Several optical and optoelectronic implementations have been demonstrated, in which the system has signals with an amplitude and phase. It is proven that these enrich the dynamics of the system, which is beneficial for the performance. In this paper, we introduce a novel optical architecture based on nanophotonic crystal cavities. This allows us to integrate many neurons on one chip, which, compared with other photonic solutions, closest resembles a classical neural network. Furthermore, the components are passive, which simplifies the design and reduces the power consumption. To assess the performance of this network, we train a photonic network to generate periodic patterns, using an alternative online learning rule called first-order reduced and corrected error. For this, we first train a classical hyperbolic tangent reservoir, but then we vary some of the properties to incorporate typical aspects of a photonics reservoir, such as the use of continuous-time versus discrete-time signals and the use of complex-valued versus real-valued signals. Then, the nanophotonic reservoir is simulated and we explore the role of relevant parameters such as the topology, the phases between the resonators, the number of nodes that are biased and the delay between the resonators. It is important that these parameters are chosen such that no strong self-oscillations occur. Finally, our results show that for a signal generation task a complex-valued, continuous-time nanophotonic reservoir outperforms a classical (i.e., discrete-time, real-valued) leaky hyperbolic tangent reservoir (normalized root-mean-square errors=0.030 versus NRMSE=0.127). PMID:24807033

  14. Optomechanics with high-contrast gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemiktarak, Utku; Stambaugh, Corey; Xu, Haitan; Taylor, Jacob; Lawall, John

    2014-02-01

    High-contrast gratings fabricated in free-standing membranes of silicon nitride are a remarkable new platform for optomechanics, as they combine high reflectivity, low mass, and a high mechanical quality factor in a single device. In an effort to further improve on our earlier designs, we are now fabricating high-contrast gratings from stoichiometric silicon nitride. The new gratings have a diameter of 80 μm, a thickness of 250 μm, and are patterned in square membranes from 100 μm to 500 μm on a side. We find reflectivities R < 0.994 for these devices, and fundamental mechanical resonance frequencies above 1.5 MHz. In addition, we have incorporated HCGs fabricated from low-stress silicon nitride into a "membrane-in-the-middle" setup, and observe that the cavity transmission spectrum is distorted from a constant free spectral range of 3 GHz to one characterized by anticrossings separated by 72 ± 2 MHz.

  15. Quadratic Measurement and Conditional State Preparation in an Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael; Bowen, Warwick; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja

    2014-03-01

    An important requirement in the study of quantum systems is the ability to measure non-linear observables at the level of quantum fluctuations. Such measurements enable the conditional preparation of highly non-classical states. Nonlinear measurement, although achieved in a variety of quantum systems including microwave cavity modes and optical fields, remains an outstanding problem in both electromechanical and optomechanical systems. To the best of our knowledge, previous experimental efforts to achieve nonlinear measurement of mechanical motion have not yielded strong coupling, nor the observation of quadratic mechanical motion. Here using a new technique reliant on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the optomechanical interaction, we experimentally observe for the first time a position squared (x2) measurement of the room-temperature Brownian motion of a nanomechanical oscillator. We utilize this measurement to conditionally prepare non-Gaussian bimodal states, which are the high temperature classical analogue of quantum macroscopic superposition states, or cat states. In the future with the aid of cryogenics and state-of-the-art optical cavities, our approach will provide a viable method of generating quantum superposition states of mechanical oscillators. This research was funded by the ARC Center of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems.

  16. High-sensitivity three-mode optomechanical transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Fang, Q.; Susmithan, S.; Miao, H.; Ju, L.; Fan, Y.; Blair, D.; Hosken, D. J.; Munch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.

    2011-12-15

    Three-mode optomechanical interactions have been predicted to allow the creation of very high sensitivity transducers in which very strong optical self-cooling and strong optomechanical quantum entanglement are predicted. Strong coupling is achieved by engineering a transducer in which both the pump laser and a single signal sideband frequency are resonantly enhanced. Here we demonstrate that very high sensitivity can be achieved in a very simple system consisting of a Fabry-Perot cavity with CO{sub 2} laser thermal tuning. We demonstrate a displacement sensitivity of {approx}1x10{sup -17} m/{radical}(Hz), which is sufficient to observe a thermally excited acoustic mode in a 5.6 kg sapphire mirror with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 20 dB. It is shown that a measurement sensitivity of {approx}2x10{sup -20} m/{radical}(Hz) limited by the quantum shot noise is achievable with optimization of the cavity parameters.

  17. Low-Loss Optomechanical Oscillator for Quantum-Optics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrielli, A.; Pontin, A.; Cataliotti, F. S.; Marconi, L.; Marin, F.; Marino, F.; Pandraud, G.; Prodi, G. A.; Serra, E.; Bonaldi, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present an oscillating micromirror with mechanical quality factors Q up to 1.2 ×1 06 at cryogenic temperature and optical losses lower than 20 ppm. The device is specifically designed to ease the detection of ponderomotive squeezing (or, more generally, to produce a cavity quantum optomechanical system) at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The design allows one to keep under control both the structural loss in the optical coating and the mechanical energy leakage through the support. The comparison between devices with different shapes shows that the residual mechanical loss at 4.2 K is equally contributed by the intrinsic loss of the silicon substrate and of the coating, while at higher temperatures the dominant loss mechanism is thermoelasticity in the substrate. As the modal response of the device is tailored for its use in optical cavities, these features make the device very promising for quantum-optics experiments.

  18. Photonic crystal-based flat lens integrated on a Bragg mirror for high-Q external cavity low noise laser.

    PubMed

    Seghilani, M S; Sellahi, M; Devautour, M; Lalanne, P; Sagnes, I; Beaudoin, G; Myara, M; Lafosse, X; Legratiet, L; Yang, J; Garnache, A

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate a high reflectivity (> 99%), low-loss (< 0.1%) and aberrations-free (2% of λ rms phase fluctuations) concave Bragg mirror (20mm radius of curvature) integrating a photonic crystal with engineered spherical phase and amplitude transfer functions, based on a III-V semiconductors flat photonics technology. This mirror design is of high interest for highly coherent high power stable external cavity semiconductor lasers, exhibiting very low noise. We design the photonic crystal for operation in the pass band. The approach incorporates spatial, spectral (filter bandwidth= 5nm) and polarization filtering capabilities. Thanks to the mirror, a compact single mode TEM(00) 2mm-long air gap high finesse (cold cavity Q-factor 10(6) - 10(7)) stable laser cavity is demonstrated with a GaAs-based quantum-wells 1/2-VCSEL gain structure at 1μm. Excellent laser performances are obtained in single frequency operation: low threshold density of 2kW/cm(2) with high differential efficiency (21%). And high spatial, temporal and polarization coherence: TEM(00) beam close to diffraction limit, linear light polarization (> 60dB), Side Mode Suppression Ratio > 46dB, relative intensity noise at quantum limit (< -150dB) in 1MHz-84GHz radio frequency range, and a theoretical linewidth fundamental limit at 10 Hz (Q-factor ∼ 3.10(13)). PMID:24663933

  19. An integrated low phase noise radiation-pressure-driven optomechanical oscillator chipset

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xingsheng; Huang, Yongjun; Li, Ying; McMillan, James F.; Zheng, Jiangjun; Huang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Chun; Gu, Tingyi; Wang, Di; Hati, Archita; Howe, David A.; Wen, Guangjun; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2014-01-01

    High-quality frequency references are the cornerstones in position, navigation and timing applications of both scientific and commercial domains. Optomechanical oscillators, with direct coupling to continuous-wave light and non-material-limited f × Q product, are long regarded as a potential platform for frequency reference in radio-frequency-photonic architectures. However, one major challenge is the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes while maintaining optomechanical high quality performance. Here we demonstrate the monolithic integration of photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators and on-chip high speed Ge detectors based on the silicon CMOS platform. With the generation of both high harmonics (up to 59th order) and subharmonics (down to 1/4), our chipset provides multiple frequency tones for applications in both frequency multipliers and dividers. The phase noise is measured down to −125 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at ~400 μW dropped-in powers, one of the lowest noise optomechanical oscillators to date and in room-temperature and atmospheric non-vacuum operating conditions. These characteristics enable optomechanical oscillators as a frequency reference platform for radio-frequency-photonic information processing. PMID:25354711

  20. Torque Magnetometry and Susceptometry using Split-Beam Optomechanical Nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, Tayyaba; Wu, Nathanael; Wu, Marcelo; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Losby, Joseph; Barclay, Paul; Freeman, Mark

    A large number of sensitive magnetometry methods are limited to cryogenic operation. We present a highly sensitive torque magnetometer using a photonic crystal optomechanical split-beam nanocavity operating in air at room temperature. The chip-based magnetometer is proficient for probing both the net magnetization and AC susceptibility of individual magnetic microstructures. This is demonstrated through the observation of nanoscale Barkhausen transitions in the magnetic hysteresis of a permalloy thin-film element. Control of the vector direction of the radio frequency drive allows detection of accompanying AC susceptibility terms.

  1. Generation of radially and azimuthally polarized beams in Yb:YAG laser with intra-cavity lens and birefringent crystal.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P; Senatsky, Yuri; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-31

    We demonstrated the operation of cw diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser in radial or azimuthal polarized (RP or AP) beams using a combination of birefringent uniaxial crystal (c-cut YVO4 or α-BBO) and lens as intra-cavity elements. RP and AP doughnut modes (M2 = 2-2.5, polarization extinction ratio 50-100:1) with output power up to 60 mW were generated. Apart from doughnut modes, RP or AP ring-like off-axis oscillations and multi-ring beams with mixed RP and AP were also observed at the output of this laser scheme. Using intra-cavity short focus lenses with spherical aberrations AP or RP modes of higher orders was obtained. Mechanism of mode selection in the laser is discussed. The large variety of beams with axially symmetric polarizations from the output of the proposed laser scheme may find applications in different fields. PMID:21369005

  2. Modeling light-sound interaction in nanoscale cavities and waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennec, Yan; Laude, Vincent; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Oudich, Mourad; El Jallal, Said; Beugnot, Jean Charles; Escalante, Jose M.; Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of light and sound waves at the micro and nanoscale has attracted considerable interest in recent years. The main reason is that this interaction is responsible for a wide variety of intriguing physical phenomena, ranging from the laser-induced cooling of a micromechanical resonator down to its ground state to the management of the speed of guided light pulses by exciting sound waves. A common feature of all these phenomena is the feasibility to tightly confine photons and phonons of similar wavelengths in a very small volume. Amongst the different structures that enable such confinement, optomechanical or phoxonic crystals, which are periodic structures displaying forbidden frequency band gaps for light and sound waves, have revealed themselves as the most appropriate candidates to host nanoscale structures where the light-sound interaction can be boosted. In this review, we describe the theoretical tools that allow the modeling of the interaction between photons and acoustic phonons in nanoscale structures, namely cavities and waveguides, with special emphasis in phoxonic crystal structures. First, we start by summarizing the different optomechanical or phoxonic crystal structures proposed so far and discuss their main advantages and limitations. Then, we describe the different mechanisms that make light interact with sound, and show how to treat them from a theoretical point of view. We then illustrate the different photon-phonon interaction processes with numerical simulations in realistic phoxonic cavities and waveguides. Finally, we introduce some possible applications which can take enormous benefit from the enhanced interaction between light and sound at the nanoscale.

  3. Transfer behavior of quantum states between atoms in photonic crystal coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we discuss the one-excitation dynamics of a quantum system consisting of two two-level atoms each interacting with one of two coupled single-mode cavities via spontaneous emission. When the atoms and cavities are tuned into resonance, a wide variety of time-evolution behaviors can be realized by modulating the atom-cavity coupling strength g and the cavity-cavity hopping strength λ. The dynamics is solved rigorously via the eigenproblem of an ordinary coupled linear system and simple analytical solutions are derived at several extreme situations of g and λ. In the large hopping limit where g≪λ, the behavior of the system is the linear superposition of a fast and slow periodic oscillation. The quantum state transfers from one atom to the other atom accompanied with weak excitation of the cavity mode. In the large coupling limit where g≫λ, the time-evolution behavior of the system is characterized by the usual slowly varying carrier envelope superimposed upon a fast and violent oscillation. At a certain instant, the energy is fully transferred from the one quantum subsystem to the other. When the two interaction strengths are comparable in magnitude, the dynamics acts as a continuous pulse having irregular frequency and line shape of peaks and valleys, and the complicated time-evolution behaviors are ascribed to the violent competition between all the one-excitation quantum states. The coupled quantum system of atoms and cavities makes a good model to study cavity quantum electrodynamics with great freedoms of many-body interaction.

  4. Cavity cooling a single charged levitated nanosphere.

    PubMed

    Millen, J; Fonseca, P Z G; Mavrogordatos, T; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2015-03-27

    Optomechanical cavity cooling of levitated objects offers the possibility for laboratory investigation of the macroscopic quantum behavior of systems that are largely decoupled from their environment. However, experimental progress has been hindered by particle loss mechanisms, which have prevented levitation and cavity cooling in a vacuum. We overcome this problem with a new type of hybrid electro-optical trap formed from a Paul trap within a single-mode optical cavity. We demonstrate a factor of 100 cavity cooling of 400 nm diameter silica spheres trapped in vacuum. This paves the way for ground-state cooling in a smaller, higher finesse cavity, as we show that a novel feature of the hybrid trap is that the optomechanical cooling becomes actively driven by the Paul trap, even for singly charged nanospheres. PMID:25860743

  5. Polarization properties and disorder effects in H{sub 3} photonic crystal cavities incorporating site-controlled, high-symmetry quantum dot arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Surrente, Alessandro; Felici, Marco; Gallo, Pascal; Dwir, Benjamin; Rudra, Alok; Kapon, Eli; Biasiol, Giorgio

    2015-07-20

    We report on the effects of optical disorder on breaking the symmetry of the cavity modes of H{sub 3} photonic crystal cavities incorporating site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) as the internal light source. The high in-plane symmetry of the polarization states of the pyramidal QDs simplifies the analysis of the polarization states of the H{sub 3} cavities. It is shown that the optical disorder induced by fabrication imperfections lifts the degeneracy of the two quadrupole cavity modes and tilts the elongation axes of the cavity mode patterns with respect to the ideal, hexagonal symmetry case. These results are useful for designing QD-cavity structures for polarization-entangled photon sources and few-QD lasers.

  6. Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Yee, Karl Y.

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been made in both micromechanical resonators and micro-optical resonators over the past decade, and a new field has recently emerged combining these mechanical and optical systems. In such optomechanical systems, the two resonators are strongly coupled with one influencing the other, and their interaction can yield detectable optical signals that are highly sensitive to the mechanical motion. A particularly high-Q optical system is the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator, which has many applications ranging from stable oscillators to inertial sensor devices. There is, however, limited coupling between the optical mode and the resonator s external environment. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel type of optomechanical sensor has been developed, offering great potential for measurements of displacement, acceleration, and mass sensitivity. The proposed hybrid device combines the advantages of all-solid optical WGM resonators with high-quality micro-machined cantilevers. For direct access to the WGM inside the resonator, the idea is to radially cut precise gaps into the perimeter, fabricating a mechanical resonator within the WGM. Also, a strategy to reduce losses has been developed with optimized design of the cantilever geometry and positions of gap surfaces.

  7. Dynamics of confined cavity modes in a phononic crystal slab investigated by in situ time-resolved experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, R.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.; Zhao, J.; Belliard, L.; Oudich, M.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-12-01

    The confinement of elastic waves within a single defect in a phononic crystal slab is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The structure is formed by a honeycomb lattice of air holes in a silicon plate with one hole missing in its center. The frequencies and polarizations of the localized modes in the first band gap are computed with a finite element method. A noncontact laser ultrasonic technique is used both to excite flexural Lamb waves and to monitor in situ the displacement field within the cavity. We report on the time evolution of confinement, which is distinct according to the symmetry of the eigenmode.

  8. Quasiresonant excitation of InP/InGaP quantum dots using second harmonic generated in a photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Sonia; Rivoire, Kelley; Hatami, Fariba; Vučković, Jelena

    2012-10-01

    Indistinguishable single photons are necessary for quantum information processing applications. Resonant or quasiresonant excitation of single quantum dots provides greater single photon indistinguishability than incoherent pumping, but is also more challenging experimentally. Here, we demonstrate high signal to noise quasiresonant excitation of InP/InGaP quantum dots. The excitation is provided via second harmonic generated from a telecommunications wavelength laser resonant with the fundamental mode of a photonic crystal cavity, fabricated at twice the quantum dot transition wavelength. The second harmonic is generated using the χ(2) nonlinearity of the InGaP material matrix.

  9. Electro-optical channel drop switching in a photonic crystal waveguide-cavity side-coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kao-Der; Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2014-04-01

    The electro-optical channel drop switching in a photonic crystal waveguide-cavity side-coupling system is reported. The line waveguide is formed by removing a single row of dielectric cylinders. The twin optical microcavities side coupled between linear waveguides is studied by solving Maxwell's equations. We determine the general characteristics of the coupling element required to achieve channel drop tunneling. By modulating the conductance of the twin microcavities, the electrical tunability of the resonant modes is observed in the transmission spectrum. The spectral characteristics suggest a potential application for this switching device as an efficient multichannel optical switch in the photonic integrated circuits.

  10. Tunable waveguide and cavity in a phononic crystal plate by controlling whispering-gallery modes in hollow pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yabin; Fernez, Nicolas; Pennec, Yan; Bonello, Bernard; Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Hémon, Stéphanie; Pan, Yongdong; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a phononic crystal plate with hollow pillars and introduce the existence of whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). We show that by tuning the inner radius of the hollow pillar, these modes can merge inside both Bragg and low frequency band gaps, deserving phononic crystal and acoustic metamaterial applications. These modes can be used as narrow pass bands for which the quality factor can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of an additional cylinder between the hollow cylinder and the plate. We discuss some functionalities of these confined WGM in both Bragg and low frequency gaps for wavelength division in multiplexer devices using heteroradii pillars introduced into waveguide and cavity structures.

  11. Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favero, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    An optomechanical device has allowed quanta, or 'grains', of mechanical vibration to be counted by optical means. The system may open up new possibilities in acoustics and thermal engineering. See Letter p.522

  12. Generation of Steady-State Entanglement in Quadratically Coupled Optomechanical System Assisted by Two-Level Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng-Zhi; Han, Xiang-Gang; Wu, E.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a scheme for the realization of a hybrid, strongly entangled system formed of an atomic ensemble surrounded by a quadratically coupled optomechanical cavity with a vibrating mirror. We firstly investigate the steady-state bipartite entanglement between the movable mirror and the cavity mode with the help of an atomic media. It shows that the introduction of the atomic medium can greatly improve the entanglement between the movable mirror and the cavity mode. Secondly, steady-state tripartite entanglement including the movable mirror, the cavity and atom media are investigated. We find the robust tripartite entanglement persists in the present system.

  13. A theoretical study of a nano-opto-mechanical sensor using a photonic crystal-cantilever cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Depeng; Liu, Peng; Ho, Kai-Ming; Dong, Liang

    2012-07-09

    In this simulation study, integration of a nanocantilever inside a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) cavity resulted in a unique photonic crystal-cantilever cavity (PC3), where the cantilever served as a tunable mechanical defect of the PC slab. Strong nano-opto-mechanical interactions between the cantilever and the defect-mode field inside the PC3 gave rise to a high sensitivity of the resonance wavelength to surface stress-induced cantilever deflection. Mechanical and optical responses of the PC3 to surface stress changes on the cantilever surface were studied by using a finite-element method (FEM) and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, respectively. Theoretical analysis revealed that the devised PC3 sensor could resolve a conservative minimum surface stress at the level of ~0.8 mN m−1, representing state-of-the-art cantilever sensor performance. Also, the PC3 sensor design used an ultracompact structure with an on-chip optical length of only several microns, while a conventional reflected laser beam detection scheme requires a ~1 m long free-space optical path.

  14. Crystal growth mechanisms in miarolitic cavities in the Lake George ring complex and vicinity, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Crystal Peak area of the Pikes Peak batholith, near Lake George in central Colorado, is world-renowned for its crystals of amazonite (the blue-green variety of microcline) and smoky quartz. Such crystals, collected from individual miarolitic pegmatites, have a remakably small variation in crystal size within each pegmatite, and the shapes of plots of their crystal size distributions (CSDs) are invariably lognormal or close to lognormal in all cases. These observations are explained by a crystal growth mechanism that was governed initially by surface-controlled kinetics, during which crystals tended to grow larger in proportion to their size, thereby establishing lognormal CSDs. Surface-controlled growth was followed by longer periods of supply controlled growth, during which growth rate was predominantly size-independent, consequently preserving the lognormal shapes of the CSDs and the small size variation. The change from surface- to supply controlled growth kinetics may have resulted from an increasing demand for nutrients that exceeded diffusion limitations of the system. The proposed model for crystal growth in this locality appears to be common in the geologic record, and can be used with other information, such as isotopic data, to deduce physico-chemical conditions during crystal formation.

  15. Laser cooling of a harmonic oscillator's bath with optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunnong; Taylor, Jacob

    Thermal noise reduction in mechanical systems is a topic both of fundamental interest for studying quantum physics at the macroscopic level and for application of interest, such as building high sensitivity mechanics based sensors. Similar to laser cooling of neutral atoms and trapped ions, the cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce additional damping channel to mechanical motion, while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of temperature to quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an efficient scheme for reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

  16. Linear and nonlinear optomechanics in a cryogenic membrane-in-the-middle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghun; Underwood, Mitchell; Mason, David; Shkarin, Alexey; Hoch, Scott; Harris, Jack

    2014-03-01

    In cavity optomechanics, linear optomechanical interactions have been used to readout and cool the motion of mechanical oscillators, while nonlinear interactions have been proposed to study quantum non-demolition measurements of mechanical oscillators and the production of non-Gaussian mechanical states. A membrane-in-the-middle system can provide both types of interactions. In this talk, we will present recent results measured in both linear and nonlinear interaction regimes with a membrane-in-the-middle system operating at 500 mK. Linear coupling in this device enables us to cool the mechanical mode of a SiN membrane at 705 kHz to roughly one phonon. During the cooling measurement, we also observed strong asymmetry between the mechanical sidebands, in agreement with the phonon number inferred from other measurements. We also measured nonlinear optomechanics, in particular the quadratic interaction. With a simple theoretical model, we systematically characterized the classical dynamics arising from this quadratic optomechanical interaction. We expect that by combining quadratic coupling with resolved-sideband laser cooling, this device will be able to explore the aforementioned quantum phenomena. We gracefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (No. FA9550-90-1-0484).

  17. Quantum Optomechanics with Silicon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    Mechanical resonators are the most basic and ubiquitous physical systems known. In on-chip form, they are used to process high frequency signals in every cell phone, television, and laptop. They have also been in the last few decades in different shapes and forms, a critical part of progress in quantum information sciences with kilogram scale mirrors for gravitational wave detection measuring motion at its quantum limits, and the motion of single ions being used to link qubits for quantum computation. Optomechanics is a field primarily concerned with coupling light to the motion of mechanical structures. This thesis contains descriptions of recent work with mechanical systems in the megahertz to gigahertz frequency range, formed by nanofabricating novel photonic/phononic structures on a silicon chip. These structures are designed to have both optical and mechanical resonances, and laser light is used to address and manipulate their motional degrees of freedom through radiation pressure forces. We laser cool these mechanical resonators to their ground states, and observe for the first time the quantum zero-point motion of a nanomechanical resonator. Conversely, we show that engineered mechanical resonances drastically modify the optical response of our structures, creating large effective optical nonlinearities not present in bulk silicon. We experimentally demonstrate aspects of these nonlinearities by proposing and observing ``electromagnetically induced transparency'' and light slowed down to 6 m/s, as well as wavelength conversion, and generation of nonclassical optical radiation. Finally, the application of optomechanics to longstanding problems in quantum and classical communications are proposed and investigated.

  18. Storage and retrieval of quantum information with a hybrid optomechanics-spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yang, Wan-Li; Feng, Mang

    2016-08-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring the quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and an electron spin of diamond nitrogen-vacancy center. Assisted by a mechanical resonator, quantum information can be controllably stored (retrieved) into (from) the electron spin by adjusting the external field-induced detuning or coupling. Our scheme connects effectively the cavity photon and the electron spin and transfers quantum states between two regimes with large frequency difference. The experimental feasibility of our protocol is justified with accessible laboratory parameters.

  19. Non-equilibrium Dynamics of an Optomechanical Dicke Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanasish, Debnath; Aranya, B. Bhattacherjee

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by the experimental realization of Dicke model in optical cavities, we model an optomechanical system consisting of two-level BEC atoms with transverse pumping. We investigate the transition from normal and inverted state to the superradiant phase through a detailed study of the phase portraits of the system. The rich phase portraits generated by analytical arguments display two types of superradiant phases, regions of coexistence and some portion determining the persistent oscillations. We study the time evolution of the system from any phase and discuss the role of mirror frequency in reaching their attractors. Further, we add an external mechanical pump to the mirror which is capable of changing the mirror frequency through radiation pressure and study the impact of the pump on the phase portraits and the dynamics of the system. We find the external mirror frequency changing the phase portraits and even shifting the critical transition point, thereby predicting a system with controllable phase transition.

  20. All-Optical Optomechanics: An Optical Spring Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Phelps, Gregory; Goldbaum, Dan; Wright, Ewan; Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The dominant hurdle to the operation of optomechanical systems in the quantum regime is the coupling of the vibrating element to a thermal reservoir via mechanical supports. Here we propose a scheme that uses an optical spring to replace the mechanical support. We show that the resolved-sideband regime of cooling can be reached in a configuration using a high-reflectivity disk mirror held by an optical tweezer as one of the end mirrors of a Fabry-Perot cavity. We find a final phonon occupation number of the trapped mirror n = 0.56 for reasonable parameters, the limit being set by our approximations, and not any fundamental physics. This demonstrates the promise of dielectric disks attached to optical springs for the observation of quantum effects in macroscopic objects. This work was supported by the US Office of Naval Research, the US National Science Foundation, the US Army Research Office and the DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  1. Generation of cluster states in optomechanical quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houhou, Oussama; Aissaoui, Habib; Ferraro, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    We consider an optomechanical quantum system composed of a single cavity mode interacting with N mechanical resonators. We propose a scheme for generating continuous-variable graph states of arbitrary size and shape, including the so-called cluster states for universal quantum computation. The main feature of this scheme is that, differently from previous approaches, the graph states are hosted in the mechanical degrees of freedom rather than in the radiative ones. Specifically, via a 2 N -tone drive, we engineer a linear Hamiltonian which is instrumental to dissipatively drive the system to the desired target state. The robustness of this scheme is assessed against finite interaction times and mechanical noise, confirming it as a valuable approach towards quantum state engineering for continuous-variable computation in a solid-state platform.

  2. Minimizing cross-axis sensitivity in grating-based optomechanical accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qianbo; Wang, Chen; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Lou, Shuqi; Jiao, Xufen; Han, Dandan; Yang, Guoguang; Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying

    2016-04-18

    Cross-axis sensitivity of single-axis optomechanical accelerometers, mainly caused by the asymmetric structural design, is an essential issue primarily for high performance applications, which has not been systematically researched. This paper investigates the generating mechanism and detrimental effects of the cross-axis sensitivity of a high resoluion single-axis optomechanical accelerometer, which is composed of a grating-based cavity and an acceleration sensing chip consisting of four crab-shaped cantilevers and a proof mass. The modified design has been proposed and a prototype setup has been built based on the model of cross-axis sensitivity in optomechanical accelerometers. The characterization of the cross-axis sensitivity of a specific optomechanical accelerometer is quantitatively discussed for both mechanical and optical components by numerical simulation and theoretical analysis in this work. The analysis indicates that the cross-axis sensitivity decreases the contrast ratio of the interference signal and the acceleration sensitivity, as well as giving rise to an additional optical path difference, which would impact the accuracy of the accelerometer. The improved mechanical design is achieved by double side etching on a specific double-substrate-layer silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer to move the center of the proof mass to the support plane. The experimental results demonstrate that the modified design with highly symmetrical structure can suppress the cross-axis sensitivity significantly without compromising the sensitivity and resolution. The cross-axis sensitivity defined by the contrast ratio of the output signal drops to 2.19% /0.1g from 28.28%/0.1g under the premise that the acceleration sensitivity of this single-axis optomechanical accelerometer remains 1162.45V/g and the resolution remains 1.325μg. PMID:27137337

  3. Tunable high-order sideband spectra generation using a photonic molecule optomechanical system

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Cong; Mi, Si-Chen; Gao, Yong-Pan; He, Ling-Yan; Yang, Daquan; Wang, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A tunable high-order sideband spectra generation scheme is presented by using a photonic molecule optomechanical system coupled to a waveguide beyond the perturbation regime. The system is coherently driven by a two-tone laser consisting of a continuous-wave control field and a pulsed driving field which propagates through the waveguide. The frequency spectral feature of the output field is analyzed via numerical simulations, and we confirm that under the condition of intense and nanosecond pulse driving, the output spectrum exhibits the properties of high-order sideband frequency spectra. In the experimentally available parameter range, the output spectrum can be efficiently tuned by the system parameters, including the power of the driving pulse and the coupling rate between the cavities. In addition, analysis of the carrier-envelop phase-dependent effect of high-order sideband generation indicates that the system may present dependence upon the phase of the pulse. This may provide a further insight of the properties of cavity optomechanics in the nonlinear and non-perturbative regime, and may have potential applications in optical frequency comb and communication based on the optomechanical platform. PMID:26960430

  4. Tunable high-order sideband spectra generation using a photonic molecule optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cong; Mi, Si-Chen; Gao, Yong-Pan; He, Ling-Yan; Yang, Daquan; Wang, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A tunable high-order sideband spectra generation scheme is presented by using a photonic molecule optomechanical system coupled to a waveguide beyond the perturbation regime. The system is coherently driven by a two-tone laser consisting of a continuous-wave control field and a pulsed driving field which propagates through the waveguide. The frequency spectral feature of the output field is analyzed via numerical simulations, and we confirm that under the condition of intense and nanosecond pulse driving, the output spectrum exhibits the properties of high-order sideband frequency spectra. In the experimentally available parameter range, the output spectrum can be efficiently tuned by the system parameters, including the power of the driving pulse and the coupling rate between the cavities. In addition, analysis of the carrier-envelop phase-dependent effect of high-order sideband generation indicates that the system may present dependence upon the phase of the pulse. This may provide a further insight of the properties of cavity optomechanics in the nonlinear and non-perturbative regime, and may have potential applications in optical frequency comb and communication based on the optomechanical platform. PMID:26960430

  5. Quantum Coherence of Optomechanical Systems in the Single-photon Strong Coupling Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dan; Huang, Shang-Yu; Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Optomechanical systems with ultrastrong coupling could demonstrate nonlinear optical effects such as photon blockade. The system-bath couplings in these systems play an essential role in observing these effects. In this work, we use a dressed-state master equation approach to study the quantum coherence of an optomechanical system. In this approach, the system-bath couplings are decomposed in terms of the eigenbasis of the optomechanical system, where the mechanical state is displaced by finite photon occupation. Compared with the standard master equation often seen in the literature, our master equation includes photon-number-dependent terms that induce dephasing. We calculate cavity dephasing, second-order photon correlation, and two-cavity entanglement using the dressed-state master equation. At high temperature, our master equation predicts faster decay of the quantum coherence than with the standard master equation. The second-order photon correlation derived with our master equation shows less antibunching than that with the standard master equation. This work is supported by awards from DARPA, NSF, JSPS (Japan), MOST (Taiwan) and NTU (Taiwan).

  6. Liquid sensor based on high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in silicon-on-insulator configuration.

    PubMed

    Caër, Charles; Serna-Otálvaro, Samuel F; Zhang, Weiwei; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric

    2014-10-15

    We present the realization of an optical sensor based on an infiltrated high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in a nonfreestanding membrane configuration. Successive infiltrations by liquids with refractive indices ranging from 1.345 to 1.545 yield a sensitivity S of 235 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), while the Q-factor is comprised between 8000 and 25,000, giving a sensor figure of merit up to 3700. This sensor has a detection limit of 1.25×10⁻⁵. The operation of this device on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate allows a straightforward integration in the silicon photonics platform, while providing a compliant mechanical stability. PMID:25361086

  7. Effect of electric field and temperature gradient on the orientational dynamics of liquid crystals in a microvolume cylindrical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. V.; Vakulenko, A. A.; Romano, Silvano

    2009-10-01

    We have considered a homogeneously aligned liquid crystal (HALC) microvolume confined between two infinitely long horizontal coaxial cylinders and investigated dynamic field pumping, i.e., studied the interactions between director, velocity, and electric E fields as well as a radially applied temperature gradient ∇T, where the inner cylinder is kept at a lower temperature than the outer one. In order to elucidate the role of ∇T in producing hydrodynamic flow u, we have carried out a numerical study of a system of hydrodynamic equations including director reorientation, fluid flow, and temperature redistribution across the HALC cavity. Calculations show that only under the influence of ∇T does the initially quiescent HALC sample settle down to a stationary flow regime with horizontal component of velocity ueq(r). The effects of ∇T and of the size of the HALC cavity on magnitude and direction of ueq(r) have been investigated for a number of hydrodynamic regimes. Calculations also showed that E influences only the director redistribution across the HALC but not the magnitude of the velocity ueq(r).

  8. Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Urrios, D.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; El-Jallal, S.; Oudich, M.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Pitanti, A.; Capuj, N.; Tredicucci, A.; Griol, A.; Martínez, A.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

    2014-12-15

    We report on the optomechanical properties of a breathing mechanical mode oscillating at 5.5 GHz in a 1D corrugated Si nanobeam. This mode has an experimental single-particle optomechanical coupling rate of |g{sub o,OM}| = 1.8 MHz (|g{sub o,OM}|/2π = 0.3 MHz) and shows strong dynamical back-action effects at room temperature. The geometrical flexibility of the unit-cell would lend itself to further engineering of the cavity region to localize the mode within the full phononic band-gap present at 4 GHz while keeping high g{sub o,OM} values. This would lead to longer lifetimes at cryogenic temperatures, due to the suppression of acoustic leakage.

  9. CESAR Opto-Mechanical Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, M.; Radovan, M.; Melchiorri, R.; Slanger, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    The Compact Echelle Spectrograph for Aeronomical Research (CESAR) covers the wavelength range from 300 to 1000 nm with a spectral resolution of 20,000. It is being constructed at SRI International with funds from the National Science Foundation's Major Research Instrumentation Program. Our goal is to significantly expand the range of upper atmospheric science investigations (nightglow, aurora, and dayglow emissions) by providing to aeronomers a high-throughput, high-dispersion, large-passband spectrograph by scaling an astronomical grade echelle spectrograph into a portable version capable of siting at multiple geophysically significant stations, heretofore only available to astronomers at a handful of large observatories. We present major aspects of the ongoing opto-mechanical design. The design incorporates lessons learned from the construction of the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HiRES) and the Automated Planet Finder (APF) spectrometer, amongst others. All major optical components are mounted on kinematically fully determined hexapod structures, giving unprecedented three-dimensional adjustment capability. CESAR is designed to operate in an outdoors environment in remote locations such as the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) in Alaska. We present an enclosure concept that will allow CESAR to withstand the weather conditions found at such sites while still giving CESAR's fore-optics full access to the sky.

  10. Enhancing the Bandwidth of Gravitational-Wave Detectors with Unstable Optomechanical Filters.

    PubMed

    Miao, Haixing; Ma, Yiqiu; Zhao, Chunnong; Chen, Yanbei

    2015-11-20

    Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use optical cavities to resonantly enhance their shot-noise-limited sensitivity. Because of positive dispersion of these cavities-signals at different frequencies pick up different phases, there is a tradeoff between the detector bandwidth and peak sensitivity, which is a universal feature for quantum measurement devices having resonant cavities. We consider embedding an active unstable filter inside the interferometer to compensate the phase, and using feedback control to stabilize the entire system. We show that this scheme in principle can enhance the bandwidth without sacrificing the peak sensitivity. However, the unstable filter under our current consideration is a cavity-assisted optomechanical device operating in the instability regime, and the thermal fluctuation of the mechanical oscillator puts a very stringent requirement on the environmental temperature and the mechanical quality factor. PMID:26636839

  11. Conditional phase gate using an optomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gea-Banacloche, Julio; Német, Nikolett

    2014-05-01

    We explore the possibility of using an optomechanical resonator to induce a conditional phase gate for single photons. The problem provides an illustration of the application to optomechanical systems of a recently developed input-output formalism for single- (or few-) photon states of the radiation field. At the two-photon level, we find significant departures from expectations based on a semiclassical treatment. We also find a tradeoff between the maximum achievable conditional phase and the fidelity of the final state, consistent with other multimode studies of conditional phases based on optical nonlinearities.

  12. Macroscopic optomechanical superposition via periodic qubit flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenchao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate macroscopic superpositions of well-distinguishable coherent states in an optomechanical system via periodic qubit flipping. Our scheme does not require the single-photon strong-coupling rate of an optomechanical system. The generated mechanical superposition state can be reconstructed using mechanical quantum-state reconstruction. The proposed scheme relies on recycling of an atom, fast atomic qubit flipping, and coherent state mapping between a single-photon superposition state and an atomic superposition state. We discuss the experimental feasibility of our proposal under current technology.

  13. Noise-induced transitions in optomechanical synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Talitha; Kronwald, Andreas; Marquardt, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We study how quantum and thermal noise affects synchronization of two optomechanical limit-cycle oscillators. Classically, in the absence of noise, optomechanical systems tend to synchronize either in-phase or anti-phase. Taking into account the fundamental quantum noise, we find a regime where fluctuations drive transitions between these classical synchronization states. We investigate how this ‘mixed’ synchronization regime emerges from the noiseless system by studying the classical-to-quantum crossover and we show how the time scales of the transitions vary with the effective noise strength. In addition, we compare the effects of thermal noise to the effects of quantum noise.

  14. Diffraction-limited high-finesse optical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T. M.; Oemrawsingh, Sumant S. R.; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2010-04-15

    High-quality optical cavities with wavelength-sized end mirrors are important to the growing field of micro-optomechanical systems. We present a versatile method for calculating the modes of diffraction limited optical cavities and show that it can be used to determine the effect of a wide variety of cavity geometries and imperfections. Additionally, we show these calculations agree remarkably well with FDTD simulations for wavelength-sized optical modes, even though our method is based on the paraxial approximation.

  15. Ground-state cooling of an oscillator in a hybrid atom-optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhen; Li, Gao-xiang; Wu, Shao-ping; Yang, Ya-ping

    2014-08-25

    We investigate a hybrid quantum system combining cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics, where a photon mode is coupled to a four-level tripod atom and to a mechanical mode via radiation pressure. We find that within the single-photon optomechanics and Lamb-Dicke limit, the presence of the tripod atom alters the optical properties of the cavity radiation field drastically, and gives rise to completely quantum destructive interference effects in the optical scattering. The heating rate can be dramatically suppressed via utilizing the completely destructive interference involving atom, photon and phonon, and the obtained result is analogous to that of the resolved sideband regime. The heating process is only connected to the scattering of cavity damping path, which is also far-off resonance. Meanwhile, the cooling rate assisted by the atomic transitions can be significantly enhanced, where the cooling process occurs through the cavity and atomic dissipation paths. Finally, the ground-state cooling of the movable mirror is achievable and even more robust to heating process and thermal noise. PMID:25321216

  16. The role of cavities in protein dynamics: crystal structure of a photolytic intermediate of a mutant myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Brunori, M; Vallone, B; Cutruzzola, F; Travaglini-Allocatelli, C; Berendzen, J; Chu, K; Sweet, R M; Schlichting, I

    2000-02-29

    We determined the structure of the photolytic intermediate of a sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) mutant called Mb-YQR [Leu-(B10)-->Tyr; His(E7)-->Gln; Thr(E10)-->Arg] to 1.4-A resolution by ultra-low temperature (20 K) x-ray diffraction. Starting with the CO complex, illumination leads to photolysis of the Fe-CO bond, and migration of the photolyzed carbon monoxide (CO*) to a niche in the protein 8.1 A from the heme iron; this cavity corresponds to that hosting an atom of Xe when the crystal is equilibrated with xenon gas at 7 atmospheres [Tilton, R. F., Jr., Kuntz, I. D. & Petsko, G. A. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 2849-2857]. The site occupied by CO* corresponds to that predicted by molecular dynamics simulations previously carried out to account for the NO geminate rebinding of Mb-YQR observed in laser photolysis experiments at room temperature. This secondary docking site differs from the primary docking site identified by previous crystallographic studies on the photolyzed intermediate of wild-type sperm whale Mb performed at cryogenic temperatures [Teng et al. (1994) Nat. Struct. Biol. 1, 701-705] and room temperature [Srajer et al. (1996) Science 274, 1726-1729]. Our experiment shows that the pathway of a small molecule in its trajectory through a protein may be modified by site-directed mutagenesis, and that migration within the protein matrix to the active site involves a limited number of pre-existing cavities identified in the interior space of the protein. PMID:10681426

  17. Detection of Myoglobin with an Open-Cavity-Based Label-Free Photonic Crystal Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bailin; Tamez-Vela, Juan Manuel; Solis, Steven; Bustamante, Gilbert; Peterson, Ralph; Rahman, Shafiqur; Morales, Andres; Tang, Liang; Ye, Jing Yong

    2013-01-01

    The label-free detection of one of the cardiac biomarkers, myoglobin, using a photonic-crystal-based biosensor in a total-internal-reflection configuration (PC-TIR) is presented in this paper. The PC-TIR sensor possesses a unique open optical microcavity that allows for several key advantages in biomolecular assays. In contrast to a conventional closed microcavity, the open configuration allows easy functionalization of the sensing surface for rapid biomolecular binding assays. Moreover, the properties of PC structures make it easy to be designed and engineered for operating at any optical wavelength. Through fine design of the photonic crystal structure, biochemical modification of the sensor surface, and integration with a microfluidic system, we have demonstrated that the detection sensitivity of the sensor for myoglobin has reached the clinically significant concentration range, enabling potential usage of this biosensor for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. The real-time response of the sensor to the myoglobin binding may potentially provide point-of-care monitoring of patients and treatment effects. PMID:27006922

  18. Control of coupling in 1D photonic crystal coupled-cavity nano-wire structures via hole diameter and position variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, A. R. Md; De La Rue, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We have successfully demonstrated close experimental control of the resonance splitting/free spectral range of a coupled micro-cavity one-dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire device structure based on silicon-on-insulator. Clear splitting of the resonances, with FSR values ranging from 8 nm to 48 nm, was obtained through the use of different hole arrangements within the middle section of the device structures, between the coupled cavities. The results show good agreement with calculations obtained using a finite-difference time-domain simulation approach.

  19. Single- and multi-beam confinement of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal open cavity providing rapid heating and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogesh, N.; Yu, Quanqiang; Ouyang, Zhengbiao

    2015-06-01

    Light is the best energy source for heating substances. As an attempt to utilize light energy, we demonstrate the single- and multi-beam confinement of electromagnetic (EM) waves in an open cavity formed by one-dimensional photonic crystals for efficient heat conversion. The multilayer cavity confines electromagnetic waves at near-band-edge frequencies uniquely. We use this confinement to heat substances under normal and oblique incident radiations. We perform electromagnetic thermal co-simulation to demonstrate the functionality of rapid heating under single- and multi-beam excitations of EM waves. The cavity shows a rapid heating rate of 4 °C/s for a nominal input power of 850 W under single-beam excitation. The demonstration of multi-beam (four beams) confinement in the proposed cavity reveals ultra-high temperatures at the rate of 560 °C/s for the input electric field strength of 1000 V/m. The role of strong perturbation in heat conversion task is studied with respect to various substances. Finally, we have demonstrated the heating effect under oblique incidence of weak EM radiations so that the proposed cavity can avail the utilization of natural radiation for better green life. The proposed multilayer cavity is anticipated for laser heating, creation of plasmas and renewable energy sources.

  20. Dynamic control of the asymmetric Fano resonance in side-coupled Fabry–Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tong; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya; Deng, Jie

    2015-11-30

    Fano resonance is a prevailing interference phenomenon that stems from the intersection between discrete and continuum states in many fields. We theoretically and experimentally characterize the asymmetric Fano lineshape in side-coupled waveguide Fabry–Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. The measured quality-factor of the Fano resonance before tuning is 28 100. A nanoelectromechanical systems bidirectional actuator is integrated seamlessly to control the shape of the Fano resonance through in-plane translations in two directions without sacrificing the quality-factor. The peak intensity level of the Fano resonance can be increased by 8.5 dB from 60 nW to 409 nW while the corresponding dip intensity is increased by 12.8 dB from 1 nW to 18 nW. The maximum recorded quality-factor throughout the tuning procedure is up to 32 500. Potential applications of the proposed structure include enhancing the sensitivity of sensing, reconfigurable nanophotonics devices, and on-chip intensity modulator.

  1. Dynamic control of the asymmetric Fano resonance in side-coupled Fabry-Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Guangya

    2015-11-01

    Fano resonance is a prevailing interference phenomenon that stems from the intersection between discrete and continuum states in many fields. We theoretically and experimentally characterize the asymmetric Fano lineshape in side-coupled waveguide Fabry-Pérot and photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. The measured quality-factor of the Fano resonance before tuning is 28 100. A nanoelectromechanical systems bidirectional actuator is integrated seamlessly to control the shape of the Fano resonance through in-plane translations in two directions without sacrificing the quality-factor. The peak intensity level of the Fano resonance can be increased by 8.5 dB from 60 nW to 409 nW while the corresponding dip intensity is increased by 12.8 dB from 1 nW to 18 nW. The maximum recorded quality-factor throughout the tuning procedure is up to 32 500. Potential applications of the proposed structure include enhancing the sensitivity of sensing, reconfigurable nanophotonics devices, and on-chip intensity modulator.

  2. Cavity-enhanced frequency doubling from 795nm to 397.5nm ultra-violet coherent radiation with PPKTP crystals in the low pump power regime.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Han, Yashuai; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate a simple, compact and cost-efficient diode laser pumped frequency doubling system at 795 nm in the low power regime. In two configurations, a bow-tie four-mirror ring enhancement cavity with a PPKTP crystal inside and a semi-monolithic PPKTP enhancement cavity, we obtain 397.5nm ultra-violet coherent radiation of 35mW and 47mW respectively with a mode-matched fundamental power of about 110mW, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 32% and 41%. The low loss semi-monolithic cavity leads to the better results. The constructed ultra-violet coherent radiation has good power stability and beam quality, and the system has huge potential in quantum optics and cold atom physics. PMID:25607194

  3. Enhancing the Bandwidth of Gravitational-Wave Detectors with Unstable Optomechanical Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Haixing; Ma, Yiqiu; Zhao, Chunnong; Chen, Yanbei

    2015-11-01

    Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use optical cavities to resonantly enhance their shot-noise-limited sensitivity. Because of positive dispersion of these cavities—signals at different frequencies pick up different phases, there is a tradeoff between the detector bandwidth and peak sensitivity, which is a universal feature for quantum measurement devices having resonant cavities. We consider embedding an active unstable filter inside the interferometer to compensate the phase, and using feedback control to stabilize the entire system. We show that this scheme in principle can enhance the bandwidth without sacrificing the peak sensitivity. However, the unstable filter under our current consideration is a cavity-assisted optomechanical device operating in the instability regime, and the thermal fluctuation of the mechanical oscillator puts a very stringent requirement on the environmental temperature and the mechanical quality factor.

  4. Crystal Structures of a Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Reveal an Expanded Active-Site Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, Bradley C.; Vickrey, John F.; Martin, Philip; Proteasa, Gheorghe; Koepke, Jay I.; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Winters, Mark A.; Merigan, Thomas C.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2010-03-08

    The goal of this study was to use X-ray crystallography to investigate the structural basis of resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors. We overexpressed, purified, and crystallized a multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease enzyme derived from a patient failing on several protease inhibitor-containing regimens. This HIV-1 variant contained codon mutations at positions 10, 36, 46, 54, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90 that confer drug resistance to protease inhibitors. The 1.8-{angstrom} crystal structure of this MDR patient isolate reveals an expanded active-site cavity. The active-site expansion includes position 82 and 84 mutations due to the alterations in the amino acid side chains from longer to shorter (e.g., V82A and I84V). The MDR isolate 769 protease 'flaps' stay open wider, and the difference in the flap tip distances in the MDR 769 variant is 12 {angstrom}. The MDR 769 protease crystal complexes with lopinavir and DMP450 reveal completely different binding modes. The network of interactions between the ligands and the MDR 769 protease is completely different from that seen with the wild-type protease-ligand complexes. The water molecule-forming hydrogen bonds bridging between the two flaps and either the substrate or the peptide-based inhibitor are lacking in the MDR 769 clinical isolate. The S1, S1', S3, and S3' pockets show expansion and conformational change. Surface plasmon resonance measurements with the MDR 769 protease indicate higher k{sub off} rates, resulting in a change of binding affinity. Surface plasmon resonance measurements provide k{sub on} and k{sub off} data (K{sub d} = k{sub off}/k{sub on}) to measure binding of the multidrug-resistant protease to various ligands. This MDR 769 protease represents a new antiviral target, presenting the possibility of designing novel inhibitors with activity against the open and expanded protease forms.

  5. Widely tunable eye-safe laser by a passively Q-switched photonic crystal fiber laser and an external-cavity optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. L.; Zhuang, W. Z.; Huang, W. C.; Huang, J. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2011-09-01

    We report on a widely tunable passively Q-switched photonic crystal fiber (PCF) laser with wavelength tuning range up to 80 nm. The PCF laser utilizes an AlGaInAs quantum well/barrier structure as a saturable absorber and incorporates an external-cavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to achieve wavelength conversion. Under a pump power of 13.1 W at 976 nm, the PCF laser generated 1029-nm radiation with maximum output energy of 750 μJ and was incident into an external-cavity OPO. The output energy and peak power of signal wave was found to be 138 μJ and 19 kW, respectively. By tuning the temperature of nonlinear crystal, periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN), in the OPO, the signal wavelength in eye-safe regime from 1513 to 1593 nm was obtained.

  6. Real-time observation of pulse reshaping using Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 single crystal fiber in a microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuanyong; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.

    2005-03-01

    Ferroelectric single crystal fiber Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 (SBN) is evaluated for optical pulse engineering in terms of wavelength shifting and pulse compression/expansion through nonlinear optical (Pockels) effect at microwave frequencies. The microwave-photonic interaction was investigated experimentally in a TE103 microwave cavity at 10GHz. It is shown that the frequency component of an optical pulse can be controlled effectively using the SBN single crystal in a microwave cavity without the need of contact electrodes or any interruption to the optical system. The technique may be utilized in several aspects of optical communications such as channel definition and security encoding of the signal, and shows potential for a range of optoelectronic applications.

  7. High-sensitivity optical monitoring of a micromechanical resonator with a quantum-limited optomechanical sensor.

    PubMed

    Arcizet, O; Cohadon, P-F; Briant, T; Pinard, M; Heidmann, A; Mackowski, J-M; Michel, C; Pinard, L; Français, O; Rousseau, L

    2006-09-29

    We experimentally demonstrate the high-sensitivity optical monitoring of a micromechanical resonator and its cooling by active control. Coating a low-loss mirror upon the resonator, we have built an optomechanical sensor based on a very high-finesse cavity (30 000). We have measured the thermal noise of the resonator with a quantum-limited sensitivity at the 10(-19) m/sqrt[Hz] level, and cooled the resonator down to 5 K by a cold-damping technique. Applications of our setup range from quantum optics experiments to the experimental demonstration of the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical resonator. PMID:17026032

  8. Microfabrication of large-area circular high-stress silicon nitride membranes for optomechanical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, E.; Bawaj, M.; Borrielli, A.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Forte, S.; Kralj, N.; Malossi, N.; Marconi, L.; Marin, F.; Marino, F.; Morana, B.; Natali, R.; Pandraud, G.; Pontin, A.; Prodi, G. A.; Rossi, M.; Sarro, P. M.; Vitali, D.; Bonaldi, M.

    2016-06-01

    In view of the integration of membrane resonators with more complex MEMS structures, we developed a general fabrication procedure for circular shape SiNx membranes using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Large area and high-stress SiNx membranes were fabricated and used as optomechanical resonators in a Michelson interferometer, where Q values up to 1.3 × 106 were measured at cryogenic temperatures, and in a Fabry-Pérot cavity, where an optical finesse up to 50000 has been observed.

  9. Optomechanical self-oscillations in an anharmonic potential: engineering a nonclassical steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Manuel; Bruder, Christoph; Lörch, Niels

    2016-09-01

    We study self-oscillations of an optomechanical system, where coherent mechanical oscillations are induced by a driven optical or microwave cavity, for the case of an anharmonic mechanical oscillator potential. A semiclassical analytical model is developed to characterize the limit cycle for large mechanical amplitudes corresponding to a weak nonlinearity. As a result, we predict conditions to achieve subpoissonian phonon statistics in the steady state, indicating classically forbidden behavior. We compare with numerical simulations and find very good agreement. Our model is quite general and can be applied to other physical systems such as trapped ions or superconducting circuits.

  10. High sensitivity and high Q-factor nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity for real-time and label-free sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Daquan; Kita, Shota; Wang, Cheng; Lončar, Marko; Liang, Feng; Quan, Qimin; Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng

    2014-08-11

    We experimentally demonstrate a label-free sensor based on nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity (NPQC). The NPQC possesses both high sensitivity and high Q-factor. We achieved sensitivity (S) of 451 nm/refractive index unit and Q-factor >7000 in water at telecom wavelength range, featuring a sensor figure of merit >2000, an order of magnitude improvement over the previous photonic crystal sensors. In addition, we measured the streptavidin-biotin binding affinity and detected 10 ag/mL concentrated streptavidin in the phosphate buffered saline solution.

  11. High sensitivity and high Q-factor nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity for real-time and label-free sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daquan; Kita, Shota; Liang, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Tian, Huiping; Ji, Yuefeng; Lončar, Marko; Quan, Qimin

    2014-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a label-free sensor based on nanoslotted parallel quadrabeam photonic crystal cavity (NPQC). The NPQC possesses both high sensitivity and high Q-factor. We achieved sensitivity (S) of 451 nm/refractive index unit and Q-factor >7000 in water at telecom wavelength range, featuring a sensor figure of merit >2000, an order of magnitude improvement over the previous photonic crystal sensors. In addition, we measured the streptavidin-biotin binding affinity and detected 10 ag/mL concentrated streptavidin in the phosphate buffered saline solution.

  12. Non-linear resonance of fluids in a crystal growth cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Francis C.

    1996-01-01

    In the microgravity environment, the effect of gravity on fluid motion is much reduced. Hence, secondary effects such as vibrations, jitters, surface tension, capillary effects, and electromagnetic forces become the dominant mechanism of fluid convection. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate fluid behavior in microgravity with the ultimate goal of developing processes with minimal influence from convection. Industrial applications such as crystal growth from solidification of melt and protein growth for pharmatheutical application are just a few examples of the vast potential benefit that can be reaped from material processing in space. However, a space laboratory is not immune from all undesirable disturbances and it is imperative that such disturbances be well understood, quantifiable, and controlled. Non-uniform and transient accelerations such as vibrations, jitters, and impulsive accelerations exist as a result of crew activities, space vehicle maneuvering, and the operations of on-board equipment. Measurements conducted on-board a U.S. Spacelab showed the existence of vibrations in the frequency range of 1 to 100 Hz with a dominant mode of 17 Hz and harmonics of 54 Hz. The observed vibration is not limited to any coordinate plane but exists in all directions. Similar situation exists on-board the Russian MIR space station. Due to the large structure of its design, the future International Space Station will have its own characteristic vibration spectrum. It is well known that vibration can exert substantial influence on heat and mass transfer processes, thus hindering any attempts to achieve a diffusion-limited process. Experiments on vibration convection for a liquid-filled enclosure under one-g environment showed the existence of different flow regimes as vibration frequency and intensity changes. Results showed the existence of a resonant frequency, near which the enhancement is the strongest, and the existence of a high frequency asymptote

  13. Spin-based optomechanics with carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2012-01-01

    A simple scheme for determination of spin-orbit coupling strength in spinbased optomechanics with carbon nanotubes is introduced, under the control of a strong pump field and a weak signal field. The physical mechanism comes from the phonon induced transparency (PIT), by relying on the coherent coupling of electron spin to vibrational motion of the nanotube, which is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in atom systems. Based on this spin-nanotube optomechanical system, we also conceptually design a single photon router and a quantum microwave transistor, with ultralow pump power (~ pW) and tunable switching time, which should provide a unique platform for the study of spin-based microwave quantum optics and quantum information processing. PMID:23198093

  14. Spin-based Optomechanics with Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2012-01-01

    A simple scheme for determination of spin-orbit coupling strength in spinbased optomechanics with carbon nanotubes is introduced, under the control of a strong pump field and a weak signal field. The physical mechanism comes from the phonon induced transparency (PIT), by relying on the coherent coupling of electron spin to vibrational motion of the nanotube, which is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in atom systems. Based on this spin-nanotube optomechanical system, we also conceptually design a single photon router and a quantum microwave transistor, with ultralow pump power (~ pW) and tunable switching time, which should provide a unique platform for the study of spin-based microwave quantum optics and quantum information processing. PMID:23198093

  15. Optomechanical engineering education at University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, James H.; Parks, Robert

    2009-08-01

    The College of Optical Sciences at University of Arizona has established excellent programs for training BS, MS, and Ph.D. students in optical sciences and engineering. Research activities at the University of Arizona have also been closely coupled to developments in the field of optomechanical engineering. In response to request from the optics industry, we have recently expanded the educational opportunities for BS and MS students to follow engineering curricula that provide the right mix of optics and mechanical engineering.

  16. Optomechanical shape analysis using group theory.

    PubMed

    Magnes, Jenny; Kinneberg, Margo; Khakurel, Rahul; Melikechi, Noureddine

    2010-08-01

    We describe an optomechanical technique using a knife-edge, which is scanned spatially across a beam of light to identify shape-based irradiance. Symmetry groups are identified through linear and rotational scanning signatures of illuminated shapes. The scanning signature is used to classify the shape into a symmetry group. To demonstrate the shape analysis technique, we have classified basic geometric shapes, which belong to the orthogonal and dihedral symmetry groups O(2), D(2), D(3), and D(6). PMID:20676172

  17. Controlled Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Hybrid BEC-Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Cavity-optomechanics, a tool to manipulate mechanical effects of light to couple optical field with other physical objects, is the subject of increasing investigations, especially with regards to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT, a result of Fano interference among different atomic transition levels, has acquired a significant importance in many areas of physics, such as atomic physics and quantum optics. However, controllability of such multi-dimensional systems has remained a crucial issue. In this report, we investigate the controllability of EIT and Fano resonances in hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity with one vibrational mirror, driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse pump field. The transverse field is used to control the phenomenon of EIT. It is detected that the strength of transverse field is not only efficiently amplifying or attenuating out-going optical mode but also providing an opportunity to enhance the strength of Fano-interactions which leads to the amplification of EIT-window. To observe these phenomena in laboratory, we suggest a certain set of experimental parameters. The results provide a route for tunable manipulation of optical phenomena, like EIT, which could be a significant step in quantum engineering.

  18. Controlled Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Hybrid BEC-Optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cavity-optomechanics, a tool to manipulate mechanical effects of light to couple optical field with other physical objects, is the subject of increasing investigations, especially with regards to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT, a result of Fano interference among different atomic transition levels, has acquired a significant importance in many areas of physics, such as atomic physics and quantum optics. However, controllability of such multi-dimensional systems has remained a crucial issue. In this report, we investigate the controllability of EIT and Fano resonances in hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity with one vibrational mirror, driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse pump field. The transverse field is used to control the phenomenon of EIT. It is detected that the strength of transverse field is not only efficiently amplifying or attenuating out-going optical mode but also providing an opportunity to enhance the strength of Fano-interactions which leads to the amplification of EIT-window. To observe these phenomena in laboratory, we suggest a certain set of experimental parameters. The results provide a route for tunable manipulation of optical phenomena, like EIT, which could be a significant step in quantum engineering. PMID:26955789

  19. Controlled Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Hybrid BEC-Optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cavity-optomechanics, a tool to manipulate mechanical effects of light to couple optical field with other physical objects, is the subject of increasing investigations, especially with regards to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT, a result of Fano interference among different atomic transition levels, has acquired a significant importance in many areas of physics, such as atomic physics and quantum optics. However, controllability of such multi-dimensional systems has remained a crucial issue. In this report, we investigate the controllability of EIT and Fano resonances in hybrid optomechanical system composed of cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity with one vibrational mirror, driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse pump field. The transverse field is used to control the phenomenon of EIT. It is detected that the strength of transverse field is not only efficiently amplifying or attenuating out-going optical mode but also providing an opportunity to enhance the strength of Fano-interactions which leads to the amplification of EIT-window. To observe these phenomena in laboratory, we suggest a certain set of experimental parameters. The results provide a route for tunable manipulation of optical phenomena, like EIT, which could be a significant step in quantum engineering. PMID:26955789

  20. Perturbing Open Cavities: Anomalous Resonance Frequency Shifts in a Hybrid Cavity-Nanoantenna System.

    PubMed

    Ruesink, Freek; Doeleman, Hugo M; Hendrikx, Ruud; Koenderink, A Femius; Verhagen, Ewold

    2015-11-13

    The influence of a small perturbation on a cavity mode plays an important role in fields like optical sensing, cavity quantum electrodynamics, and cavity optomechanics. Typically, the resulting cavity frequency shift directly relates to the polarizability of the perturbation. Here, we demonstrate that particles perturbing a radiating cavity can induce strong frequency shifts that are opposite to, and even exceed, the effects based on the particles' polarizability. A full electrodynamic theory reveals that these anomalous results rely on a nontrivial phase relation between cavity and nanoparticle radiation, allowing backaction via the radiation continuum. In addition, an intuitive model based on coupled mode theory is presented that relates the phenomenon to retardation. Because of the ubiquity of dissipation, we expect these findings to benefit the understanding and engineering of a wide class of systems. PMID:26613442

  1. Optical mode confinement and selection in single-crystal sapphire fibers by formation of nanometer scale cavities with hydrogen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, William; Huang, Mengbing; Murray, Thomas; Xia, Hua

    2013-11-01

    The excellent material properties of single crystal sapphire fibers promise great advantages in applications related to harsh environment optical sensing, high laser power delivery, and high-resolution/sensitivity optical spectroscopy. However, the lack of viable cladding for confining light propagation in sapphire fibers with negligible transmission loss has restricted their practical applications. Despite great efforts in engineering either a low-refractive-index cladding layer or highly reflective mirror layer as sapphire fiber surface coatings, confining light propagation within sapphire fibers remains difficult in practice since such surface coatings fail to function due to increased thermal stress and fast erosion in environments with extremely high temperatures (>1000 °C) and chemically reactive species/gases. Here, we demonstrate a method for creating nanoscale cavities/voids in sapphire as effective fiber cladding structures that are thermally robust even at 1700 °C using hydrogen ion implantation. Material analysis of implanted sapphire crystals indicates that such nanoscale cavities play a key role in reducing the refractive index in sapphire crystals.

  2. Phononic Phase Conjugation in an Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Lukas; Wright, Ewan; Meystre, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    We study theoretically the phase conjugation of a phononic field in an optomechanical system with two mechanical modes coupled to a common optical field. Phase conjugation becomes the dominant process for an appropriate choice of driving field parameters, and he effective coupling coefficients between phonon modes can result in amplification and entanglement, phase-conjugation or a mixture thereof. We discuss surprising consequences of mechanical phase-conjugation that could lead to the preparation of mechanical states with negative temperature, the improvement of quantum memories and the study of the quantum-classical transition. Supported by DARPA ORCHID program.

  3. Optomechanical Magnetometry with a Macroscopic Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changqiu; Janousek, Jiri; Sheridan, Eoin; McAuslan, David L.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Lam, Ping Koy; Zhang, Yundong; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a centimeter-scale optomechanical magnetometer based on a crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator. The large size of the resonator, with a magnetic-field integration volume of 0.45 cm3 , allows high magnetic-field sensitivity to be achieved in the hertz-to-kilohertz frequency range. A peak sensitivity of 131 pT Hz-1 /2 is reported, in a magnetically unshielded noncryogenic environment using optical power levels beneath 100 μ W . Femtotesla-range sensitivity may be possible in future devices with the further optimization of laser noise and the physical structure of the resonator, allowing applications in high-performance magnetometry.

  4. Quantum optomechanical piston engines powered by heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-09-01

    We study two different models of optomechanical systems where a temperature gradient between two radiation baths is exploited for inducing self-sustained coherent oscillations of a mechanical resonator. From a thermodynamic perspective, such systems represent quantum instances of self-contained thermal machines converting heat into a periodic mechanical motion and thus they can be interpreted as nano-scale analogues of macroscopic piston engines. Our models are potentially suitable for testing fundamental aspects of quantum thermodynamics in the laboratory and for applications in energy efficient nanotechnology.

  5. Sensing feeble microwave signals via an optomechanical transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Weiping; Meystre, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Due to their low energy content microwave signals at the single-photon level are extremely challenging to measure. Guided by recent progress in single-photon optomechanics and hybrid optomechanical systems, we propose a multimode optomechanical transducer that can detect intensities significantly below the single-photon level via off-resonant adiabatic transfer of the microwave signal to the optical frequency domain where the measurement is then performed. The influence of intrinsic quantum and thermal fluctuations on the performance of this detector are considered in detail. We acknowledge financial support from National Basic Research Program of China, NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  6. Nonequilibrium quantum dynamics in optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Shaffer, Airlia; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    The thermalization dynamics of isolated quantum systems has so far been explored in the context of cold atomic systems containing a large number of particles and modes. Quantum optomechanical systems offer prospects of studying such dynamics in a qualitatively different regime - with few individually addressable modes amenable to continuous quantum measurement and thermalization times that vastly exceed those observed in cold atomic systems. We have experimentally realized a dynamical continuous phase transition in a quantum compatible nondegenerate mechanical parametric oscillator. This system is formally equivalent to the optical parametric amplifiers whose dynamics have been a subject of intense theoretical study. We experimentally verify its phase diagram and observe nonequilibrium behavior that was only theorized, but never directly observed, in the context of optical parametric amplifiers. We discuss prospects of using nonequilibrium protocols such as quenches in optomechanical systems to amplify weak nonclassical correlations and to realize macroscopic nonclassical states. This work was supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO and the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium manybody dynamics.

  7. Opto-mechanical door locking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Saurabh S.; Rodrigues, Vanessa M.; Patil, Ajeetkumar; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-09-01

    We present an Opto-mechanical Door Locking System which is an optical system that combines a simple combination of a coherent light source (Laser) and a photodiode based sensor with focus toward security applications. The basic construct of the KEY comprises a Laser source in a cylindrical enclosure that slides perfectly into the LOCK. The Laser is pulsed at a fixed encrypted frequency unique to that locking system. Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) circuitry is used to achieve encryption. The casing of the key is designed in such a way that it will power the pulsing laser only when the key is inserted in the slot provided for it. The Lock includes a photo-sensor that will convert the detected light intensity to a corresponding electrical signal by decrypting the frequency. The lock also consists of a circuit with a feedback system that will carry the digital information regarding the encryption frequency code. The information received from the sensor is matched with the stored code; if found a perfect match, a signal will be sent to the servo to unlock the mechanical lock or to carry out any other operation. This technique can be incorporated in security systems for residences and safe houses, and can easily replace all conventional locks which formerly used fixed patterns to unlock. The major advantage of this proposed optomechanical system over conventional ones is that it no longer relies on a solid/imprinted pattern to perform its task and hence makes it almost impossible to tamper with.

  8. Silicon on-chip side-coupled high-Q micro-cavities for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal integrated sensors array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daquan; Wang, Chunhong; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Yujie; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) silicon (Si) photonic crystal (PC) α-H0-slot micro-cavity with high Q-factor and high sensitivity (S) is presented. Based on the proposed α-H0-Slot micro-cavities, an optimal design of photonic crystal integrated sensors array (PC-ISA) on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is displayed. By using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the simulation results demonstrate that both large S of 200 nm/RIU (RIU=refractive index unit) and high Q-factor >104 at telecom wavelength range can be achieved simultaneously. And the sensor figure of merit (FOM)>7000 is featured, an order of magnitude improvement over previous 2D PC sensors array. In addition, for the proposed 2D PC-ISA device, each sensor unit is shown to independently shift its resonance wavelength in response to the changes in refractive index (RI) and does not perturb the others. Thus, it is potentially an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact lab-on-a-chip applications with dense arrays of functionalized spots for multiplexed sensing, and also can be used as an opto-fluidic architecture for performing highly parallel detection of biochemical interactions in aqueous environments.

  9. Optomechanically induced stochastic resonance and chaos transfer between optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monifi, Faraz; Zhang, Jing; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Peng, Bo; Liu, Yu-Xi; Bo, Fang; Nori, Franco; Yang, Lan

    2016-06-01

    Chaotic dynamics has been reported in many physical systems and has affected almost every field of science. Chaos involves hypersensitivity to the initial conditions of a system and introduces unpredictability into its output. Thus, it is often unwanted. Interestingly, the very same features make chaos a powerful tool to suppress decoherence, achieve secure communication and replace background noise in stochastic resonance—a counterintuitive concept that a system's ability to transfer information can be coherently amplified by adding noise. Here, we report the first demonstration of chaos-induced stochastic resonance in an optomechanical system, as well as the optomechanically mediated chaos transfer between two optical fields such that they follow the same route to chaos. These results will contribute to the understanding of nonlinear phenomena and chaos in optomechanical systems, and may find applications in the chaotic transfer of information and for improving the detection of otherwise undetectable signals in optomechanical systems.

  10. Nanoscale optomechanical actuators for controlling mechanotransduction in living cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Yang; Chang, Yuan; Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun; Mattheyses, Alexa L; Yehl, Kevin; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Zhuangqun; Salaita, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    To control receptor tension optically at the cell surface, we developed an approach involving optomechanical actuator nanoparticles that are controlled with near-infrared light. Illumination leads to particle collapse, delivering piconewton forces to specific cell surface receptors with high spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate optomechanical actuation by controlling integrin-based focal adhesion formation, cell protrusion and migration, and T cell receptor activation. PMID:26657558

  11. Optomechanical entanglement in the presence of laser phase noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi, R.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Simon, C.

    2011-12-15

    We study the simplest optomechanical system in the presence of laser phase noise (LPN) using the covariance matrix formalism. We show that for any LPN model with a finite correlation time, the destructive effect of the phase noise is especially strong in the bistable regime. This explains why ground-state cooling is still possible in the presence of phase noise, as it happens far away from the bistable regime. We also show that the optomechanical entanglement is strongly affected by phase noise.

  12. Nanoscale Optomechanical Actuators for Controlling Mechanotransduction in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Yang; Chang, Yuan; Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Yehl, Kevin; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Zhuangqun; Salaita, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Herein we develop an approach for optically controlling receptor tension. This is achieved using optomechanical actuator nanoparticles that are controlled with non-invasive near-infrared light. Illumination leads to particle collapse, delivering piconewton forces to specific cell surface receptors with high spatial and temporal resolution. As a proof-of-concept, we applied optomechanical actuation to trigger integrin-based focal adhesion formation, cell protrusion and migration, as well as T cell receptor activation. PMID:26657558

  13. Optomechanically induced transparency in the presence of an external time-harmonic-driving force

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinyong; You, Cai; Si, Liu-Gang; Xiong, Hao; Li, Jiahua; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We propose a potentially valuable scheme to measure the properties of an external time-harmonic-driving force with frequency ω via investigating its interaction with the combination of a pump field and a probe field in a generic optomechanical system. We show that the spectra of both the cavity field and output field in the configuration of optomechanically induced transparency are greatly modified by such an external force, leading to many interesting linear and non-linear effects, such as the asymmetric structure of absorption in the frequency domain and the antisymmetry breaking of dispersion near ω = ωm. Furthermore, we find that our scheme can be used to measure the initial phase of the external force. More importantly, this setup may eliminate the negative impact of thermal noise on the measurement of the weak external force in virtue of the process of interference between the probe field and the external force. Finally, we show that our configuration can be employed to improve the measurement resolution of the radiation force produced by a weak ultrasonic wave. PMID:26062029

  14. Optical Nonreciprocity in Asymmetric Optomechanical Couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheqi; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xinbiao; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-03-01

    We propose an all-optical integrated nonreciprocal device on the optomechanical platform with a large nonreciprocal bandwidth and low operating power. The device is based on an asymmetric silicon coupler consisting of two branches. One of them is a conventional strip waveguide fixed on the substrate, and the other is a freestanding nanostring suspended above a groove in the substrate. When light is launched into the coupler, the optical gradient force between the freestanding nanostring and the underlying substrate leads to the deflection of the nanostring, and finally results in destruction of the initial phase-matching condition between the two branches. The suspended branch would achieve distinct deflections when light is incident from different ports. The simulation results show a nonreciprocal bandwidth of 13.1 nm with operating power of 390 μW. With the advantages of simple structure, low power consumption and large operating bandwidth, our work provides a promising solution for on-chip passive nonreciprocal device.

  15. Amplification effects in optomechanics via weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Song, He-Shan

    2014-07-01

    We revisit the scheme of single-photon weak-coupling optomechanics using postselection, proposed by Pepper, Ghobadi, Jeffrey, Simon, and Bouwmeester [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.023601], by analyzing the exact solution of the dynamical evolution. Positive and negative amplification effects of the displacement of the mirror's position can be generated when the Kerr phase is considered. This effect occurs when the postselected state of the photon is orthogonal to the initial state, which cannot be explained by the usual weak measurement results. The amplification effect can be further modulated by a phase shifter, and the maximal displacement state can appear within a short evolution time.

  16. Quantum and classical phases in optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armata, Federico; Latmiral, Ludovico; Pikovski, Igor; Vanner, Michael R.; Brukner, Časlav; Kim, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The control of quantum systems requires the ability to change and read-out the phase of a system. The noncommutativity of canonical conjugate operators can induce phases on quantum systems, which can be employed for implementing phase gates and for precision measurements. Here we study the phase acquired by a radiation field after its radiation pressure interaction with a mechanical oscillator, and compare the classical and quantum contributions. The classical description can reproduce the nonlinearity induced by the mechanical oscillator and the loss of correlations between mechanics and optical field at certain interaction times. Such features alone are therefore insufficient for probing the quantum nature of the interaction. Our results thus isolate genuine quantum contributions of the optomechanical interaction that could be probed in current experiments.

  17. Opto-mechanical design of PANIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Josef W.; Baumeister, Harald; Huber, Armin; Laun, Werner; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Concepción Cárdenas, M.

    2010-07-01

    PANIC, the Panoramic Near-Infrared Camera, is a new instrument for the Calar Alto Observatory. A 4x4 k detector yields a field of view of 0.5x0.5 degrees at a pixel scale of 0.45 arc sec/pixel at the 2.2m telescope. PANIC can be used also at the 3.5m telescope with half the pixel scale. The optics consists of 9 lenses and 3 folding mirrors. Mechanical tolerances are as small as 50 microns for some elements. PANIC will have a low thermal background due to cold stops. Read-out is done with MPIA's own new electronics which allows read-out of 132 channels in parallel. Weight and size limits lead to interesting design features. Here we describe the opto-mechanical design.

  18. A new crystal form of human tear lipocalin reveals high flexibility in the loop region and induced fit in the ligand cavity

    PubMed Central

    Breustedt, Daniel A.; Chatwell, Lorenz; Skerra, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Tear lipocalin (TLC) with the bound artificial ligand 1,4-butanediol has been crystallized in space group P21 with four protein molecules in the asymmetric unit and its X-ray structure has been solved at 2.6 Å resolution. TLC is a member of the lipocalin family that binds ligands with diverse chemical structures, such as fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol as well as microbial siderophores and the antibiotic rifampin. Previous X-ray structural analysis of apo TLC crystallized in space group C2 revealed a rather large bifurcated ligand pocket and a partially disordered loop region at the entrace to the cavity. Analysis of the P21 crystal form uncovered major conformational changes (i) in β-strands B, C and D, (ii) in loops 1, 2 and 4 at the open end of the β-­barrel and (iii) in the extended C-terminal segment, which is attached to the β-­barrel via a disulfide bridge. The structural comparison indicates high conformational plasticity of the loop region as well as of deeper parts of the ligand pocket, thus allowing adaptation to ligands that differ vastly in size and shape. This illustrates a mechanism for promiscuity in ligand recognition which may also be relevant for some other physiologically important members of the lipocalin protein family. PMID:19770509

  19. Suppressing gate errors through extra ions coupled to a cavity in frequency-domain quantum computation using rare-earth-ion-doped crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Goto, Hayato; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ichimura, Kouichi; Quantum Computer Team

    The rare-earth-ion-doped crystals, such as Pr3+: Y2SiO5, are promising materials for scalable quantum computers, because the crystals contain a large number of ions which have long coherence time. The frequency-domain quantum computation (FDQC) enables us to employ individual ions coupled to a common cavity mode as qubits by identifying with their transition frequencies. In the FDQC, operation lights with detuning interact with transitions which are not intended to operate, because ions are irradiated regardless of their positions. This crosstalk causes serious errors of the quantum gates in the FDQC. When ``resonance conditions'' between eigenenergies of the whole system and transition-frequency differences among ions are satisfied, the gate errors increase. Ions for qubits must have transitions avoiding the conditions for high-fidelity gate. However, when a large number of ions are employed as qubits, it is difficult to avoid the conditions because of many combinations of eigenenergies and transitions. We propose new implementation using extra ions to control the resonance conditions, and show the effect of the extra ions by a numerical simulation. Our implementation is useful to realize a scalable quantum computer using rare-earth-ion-doped crystal based on the FDQC.

  20. Degenerate optomechanical parametric oscillators: Cooling in the vicinity of a critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degenfeld-Schonburg, Peter; Abdi, Mehdi; Hartmann, Michael J.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Degenerate optomechanical parametric oscillators are optical resonators in which a mechanical degree of freedom is coupled to a cavity mode that is nonlinearly amplified via parametric down-conversion of an external pumping laser. Below a critical pumping power the down-converted field is purely quantum mechanical, making the theoretical description of such systems very challenging. Here we introduce a theoretical approach that is capable of describing this regime, even at the critical point itself. We find that the down-converted field can induce significant mechanical cooling and identify the process responsible of this as a cooling-by-heating mechanism. Moreover, we show that, contrary to naive expectations and semiclassical predictions, cooling is not optimal at the critical point, where the photon number is largest. Our approach opens the possibility of analyzing further hybrid dissipative quantum systems in the vicinity of critical points.

  1. Photon shuttle: Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg dynamics in an optomechanical system

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, Georg; Marquardt, Florian; Harris, J. G. E.

    2010-01-15

    The motion of micro- and nanomechanical resonators can be coupled to electromagnetic fields. Such optomechanical setups allow one to explore the interaction of light and matter in a new regime at the boundary between quantum and classical physics. We propose an approach to investigate nonequilibrium photon dynamics driven by mechanical motion in a recently developed setup with a membrane between two mirrors, where photons can be shuttled between the two halves of the cavity. For modest driving strength we predict the possibility of observing an Autler-Townes splitting indicative of Rabi dynamics. For large drive, we show that this system displays Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg dynamics originally known from atomic two-state systems.

  2. Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

    2009-09-01

    The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

  3. A new crystal form of human tear lipocalin reveals high flexibility in the loop region and induced fit in the ligand cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Breustedt, Daniel A.; Chatwell, Lorenz; Skerra, Arne

    2009-10-01

    The crystal structure of tear lipocalin determined in space group P2{sub 1} revealed large structural deviations from the previously solved X-ray structure in space group C2, especially in the loop region and adjoining parts of the β-barrel which give rise to the ligand-binding site. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism for promiscuity in ligand recognition by the lipocalin protein family. Tear lipocalin (TLC) with the bound artificial ligand 1,4-butanediol has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1} with four protein molecules in the asymmetric unit and its X-ray structure has been solved at 2.6 Å resolution. TLC is a member of the lipocalin family that binds ligands with diverse chemical structures, such as fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol as well as microbial siderophores and the antibiotic rifampin. Previous X-ray structural analysis of apo TLC crystallized in space group C2 revealed a rather large bifurcated ligand pocket and a partially disordered loop region at the entrace to the cavity. Analysis of the P2{sub 1} crystal form uncovered major conformational changes (i) in β-strands B, C and D, (ii) in loops 1, 2 and 4 at the open end of the β-barrel and (iii) in the extended C-terminal segment, which is attached to the β-barrel via a disulfide bridge. The structural comparison indicates high conformational plasticity of the loop region as well as of deeper parts of the ligand pocket, thus allowing adaptation to ligands that differ vastly in size and shape. This illustrates a mechanism for promiscuity in ligand recognition which may also be relevant for some other physiologically important members of the lipocalin protein family.

  4. Cavity magnomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chang-Ling; Zhang, Xufeng; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, cavity magnonics has attracted much attention for potential applications of coherent information transduction and hybrid quantum devices. The magnon is a collective spin wave excitation in ferromagnetic material. It is magnetically tunability, with long coherence time and non-reciprocical interaction with electro-magnetic fields. We report the coherent coupling between magnon, microwave photon and phonon. First, we demonstrate strong coupling and ultrastrong coupling between the magnon in YIG sphere and microwave photon in three-dimensional cavity. Then, based on the hybridized magnon-photon modes, we observe the triply resonant magnon-mcirowave photon-phonon coupling, where the ultrahigh-Q mechanical vibration of YIG sphere is dispersively coupled with the magnon via magnetostrictive interaction. We observe interesting phenomena, including electromagnetically induced transparency/absorption and parametric amplification. In particular, benefit from the large tunability of the magnon, we demonstrate a tunable microwave amplifier with gain as high as 30 dB. The single crystal YIG also has excellent optical properties, and thus provide a unique platform bridging MHz, GHz and THz information carriers. Finally, we present the latest progress towards coherent magnon to optical photon conversion.

  5. 0.5W CW single frequency blue at 486 nm via SHG with net conversion of 81.5% from the NIR using a 30mm PPMgO:SLT crystal in a resonant cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Jadhav, Shilpa; Shiner, David

    2015-02-01

    A single frequency fiber Bragg grating (FBG) stabilized laser at 972 nm is coupled into a doubling ring cavity with an optical length of 138 mm, a 91% input coupler, a 30 mm long Brewster cut magnesium doped periodically poled lithium tantalate (PPMgO:SLT) crystal and a high reflector. The cavity buildup is 37 and loss is 0.63%. The cavity is monitored, controlled and locked with a single chip processor. With IR power of 572 mW in the input fiber, 466 mW blue output is obtained, giving 81.5% net efficiency. The blue and IR beams are separated by refraction at the crystal's Brewster surface with negligible loss and without the need for dichroic optics.

  6. High-Q silica zipper cavity for optical radiation pressure driven MOMS switch

    SciTech Connect

    Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2014-07-15

    We design a silica zipper cavity that has high optical and mechanical Q (quality factor) values and demonstrate numerically the feasibility of a radiation pressure driven micro opto-mechanical system (MOMS) directional switch. The silica zipper cavity has an optical Q of 4.0 × 10{sup 4} and an effective mode volume V{sub mode} of 0.67λ{sup 3} when the gap between two cavities is 34 nm. The mechanical Q (Q{sub m}) is determined by thermo-elastic damping and is 2.0 × 10{sup 6} in a vacuum at room temperature. The opto-mechanical coupling rate g{sub OM} is as high as 100 GHz/nm, which allows us to move the directional cavity-waveguide system and switch 1550-nm light with 770-nm light by controlling the radiation pressure.

  7. Cavity ring-up spectroscopy for ultrafast sensing with optical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Serge; Lovsky, Yulia; Arazi, Lior; Vollmer, Frank; Dayan, Barak

    2015-04-01

    Spectroscopy of whispering-gallery mode microresonators has become a powerful scientific tool, enabling the detection of single viruses, nanoparticles and even single molecules. Yet the demonstrated timescale of these schemes has been limited so far to milliseconds or more. Here we introduce a scheme that is orders of magnitude faster, capable of capturing complete spectral snapshots at nanosecond timescales--cavity ring-up spectroscopy. Based on sharply rising detuned probe pulses, cavity ring-up spectroscopy combines the sensitivity of heterodyne measurements with the highest-possible, transform-limited acquisition rate. As a demonstration, we capture spectra of microtoroid resonators at time intervals as short as 16 ns, directly monitoring submicrosecond dynamics of their optomechanical vibrations, thermorefractive response and Kerr nonlinearity. Cavity ring-up spectroscopy holds promise for the study of fast biological processes such as enzyme kinetics, protein folding and light harvesting, with applications in other fields such as cavity quantum electrodynamics and pulsed optomechanics.

  8. Spectral plasmonic effect in the nano-cavity of dye-doped nanosphere-based photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ashish; Danesh, Mohammad; Zhong, Liubiao; Cheng, Gary J.; Jiang, Lin; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated three-dimensional PMMA-based photonic crystal (3D-PC) nanostructures attached to Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which undergo self-organization into super lattice planes and enhance the fluorescence properties. This new structure exhibited interesting tunable spectral, peak broadening plasmonic behavior because of strong plasmonic interaction at high laser powers. The presented work provides an important tool to improve the efficiency of dye laser applications.

  9. Spectral plasmonic effect in the nano-cavity of dye-doped nanosphere-based photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashish; Danesh, Mohammad; Zhong, Liubiao; Cheng, Gary J; Jiang, Lin; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-04-22

    We demonstrated three-dimensional PMMA-based photonic crystal (3D-PC) nanostructures attached to Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which undergo self-organization into super lattice planes and enhance the fluorescence properties. This new structure exhibited interesting tunable spectral, peak broadening plasmonic behavior because of strong plasmonic interaction at high laser powers. The presented work provides an important tool to improve the efficiency of dye laser applications. PMID:26954366

  10. Integrated tuning fork nanocavity optomechanical transducers with high f M Q M product and stress-engineered frequency tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Ti, C.; Davanço, M. I.; Ren, Y.; Aksyuk, V.; Liu, Y.; Srinivasan, K.

    2015-09-01

    Cavity optomechanical systems are being widely developed for precision force and displacement measurements. For nanomechanical transducers, there is usually a trade-off between the frequency (fM) and quality factor (QM), which limits temporal resolution and sensitivity. Here, we present a monolithic cavity optomechanical transducer supporting both high fM and high QM. By replacing the common doubly clamped, Si3N4 nanobeam with a tuning fork geometry, we demonstrate devices with the fundamental f M ≈ 29 MHz and Q M ≈ 2.2 × 10 5 , corresponding to an fMQM product of 6.35 × 10 12 Hz , comparable to the highest values previously demonstrated for room temperature operation. This high fMQM product is partly achieved by engineering the stress of the tuning fork to be 3 times the residual film stress through clamp design, which results in an increase of fM up to 1.5 times. Simulations reveal that the tuning fork design simultaneously reduces the clamping, thermoelastic dissipation, and intrinsic material damping contributions to mechanical loss. This work may find application when both high temporal and force resolution are important, such as in compact sensors for atomic force microscopy.

  11. Evanescent straight tapered-fiber coupling of ultra-high Q optomechanical micro-resonators in a low-vibration helium-4 exchange-gas cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, R.; Arcizet, O.; Schliesser, A.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2013-04-01

    We developed an apparatus to couple a 50-μm diameter whispering-gallery silica microtoroidal resonator in a helium-4 cryostat using a straight optical tapered-fiber at 1550 nm wavelength. On a top-loading probe specifically adapted for increased mechanical stability, we use a specifically-developed "cryotaper" to optically probe the cavity, allowing thus to record the calibrated mechanical spectrum of the optomechanical system at low temperatures. We then demonstrate excellent thermalization of a 63-MHz mechanical mode of a toroidal resonator down to the cryostat's base temperature of 1.65 K, thereby proving the viability of the cryogenic refrigeration via heat conduction through static low-pressure exchange gas. In the context of optomechanics, we therefore provide a versatile and powerful tool with state-of-the-art performances in optical coupling efficiency, mechanical stability, and cryogenic cooling.

  12. Optical nonreciprocity in asymmetric optomechanical couplers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheqi; Shi, Lei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xinbiao; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical integrated nonreciprocal device on the optomechanical platform with a large nonreciprocal bandwidth and low operating power. The device is based on an asymmetric silicon coupler consisting of two branches. One of them is a conventional strip waveguide fixed on the substrate, and the other is a freestanding nanostring suspended above a groove in the substrate. When light is launched into the coupler, the optical gradient force between the freestanding nanostring and the underlying substrate leads to the deflection of the nanostring, and finally results in destruction of the initial phase-matching condition between the two branches. The suspended branch would achieve distinct deflections when light is incident from different ports. The simulation results show a nonreciprocal bandwidth of 13.1 nm with operating power of 390 μW. With the advantages of simple structure, low power consumption and large operating bandwidth, our work provides a promising solution for on-chip passive nonreciprocal device. PMID:25728978

  13. Optomechanical interactions in non-Hermitian photonic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönleber, D. W.; Eisfeld, A.; El-Ganainy, R.

    2016-04-01

    We study optomechanical interactions in non-Hermitian photonic molecules that support two photonic states and one acoustic mode. The nonlinear steady-state solutions and their linear stability landscapes are investigated as a function of the system’s parameters and excitation power levels. We also examine the temporal evolution of the system and uncover different regimes of nonlinear dynamics. Our analysis reveals several important results: (1) parity-time ({ P }{ T }) symmetry is not necessarily the optimum choice for maximum optomechanical interaction. (2) Stable steady-state solutions are not always reached under continuous wave optical excitations. (3) Accounting for gain saturation effects can regulate the behavior of the otherwise unbounded oscillation amplitudes. Our study provides a deeper insight into the interplay between optical non-Hermiticity and optomechanical coupling and can thus pave the way for new device applications.

  14. Optomechanics based on angular momentum exchange between light and matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H.; Bhattacharya, M.

    2016-08-01

    The subject of optomechanics involves interactions between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom, and is currently of great interest as an enabler of fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, as well as a platform for ultrasensitive measurement devices. The majority of optomechanical configurations rely on the exchange of linear momentum between light and matter. We will begin this tutorial with a brief description of such systems. Subsequently, we will introduce optomechanical systems based on angular momentum exchange. In this context, optical fields carrying polarization and orbital angular momentum will be considered, while for the mechanics, torsional and free rotational motion will be of relevance. Our overall aims will be to supply basic analyses of some of the existing theoretical proposals, to provide functional descriptions of some of the experiments conducted thus far, and to consider some directions for future research. We hope this tutorial will be useful to both theorists and experimentalists interested in the subject.

  15. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Semere A.; Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  16. Ground-state cooling of a dispersively coupled optomechanical system in the unresolved sideband regime via a dissipatively coupled oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Shikano, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    In the optomechanical cooling of a dispersively coupled oscillator, it is only possible to reach the oscillator ground state in the resolved sideband regime, where the cavity-mode linewidth is smaller than the resonant frequency of the mechanical oscillator being cooled. In this paper, we show that the dispersively coupled system can be cooled to the ground state in the unresolved sideband regime using an ancillary oscillator, which has a high quality factor and is coupled to the same optical mode via dissipative interaction. The ancillary oscillator has a resonant frequency close to that of the target oscillator; thus, the ancillary oscillator is also in the unresolved sideband regime. We require only a single blue-detuned laser mode to drive the cavity.

  17. Nonclassical non-Gaussian state of a mechanical resonator via selectively incoherent damping in a three-mode optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kang-jing; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Jia-pei; Xiao, Yun-feng; Li, Gao-xiang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose a scheme for the generation of a nonclassical non-Gaussian motional state of a mechanical resonator (MR) in the three-mode optomechanical system in which two linearly coupled single-mode cavities interact dispersively with the mechanical oscillator simultaneously. With one cavity driven by a weak laser field and by properly tuning the driving frequency, a desirable phononic Liouvillian superoperator can be obtained by engineering the selective interaction Hamiltonian confined to Fock subspaces. It is shown that the MR can be driven dissipatively into a steady non-Gaussian nonclassical state, which possesses sub-Poisson statistics, although its Wigner function is positive. The present scheme can be useful for obtaining single phonons.

  18. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiongyi; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    We study multipartite entanglement, the generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states, and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system composed of an atomic ensemble located inside a single-mode cavity with a movable mirror. The cavity mode is driven by a short laser pulse, has a nonlinear parametric-type interaction with the mirror and a linear beam-splitter-type interaction with the atomic ensemble. There is no direct interaction of the mirror with the atomic ensemble. A threshold effect for the dynamics of the system is found, above which the system works as an amplifier and below which as an attenuator of the output fields. The threshold is determined by the ratio of the coupling strengths of the cavity mode to the mirror and to the atomic ensemble. It is shown that above the threshold, the system effectively behaves as a two-mode system in which a perfect bipartite EPR state can be generated, while it is impossible below the threshold. Furthermore, a fully inseparable tripartite entanglement and even further a genuine tripartite entanglement can be produced above and below the threshold. In addition, we consider quantum steering and examine the monogamy relations that quantify the amount of bipartite steering that can be shared between different modes. It is found that the mirror is more capable for steering of entanglement than the cavity mode. The two-way steering is found between the mirror and the atomic ensemble despite the fact that they are not directly coupled to each other, while it is impossible between the output of cavity mode and the ensemble which are directly coupled to each other.

  19. Quantum-criticality-induced strong Kerr nonlinearities in optomechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Xin-You; Zhang, Wei-Min; Ashhab, Sahel; Wu, Ying; Nori, Franco

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a hybrid electro-optomechanical system that allows us to realize controllable strong Kerr nonlinearities even in the weak-coupling regime. We show that when the controllable electromechanical subsystem is close to its quantum critical point, strong photon-photon interactions can be generated by adjusting the intensity (or frequency) of the microwave driving field. Nonlinear optical phenomena, such as the appearance of the photon blockade and the generation of nonclassical states (e.g., Schrödinger cat states), are demonstrated in the weak-coupling regime, making the observation of strong Kerr nonlinearities feasible with currently available optomechanical technology. PMID:24126279

  20. Controllable chaos in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Lü, Xin-You; Ma, Jin-Yong; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid electro-optomechanical system (EOMS) that allows us to realize the controllable opto-mechanical nonlinearity by driving the microwave LC resonator with a tunable electric field. A controllable optical chaos is realized even without changing the optical pumping. The threshold and lifetime of the chaos could be optimized by adjusting the strength, frequency, or phase of the electric field. This study provides a method of manipulating optical chaos with an electric field. It may offer the prospect of exploring the controllable chaos in on-chip optoelectronic devices and its applications in secret communication. PMID:26948505

  1. Controllable chaos in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Lü, Xin-You; Ma, Jin-Yong; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Wu, Ying

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid electro-optomechanical system (EOMS) that allows us to realize the controllable opto-mechanical nonlinearity by driving the microwave LC resonator with a tunable electric field. A controllable optical chaos is realized even without changing the optical pumping. The threshold and lifetime of the chaos could be optimized by adjusting the strength, frequency, or phase of the electric field. This study provides a method of manipulating optical chaos with an electric field. It may offer the prospect of exploring the controllable chaos in on-chip optoelectronic devices and its applications in secret communication.

  2. Light-induced optomechanical forces in graphene waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guizal, Brahim; Antezza, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We show that the electromagnetic forces generated by the excitations of a mode in graphene-based optomechanical systems are highly tunable by varying the graphene chemical potential, and orders of magnitude stronger than usual non-graphene-based devices, in both attractive and repulsive regimes. We analyze coupled waveguides made of two parallel graphene sheets, either suspended or supported by dielectric slabs, and study the interplay between the light-induced force and the Casimir-Lifshitz interaction. These findings pave the way to advanced possibilities of control and fast modulation for optomechanical devices and sensors at the nano- and microscales.

  3. Reconfigurable long-range phonon dynamics in optomechanical arrays.

    PubMed

    Xuereb, André; Genes, Claudiu; Pupillo, Guido; Paternostro, Mauro; Dantan, Aurélien

    2014-04-01

    We investigate periodic optomechanical arrays as reconfigurable platforms for engineering the coupling between multiple mechanical and electromagnetic modes and for exploring many-body phonon dynamics. Exploiting structural resonances in the coupling between light fields and collective motional modes of the array, we show that tunable effective long-range interactions between mechanical modes can be achieved. This paves the way towards the implementation of controlled phononic walks and heat transfer on densely connected graphs as well as the coherent transfer of excitations between distant elements of optomechanical arrays. PMID:24745417

  4. Controllable chaos in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Lü, Xin-You; Ma, Jin-Yong; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid electro-optomechanical system (EOMS) that allows us to realize the controllable opto-mechanical nonlinearity by driving the microwave LC resonator with a tunable electric field. A controllable optical chaos is realized even without changing the optical pumping. The threshold and lifetime of the chaos could be optimized by adjusting the strength, frequency, or phase of the electric field. This study provides a method of manipulating optical chaos with an electric field. It may offer the prospect of exploring the controllable chaos in on-chip optoelectronic devices and its applications in secret communication. PMID:26948505

  5. Noise limit of a torsion pendulum under optomechanical control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu-Jie; Hu, Zhong-Kun; Shao, Cheng-Gang

    2015-09-01

    In most torsion pendulum experiments, the force resolution is dominantly limited by thermal noise, which is proportional to the pendulum's intrinsic rigidity. Thus, increasing the rigidity directly, such as through increasing torsion fiber's diameter, will decrease the resolution. Here, we present a method to improve the rigidity of a pendulum indirectly through optomechanical control. In this method, for appropriate typical parameter values, the rigidity can be improved greatly. Meanwhile, the extra noise introduced, which our analysis focuses on, can be regulated within the thermal noise level, i.e., the force resolution may not decrease after optomechanical control. This can balance the conflict between large rigidity and high resolution.

  6. New miniaturized exhaled nitric oxide sensor based on a high Q/V mid-infrared 1D photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Conteduca, D; Dell'Olio, F; Ciminelli, C; Armenise, M N

    2015-03-20

    A high Q/V mid-infrared 1D photonic crystal cavity in chalcogenide glass AMTIR-1 (Ge33As12Se55) resonating at λR=5.26  μm has been proposed as a key element of a sensor able to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the exhaled breath, namely fraction exhaled NO. The cavity design has been carried out through 3D finite-element method simulations. A Q-factor of 1.1×104 and a mode volume V=0.8  (λ/n)3, corresponding to a Q/V ratio of 1.4×104(λ/n)-3, have been obtained with a resonance transmission coefficient T=15%. A sensitivity of 10 ppb has been calculated with reference to the photothermal physical property of the material. Such a result is lower than the state-of-the-art of NO sensors proposed in literature, where hundreds of parts per trillion-level detection seem to have been achieved, but comparable with the performance obtained by commercial devices. The main advantages of the new device are in terms of footprint (=150  μm2), smaller at least 1 order of magnitude than those in literature, fast response time (only few seconds), and potential low cost. Such properties make possible in a handheld device the sensor integration in a multi-analysis system for detecting the presence of several trace gases, improving prevention, and reducing the duration of drug treatment for asthma and viral infections. PMID:25968502

  7. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Michael John

    inventory of luminescent defect centers (many with direct optical access to highly coherent electron and nuclear spins). Diamond has many potential applications ranging from radio frequency nanoelectromechanical systems (RF-NEMS), to all-optical signal processing and quantum optics. Despite the commercial availability of wafer-scale nanocrystalline diamond thin films on foreign substrates (namely SiO2), this diamond-on-insulator (DOI) platform typically exhibits inferior material properties due to friction, scattering, and absorption losses at grain boundaries, significant surface roughness, and large interfacial stresses. In the absence of suitable heteroepitaxial diamond growth, substantial research and development efforts have focused on novel processing techniques to yield nanoscale single-crystal diamond mechanical and optical elements. In this thesis, we demonstrate a scalable 'angled-etching' nanofabrication method for realizing nanomechanical systems and nanophotonic networks starting from bulk single-crystal diamond substrates. Angled-etching employs anisotropic oxygen-based plasma etching at an oblique angle to the substrate surface, resulting in suspended optical structures with triangular cross-sections. Using this approach, we first realize single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonant structures. These nanoscale diamond resonators exhibit high mechanical quality-factors (approaching Q ~ 105) with mechanical resonances up to 10 MHz. Next, we demonstrate engineered nanophotonic structures, specifically racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities, in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical Q-factors, in excess of 10 5, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. Beyond isolated nanophotonic

  8. Quantum dynamics and quantum state transfer between separated nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. L.; Yin, Z. Q.; Xu, Z. Y.; Feng, M.; Oh, C. H.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate dynamics of a laser-driven and dissipative system consisting of two nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers embedded in two spatially separated single-mode nanocavities in a planar photonic crystal (PC). Spontaneous emission from the excited states of the N-V centers can be effectively suppressed by virtue of the Raman transition in the dispersive regime. The system displays a series of damped oscillations under various experimental situations, where we solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation analytically for arbitrary values of the hopping and PC-N-V coupling strengths. In particular, our results indicate that some special values should be taken for the hopping strength if we hope to have high-fidelity quantum state transfer between the two distant N-V centers. We have also analyzed the relevant entanglement dynamics in the presence of decoherence. The experimental feasibility and challenge are justified using currently available technology.

  9. Efficient frequency doubler of 1560 nm laser based on a semi-monolithic resonant cavity with a PPKTP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Kong; Ge, Yulong; Guo, Shanlong

    2016-06-01

    We have demonstrated 1.61 W of 780 nm single-frequency continuous-wave laser output with a semi-monolithic periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal doubler pumped by a 2-W erbium-doped fiber amplifier boosted 1560 nm diode laser. The measured maximum doubling efficiency is 77%, and the practical value should be 80% when taking into account the fundamental-wave mode matching efficiency. The measured beam quality factor of 780 nm output, M2, is better than 1.04. Typical root-mean-square fluctuation of 780 nm output is less than 0.5% in 30 minutes. This compact frequency doubler has good mechanical stability, and can be employed for many applications, such as laser cooling and trapping, atomic coherent control, atomic interferometer, and quantum frequency standard with rubidium atoms.

  10. High-precision optomechanical lens system for space applications assembled by a local soldering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleguezuelo, Pol Ribes; Koechlin, Charlie; Hornaff, Marcel; Kamm, Andreas; Beckert, Erik; Fiault, Guillaume; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Soldering using metallic solder alloys is an alternative to adhesive bonding. Laser-based soldering processes are especially well suited for the joining of optical components made of fragile and brittle materials such as glass, ceramics, and optical crystals. This is due to a localized and minimized input of thermal energy. Solderjet bumping technology has been used to assemble a lens mount breadboard using specifications and requirements found for the optical beam expander for the European Space Agency EarthCare Mission. The silica lens and a titanium barrel have been designed and assembled with this technology in order to withstand the stringent mission demands of handling high mechanical and thermal loads without losing the optical performance. Finally, a high-precision optomechanical lens mount has been assembled with minimal localized stress (<1 MPa) showing outstanding performance in terms of wave-front error and beam depolarization ratio before and after environmental tests.

  11. Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

  12. Converting mid-infrared signals to near-infrared through optomechanical transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsalis, A.; Mesaritakis, C.; Bogris, A.; Syvridis, D.

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared silicon photonics emerge as the dominant technology to bridge photonics and electronics in multifunctional high-speed integrated chips. The transmission and processing of optical signals lying at the mid-infrared wavelength region is ideal for sensing, absorption-spectroscopy and free-space communications and the use of group IV materials becomes principally promising as the vehicle towards their realization. In parallel, optical forces originating from modes and cavities can reach to outstandingly large values when sizes drop into the nanoscale. In this work, we propose the exploitation of large gradient optical forces generated between suspended silicon beams and optomechanical transduction as a means of converting signals from the mid-infrared to the near-infrared region. A midinfrared signal is injected into the waveguide system so as to excite the fundamental symmetric mode. In the 2-5μm wavelength range, separation gaps in the 100nm order and waveguide widths ranging from 300-600nm, the mode is mostly guided in the air slot between the waveguides which maximizes the optomechanical coupling coefficient and optical force. The resulting attractive force deflects the waveguides and the deflection is linearly dependent on the midinfrared optical power. A simple read-out technique using 1.55μm signals with conventional waveguiding in the directional coupler formed by the two beams is analyzed. A positive conversion efficiency (<0dB) is foreseen for waveguides with suspending lengths up to 150μm. The converter could be ideal for use in sensing and spectroscopy rendering the inefficient mid-infrared detectors obsolete. The low-index unconventional guiding in mid-infrared could be a key component towards multifunctional lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. Nano-polymer-dispersed liquid crystal as phase modulator for a tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.55 mum.

    PubMed

    Levallois, C; Caillaud, B; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J-L; Dupont, L; Lecorre, A; Folliot, H; Dehaese, O; Loualiche, S

    2006-11-20

    We demonstrate what we believe is the first nonmechanical tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operating in the C band. This was achieved as a result of the combination of an InGaAs quantum well structure with a 6lambda thickness tunable index nano-polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal material. Experimental results exhibited a potential tunable range close to 10 nm, in the preliminary version, and excellent single mode locking due to the side-mode suppression ratio (more than 20 dB) over the whole spectral range. Another decisive advantage, compared to mechanical solutions, was the tuning response time of a few tens of microseconds (>30 micros) to scan the full spectral range (10 nm), making this device appropriate for some access network functions, as well as being robust and low cost. The voltage values are the main limitation to wavelength range extension. We present a first version of the device optically pumped. The next version will be electrically pumped as required for the access network applications targeted here. PMID:17086259

  14. Entanglement of movable mirror and cavity field enhanced by an optical parametric amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-yun, Zhang; Hu, Li; Gui-xia, Pan; Zong-qiang, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    A scheme to generate entanglement in a cavity optomechanical system filled with an optical parametric amplifier is proposed. With the help of the optical parametric amplifier, the stationary macroscopic entanglement between the movable mirror and the cavity field can be notably enhanced, and the entanglement increases when the parametric gain increases. Moreover, for a given parametric gain, the degree of entanglement of the cavity optomechanical system increases with increasing input laser power. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11247001), the Scientific Research Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2012A083), and the Doctor (Master) Fund of Anhui University of Science and Technology, China.

  15. Resolving the mystery of milliwatt-threshold opto-mechanical self-oscillation in dual-nanoweb fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, J. R.; Noskov, R. E.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Butsch, A.; Novoa, D.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2016-08-01

    It is interesting to pose the question: How best to design an optomechanical device, with no electronics, optical cavity, or laser gain, that will self-oscillate when pumped in a single pass with only a few mW of single-frequency laser power? One might begin with a mechanically resonant and highly compliant system offering very high optomechanical gain. Such a system, when pumped by single-frequency light, might self-oscillate at its resonant frequency. It is well-known, however, that this will occur only if the group velocity dispersion of the light is high enough so that phonons causing pump-to-Stokes conversion are sufficiently dissimilar to those causing pump-to-anti-Stokes conversion. Recently it was reported that two light-guiding membranes 20 μm wide, ˜500 nm thick and spaced by ˜500 nm, suspended inside a glass fiber capillary, oscillated spontaneously at its mechanical resonant frequency (˜6 MHz) when pumped with only a few mW of single-frequency light. This was surprising, since perfect Raman gain suppression would be expected. In detailed measurements, using an interferometric side-probing technique capable of resolving nanoweb movements as small as 10 pm, we map out the vibrations along the fiber and show that stimulated intermodal scattering to a higher-order optical mode frustrates gain suppression, permitting the structure to self-oscillate. A detailed theoretical analysis confirms this picture. This novel mechanism makes possible the design of single-pass optomechanical oscillators that require only a few mW of optical power, no electronics nor any optical resonator. The design could also be implemented in silicon or any other suitable material.

  16. Controllable optical output fields from an optomechanical system with mechanical driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Li, Yong

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the properties of the optical output fields from a cavity optomechanical system, where the cavity is optically driven by a strong coupling field and a weak probe field and the mechanical resonator is driven by a coherent mechanical pump. When the frequency of the mechanical pump matches the frequency difference between the coupling and probe optical fields, due to the interference between the different optical components at the same frequency, we demonstrate that the large positive or negative group delay of the output field at the frequency of probe field can be achieved and tuned by adjusting the phase and amplitude of the mechanical driving field. Moreover, the strength of the output field at the frequency of an optical four-wave-mixing (FWM) field also can be controlled (enhanced and suppressed) by tuning the phase and amplitude of the mechanical pump. We show that the power of the output field at the frequency of the optical FWM field can be suppressed to zero or enhanced so much that it can be comparable with and even larger than the power of the input probe optical field.

  17. Hybrid Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering in an atom-optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Huatang; Sun, Lihui

    2015-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering manifests a type of quantum correlations intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. In this paper we propose a scheme for realizing hybrid atom-mechanical quantum steering in the steady-state regime. In our scheme, an optomechanical two-mode cavity is coupled to a distant ensemble of double-λ atoms in a cascade way, which induces the dissipative interaction between the mechanics and the internal atomic states. We show that strong cavity dissipation can lead to two-way atom-mechanical steering and the optimal steering exhibited in an approximate two-mode squeezed-vacuum atom-mechanical state. Moreover, we find that for the present cascade coupling scheme, the one-way steering from the mechanical oscillator to the atoms is achievable under certain conditions, while the reverse one-way steering is impossible to obtain. The reason for achieving the asymmetric steering is analyzed and the effect of mechanical thermal noise on the steering is also studied.

  18. Atom-membrane cooling and entanglement using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Genes, Claudiu; Ritsch, Helmut; Drewsen, Michael; Dantan, Aurelien

    2011-11-15

    We investigate a hybrid optomechanical system composed of a micromechanical oscillator as a movable membrane and an atomic three-level ensemble within an optical cavity. We show that a suitably tailored cavity field response via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the atomic medium allows for strong coupling of the membrane's mechanical oscillations to the collective atomic ground-state spin. This facilitates ground-state cooling of the membrane motion, quantum state mapping, and robust atom-membrane entanglement even for cavity widths larger than the mechanical resonance frequency.

  19. Entanglement detection in hybrid optomechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Palma, G. Massimo

    2011-05-15

    We study a device formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coupled to the field of a cavity with a moving end mirror and find a working point such that the mirror-light entanglement is reproduced by the BEC-light quantum correlations. This provides an experimentally viable tool for inferring mirror-light entanglement with only a limited set of assumptions. We prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in the hybrid device, persisting up to temperatures of a few milli-Kelvin, and discuss a scheme to detect it.

  20. The diffraction grating in the Ivory optomechanical modeling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatheway, Alson E.

    2013-09-01

    In imaging spectrometers it is important that both the image of the far-field object and the image of the slit be stable on the detector plane. Lenses and mirrors contribute to the motions of these images but motions of the diffraction grating also have their own influences on these image motions. This paper develops the vector equations for the images (spectra) of the diffraction grating and derives their optomechanical influence coefficients from them. The Ivory Optomechanical Modeling Tools integrates the diffraction grating into the larger optical imaging system and formats the whole system's influence coefficients suitably for both spreadsheet and finite element analysis methods. Their application is illustrated in an example of a spectrometer exposed to both static and dynamic disturbances.

  1. Enhancing quantum effects via periodic modulations in optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2012-07-01

    Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects, opening new possibilities for optimal quantum control strategies.

  2. Squeezing quadrature rotation in the acoustic band via optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guccione, Giovanni; Slatyer, Harry J.; Carvalho, André R. R.; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2016-03-01

    We examine the use of optomechanically generated squeezing to obtain a sensitivity enhancement for interferometers in the gravitational-wave band. The intrinsic dispersion characteristics of optomechanical squeezing around the mechanical frequency are able to produce squeezing at different quadratures over the spectrum, a feature required by gravitational-wave interferometers to beat the standard quantum limit over an extended frequency range. Under realistic assumptions we show that the amount of available squeezing and the intrinsic quadrature rotation may provide, compared to similar amounts of fixed-quadrature squeezing, a detection advantage. A significant challenge for this scheme, however, is the amount of excess noise that is generated in the unsqueezed quadrature at frequencies near the mechanical resonance.

  3. Optomechanical synchronization phenomena in the presence of (quantum) noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Talitha; Kronwald, Andreas; Walter, Stefan; Marquardt, Florian

    Synchronization is a phenomenon that appears in various natural and man-made systems. Optomechanical limit-cycle oscillators can synchronize when they are coupled to each other or to an external periodic force. Classically, in the absence of noise, different synchronization regimes can be identified. Notably, optomechanical systems tend to synchronize either in-phase or anti-phase. We investigate how the synchronization behaviour is affected in the presence of the fundamental quantum noise (arXiv:1507.06190). We find a regime where fluctuations drive transitions between the classical synchronization states and explore the quantum-to-classical crossover. Finally, we compare the effects of quantum noise to the effects of thermal noise.

  4. Optomechanical test of the Schrödinger-Newton equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Großardt, André; Bateman, James; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Bassi, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    The Schrödinger-Newton equation has been proposed as an experimentally testable alternative to quantum gravity, accessible at low energies. It contains self-gravitational terms, which slightly modify the quantum dynamics. Here we show that it distorts the spectrum of a harmonic system. Based on this effect, we propose an optomechanical experiment with a trapped microdisc to test the Schrödinger-Newton equation, and we show that it can be realized with existing technology.

  5. Opto-mechanical subsystem with temperature compensation through isothemal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, F. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An opto-mechanical subsystem for supporting a laser structure which minimizes changes in the alignment of the laser optics in response to temperature variations is described. Both optical and mechanical structural components of the system are formed of the same material, preferably beryllium, which is selected for high mechanical strength and good thermal conducting qualities. All mechanical and optical components are mounted and assembled to provide thorough thermal coupling throughout the subsystem to prevent the development of temperature gradients.

  6. New Developments of Broadband Cavity Enhanced Spectroscopic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, A.; Zhao, D.; Linnartz, H.; Ubachs, W.

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, cavity enhanced spectroscopic techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), and broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS), have been widely employed as ultra-sensitive methods for the measurement of weak absorptions and in the real-time detection of trace species. In this contribution, we introduce two new cavity enhanced spectroscopic concepts: a) Optomechanical shutter modulated BBCEAS, a variant of BBCEAS capable of measuring optical absorption in pulsed systems with typically low duty cycles. In conventional BBCEAS applications, the latter substantially reduces the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), consequently also reducing the detection sensitivity. To overcome this, we incorporate a fast optomechanical shutter as a time gate, modulating the detection scheme of BBCEAS and increasing the effective duty cycle reaches a value close to unity. This extends the applications of BBCEAS into pulsed samples and also in time-resolved studies. b) Cavity enhanced self-absorption spectroscopy (CESAS), a new spectroscopic concept capable of studying light emitting matter (plasma, flames, combustion samples) simultaneously in absorption and emission. In CESAS, a sample (plasma, flame or combustion source) is located in an optically stable cavity consisting of two high reflectivity mirrors, and here it acts both as light source and absorbing medium. A high detection sensitivity of weak absorption is reached without the need of an external light source, such as a laser or broadband lamp. The performance is illustrated by the first CESAS result on a supersonically expanding hydrocarbon plasma. We expect CESAS to become a generally applicable analytical tool for real time and in situ diagnostics. A. Walsh, D. Zhao, W. Ubachs, H. Linnartz, J. Phys. Chem. A, {dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp310392n}, in press, 2013. A. Walsh, D. Zhao, H. Linnartz Rev. Sci. Instrum. {84}(2), 021608 2013. A. Walsh, D. Zhao

  7. Resolved-Sideband Cooling of Nanomechanical Motion within a Microwave Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufel, John; Harlow, Jennifer; Donner, Tobias; Demoret, Michael; Lehnert, Konrad

    2009-03-01

    We present recent experiments in which we couple the motion of a high-Q nanomechanical oscillator to the microwave fields in a superconducting resonant circuit [1]. This microwave optomechanical system is operated in the resolved-sideband regime in which the mechanical resonance frequency exceeds the cavity bandwidth. In this regime, the dynamical backaction of the microwave radiation further cools the mechanical motion from dilution refrigerator temperatures to even lower thermal occupancy. Recent improvements increase both the optomechanical coupling strength and the power handling capability of the cavity. We report progress toward cooling to the mechanical ground state with this system. [1] J. D. Teufel, J. W. Harlow, C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 197203 (2008).

  8. A Low-Cost Viscometer from an Opto-Mechanical Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doroodmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Maleki, Norooz; Kazemi, Hojjatollah

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and portable viscometer has been designed using an opto-mechanical mouse. The viscosity of a fluid is measured using the infrared light-emitting diodes and the optical diodes of an opto-mechanical mouse. These components are positioned near the top and bottom of a glass tube containing the fluid to be measured. The viscosity…

  9. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, T; Cormick, C; Landa, H; Stojanović, Vladimir M; Demler, E; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26684118

  10. Nanofriction in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, T.; Cormick, C.; Landa, H.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Demler, E.; Morigi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of cold trapped ions in a high-finesse resonator results from the interplay between the long-range Coulomb repulsion and the cavity-induced interactions. The latter are due to multiple scatterings of laser photons inside the cavity and become relevant when the laser pump is sufficiently strong to overcome photon decay. We study the stationary states of ions coupled with a mode of a standing-wave cavity as a function of the cavity and laser parameters, when the typical length scales of the two self-organizing processes, Coulomb crystallization and photon-mediated interactions, are incommensurate. The dynamics are frustrated and in specific limiting cases can be cast in terms of the Frenkel-Kontorova model, which reproduces features of friction in one dimension. We numerically recover the sliding and pinned phases. For strong cavity nonlinearities, they are in general separated by bistable regions where superlubric and stick-slip dynamics coexist. The cavity, moreover, acts as a thermal reservoir and can cool the chain vibrations to temperatures controlled by the cavity parameters and by the ions' phase. These features are imprinted in the radiation emitted by the cavity, which is readily measurable in state-of-the-art setups of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  11. Cavity Control and Cooling of Nanoparticles in High Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millen, James

    2016-05-01

    Levitated systems are a fascinating addition to the world of optically-controlled mechanical resonators. It is predicted that nanoparticles can be cooled to their c.o.m. ground state via the interaction with an optical cavity. By freeing the oscillator from clamping forces dissipation and decoherence is greatly reduced, leading to the potential to produce long-lived, macroscopically spread, mechanical quantum states, allowing tests of collapse models and any mass limit of quantum physics. Reaching the low pressures required to cavity-cool to the ground state has proved challenging. Our approach is to cavity cool a beam of nanoparticles in high vacuum. We can cool the c.o.m. motion of nanospheres, and control the rotation of nanorods, with the potential to produce cold, aligned nanostructures. Looking forward, we will utilize novel microcavities to enhance optomechanical cooling, preparing particles in a coherent beam ideally suited to ultra-high mass interferometry at 107 a.m.u.

  12. Cavity Cooling of Nanoparticles: Towards Matter-Wave experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millen, James; Kuhn, Stefan; Arndt, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Levitated systems are a fascinating addition to the world of optically-controlled mechanical resonators. It is predicted that nanoparticles can be cooled to their c.o.m. ground state via the interaction with an optical cavity. By freeing the oscillator from clamping forces dissipation and decoherence is greatly reduced, leading to the potential to produce long-lived, macroscopically spread, mechanical quantum states, allowing tests of collapse models and any mass limit of quantum physics. Reaching the low pressures required to cavity-cool to the ground state has proved challenging. Our approach is to cavity cool a beam of nanoparticles in high vacuum. We can cool the c.o.m. motion of nanospheres a few hundred nanometers in size. Looking forward, we will utilize novel microcavities to enhance optomechanical cooling, preparing particles in a coherent beam ideally suited to ultra-high mass interferometry at 107 a.m.u.

  13. Optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles in resonant cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Juejun; Lin Shiyun; Crozier, Kenneth; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2010-11-15

    We theoretically investigate the opto-mechanical interactions between a dielectric nanoparticle and the resonantly enhanced optical field inside a high Q, small-mode-volume optical cavity. We develop an analytical method based on open system analysis to account for the resonant perturbation due to particle introduction and predict trapping potential in good agreement with three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations. Strong size-dependent trapping dynamics distinctly different from free-space optical tweezers arise as a consequence of the finite cavity perturbation. We illustrate single nanoparticle trapping from an ensemble of monodispersed particles based on size-dependent trapping dynamics. We further discover that the failure of the conventional dipole approximation in the case of resonant cavity trapping originates from a new perturbation interaction mechanism between trapped particles and spatially localized photons.

  14. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics.

  15. Liquid crystal devices for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2007-11-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) devices for Photonics applications is a hot topic of research. Such elements begin to appear in Photonics market. Passive elements for fiber optical communication systems (DWDM components) based on LC cells can successfully compete with the other elements used for the purpose, such as micro electromechanical (MEM), thermo-optical, opto-mechanical or acousto-optical devices. Application of nematic and ferroelectric LC for high speed communication systems, producing elements that are extremely fast, stable, durable, of low loss, operable over a wide temperature range, and that require small operating voltages and extremely low power consumption. The known LC applications in fiber optics enable to produce switches, filters, attenuators, equalizers, polarization controllers, phase emulators and other fiber optical components. Good robustness due to the absence of moving parts and compatibility with VLSI technology, excellent parameters in a large photonic wavelength range, whereas the complexity of the design and the cost of the device are equivalent to regular passive matrix LC displays makes LC fiber optical devices very attractive for mass production. We have already successfully fabricated certain prototypes of the optical switches based on ferroelectric and nematic LC materials. The electrooptical modes used for the purpose included the light polarization rotation, voltage controllable diffraction and fast switching of the LC refractive index. We used the powerful software to optimize the LC modulation characteristics. Use of photo-alignment technique pioneered by us makes it possible to develop new LC fiber components. Almost all the criteria of perfect LC alignment are met in case of azo-dye layers. We have already used azo-dye materials to align LC in superthin photonic holes, curved and 3D surfaces and as cladding layers in microring silicon based resonators. The prototypes of new LC efficient Photonics devices are envisaged. Controllable

  16. Mechanical bound state in the continuum for optomechanical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Shen, Zhen; Xiong, Xiao; Dong, Chun-Hua; Zou, Chang-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-01

    Clamping loss limits the quality factor of mechanical mode in the optomechanical resonators supported with the supporting stem. Using the mechanical bound state in the continuum (BIC), we have found that the mechanical clamping loss can be avoided. The mechanical quality factor of a microsphere could be achieved up to 108 for a specific radius of the stem, which forms a mechanical BIC with the combination of the symmetry protected mechanism and the single resonance mechanism. Such a mechanism is proved to be universal for different geometries and materials, thus can also be generalized to design high quality mechanical resonators.

  17. Optomechanical spectroscopy with broadband interferometric and quantum cascade laser sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Farahi, R H; Davison, Brian H; Thundat, Thomas George

    2011-01-01

    The spectral tunability of semiconductor-metal multilayer structures can provide a channel for the conversion of light into useful mechanical actuation. Response of suspended silicon, silicon nitride, chromium, gold, and aluminum microstructures is shown to be utilized as a detector for visible and infrared spectroscopy. Both dispersive and interferometric approaches are investigated to delineate the potential use of the structures in spatially resolved spectroscopy and spectrally resolved microscopy. The thermoplasmonic, spectral absorption, interference effects, and the associated energy deposition that contributes to the mechanical response are discussed to describe the optomechanical detection to be of potential importance in future integrated spectrometers.

  18. Fast cooling in dispersively and dissipatively coupled optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The cooling performance of an optomechanical system comprising both dispersive and dissipative coupling is studied. Here, we present a scheme to cool a mechanical resonator to its ground state in finite time using a chirped pulse. We show that there is distinct advantage in using the chirp-pulse scheme to cool a resonator rapidly. The cooling behaviors of dispersively and dissipatively coupled system is also explored with different types of incident pulses and different coupling strengths. Our scheme is feasible in cooling the resonator for a wide range of the parameter region. PMID:25582660

  19. A self-calibrating optomechanical force sensor with femtonewton resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, John; Stirling, Julian; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán; Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A.

    2014-12-01

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive optomechanical sensor designed to improve the accuracy and precision of force measurements with atomic force microscopy. The sensors reach quality factors of 4.3 × 106 and force resolution on the femtonewton scale at room temperature. Self-calibration of the sensor is accomplished using radiation pressure to create a reference force. Self-calibration enables in situ calibration of the sensor in extreme environments, such as cryogenic ultra-high vacuum. The senor technology presents a viable route to force measurements at the atomic scale with uncertainties below the percent level.

  20. Experimental exploration of the optomechanical attractor diagram and its dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Heeck, K.; Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate experimental exploration of the attractor diagram of an optomechanical system where the optical forces compensate for the mechanical losses. In this case stable self-induced oscillations occur but only for specific mirror amplitudes and laser detunings. We demonstrate that we can amplify the mechanical mode to an amplitude 500 times larger than the thermal amplitude at 300 K. The lack of unstable or chaotic motion allows us to manipulate our system into a nontrivial steady state and explore the dynamics of self-induced oscillations in great detail.

  1. Diamond electro-optomechanical resonators integrated in nanophotonic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, P.; Ummethala, S.; Pernice, W. H. P.; Diewald, S.; Lewes-Malandrakis, G.; Brink, D.; Heidrich, N.; Nebel, C.

    2014-12-22

    Diamond integrated photonic devices are promising candidates for emerging applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics. Here, we demonstrate active modulation of diamond nanophotonic circuits by exploiting mechanical degrees of freedom in free-standing diamond electro-optomechanical resonators. We obtain high quality factors up to 9600, allowing us to read out the driven nanomechanical response with integrated optical interferometers with high sensitivity. We are able to excite higher order mechanical modes up to 115 MHz and observe the nanomechanical response also under ambient conditions.

  2. A self-calibrating optomechanical force sensor with femtonewton resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, John Stirling, Julian; Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A.; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán

    2014-12-08

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive optomechanical sensor designed to improve the accuracy and precision of force measurements with atomic force microscopy. The sensors reach quality factors of 4.3 × 10{sup 6} and force resolution on the femtonewton scale at room temperature. Self-calibration of the sensor is accomplished using radiation pressure to create a reference force. Self-calibration enables in situ calibration of the sensor in extreme environments, such as cryogenic ultra-high vacuum. The senor technology presents a viable route to force measurements at the atomic scale with uncertainties below the percent level.

  3. Steady-state entanglement and normal-mode splitting in an atom-assisted optomechanical system with intensity-dependent coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Barzanjeh, Sh.; Naderi, M. H.; Soltanolkotabi, M.

    2011-12-15

    In this paper, we study theoretically bipartite and tripartite continuous variable entanglement as well as normal-mode splitting in a single-atom cavity optomechanical system with intensity-dependent coupling. The system under consideration is formed by a Fabry-Perot cavity with a thin vibrating end mirror and a two-level atom in the Gaussian standing wave of the cavity mode. We first derive the general form of the Hamiltonian describing the tripartite intensity-dependent atom-field-mirror coupling due to the presence of the cavity mode structure. We then restrict our treatment to the first vibrational sideband of the mechanical resonator and derive a tripartite atom-field-mirror Hamiltonian. We show that when the optical cavity is intensely driven, one can generate bipartite entanglement between any pair in the tripartite system and that, due to entanglement sharing, atom-mirror entanglement is efficiently generated at the expense of optical-mechanical and optical-atom entanglement. We also find that in such a system, when the Lamb-Dicke parameter is large enough, one can simultaneously observe the normal mode splitting into three modes.

  4. Optomechanical design of a field-deployable thermal weapon sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Marc-André; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bernier, Sophie; Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Lagacé, François; Laou, Philips

    2007-09-01

    The use of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging technology in Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems produces a unique tool that perfectly fulfills the all-weather, day-and-night vision demands in modern battlefields by significantly increasing the effectiveness and survivability of a dismounted soldier. The main advantage of IR imaging is that no illumination is required; therefore, observation can be accomplished in a passive mode. It is particularly well adapted for target detection even through smoke, dust, fog, haze, and other battlefield obscurants. In collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC Valcartier), INO engineering team developed, produced, and tested a rugged thermal weapon sight. An infrared channel provides for human detection at 800m and recognition at 200m. Technical system requirements included very low overall weight as well as the need to be field-deployable and user-friendly in harsh conditions. This paper describes the optomechanical design and focuses on the catadioptric-based system integration. The system requirements forced the optomechanical engineers to minimize weight while maintaining a sufficient level of rigidity in order to keep the tight optical tolerances. The optical system's main features are: a precision manual focus, a watertight vibration insulated front lens, a bolometer and two gold coated aluminum mirrors. Finite element analyses using ANSYS were performed to validate the subsystems performance. Some of the finite element computations were validated using different laboratory setups.

  5. High-frequency nano-optomechanical disk resonators in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Santos, E.; Baker, C.; Nguyen, D. T.; Hease, W.; Gomez, C.; Lemaître, A.; Ducci, S.; Leo, G.; Favero, I.

    2015-09-01

    Nano- and micromechanical resonators are the subject of research that aims to develop ultrasensitive mass sensors for spectrometry, chemical analysis and biomedical diagnosis. Unfortunately, their merits generally diminish in liquids because of an increased dissipation. The development of faster and lighter miniaturized devices would enable improved performances, provided the dissipation was controlled and novel techniques were available to drive and readout their minute displacement. Here we report a nano-optomechanical approach to this problem using miniature semiconductor disks. These devices combine a mechanical motion at high frequencies (gigahertz and above) with an ultralow mass (picograms) and a moderate dissipation in liquids. We show that high-sensitivity optical measurements allow their Brownian vibrations to be resolved directly, even in the most-dissipative liquids. We investigate their interaction with liquids of arbitrary properties, and analyse measurements in light of new models. Nano-optomechanical disks emerge as probes of rheological information of unprecedented sensitivity and speed, which opens up applications in sensing and fundamental science.

  6. Optomechanical design of the vacuum compatible EXCEDE's mission testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendek, Eduardo A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Lozi, Julien; Schneider, Glenn; Thomas, Sandrine; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Lynch, Dana

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we describe the opto-mechanical design, tolerance error budget an alignment strategies used to build the Starlight Suppression System (SSS) for the Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) NASA's mission. EXCEDE is a highly efficient 0.7m space telescope concept designed to directly image and spatially resolve circumstellar disks with as little as 10 zodis of circumstellar dust, as well as large planets. The main focus of this work was the design of a vacuum compatible opto-mechanical system that allows remote alignment and operation of the main components of the EXCEDE. SSS, which are: a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph to provide high throughput and high contrast at an inner working angle (IWA) equal to the diffraction limit (IWA = 1.2 l/D), a wavefront (WF) control system based on a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System deformable mirror (MEMS DM), and low order wavefront sensor (LOWFS) for fine pointing and centering. We describe in strategy and tolerance error budget for this system, which is especially relevant to achieve the theoretical performance that PIAA coronagraph can offer. We also discuss the vacuum cabling design for the actuators, cameras and the Deformable Mirror. This design has been implemented at the vacuum chamber facility at Lockheed Martin (LM), which is based on successful technology development at the Ames Coronagraph Experiment (ACE) facility.

  7. Cavity piezomechanical strong coupling and frequency conversion on an aluminum nitride chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chang-Ling; Han, Xu; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-07-01

    Schemes to achieve strong coupling between mechanical modes of aluminum nitride microstructures and microwave cavity modes due to the piezoelectric effect are proposed. We show that the strong-coupling regime is feasible for an on-chip aluminum nitride device that is either enclosed by a three-dimensional microwave cavity or integrated with a superconducting coplanar resonator. Combining with optomechanics, the piezomechanical strong coupling permits coherent conversion between microwave and optical modes with high efficiency. Hence, the piezomechanical system will be an efficient transducer for applications in hybrid quantum systems.

  8. Brownian Thermal Noise in Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors and Single Photon Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ting

    . For the future GW detectors, with much lower noises and higher sensitivity, this might be used to investigate the quantum behaviors of macroscopic mechanical objects. In recent years the linear optomechanical systems with cavity modes coupling to a mechanical oscillator have been studied extensively. In the second part of my thesis (Chapter 4), I study the interaction between a single photon and a high-finesse cavity with a movable mirror, in the so-called strong coupling regime, where the recoil of the photon can cause significant change in the momentum of the mirror. The results are applied to analyze the case with a Fabry-Perot cavity. We also present that with engineering the photon wave function, it is possible to prepare the oscillator into an arbitrary quantum state.

  9. Highly stable piezoelectrically tunable optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhle, Katharina; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Döringshoff, Klaus; Nagel, Moritz; Peters, Achim

    2013-05-01

    We have implemented highly stable and tunable frequency references using optical high finesse cavities which incorporate a piezo actuator. As piezo material we used ceramic PZT, crystalline quartz, or PZN-PT single crystals. Lasers locked to these cavities show a relative frequency stability better than 1× 10^{-14}, which is most likely not limited by the piezo actuators. The piezo cavities can be electrically tuned over more than one free spectral range (>1.5 GHz) with only a minor decrease in frequency stability. Furthermore, we present a novel cavity design, where the piezo actuator is prestressed between the cavity spacer components. This design features a hermetically sealable intra cavity volume suitable for, e.g., cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

  10. Optomechanical Quantum Control of a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golter, D. Andrew; Oo, Thein; Amezcua, Mayra; Stewart, Kevin A.; Wang, Hailin

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate optomechanical quantum control of the internal electronic states of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in the resolved-sideband regime by coupling the NV to both optical fields and surface acoustic waves via a phonon-assisted optical transition and by taking advantage of the strong excited-state electron-phonon coupling of a NV center. Optomechanically driven Rabi oscillations as well as quantum interferences between the optomechanical sideband and the direct dipole-optical transitions are realized. These studies open the door to using resolved-sideband optomechanical coupling for quantum control of both the atomlike internal states and the motional states of a coupled NV-nanomechanical system, leading to the development of a solid-state analog of trapped ions.

  11. Optimal control of the power adiabatic stroke of an optomechanical heat engine.

    PubMed

    Bathaee, M; Bahrampour, A R

    2016-08-01

    We consider the power adiabatic stroke of the Otto optomechanical heat engine introduced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150602 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.150602. We derive the maximum extractable work of both optomechanical normal modes in the minimum time while the system experiences quantum friction effects. We show that the total work done by the system in the power adiabatic stroke is optimized by a bang-bang control. The time duration of the power adiabatic stroke is of the order of the inverse of the effective optomechanical-coupling coefficient. The optimal phase-space trajectory of the Otto cycle for both optomechanical normal modes is also obtained. PMID:27627280

  12. Optomechanical Quantum Control of a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond.

    PubMed

    Golter, D Andrew; Oo, Thein; Amezcua, Mayra; Stewart, Kevin A; Wang, Hailin

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate optomechanical quantum control of the internal electronic states of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in the resolved-sideband regime by coupling the NV to both optical fields and surface acoustic waves via a phonon-assisted optical transition and by taking advantage of the strong excited-state electron-phonon coupling of a NV center. Optomechanically driven Rabi oscillations as well as quantum interferences between the optomechanical sideband and the direct dipole-optical transitions are realized. These studies open the door to using resolved-sideband optomechanical coupling for quantum control of both the atomlike internal states and the motional states of a coupled NV-nanomechanical system, leading to the development of a solid-state analog of trapped ions. PMID:27104709

  13. Optomechanical nanoantenna: far-field control of near-field through mechanical reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Alireza; Brown, Robert L.; Jang, Sung Jun; Fathipour, Vala; Hassani Nia, Iman; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    We have introduce optomechanical nanoantennae, which showed dramatic changes in scattering properties by minuscule changes in geometry. These structures are very compact, with a volume 500 times smaller than free space optical wavelength volume. Through these optical elements, far-field can directly control the near-field of antenna by mechanical reconfiguration. Here we present the functionality of the optomechanical nanoantenna and challenges in fabricating and measuring these devices.

  14. Inhibited emission of electromagnetic modes confined in subwavelength cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Le Thomas, N.; Houdre, R.

    2011-07-15

    We experimentally demonstrate the active inhibition of subwavelength confined cavity modes emission and quality factor enhancement by controlling the cavity optical surrounding. The intrinsic radiation angular spectrum of modes confined in planar photonics crystal cavities as well as its modifications depending on the environment are inferred via a transfer matrix modeling and k-space imaging.

  15. The PMAS Telescope Module: Opto-mechanical Design and Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Martin M.; Laux, Uwe; Kelz, Andreas; Dionies, Frank

    2003-02-01

    PMAS, the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer, has a modular layout which was intended to provide for flexible operation as a travelling instrument and to accomodate different telescopes. The Telescope Module is the part of the instrument which serves the purpose of mechanical and optical interfacing to the telescope. It contains optical systems to re-image the telescope focal plane onto the lens array, to illuminate the lens array from an internal calibration light source, and to observe an area around the 3D spectroscopy field-of-view with a cryogenic CCD system for acquisition, guiding, and for the simultaneous determination of point-spread-function templates for 3D deconvolution. We discuss the opto-mechanical design and manufacture of these subsystems.

  16. Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Gregory; Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the effects of laser phase noise on the sideband cooling of opto-mechanical oscillators, demonstrating how it limits the minimum occupation number of the phonon mode being cooled and how it modifies optical cooling rate and mechanical frequency shift of the mechanical element. We also comment on the effects of laser phase noise on coherent oscillations of the mechanical element in the blue detuned regime and on the back-action evasion detection method where an additional drive is used to prevent heating of one quadrature of motion of the oscillator. This work was supported by the US Office of Naval Research, the US National Science Foundation, the US Army Research Office and the DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  17. Quantum synchronization in an optomechanical system based on Lyapunov control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-06-01

    We extend the concepts of quantum complete synchronization and phase synchronization, which were proposed in A. Mari et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 103605 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.103605, to more widespread quantum generalized synchronization. Generalized synchronization can be considered a necessary condition or a more flexible derivative of complete synchronization, and its criterion and synchronization measure are proposed and analyzed in this paper. As examples, we consider two typical generalized synchronizations in a designed optomechanical system. Unlike the effort to construct a special coupling synchronization system, we purposefully design extra control fields based on Lyapunov control theory. We find that the Lyapunov function can adapt to more flexible control objectives, which is more suitable for generalized synchronization control, and the control fields can be achieved simply with a time-variant voltage. Finally, the existence of quantum entanglement in different generalized synchronizations is also discussed.

  18. Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States.

    PubMed

    Abdi, M; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P; Sameti, M; Navarrete-Benlloch, C; Hartmann, M J

    2016-06-10

    The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition. PMID:27341233

  19. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    PubMed

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology. PMID:27152787

  20. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.