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1

Chemical cystitis due to crystal violet dye: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Crystal violet was commonly used for the treatment of oral and vaginal candidiasis or for sterilization during operations up to the 1960s. Because crystal violet is potentially toxic to mucosal membranes, it has been replaced with other disinfectants, and crystal violet is rarely used. We report a case of chemical cystitis due to intravesical instillation of crystal violet dye. Case presentation Crystal violet dye was instilled into the bladder of a 47-year-old Japanese woman to confirm the presence of a vesicovaginal fistula. Our patient developed symptoms of gross hematuria, frequent urination and lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed thickening of her whole bladder wall with spotted high-density lesions. Cystoscopy demonstrated desquamated epithelial cells and a hemorrhagic bladder wall. We treated our patient conservatively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids. During follow-up, magnetic resonance images showed that the detrusor muscle of her bladder was normal. Our patient’s symptoms gradually improved and she completely recovered within six months. Conclusion Considering the severe side effect of crystal violet, it would be better not to use this dye to examine conditions such as a vesicovaginal fistula. Magnetic resonance imaging may help to evaluate the level of damage in the bladder wall of patients with chemical cystitis.

2013-01-01

2

Photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of Crystal Violet (Basic Violet 3) and Methyl Red dye in aqueous suspensions using Ag + doped TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of two dyes: Crystal Violet (CV), also known as C.I. Basic Violet 3, which is a cationic triphenylmethane dye and Methyl Red (MR), which is an anionic azo dye was studied using untreated TiO2 and silver ion doped TiO2 under UV irradiation. To increase the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 and to make its separation

A. K. Gupta; Anjali Pal; C. Sahoo

2006-01-01

3

Triphenylmethanes, malachite green and crystal violet dyes decolourisation by Sphingomonas paucimobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Gram negative bacterium,Sphingomonas paucimobilis, was used to test its ability to decolourise two triphenylmethane dyes: malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in mineral\\u000a salts medium (MSM). Decolourisation was examined with dye concentrations (2.5, 5, 15, 25, 30 and 50 mg\\/l), glucose (0, 1.4,\\u000a 2.8, 4.2, 5.6 and 7 mM) and yeast extract concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.10,

Jihane Cheriaa; Amina Bakhrouf

2009-01-01

4

Crystal Violet as a Mode-Locker of the Rhodamine 6G Dye Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of crystal violet to mode-lock the rhodamine 6G laser is reported. The relaxation time of crystal violet is solvent dependent. The manner in which the mode-locking is affected by varying this relaxation time is described. A 2 mm path of a .000...

D. A. Cremers M. W. Windsor

1977-01-01

5

Multiresidue method for the triphenylmethane dyes in fish: Malachite green, crystal (gentian) violet, and brilliant green  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid chromatographic methods are presented for the quantitative and confirmatory determination of crystal violet (CV; also known as gentian violet), leucocrystal violet (LCV), brilliant green (BG), and leucobrilliant green (LBG) in catfish. LCV and LBG were oxidized to the chromic CV and BG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and residues were measured as the combined CV±LCV and BG±LBG. These methods are

Wendy C. Andersen; Sherri B. Turnipseed; Christine M. Karbiwnyk; Rebecca H. Lee; Susan B. Clark; W. Douglas Rowe; Mark R. Madson; Keith E. Miller

2009-01-01

6

Decolorization of Crystal Violet Solution by Electrocoagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocoagulation (EC) was tested as an alternative method for satisfactory removal of crystal violet dye (CI 42555) from aqueous medium. A batch electrocoagulation unit was considered using aluminum sheet as electrode. Important parameters (like; current density, initial dye concentration, initial pH, interelectrode distance and quantity of different salts) that affect the extent of crystal violet removal were studied in detail.

D. Ghosh; C. R. Medhi; H. Solanki; M. K. Purkait

7

Study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Alizarin and Crystal Violet Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plays a vital role in analytical chemistry to characterize ultra trace quantity of organic compounds and biological samples. Two mechanisms have been considered to explain the SERS effect. The main contribution arises from a huge enhancement of the local electromagnetic field close to surface roughness of the metal structures, due to the excitation of a localized surface plasmon, while a further enhancement can be observed for molecules adsorbed onto specific sites when resonant charge transfer occurs. SERS signals have been observed from adsorbates on many metallic surfaces like Ag, Au, Ni, Cu etc. Additionally, metal oxide nanoparticles also show SERS signals It has now been established that SERS of analyte material is highly dependent on the type of substrate involved. Many types of nanostructures like nanofilms, nanorods, nanospheres etc. show highly efficient SERS signals. In particular, there are two routes available for the synthesis of these nanomaterials: the chemical route and the physical route. Chemical route involves many types of reducing agents and capping agents which can interfere in origin and measurement of these signals. The physical route avoids these anomalies and therefore it is suitable for the study of SERS phenomenon. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is an excellent top down technique to produce colloidal solution of nanoparticles with desired shape and size having surface free from chemical contamination, which is essential requirement for surface application of nanoparticles. The present work deals with the study of SERS of Crystal violet dye and Alizarin group dye on Cu@ Cu_2O and Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation. M. Fleishchmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillian Chem. Phys. Lett., 26, 163, 1974. U. Wenning, B. Pettinger, and H. Wetzel Chem. Phys. Lett., 70, 49, 1980. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, P. Ankit, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc., 1075, 67, 2008. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, and R. Gopal J. Nanosci.. Nanotech., 9, 5367, 2009. R. K. Swarnkar, S. C. Singh, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc., 1147, 205, 2009.

Gopal, Ram; Swarnkar, Raj Kumar

2010-06-01

8

Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism modeling and simulation of basic and acid dyes sorption onto jute fiber carbon: Eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet single component systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto jute fiber carbon (JFC). The operating variables studied are the initial dye concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson isotherm by non-linear regression method. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the

K. Porkodi; K. Vasanth Kumar

2007-01-01

9

Picosecond Internal Conversion in Crystal Violet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of measurements made using the second harmonic of a mode-locked Nd(3+) laser, the authors demonstrate that the efficient quenching of the lowest excited singlet state in the dye, crystal violet involves rapid repopulation of the ground state ...

D. Magde M. W. Windsor

1973-01-01

10

Decolorization of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet by Waterborne Pathogenic Mycobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium chelonae tolerate high concentrations of the dyes malachite green and crystal violet. Cells of strains of those species decolorized (reduced) both malachite green and crystal violet. Because decolorized malachite green lacked antimicrobial activity, the resistance of these mycobacteria could be due, in part, to their ability to decolorize the dyes.

Jefferson J. Jones; Joseph O. Falkinham

2003-01-01

11

Response surface optimization of a dynamic dye adsorption process: a case study of crystal violet adsorption onto NaOH-modified rice husk.  

PubMed

The adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by NaOH-modified rice husk was investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed column. A two-level three factor (2(3)) full factorial central composite design with the help of Design Expert Version 7.1.6 (Stat Ease, USA) was used for optimisation of the dynamic dye adsorption process and evaluation of interaction effects of different operating parameters: initial dye concentration (100-200 mg L(-1)), flow rate (10-30 mL min(-1)) and bed height (5-25 cm). A correlation coefficient (R (2)) value of 0.999, model F value of 1,936.59 and its low p value (<0.0001) along with lower value of coefficient of variation (1.38 %) indicated the fitness of the response surface quadratic model developed during the present study. Numerical optimisation applying desirability function was used to identify the optimum conditions for a targeted breakthrough time of 12 h. The optimum conditions were found to be initial solution pH=8.00, initial dye concentration=100 mg L(-1), flow rate=22.88 mL min(-1) and bed height=18.75 cm. A confirmatory experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimised procedure. Under the optimised conditions, breakthrough appeared after 12.2 h and the column efficiency was determined as 99 %. The Thomas model showed excellent fit to the dynamic dye adsorption data obtained from the confirmatory experiment. Thereby, it was concluded that the current investigation gives valuable insights for designing and establishing a continuous wastewater treatment plant. PMID:22648351

Chowdhury, Shamik; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Saha, Papita Das

2012-05-31

12

Crystal violet: Study of the photo-fading of an early synthetic dye in aqueous solution and on paper with HPLC-PDA, LC-MS and FORS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photo-fading of crystal violet (CV), one of the earliest synthetic dyes and an ink component, is examined both in solution and on paper. Aqueous solutions of CV were exposed to UV light (365nm) and samples were taken at constant time intervals and analysed with a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array (HPLC-PDA) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS). Demethylation products were positively identified. Also, deamination probably occurred. The oxidation at the central carbon likely generates Michler's ketone (MK) or its derivatives, but still needs confirmation. To study CV on paper, Whatman paper was immersed in CV and exposed to UV light. Before and after different irradiation periods, reflectance spectra were recorded with Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectrophotometry (FORS). A decrease in CV concentration and a change in aggregation type for CV molecules upon irradiation was observed. Colorimetric L*a*b* values before and during irradiation were also measured. Also, CV was extracted from paper before and after different irradiation periods and analysed with HPLC-PDA. Photo-fading of CV on paper produced the same products as in solution, at least within the first 100 hours of irradiation. Finally, a photo-fading of CV in the presence of MK on Whatman paper was performed. It was demonstrated that MK both accelerates CV degradation and is consumed during the reaction. The degradation pathway identified in this work is suitable for explaining the photo/fading of other dyes belonging to the triarylmethane group.

Confortin, Daria; Neevel, Han; Brustolon, Marina; Franco, Lorenzo; Kettelarij, Albert J.; Williams, Renč M.; van Bommel, Maarten R.

2010-06-01

13

Photocatalytic degradation of Crystal Violet (C.I. Basic Violet 3) on silver ion doped TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of Crystal Violet, a triphenyl methane dye (also known as Basic Violet 3) in aqueous solutions was investigated with Ag+ doped TiO2 under UV and simulated solar light. The dye degradation using untreated TiO2 and Ag+ doped TiO2 was compared. It was found that Ag+ doped TiO2 is slightly more efficient. Ag+ doping was done also to

C. Sahoo; A. K. Gupta; Anjali Pal

2005-01-01

14

IncP-1? plasmids of Comamonas sp. and Delftia sp. strains isolated from a wastewater treatment plant mediate resistance to and decolorization of the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet.  

PubMed

The application of toxic triphenylmethane dyes such as crystal violet (CV) in various industrial processes leads to large amounts of dye-contaminated sludges that need to be detoxified. Specific bacteria residing in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are able to degrade triphenylmethane dyes. The objective of this work was to gain insights into the genetic background of bacterial strains capable of CV degradation. Three bacterial strains isolated from a municipal WWTP harboured IncP-1? plasmids mediating resistance to and decolorization of CV. These isolates were assigned to the genera Comamonas and Delftia. The CV-resistance plasmid pKV29 from Delftia sp. KV29 was completely sequenced. In addition, nucleotide sequences of the accessory regions involved in conferring CV resistance were determined for plasmids pKV11 and pKV36 from the other two isolates. Plasmid pKV29 contains typical IncP-1? backbone modules that are highly similar to those of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids that confer antibiotic resistance, degradative capabilities or mercury resistance. The accessory regions located between the conjugative transfer (tra) and mating pair formation modules (trb) of all three plasmids analysed share common modules and include a triphenylmethane reductase gene, tmr, that is responsible for decolorization of CV. Moreover, these accessory regions encode other enzymes that are dispensable for CV degradation and hence are involved in so-far-unknown metabolic pathways. Analysis of plasmid-mediated degradation of CV in Escherichia coli by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS revealed that leuco crystal violet was the first degradation product. Michler's ketone and 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde appeared as secondary degradation metabolites. Enzymes encoded in the E. coli chromosome seem to be responsible for cleavage of leuco crystal violet. Plasmid-mediated degradation of triphenylmethane dyes such as CV is an option for the biotechnological treatment of sludges contaminated with these dyes. PMID:22653947

Stolze, Yvonne; Eikmeyer, Felix; Wibberg, Daniel; Brandis, Gerrit; Karsten, Christina; Krahn, Irene; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Viehöver, Prisca; Barsch, Aiko; Keck, Matthias; Top, Eva M; Niehaus, Karsten; Schlüter, Andreas

2012-05-31

15

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed Central

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet.

Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

1988-01-01

16

BAM R16: Crystal Violet Stain (for Bacteria)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R16: Crystal Violet Stain (for Bacteria). January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R16 Crystal Violet Stain (for Bacteria). ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

17

Metachromasy of crystal violet in the presence of poly(alpha-L-glutamic acid) and the bound-dye spectra determined by the principal/component-analysis method.  

PubMed

In order to study quantitatively the metachromatic behaviour of crystal violet (CV) in the presence of poly (alpha-L-glutamic acid), (poly (Glu)), four sets of the absorption spectra of the poly(Glu)-CV system were analyzed by the extended principal-component-analysis (PCA) method. Two classes of CV-Glu complexes, i.e., the bound-CV species, are present in poly(Glu) regardless of its helical and random-coiled conformations over a wide range of the mixing ratios of Glu residues to CV (P/D). The spectra of the bound CV in a low P/D range < 100 (complex I), extracted by the PCA method, are conformation-dependent showing three absorption bands at 506, ca. 550, and 610-620 nm. The spectra of the bound CV in a high P/D range > 100 (complex II) are closely related to, but not identical with, the free CV. The molar fractions of free CV and complexes I and II, evaluated in the P/D range of 0-150, indicate that CV binds more to the random-coiled poly(Glu) than to the helical one. Metachromasy of CV results from a complicated interplay of an unbound and two differently bound species. PMID:17000154

Yamaoka, K; Matsuda, T

1980-10-01

18

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

1988-01-01

19

Crystal violet staining to quantify Candida adhesion to epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In vitro studies of adhesion capability are essential to characterise the virulence of Candida species. However, the assessment of adhesion by traditional methods is time-consuming. The aim of the present study is the development of a simple methodology using crystal violet staining to quantify in vitro adhesion of different Candida species to epithelial cells. The experiments are performed using Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), C. glabrata (ATCC 2001), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) and C. tropicalis (ATCC 750). A human urinary bladder epithelial cell line (TCC-SUP) is used. Yeast and epithelial cells were stained with crystal violet, epithelial cells were then destained using intermediate washing, and the dye in the yeast cells was extracted with acetic acid. The method was validated for the different Candida reference species by comparison with traditional microscope observation and enumeration. The method was then used to assess Candida adhesion to epithelial cells and also to silicone. For all Candida spp. high correlation values (r2= 0.9724-0.9997) between the number of adherent yeasts (microscope enumeration) and absorbance values were obtained for an inoculum concentration >10(6) cells/mL. The proposed technique was easy to perform and reproducible, enabling the determination of adhesion ability of Candida species to an epithelial cell line. PMID:20973406

Negri, M; Gonçalves, V; Silva, S; Henriques, M; Azeredo, J; Oliveira, R

2010-01-01

20

Bioremediation of crystal violet using air bubble bioreactor packed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Seven water and sediment samples were collected and tested for decolorizing crystal violet. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most effective isolate for dye decolorization. The LC50 of the crystal violet (115 mg/l) was measured using Artemia salina as a biomarker. The effect of different heavy metals on crystal violet decolorization was investigated. Cd2+ and Fe3+ ions showed marginal enhancement of the decolorization process, the rate was 1.35 mg/l/h compared to (1.25 mg/l/h) for the control. Phenol and m-cresol showed no effect on crystal violet decolorization, meanwhile p-cresol and p-nitrophenol reduced the decolorization rate to 1.07 and 0.01 mg/l/h, respectively. P. aeruginosa cells were immobilized by entrapment in agar-alginate beads. The beads were cultivated and reused in Erlenmeyer flask and in an air bubble column bioreactor and they enhanced the crystal violet decolorization rate to 3.33 and 7.5 mg/l/h, respectively. PMID:16316674

Manal, M A; El-Naggar, Samy; El-Aasar, A; Barakat Khlood, I

2005-11-28

21

Bioremediation of crystal violet using air bubble bioreactor packed with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Seven water and sediment samples were collected and tested for decolorizing crystal violet. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most effective isolate for dye decolorization. The LC(50) of the crystal violet (115 mg/l) was measured using Artemia salina as a biomarker. The effect of different heavy metals on crystal violet decolorization was investigated. Cd(2+) and Fe(3+) ions showed marginal enhancement of the decolorization process, the rate was 1.35 mg/l/h compared to 1.25 mg/l/h for the control. Phenol and m-cresol showed no effect on crystal violet decolorization, meanwhile p-cresol and p-nitrophenol reduced the decolorization rate to 1.07 and 0.01 mg/l/h, respectively. P. aeruginosa cells were immobilized by entrapment in agar-alginate beads. The beads were cultivated and reused in Erlenmeyer flask and in an air bubble column bioreactor and they enhanced the crystal violet decolorization rate to 3.33 and 7.5 mg/l/h, respectively. PMID:15556206

El-Naggar, Manal A; El-Aasar, Samy A; Barakat, Khlood I

2004-12-01

22

SERS and DFT study of crystal violet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six silver colloids were prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate with different amounts of sodium citrate. The obtained silver colloids were characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of these silver colloids were investigated using crystal violet (CV) as a SERS probe. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the level of B3LYP, the Raman spectra and the optimised geometry of CV were analysed. The results show that the sodium citrate content strongly influences the sizes, zeta potentials and SERS activities of the silver colloids. As the sodium citrate content increases in the preparation of silver colloids, the mean diameters of the silver nanoparticles decrease. The most intense SERS of CV on the silver colloids is obtained when 3 mL of 1% sodium citrate is used. CV has D3 point group symmetry, and the Raman vibrational modes belong to A1 or E irreducible representations. The non-totally symmetric vibrational modes E are selectively enhanced in the SERS of CV through a Herzberg-Teller vibronic coupling mechanism, indicating a considerable charge transfer between CV and the silver nanoparticles.

Meng, Wei; Hu, Fang; Zhang, Ling-Yan; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Lu-De; Wang, Xin

2013-03-01

23

TOXICITY OF AN ANTHRAQUINONE VIOLET DYE MIXTURE FOLLOWING INHALATION EXPOSURE, INTRACHEAL INSTILLATION, OR GAVAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthraquinone dyes in a variety of functions from drug formulations fabric colorative to area markings as might be used of the military. he effects of a prototype violet dye mixture (VDM) consisting of: Disperse Red 11 (DR11) 1,4-diamino-2-methoxy-anthraquinone and Disperse Blue ...

24

[NBI magnifying endoscopic classification using crystal violet staining].  

PubMed

NBI magnifying imaging with crystal violet (CV-NBI magnifying imaging) makes recognition of micro-vascular pattern and grandular structure in the gastric mucosa better. NBI image emphasizes micro-vascular structure in mucosal surface. Magnification endoscopy with crystal violet staining delineates surface grandular structure better than without it. Crystal violet stained epithelium is clearly observed as cobalt green with NBI imaging. In the classification of CV-NBI magnification findings, 71% of differentiated type lesion was classified into ILL (intralobular loop pattern), and the rest (29%) was diagnosed as FNP (fine network pattern) which was originally advocated by Nakayoshi, et al. ILL is the new category of magnifying endoscopy. ILL corresponded mainly to differentiated-type adenocarcinoma, but it also includes undifferentiated-type adenocarcinoma. Corkscrew pattern is corresponding well to undifferentiated-type adnocarcinoma (Nakayoshi, et al). CV-NBI magnifying classification is considered to be related to tissue characterization in gastric cancer. PMID:18464526

Inoue, Haruhiro; Kodama, Kenta; Minami, Hitomi; Wada, Yoshiki; Kaga, Makoto; Sato, Yoshitaka; Sugaya, Satoshi; Kudo, Sinei

2008-05-01

25

Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by the White Rot Fungus 'Phanerochaete chrysosporium'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification...

J. A. Bumpus B. J. Brock

1988-01-01

26

TiO 2-mediated photocatalytic degradation of a triphenylmethane dye (gentian violet), in aqueous suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiO2-mediated photocatalytic degradation of a triphenylmethane dye (gentian violet, 1), was investigated in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide under a variety of conditions. The degradation was studied by monitoring the change in substrate concentration employing UV-spectroscopic analysis and decrease in total organic carbon (TOC) content as a function of irradiation time. The degradation of dye was studied under a variety

M. Saquib; M. Muneer

2003-01-01

27

Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of cationic methyl violet and methylene blue dyes onto sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents was investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Sepiolite was used as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet (MV) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The rate of adsorption was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, ionic strength,

Mehmet Do?an; Yasemin Özdemir; Mahir Alkan

2007-01-01

28

Modeling of crystal violet adsorption by bottom ash column.  

PubMed

The removal of crystal violet from wastewater, by means of bottom ash, was investigated in a packed bed down-flow column. The bed depth service time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data up to breakthrough time (corresponding to C(t)/C(0) = 0.1). A mass transfer model was used to analyze the mass transfer zone. The breakthrough curve was analyzed by the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Clark models. All models fit well with the experimental data. Results showed that as the flow rate increases, at a constant concentration and bed depth, the value of the adsorption capacity of bottom ash decreases. The adsorption capacity of bottom ash decreases with an increase in depth and initial crystal violet concentration. Error analyses were performed for the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Clark models. Water PMID:23833812

Nidheesh, P V; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Singh, T S Anantha

2013-06-01

29

Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

Allen, J. L.; Meinertz ,J. R.

1991-01-01

30

BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

31

Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of the adsorption of crystal violet by activated carbon from peanut shells.  

PubMed

The adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions onto an activated carbon prepared from peanut shells was analyzed in this study. The effects of particle size, initial concentration, time and temperature on crystal violet removal were studied in batch experiments. Experimental results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 100 min for all studied concentrations. Analysis of adsorption results showed that the adsorption isotherms could be well fitted to the Langmuir model. Kinetic parameters, rate constants, equilibrium adsorption capacities and related correlation coefficients for pseudo first-order and second-order kinetic models were calculated and discussed. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetics was in good agreement with the pseudo second-order equation. Thermodynamic parameters such as the change of Gibbs free energy (?G°), change of enthalpy (?H°) and change of entropy (?S°) have also been determined and it has been found that the adsorption process should be spontaneous, endothermic and physisorption in nature. PMID:23306250

Zhang, J X; Ou, L L

2013-01-01

32

A visible dye-based staining method for DNA in polyacrylamide gels by ethyl violet.  

PubMed

We describe a visible dye-based staining method for DNA in polyacrylamide gels using ethyl violet (EV). The novel method is a background-free, sensitive, economical, and simple procedure involving only staining and washing steps that can be completed within 30 min. As little as 0.8-1.6 ng of phiX174 DNA/HaeIII can be detected by EV, which is about eightfold more sensitive than Nile blue (NB) stain and twofold less sensitive than ethidium bromide (EB) stain. PMID:20230772

Cong, Wei-Tao; Zhu, Zhong-Xin; He, Hong-Zhang; Jin, Yan; Jiang, Cheng-Xi; Choi, Jung-Kap; Jin, Li-Tai; Li, Xiao-Kun

2010-03-15

33

Molecular Spectra and Optical Relaxation of Oxazine Dyes Nile Blue and Cresyl Violet.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using fluorescence-line-narrowing and hole-burning techniques I obtain molecular spectra of the oxazine dye nile blue at 5 K under a wide range of experimental conditions. These data are analyzed by constructing a single site molecular lineshape function and the corresponding 0-0 transition frequency distribution which, taken together, enable me to explain the various results. I also perform time-delayed-four-wave-mixing experiments (TDFWM) on nile blue and cresyl violet at 5 K using incoherent laser radiation. The response depends dramatically on the bandwidth and frequency of the radiation source. Fast (femtosecond) and slow (picosecond) processes, variable peak shifts, and type I and II quantum beats are observed in varying degrees according to the character of the laser excitation. I calculate the TDFWM response of nile blue on the basis of the single site lineshape function and the inhomogeneous distribution function with information from fluorescence-line-narrowing and hole-burning experiments and find that I can explain the wide range of behavior observed here. TDFWM experiments are also carried out on nile blue and cresyl violet at room temperature, using an intense incoherent laser. The response contains a modulated component which bears no relation to the dyes' energy level structures. I explain the observed modulation as a result of a destructive interference between induced high order polarizations. This modulation is a consequence of irradiating the sample at high intensities and, in contrast to modulation arising from quantum beats, disappears when the intensity of the laser excitation is reduced.

Zhang, Yiping

1995-01-01

34

Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

2013-05-01

35

Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures. Tumorigenicity studies of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dyes in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis Bioassay System  

SciTech Connect

The tumorigenicities of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dye were tested in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Bioassay System. The Diesel Fuel-2 gave a signigificant tumor response when tested as a tumor promoter but negative results when tested as a complete carcinogen. There were no tumor responses to either the Red or Violet Smoke Dyes when tested as a complete carcinogens. Although a few tumors occurred in the Red and Violet Smoke Dye tumor initiation studies, the response was not significantly different from that of the controls. 29 refs., 10 tabs.

Slaga, T.J.; Triplett, L.L.; Fry, R.J.M.

1985-09-01

36

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 3, and Basic Violet 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic Violet 3, Basic Violet 1, and Basic Violet 4 are triphenylmethane dyes that function as direct (nonoxidative) hair colorants. No current uses or use concentrations in cosmetics are reported. The term Gentian Violet is used synonymously with Basic Violet 1 and Basic Violet 3, although the chemical structures of these 2 dyes are not the same. The Cosmetic Ingredient

Catherine Diamante; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Curtis D. Klaassen; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder; F. Alan Andersen

2009-01-01

37

Orange peel as an adsorbent in the removal of Acid violet 17 (acid dye) from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of orange peel in adsorbing Acid violet 17 from aqueous solutions has been studied as a function of agitation time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and pH. The adsorption follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity Q0 was 19.88 mg\\/g at initial pH 6.3. The equilibrium time was found to be 80 min for 10, 20,

Rajeshwari Sivaraj; C Namasivayam; K Kadirvelu

2001-01-01

38

Circular dichroic and spectrophotometric probes of the competitive binding of crystal violet between DNA and other anionic polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the two synthetic polyanions poly-(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly-(vinyl sulfate) (PVS), the latter induces sharper metachromasia in the cationic dye crystal violet (CV); DNA, however, fails to induce metachromasia in the dye. Contrary to speculation, DNA binds CV, though a nonintercalating dye, rather strongly and holds a portion of the dye even in the presence of PSS or PVS, which induces strong metachromasia. Induced circular dichroism (ICD) in CV by DNA shows that DNA binds CV, and partial reduction of ellipticity of DNA-CV by PVS shows that CV distributes itself between the two polyanions. DNA is shown to be the winner in the competitive binding of CV even with the strong polyanion heparin (Hep) as the competitor. This has been interpreted as being due to the binding of CV to DNA, primarily by ionic attraction stabilized further by nonionic forces like H-bonding in the grooves of DNA. Quantitative estimations of the association constants of DNA-CV and PVS-CV by Scatchard plot come to 0.74 × 10 6 and 1.28 × 10 6 mol -1, respectively.

Pal, Medini Kanta; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

1994-01-01

39

[Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].  

PubMed

By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased. PMID:24066559

Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

2013-06-01

40

The optical properties of triphenylmethane dye molecules and chromogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial dye monomers, including malachite green, crystal violet, brilliant green, and methyl violet, were isolated by extraction with the use of heptane. UV light absorption bands characteristic of pure molecules were determined. The molecules of the dyes studied, which were ion pairs (formed by dye cations and oxalate or chlorine anions), did not absorb light in the visible range; that

Yu. A. Mikheev; L. N. Guseva; Yu. A. Ershov

2008-01-01

41

Biodegradation of crystal violet using Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V immobilized on PVA-sodium alginate-kaolin gel beads.  

PubMed

The strain, Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V was immobilized on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads as a biomaterial to improve the degradation of crystal violet from aqueous solution. The results show that 98.6% (30 mg L(-1)) crystal violet was removed from aqueous solution using immobilized cells on PVA-alginate-kaolin gel beads, while 94.0% crystal violet was removed by free cells after degradation at the pH 5 and 30°C for 30 h. Kinetics studies show that the pseudo-second-order kinetics well described the adsorption of crystal violet on the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Biodegradation of crystal violet on immobilized cells was fitted well by first-order reaction kinetics, indicating that CV was adsorbed onto kaolin and followed their degradation by immobilized cells onto the the PVA-alginate-kaolin beads. Characterization with SEM shows that cells attached well to the surface of PVA-alginate-kaolin beads, leading to improved crystal violet transfer from aqueous solution to immobilized cells. In addition, UV-vis show that the absorption peak at 588 nm was reduced by the degraded N-bond linkages, as well as the formation of degrading products were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). These results suggest that crystal violet was biodegraded to N,N-dimethylaminophenol and Michler's Ketone prior to these intermediates being further degraded. PMID:22789742

Cheng, Ying; Lin, HongYan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

2012-07-11

42

Electrochemical degradation of crystal violet with BDD electrodes: effect of electrochemical parameters and identification of organic by-products.  

PubMed

This paper explores the applicability of electrochemical oxidation on a triphenylmethane dye compound model, hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (or crystal violet, CV), using BDD anodes. The effect of the important electrochemical parameters: current density (2.5-15 m A cm(-2)), dye concentration (33-600 mg L(-1)), sodium sulphate concentration (7.1-50.0 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-11) on the efficiency of the electrochemical process was evaluated. The results indicated that while the current density was lower than the limiting current density, no side products (hydrogen peroxide, peroxodisulphate, ozone and chlorinated oxidizing compounds) were generated and the degradation, through OH radical attack, occurred with high efficiency. Analysis of intermediates using GC-MS investigation identified several products: N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N-methylaniline, 4-dimethylaminophenol, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) diphenylmethane, 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) benzophenone. The presence of these aromatic structures showed that the main CV degradation pathway is related to the reaction of CV with the OH radical. Under optimal conditions, practically 100% of the initial substrate and COD were eliminated in approximately 35 min of electrolysis; indicating that the early CV by-products were completely degraded by the electrochemical system. PMID:20709357

Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E; Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L; Peńuela, Gustavo; González, Ignacio; Nava, Jose L; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

2010-08-14

43

Batch and continuous (fixed-bed column) biosorption of crystal violet by Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder.  

PubMed

In this study, batch and fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder (JLP) to remove crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption studies were carried out as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. The biosorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 43.39 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0, initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1), temperature=293 K and contact time=120 min. According to Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of CV by JLP was chemisorption. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that biosorption of CV from aqueous solution by JLP was a spontaneous and exothermic process. In order to ascertain the practical applicability of the biosorbent, fixed-bed column studies were also performed. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model as well as the BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental results at all the process parameters studied. It can be concluded that JLP is a promising biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions. PMID:22221460

Saha, Papita Das; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik

2011-12-19

44

Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) dye from aqueous solutions  

PubMed Central

In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) by ultraviolet radiation (UV), ultrasonic irradiation (US), UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz) plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%), US (<6%) and US/H2O2(<15%) processes were negligible for this kind of dye. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dyestuffs concentrations was found to fit all the experimental data.

2012-01-01

45

Fundamental Measurements on an Aggregated Dye Liquid Crystal: Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematic liquid crystal phase is a phase of matter in which the particles have a preferred orientational direction, as opposed to the liquid phase, with no preferred di- rection, and the solid crystal phase, with an ordered lattice structure. In an aggregated dye, or chromonic, liquid crystal, molecules aggregate together, and the aggregates form a liquid crystal. Aggregated dyes

Viva R. Horowitz

46

Triplet and SERS study of crystal violet in presence of metal nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that triplet of methylene blue gets quenched by Au nanoparticles (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 6298). Herein, we have shown that the reactivity of triplet crystal violet (CV), produced by ionizing radiation, is low towards Ag nanoparticles contrary to Au nanoparticles. Using absorption and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) we have further examined the interaction of CV with Ag and Au nanoparticles. It has been shown that the polarizability of CV changes with the excitation wavelength and it is independent of metal nanoparticles.

Chadha, Ridhima; Maiti, Nandita; Kapoor, Sudhir

2013-07-01

47

Visible absorption spectra of crystal violet in supercritical ethane - methanol solution.  

SciTech Connect

The effects of concentration and mole fraction of methanol in supercritical ethane on the absorption spectra of crystal violet (CV) were examined. Keeping the concentration of CV in the cell constant at 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1}, both the methanol concentration (from 0.4 to 1.2 mol l{sup -1}) and pressure of ethane (from 60 to 150 bar) were varied. The degree of solvation of CV depends both on the mole fraction and concentration of cosolvent. The dimerization of CV was found to decrease with pressure, and with the ratio between methanol and CV concentrations.

Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

2002-11-01

48

Influence of Cationic Triphenylmethane Dyes upon DNA Polymerization and Product Hydrolysis by Escherichia coli Polymerase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cationic triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, methyl green, and malachite green inhibited DNA synthesis catalyzed by Escherichia coli B polymerase I (polymerase I). Lower concentrations of the dyes inhibited DNA replication as direct function of the ...

A. D. Wolfe

1976-01-01

49

Solvent and concentration effects on the visible spectra of tri- para-dialkylamino-substituted triarylmethane dyes in liquid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized the spectroscopy properties of crystal violet (CV+) and ethyl violet (EV+) in liquid solutions as a function of the solvent type and dye concentration. The analysis of how solvent properties and dye concentration affects the electronic spectra of these tri-para-dialkylamino substituted tryarylmethane (TAM+) dyes was performed on the basis of two spectroscopic parameters, namely the difference in

Carla S. Oliveira; Kerlley P. Branco; Mauricio S. Baptista; Guilherme L. Indig

2002-01-01

50

Unexpected random urinary protein:creatinine ratio results-limitations of the pyrocatechol violet-dye method  

PubMed Central

Background For clinicians, it is important to rely on accurate laboratory results for patient care and optimal use of health care resources. We sought to explore our observations that urine protein:creatinine ratios (PrCr) ?30 mg/mmol are seen not infrequently associated with normal pregnancy outcome. Methods Urine samples were collected prospectively from 160 pregnant women attending high-risk maternity clinics at a tertiary care facility. Urinary protein was measured using a pyrocatechol violet assay and urinary creatinine by an enzymatic method on Vitros analysers. Maternal/perinatal outcomes were abstracted from hospital records. Results 91/233 (39.1%) samples had a PrCr ?30 mg/mmol, especially when urinary creatinine concentration was <3 mM (94.1%) vs. ?3 mM (16.4%) (p?violet dye-based method. This effect was reduced in cohorts when pyrogallol red assays were used. False positive results can impact on diagnosis and patient care. This highlights the need for both clinical and laboratory quality improvement projects and standardization of laboratory protein measurement.

2013-01-01

51

Determination of crystal violet in seawater and seafood samples through off-line molecularly imprinted SPE followed by HPLC with diode-array detection.  

PubMed

A highly selective sample cleanup procedure combined with molecularly imprinted SPE was developed for the isolation of crystal violet from seawater and seafood samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared using crystal violet as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The crystal violet-imprinted polymer was used as the selective sorbent for the SPE of crystal violet. An off-line molecularly imprinted SPE method followed by HPLC with diode-array detection for the analysis of crystal violet was also established. Good linearity on the molecularly imprinted SPE columns was obtained from 0 to 200 ?g/L (R(2) > 0.99). The result demonstrated that the proposed method can be used for the direct determination of crystal violet in seawater and seafood samples. Finally, five samples were analyzed and the following crystal violet concentrations were obtained: 0.92 and 0.52 ?g/L in two seawater samples, as well as 0.36 and 0.27 ?g/kg in two seafood samples. There is no crystal violet detected in the third seawater sample. PMID:23390113

Lian, Ziru; Wang, Jiangtao

2013-02-06

52

Optical and Electrical Properties of Organic Dye Crystals. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Crystal spectra of three dyes were studied. The dyes are: 3,3'-diethylthiacyanine bromide, pseudoisocyanine and the squarylium dye, 2,4-bis(2-hydroxy-4-diethylaminophenyl)-1,3-cyclobutadienediylium-1,3- diolate (HBAPS). Polymorphs were discovered for the ...

C. J. Eckhardt

1984-01-01

53

Distribution of dye into KDP crystals in a continuous MSMPR crystallizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colored potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals from a dye (sky blue) solution were produced in a mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. The crystal size distribution (CSD) of the KDP crystals was correlated by a size-dependent growth rate model. The growth rate increased with crystal size, but it decreased as the residence time increased. Two different concentrations of dye

Hideo Miki; Ryohei Fukunaga; Yusuke Asakuma; Kouji Maeda; Keisuke Fukui

2005-01-01

54

Molecular Spectra and Optical Relaxation of Oxazine Dyes Nile Blue and Cresyl Violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using fluorescence-line-narrowing and hole-burning techniques I obtain molecular spectra of the oxazine dye nile blue at 5 K under a wide range of experimental conditions. These data are analyzed by constructing a single site molecular lineshape function and the corresponding 0-0 transition frequency distribution which, taken together, enable me to explain the various results. I also perform time-delayed-four-wave-mixing experiments (TDFWM)

Yiping Zhang

1995-01-01

55

Cell-cycle synchronisation of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using Vybrant DyeCycle Violet-based sorting.  

PubMed

Studies on the cell-cycle of Trypanosoma brucei have revealed several unusual characteristics that differ from the model eukaryotic organisms. However, the inability to isolate homogenous populations of parasites in distinct cell-cycle stages has limited the analysis of trypanosome cell division and complicated the understanding of mutant phenotypes with possible impact on cell-cycle related events. Although hydroxyurea-induced cell-cycle arrest in procyclic and bloodstream forms has been applied recently with success, such block-release protocols can complicate the analysis of cell-cycle regulated events and have the potential to disrupt important cell-cycle checkpoints. An alternative approach based on flow cytometry of parasites stained with Vybrant DyeCycle Orange circumvents this problem, but is restricted to procyclic form parasites. Here, we apply Vybrant Dyecycle Violet staining coupled with flow cytometry to effectively select different cell-cycle stages of bloodstream form trypanosomes. Moreover, the sorted parasites remain viable, although synchrony is rapidly lost. This method enables cell-cycle enrichment of populations of trypanosomes in their mammal infective stage, particularly at the G1 phase. PMID:19729042

Kabani, Sarah; Waterfall, Martin; Matthews, Keith R

2009-09-01

56

[Measurement and analysis of blue-violet light emitting spectrum on tiny cubic boron nitride crystal].  

PubMed

The electroluminescence effect can be observed by the micro N-type wide-gap CBN semiconductor crystal under the condition of static eletric field. The micro N-type CBN crystal was fixed on the focus of the parabolic reflector of grating monochromator, and the maximum value of transmission ratio and the ideal signal-noise ratio can be obtained. Under the condition of static ectric-field intensity (4.7 x 10(6) V x cm(-1)), the blue-violet light-emitting spectrum of the CBN crystal was measured in the range from 350 to 450 nm. The construction of the CBN energy band, which was calculated with the First-principles method, the nonlinear relationship between current density and the ectric-field intensity that was measured and the phenomenon of electrical break-down were considered together to enable us to discuss the luminescence mechanism. Finally, the authors came up with the luminescence mechanism concerning electron migration from gamma energy valley to X energy valley. The large number of excited electrons we talked about were generated by polarization and breakdown of defect dipole before avalanche breakdown occurred. PMID:20496667

Liu, Hai-Bo; Jia, Gang; Xu, Zhong-Hui; Meng, Qing-Ju; Sun, Xiao-Bing

2010-03-01

57

Fundamental Measurements on an Aggregated Dye Liquid Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The nematic liquid crystal phase is a phase of matter in which the particles have a preferred orientational direction, as opposed to the liquid phase, with no preferred direction, and the solid crystal phase, with an ordered lattice structure. In an aggregated dye, or chromonic, liquid crystal, molecules come together in aggregates, and these aggregates form a liquid crystal.

Viva R. Horowitz

2005-01-01

58

Determination of crystal violet in water by direct solid phase spectrophotometry after rotating disk sorptive extraction.  

PubMed

The microextraction of crystal violet (CV) from water samples into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using the rotating disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) technique was performed. The extracting device was a small Teflon disk that had an embedded miniature magnetic stirring bar and a PDMS (560 ?L) film attached to one side of the disk using double-sided tape. The extraction involves a preconcentration of CV into the PDMS, where the analyte is then directly quantified using solid phase spectrophotometry at 600 nm. Different chemical and extraction device-related variables were studied to achieve the best sensitivity for the determination. The optimum extraction was performed at pH 14 because under this condition, CV is transformed to the neutral and colorless species carbinol, which can be quantitatively transferred to the PDMS phase. Although the colorless species is the chemical form extracted in the PDMS, an intense violet coloration appeared in the phase because the -OH bond in the carbinol molecule is weakened through the formation of hydrogen bonds with the oxygen atoms of the PDMS, allowing the resonance between the three benzene rings to compensate for the charge deficit on the central carbon atom of the molecule. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated in river water samples spiked with 10 and 30 ?g L(-1) of CV, yielding a relative standard deviation of 6.2% and 8.4% and a recovery of 98.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The method detection limit was 1.8 ?g L(-1) and the limit of quantification was 5.4 ?g L(-1), which can be decreased if the sample volume is increased. PMID:23598132

Manzo, Valentina; Navarro, Orielle; Honda, Luis; Sánchez, Karen; Inés Toral, M; Richter, Pablo

2012-11-15

59

The optical properties of triphenylmethane dye molecules and chromogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial dye monomers, including malachite green, crystal violet, brilliant green, and methyl violet, were isolated by extraction\\u000a with the use of heptane. UV light absorption bands characteristic of pure molecules were determined. The molecules of the\\u000a dyes studied, which were ion pairs (formed by dye cations and oxalate or chlorine anions), did not absorb light in the visible\\u000a range; that

Yu. A. Mikheev; L. N. Guseva; Yu. A. Ershov

2008-01-01

60

Use of Dye to Distinguish Salt and Protein Crystals Under Microcrystallization Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved method of screening crystal growth conditions is provided wherein molecules are crystallized from solutions containing dyes. These dyes are selectively incorporated or associated with crystals of particular character thereby rendering crystals...

D. T. Hamrick L. Cosenza L. J. DeLucas T. E. Gester T. L. Bray

2007-01-01

61

Adsorption behavior of cationic dyes on citric acid esterifying wheat straw: kinetic and thermodynamic profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetic and thermodynamic behaviors of cationic dye adsorption onto citric acid esterifying wheat straw (EWS) from aqueous solution were investigated. Two cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) were selected as adsorbates. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dye adsorption were examined with a batch system by changing various experimental factors (e.g. initial pH, EWS dosage, dye

Renmin Gong; Shengxue Zhu; Demin Zhang; Jian Chen; Shoujun Ni; Rui Guan

2008-01-01

62

Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study molecule reorientation initiated by absorption of resonant light, in D2 azo dye doped nematic liquid crystals. The photoexcitation of the dye subsystem creates a torque on the host, that is not collinear with the traditional dielectric torque. The temporal and geometrical characteristics of these torques are also different. Transient three dimensional molecular reorientation is detected through different paths

B. Saad; T. V. Galstyan; M. M. Denariez-Roberge; M. Dumont

1998-01-01

63

Use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet agar plates for selective recovery of bacteriophages from natural environments  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen peroxide inactivated bacteriophages and bacteria at different rates. A concentration of 0.1% hydrogen peroxide reduced the numbers of several bacteria by an average of 94% but caused an average of 25% inactivation in the numbers of bacteriophages tested. Treating natural samples with hydrogen peroxide selectively reduced the indigenous bacterial flora and permitted better visualization of plaques of lawns of Escherichia coli C-3000. In some cases indigenous gram-positive bacteria were relatively resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but their growth could be limited by incorporation of crystal violet into the bottom agar used for plaque assays. The use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet-containing plates permitted recovery of more phages from natural samples than did other procedures, such as chloroform pretreatment or the use of selective plating agar such as EC medium.

Asghari, A.; Farrah, S.R.; Bitton, G. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1992-04-01

64

Live Cell Cycle Analysis of Drosophila Tissues using the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer and Vybrant DyeCycle Violet DNA stain  

PubMed Central

A protocol for cell cycle analysis of live Drosophila tissues using the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer is described. This protocol simultaneously provides information about relative cell size, cell number, DNA content and cell type via lineage tracing or tissue specific expression of fluorescent proteins in vivo. Flow cytometry has been widely used to obtain information about DNA content in a population of cells, to infer relative percentages in different cell cycle phases. This technique has been successfully extended to the mitotic tissues of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster for genetic studies of cell cycle regulation in vivo. When coupled with cell-type specific fluorescent protein expression and genetic manipulations, one can obtain detailed information about effects on cell number, cell size and cell cycle phasing in vivo. However this live-cell method has relied on the use of the cell permeable Hoechst 33342 DNA-intercalating dye, limiting users to flow cytometers equipped with a UV laser. We have modified this protocol to use a newer live-cell DNA dye, Vybrant DyeCycle Violet, compatible with the more common violet 405nm laser. The protocol presented here allows for efficient cell cycle analysis coupled with cell type, relative cell size and cell number information, in a variety of Drosophila tissues. This protocol extends the useful cell cycle analysis technique for live Drosophila tissues to a small benchtop analyzer, the Attune Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, which can be run and maintained on a single-lab scale.

Flegel, Kerry; Sun, Dan; Grushko, Olga; Ma, Yiqin; Buttitta, Laura

2012-01-01

65

Spectra of Sodium and Potassium Azide Crystals Coloured by Ultra-Violet and X-Ray Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectra of sodium and potassium azide crystals that had been coloured by irradiation with both ultra-violet and X-ray radiation for varying periods at liquid-nitrogen temperature have been recorded. From these results and from measurements of the rate of increase of intensity of the various absorption bands with time, together with the changes observed on raising the temperature, the nature

J. Cunningham; F. C. Tompkins

1959-01-01

66

A coupled biological and photocatalysis pretreatment system for the removal of crystal violet from wastewater.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a coupled photocatalytic-biological system for removing crystal violet (CV) from an aqueous solution was assessed. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor were a 1.5-h reaction time, pH 7.0, and a 2.0-min retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction reduced the toxicity of the CV solution by 94%. Subsequent evaluation of the performance and characteristics of the coupled photocatalytic-biological system in terms of CV removal revealed that the coupled system successfully removed and efficiently mineralized CV in a semi-continuous mode when the CV concentration was <150mgL(-1). Based on our analysis of the degradation products, CV degradation in this coupled system involved stepwise demethylation and aromatic ring opening. Phylogenetic analysis of the bioreactor effluent showed that the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, suggesting that this coupled system is conducive for such processes as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, and nitrification. These results were verified in a GC-MS analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on CV removal using a coupled system. PMID:23664476

Chen, Chih-Yu; Kuo, Jong-Tar; Yang, Hui-An; Chung, Ying-Chien

2013-05-10

67

Quenching of the electrochemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)?˛?/TPA by malachite green and crystal violet.  

PubMed

Efficient and stable quenching of electrochemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA by malachite green(MG) and crystal violet(CV) at the glass carbon (GC) electrode is reported. A novel quenching mechanism has been proposed. Resonance energy transfer from the excited-state luminophore Ru(bpy)3(2+*) to MG/CV and dynamic quenching are suggested as the mechanism for quenching ECL. The quenching mechanism is discussed in detail based on UV-visible absorption spectra, cyclic voltammograms, ECL curves and fluorescence methods. MG shows more efficient quenching than CV. Moreover, the quenched ECL intensity versus the concentration of MG and CV are linear over the concentration ranges of 8 × 10(-10)-8 × 10(-7)M and 3.46 × 10(-9)-5.5 × 10(-7)M, respectively. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 1.0 × 10(-10)M for MG and 1.1 × 10(-10)M for CV (S/N=3). PMID:23598113

Huang, Baomei; Zhou, Xibin; Xue, Zhonghua; Wu, Guofan; Du, Jie; Luo, Di; Liu, Tao; Ru, Jing; Lu, Xiaoquan

2012-12-26

68

Quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet and its use to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phagocytosis is a complex process involving attachment, ingestion and intracellular processing of bacteria by phagocytes. A great difficulty in the evaluation of this process is to differentiate between attachment of the particles to the cell surface and internalization of the particles by the cells. Various techniques have been used to differentiate internalized and surface-attached bacteria in cultured cells, but only a few permit differentiations between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. In this study the quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet on acridine orange stained bacterial biofilm and planktonic bacterial cells is used to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria within macrophages. Method: One week old Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was grown on perspex and glass substrates in All-Culture medium (nutrient-rich condition) and phosphate buffered saline (nutrient-deprived condition). As model systems, human monocytic (THP-1) and histiocytic (U937) cell lines were used. These cell lines were incubated with the biofilm bacteria for 4 hrs in CO2 incubator at 37oC. The cells and bacteria were stained with acridine orange and quenched with crystal violet to distinguish between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. Results: The presence of green-fluorescing internalized bacteria was detected within the macrophages under the planktonic, nutrient-rich and nutrient-deprived biofilm conditions. All infecting bacteria take up acridine orange and fluoresced green, crystal violet quenched the fluorescence of extra-cellular adhering bacteria so that only fluorescent intracellular bacteria would be visible under fluorescent light microscopy.

Mathew, S.; Lim, Y. C.; Kishen, A.

2008-06-01

69

Coloring and habit modification of dyed KDP crystals as functions of supersaturation and dye concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo-organic dyes as additives were examined to make colored KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals. The dyes used here were amaranth and sunset-yellow FCF. Influences of supersaturation and dye concentration in the solution were observed on the color and crystal habit of KDP. Amaranth colored the pyramidal section (101) of the crystals in the solution at low supersaturation and high dye

Shouji Hirota; Hideo Miki; Keisuke Fukui; Kouji Maeda

2002-01-01

70

Molecular mechanisms and binding site location for the noncompetitive antagonist crystal violet on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  

PubMed

We investigated the molecular mechanisms and the binding site location for the fluorophor crystal violet (CrV), a noncompetitive antagonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). To this end, radiolabeled competition binding, fluorescence spectroscopy, Schild-type analysis, patch-clamp recordings, and molecular dynamics approaches were used. The results indicate that (i) CrV interacts with the desensitized Torpedo AChR with higher affinity than with the resting state at several temperatures (5-37 degrees C); (ii) CrV-induced inhibition of the phencyclidine (PCP) analogue [(3)H]thienylcyclohexylpiperidine binding to the desensitized or resting AChR is mediated by a steric mechanism; (iii) tetracaine inhibits CrV binding to the resting AChR, probably by a steric mechanism; (iv) barbiturates modulate CrV binding to the resting AChR by an allosteric mechanism; (v) CrV itself induces AChR desensitization; (vi) CrV decreases the peak of macroscopic currents by acting on the resting AChR but without affecting the desensitization rate from the open state; and (vii) two tertiary amino groups from CrV may bind to the alpha1-Glu(262) residues (located at position 20') in the resting state. We conclude that the CrV binding site overlaps the PCP locus in the resting and desensitized state. The noncompetitive action of CrV may be explained by an allosteric mechanism in which the binding of CrV to the extracellular mouth of the resting receptor leads to an inhibition of channel opening. Binding of CrV probably increases desensitization of the resting channel and stabilizes the desensitized state. PMID:16475790

Arias, Hugo R; Bhumireddy, Pankaj; Spitzmaul, Guillermo; Trudell, James R; Bouzat, Cecilia

2006-02-21

71

Laterally inhomogeneous barrier analysis of the methyl violet\\/pSi organic\\/inorganic hybrid Schottky structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we have investigated the electrical characteristics, such as current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements, of identically prepared crystal violet\\/p-Si Organic\\/Inorganic (OI) Schottky structures formed by evaporation of organic compound solution to directly p-Si semiconductor substrate. It has been seen that the crystal violet organic dye thin film on the p-Si substrate has exhibited a good rectifying behavior.

Ö. Güllü; Ö. Baris; M. Biber; A. Türüt

2008-01-01

72

Dye capped semiconductor nanoclusters. Role of back electron transfer in the photosensitization of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites with cresyl violet aggregates  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of a cationic dye, cresyl violet, on SnO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} nanoclusters and nanocrystalline thin films results in the formation of H-aggregates. These dyes are photochemically and electrochemically active and extend the photoresponse of large bandgap semiconductors such as SnO{sub 2}. Photocurrent generation in dye capped nanocrystalline films of SnO{sub 2} has been demonstrated with visible light excitation. A photon-to-photocurrent generation efficiency around 1% has been observed at 510 nm. Back electron transfer between the photoinjected electron and the oxidized sensitizer plays an important role in controlling the efficiency of net electron transfer. Transient absorption and microwave absorption measurements of the dye aggregate capped SnO{sub 2} films suggest that the back electron transfer is multiexponential and most is completed within a few hundred nanoseconds. The activation energy of the back electron transfer process is very low (nearly 1.7 kJ/mol). 68 refs., 10 figs.

Liu, D.; Fessenden, R.W.; Hug, G.L.; Kamat, P.V. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

1997-04-03

73

Crystal violet staining of Bordetella bronchiseptica colonies for differentiation of phase-I strains from variant strains in degraded phases.  

PubMed Central

After 2 days of growth on Brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) at 38 degrees C, phase-I colonies and degraded-phase colonies of Bordetella bronchiseptica could be differentiated by their ability to take up crystal violet (CV). Phase-I colonies in X mode, but not colonies in degraded phases (phases II, III, and rough) bound CV. Phenotypically-altered C-mode colonies (grown at 32 degrees C or lower temperatures) also lacked this ability. CV staining offers an easy method for the recognition of different colony types that appear identical when observed on BHIA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Ishikawa, H; Isayama, Y

1997-01-01

74

Adsorption kinetics of methyl violet onto perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines adsorption kinetics and activation parameters of methyl violet on perlite. The effect of process parameters like contact time, concentration of dye, temperature and pH on the extent of methyl violet adsorption from solution has been investigated. Results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption reaction is first order with respect to dye solution concentration with activation

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2003-01-01

75

Growth, dye degradation and ligninolytic activity studies on Zimbabwean white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi were collected from Chirinda and Chimanimani hardwood forests in Zimbabwe and studied with respect to growth temperature optima and dye decolorization. Temperature optima were found to vary (between 25–37°C) amongst the isolates. The isolates were screened for their ability to degrade the polymeric dyes; blue dextran and Poly R478 and the triphenylmethane dyes; cresol red, crystal violet

M Tekere; A. Y Mswaka; R Zvauya; J. S Read

2001-01-01

76

Influence of anthraquinone dyes on optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals.  

PubMed

Optical reorientation measurements in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals are reported. The dye-induced optical torque exceeds significantly the normal optical torque for all anthraquinone dyes investigated. With one of the dyes, optical Freedericksz transition in a planar layer is demonstrated. PMID:19798127

Jánossy, I; Kósa, T

1992-09-01

77

Removal of plant poisoning dyes by adsorption on Tomato Plant Root and green carbon from aqueous solution and its recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic dyes directly pollute the soil, water, plants and all living systems in the environment. The dyes like cationic Methylene blue (MB) and Crystal violet (CV) adsorption has been studied on Tomato Plant Root powder (TPR) and green carbon from aqueous solution for identifying the plant poisoning nature of cationic dyes. TPR powder is a cellulose material and green

Chellapandian Kannan; Natesan Buvaneswari; Thayumanavan Palvannan

2009-01-01

78

Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution by low-cost adsorbent: Wood apple shell ( Feronia acidissima)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) on wood apple shell (WAS) were investigated using a batch adsorption technique. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables such as solution pH, dye concentration and temperature. Removal of dyes was observed to be most

Seema Jain; Radha V. Jayaram

2010-01-01

79

Crystallization control of organic dyes in self-organized microdomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dewetting process of an evaporating solution is used to form micrometer-sized amorphous droplets, or domes, of the solute on substrates such as silicon, mica, glass, and indium-tin-oxide. The dome size can be controlled by the casting conditions. Higher concentration and slower evaporation of the solvent leads to larger domes. Upon annealing, the dyes may crystallize and form polycrystalline or

Olaf Karthaus; Kazuaki Kaga; Hiroaki Kageyama

2004-01-01

80

Dye adsorption feature on titania surface and role of dye aggregation inhibitor monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certified efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) with a cell area larger than 1 cm2 reached 11.0%, which is almost same as that of amorphous silicon type solar cells. However, the efficiency is not as high as 20-25 % of crystal silicon type solar cells. Therefore, researches to find photo-conversion systems in the area of near infrared and infrared regions are being done to increase the efficiency. It has been reported that the efficiency of DSCs is affected by dye-adsorption behaviors on titania surfaces. However, there was no report on how dyes are adsorbed on titania and the relationship between dye adsorption and solar cell efficiency. We now report the adsorption behavior of dye molecules, which are monitored by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), and discuss the role of dye aggregation inhibitors which affect seriously the solar cell efficiency.

Hirota, Ryohei; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S.; Hayase, Shuzi

2012-09-01

81

Photo-electrochemical solar cells with a SnO 2 -liquid junction sensitized with highly concentrated dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitization of a SnO2-liquid junction cell with highly concentrated dyes was investigated. The dyes used were Crystal Violet, Methyl Violet B, Malachite Green, Pararosaniline, and Rhodamine B. Anomalous or positive photovoltages were obtained in the system when Fe(CN)63- was added. The performance of the photovoltaic cells showed an open-circuit photovoltage,Voc, of 175 mV, a short-circuit photocurrent,Isc, of 12 µA,

Michiko Shimura; Kiyoaki Shakushiro; Yukio Shimura

1986-01-01

82

Recovery of low-temperature stressed E. coli O157:H7 and its susceptibility to crystal violet, bile salt, sodium chloride and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the alteration of some characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 subjected to various periods of storage at ?5, ?18 and ?28°C. Results revealed that the low-temperature treatments increased the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to crystal violet, bile salt, sodium chloride and ethanol. In general, the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 subjected to storage at

Cheng-Chun Chou; Shu-Jen Cheng

2000-01-01

83

Application of ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of malachite green and crystal violet from water samples.  

PubMed

A simple, environment friendly and efficient technique, ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction was first used to determine malachite green and crystal violet (CV) from water samples coupled to HPLC. The key parameters influencing extraction efficiency were investigated, such as the type of ionic liquids, the volume of ionic liquid, extraction time, and so on. Under the optimum conditions, good reproducibility of the extraction performance was obtained (RSD, 1.0% for malachite green (MG) and 5.9% for CV, n = 5). Good linearity (0.10-25 ?g L(-1)) was observed with correlation coefficients between 0.9991 and 0.9964. The detection limits of MG and CV were 0.080 and 0.030 ?g L(-1), respectively. The proposed method had been successfully applied to determine MG and CV in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 95.4 to 102.8%. Compared with the previous technologies, the proposed method required less extraction time (2 min), and provided lower detection limits and higher enrichment factors. Moreover, there were no volatile and hazardous organic solvents released. Based on these simple, environment friendly, rapid, and highly efficient results, the proposed approach provides a new and promising alternative for simultaneously extracting trace amounts of MG and CV from water. PMID:23436763

Gao, Zhanqi; Liu, Tingfeng; Yan, Xiaoju; Sun, Cheng; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui

2013-02-25

84

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by kaolin: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were carried out using commercially available kaolin to adsorb two different toxic cationic dyes namely crystal violet and brilliant green from aqueous medium. Kaolin was characterized by performing particle size distribution, BET surface area measurement and XRD analysis. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, stirring speed, pH, salt concentration and temperature were studied in

B. K. Nandi; A. Goswami; M. K Purkait

2009-01-01

85

Tungstate ion resonance Rayleigh scattering method for determination of basic triphenylmethane dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pH 4.2–6.0 HAc-NaAc buffer medium, the resonance Rayleigh scattering intensities of separate basic triphenylmethane dyes,\\u000a such as methyl violet (MV), ethyl violet (EV), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG), iodine green (IG), malachite green\\u000a (MG), light green (LG), and tungstate ion solution, are very weak, but when these cationic dyes react with the tungstate ion\\u000a (WO4\\u000a 2?) to

LiHong Yu; ZhongFang Liu; XiaoLi Hu; Ling Kong; ShaoPu Liu

2010-01-01

86

P-104: Aligning Layers Using Azo Dye Derivatives for Liquid Crystal Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photo-induced alignment of an azo dye film and liquid crystal (LC) alignment on it are discussed for the liquid crystal display applications. Considerable dichroism is induced in the azo dye SD1 film not only by polarized UV light but also by obliquely incident non-polarized UV light irradiation. It was found that sulfo groups in the azo dye molecule play

Hirokazu Takada; Hidenari Akiyama; Haruyoshi Takatsu; Vladimir Chigrinov; Elena Prudnikova; Vladimir Kozenkov; Hoi Sing Kwok

2003-01-01

87

Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as label free evanescent cell sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye doped polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers are applied for evanescent wave sensing of cells. The lasers are rectangular shaped slab waveguides of dye doped polymer on a glass substrate, where a photonic crystal is formed by 100 nm deep air-holes in the surface of the 375 nm high waveguides. The lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography

Mads B. Christiansen; Joanna M. Lopacinska; Mogens H. Jakobsen; Niels A. Mortensen; Martin Dufva; Anders Kristensen

2009-01-01

88

Enhanced violet Cherenkov radiation generation in GeO2-doped photonic crystal fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the generation of highly efficient Cherenkov radiation (CR) in the fundamental mode of a GeO2-doped two zero dispersion wavelengths photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Using a high power femtosecond Yb-doped PCF laser emitting 100 fs pulses as the pump source, CR with an efficiency of >40 % and a bandwidth of 38 nm is obtained in the visible-wavelength range when the average power of pump light is 1.27 W. It is that injecting the pump light in deep anomalous dispersion regime contributes to such an efficient spectrally isolated CR. The mechanism during the forming of CR is discussed and the experimental results are in good agreement with the calculation.

Zhang, Xin Ben; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Lan; Jiang, Fa Gang; Yang, Xiao Bo; Peng, Jing Gang; Li, Jin Yan

2013-05-01

89

Simultaneous determination of malachite green, crystal violet, methylene blue and the metabolite residues in aquatic products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work describes solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry for determination of malachite green and metabolite leucomalachite green, crystal violet and metabolite leucocrystal violet, methylene blue and metabolites including azure A, azure B and azure C in aquatic products. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer and purified by liquid extraction with dichloromethane, and then on MCAX solid-phase extraction cartridges. Then the extract was evaporated at 45°C by nitrogen blow. The residue was dissolved and separated by an Acquity BEH C18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile (A) and 5 mmol/L of ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid (B). Analytes were confirmed and quantified using a tandem mass spectrometry system in multiple reaction mode with triple quadrupole analyzer using positive polarity mode. The limits of detection of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet were 0.15 µg/kg, the limits of quantification were 0.50 µg/kg, and the average recoveries were more than 75% with spiked residues from 0.5 to 10 µg/kg. The relative standard deviations were less than 13%. The limits of detection of methylene blue, azure A, azure B and azure C were 0.3 µg/kg, the limits of quantification were 1.0 µg/kg, the average recoveries were more than 70% with spiked residues from 1.0 to 10 µg/kg and the relative standard deviations were less than 15%. The method has the merits of simplicity, sensitivity and rapidity, and can be used for simultaneous determination of the analytes in aquatic products. PMID:22542891

Xu, Ying-Jiang; Tian, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Gong, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Huan-Jun; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Min

2012-04-26

90

A nano-patterned photonic crystal laser with a dye-doped liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Covering a nano-patterned titanium dioxide photonic crystal (PC) within a well-oriented film of dye-doped liquid crystal (LC), a distributed feedback laser is constructed whereby the emission characteristics can be manipulated in-situ using an electric field. This hybrid organic-inorganic structure permits simultaneous selectivity of both the beam pattern and laser wavelength by electrical addressing of the LC director. In addition, laser emission is obtained both in the plane and normal to the PC. Along with experimental data, a theoretical model is presented that is based upon an approximate calculation of the band structure of this birefringent, tuneable laser device.

Ko, Doo-Hyun; Morris, Stephen M.; Lorenz, Alexander; Castles, Flynn; Butt, Haider; Gardiner, Damian J.; Qasim, Malik M.; Wallikewitz, Bodo; Hands, Philip J. W.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Coles, Harry J.; Friend, Richard H.

2013-07-01

91

Bioaccumulation of the synthetic dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals in single and binary systems by Candida tropicalis grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium: modelling optimal conditions using response surface methodology (RSM) and inhibition kinetics.  

PubMed

Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, K(s), and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium. PMID:21215516

Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D; Das, Nilanjana

2010-12-15

92

Large Optical Torque Enhancement By Oligothiophene Dye In A Nematic Liquid Crystal Host  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the nonlinear optical response of the nematic liquid crystal E7 doped with the oligothiophene dye TR5. Z-scan measurements showed a large positive(self-focusing)nonlinearity, originating in director reorientation. The oligothiophene dye enhances the nonlinearity of the host, in a similar manner to that of azo- and anthraquinone dyes in guest-host systems which exhibit the Janossy effect. The enhancement factor

T. Kosa; P. Palffy-Muhoray; H. Zhang; T. Ikeda

2004-01-01

93

Intramolecular charge transfer with crystal violet lactone in acetonitrile as a function of temperature: reaction is not solvent-controlled.  

PubMed

Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) with crystal violet lactone (CVL) in the excited singlet state takes place in solvents more polar than n-hexane, such as ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile (MeCN). In these solvents, the fluorescence spectrum of CVL consists of two emission bands, from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state. The dominant deactivation channel of the lowest excited singlet state is internal conversion, as the quantum yields of fluorescence (0.007) and intersystem crossing (0.015) in MeCN at 25 °C are very small. CVL is a weakly coupled electron donor/acceptor (D/A) molecule, similar to an exciplex (1)(A(-)D(+)). A solvatochromic treatment of the LE and ICT emission maxima results in the dipole moments ?e(LE) = 17 D and ?e(ICT) = 33 D, much larger than those previously reported. This discrepancy is attributed to different Onsager radii and spectral fluorimeter calibration. The LE and ICT fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN are double exponential. As determined by global analysis, the LE and ICT decays at 25 °C have the times ?2 = 9.2 ps and ?1 = 1180 ps, with an amplitude ratio of 35.3 for LE. From these parameters, the rate constants ka = 106 × 10(9) s(-1) and kd = 3.0 × 10(9) s(-1) of the forward and backward reaction in the LE ? ICT equilibrium are calculated, resulting in a free enthalpy difference ?G of -8.9 kJ/mol. The amplitude ratio of the ICT fluorescence decay equals -1.0, which signifies that the ICT state is not prepared by light absorption in the S0 ground state, but originates exclusively from the directly excited LE precursor. From the temperature dependence of the fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN (-45 to 75 °C), activation energies Ea = 3.9 kJ/mol (LE ? ICT) and Ed = 23.6 kJ/mol (ICT ? LE) are obtained, giving an enthalpy difference ?H (= Ea - Ed) of -19.7 kJ/mol, and an entropy difference ?S = -35.5 J mol(-1) K(-1). These data show that the ICT reaction of CVL in MeCN is not barrierless. The ICT reaction time of 9.2 ps is much longer than the mean solvent relaxation time of MeCN (0.26 ps), indicating, in contrast with earlier reports in the literature, that the reaction is not solvent controlled. This conclusion is supported by the observation of double exponential LE and ICT fluorescence with the same decay times. PMID:23865629

Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Zachariasse, Klaas A

2013-07-31

94

Photobleaching and reorientational dynamics of dyes in a nematic liquid crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polarized fluorescence of excited dyes in a prototype nematic liquid crystal is studied as a function of temperature, polarization of the light, and laser wavelength. We show explicitly the coexistence of photobleaching and dye diffusion through the nematic host as two mechanisms influencing the magnitude of the fluorescence signal. In addition, we exhibit clear evidence of the presence of

M. Nöllmann; D. Shalóm; P. Etchegoin; J. Sereni

1999-01-01

95

Photobleaching and reorientational dynamics of dyes in a nematic liquid crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polarized fluorescence of excited dyes in a prototype nematic liquid crystal is studied as a function of temperature, polarization of the light, and laser wavelength. We show explicitly the coexistence of pho- tobleaching and dye diffusion through the nematic host as two mechanisms influencing the magnitude of the fluorescence signal. In addition, we exhibit clear evidence of the presence

M. Nollmann; D. Shalom; P. Etchegoin; J. Sereni

96

Nonlinear optical investigation of Gaussian laser beam propagating in a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laser beam shape and variation of the curvature radius of the wavefront have been simulated when the Gaussian laser beam passes through a dye-doped nematics liquid crystal. The effect of different dyes is investigated in the wavefront distortion as well as the beam shape due to its quality factor. We have reported the dependency of the curvature radius of

S. H. Mousavi; E. Koushki; H. Haratizadeh

2010-01-01

97

The optical properties of triphenylmethane dye molecules and chromogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial dye monomers, including malachite green, crystal violet, brilliant green, and methyl violet, were isolated by extraction with the use of heptane. UV light absorption bands characteristic of pure molecules were determined. The molecules of the dyes studied, which were ion pairs (formed by dye cations and oxalate or chlorine anions), did not absorb light in the visible range; that is, they were not chromogens. The conclusion was drawn that chromogen particles responsible for chromaticity were supramolecular dimers of nonchromogenic triphenylmethane series molecules. This conclusion was substantiated by trends in spectral transformations with the participation of immonium hydroxides obtained from dyes and side products of the synthesis of industrial dyes with quinoid molecular structures.

Mikheev, Yu. A.; Guseva, L. N.; Ershov, Yu. A.

2008-09-01

98

Incident angle and polarization effects on the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization effect of the pulsed pumping laser on the lasing characteristics of the dye-doped right-handed cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) is studied at different incident angles. At a small incident angle (

Yuhua Huang; Ying Zhou; Qi Hong; Alexandra Rapaport; Michael Bass; Shin-Tson Wu

2006-01-01

99

Enhanced optical nonlinearities in some dye-doped nematic liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonlinear refractive index of some pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystals was measured and compared using extraordinary\\u000a polarized light. The optical torque of the nematic liquid crystals was strongly enhanced by a small amount of dye impurities\\u000a (Sudan Black B). This observation is found to be in good agreement with the Janossy model. The dependence of the enhancement\\u000a factor

A. Jafari; H. Tajalli; A. Ghanadzadeh

2006-01-01

100

Two-Photon Excitation of Dye-Doped Liquid Crystal by a CW-Laser Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on excitation of photoluminescence via two-photon absorption (2PA) in dye-doped liquid crystal droplets using tightly focused cw-laser illumination at 1064 nm wavelength. The photoluminescence of the 2PA dye C40H54N2O2 (MBAPB) dispersed inside the 7CB liquid crystal host increases as square of the laser tweezers' irradiance. The 2PA cross-section of MBAPB was measured by femtosecond Z-scan method. The polarization and

Naoki Murazawa; Saulius Juodkazis; Hiroaki Misawa; Kenji Kamada

2008-01-01

101

Room temperature single-photon Source:Single-dye molecule fluorescence in Liquid Crystal host  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on new approaches toward an implementation of an efficient, room temperature, deterministically polarized, single-photon source (SPS) on demand-a key hardware element for quantum information and quantum communication. Operation of a room temperature SPS is demonstrated via photon antibunching in the fluorescence from single terrylene-dye molecules embedded in a cholesteric liquid crystal host. Using oxygen-depleted liquid crystal hosts, dye-bleaching

Svetlana G. Lukishova; Ansgar W. Schmid; Andrew J. McNamara; Robert W. Boyd; Carlos R. Stroud

2003-01-01

102

Advantages of Highly Ordered Polymer-Dyes for Lasing in Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied lasing in dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystals (N*LCs). To demonstrate the advantages of using a polymer dye, that is highly aligned along the local director of N*LCs, over commercial small molecule dyes such as 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), comparative studies of the fluorescence spectra, lasing conditions and order parameters have been made using polymer-dye doped N*LC and DCM-doped N*LC

Ki-Chul Shin; Fumito Araoka; Yoichi Takanishi; Ken Ishikawa; Zhengguo Zhu; Timothy M. Swager; Hideo Takezoe

2004-01-01

103

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2013-04-01

104

Random lasers in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing silver nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the observation of random lasers for the first time in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) containing nano-sized liquid crystal droplets and silver nanoparticles. The dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal containing silver nanoparticles film is exposed by a collimated 532 nm Nd: YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser beam, so that it is quickly cured. Under the excitation of a frequency-doubled Nd: YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm, random lasing from dye-doped PDLCs containing Ag nanoparticles is observed as a result of cooperative effect due to light scattering of nano-sized liquid crystal droplets and the local field enhancement capabilities around silver nanoparticles. We show that the threshold of the random lasing is about 0.95?J/pulse which is lower than the lasing threshold of dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing nano-sized liquid crystal droplets. The linewidth of the lasing peaks is shown to be 0.2 nm. We also propose a possible mechanism to explain the random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing silver nanoparticles.

Li, LongWu; Deng, LuoGen

2012-12-01

105

Determination of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuco-metabolites in fish by HPLC-VIS detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography method with visible detection (HPLC-VIS) for the determination of malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), leucomalachite green (LMG), and leucocrystal violet (LCV) in fish has been developed after clean-up through an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Residues were simultaneously extracted from fish muscle with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer. The leuco-forms, LMG and LCV, were oxidized quantitatively to the chromic CV and MG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone. Extracts were then purified on an IAC which prepared by immobilizing the anti-MG-CV antibodies by the sol-gel method. Finally, the eluents were analyzed by HPLC-VIS. The limits of detection were 0.15, 0.1, 0.18 and 0.14ng/g for MG, CV, LMG and LCV, respectively. The average recoveries in samples fortified with MG, CV, LMG and LCV over the range 0.5-10ng/g were from 71.6% to 96.8% with RSDs of 5.1-12.3% (n=6). This novel method was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring. PMID:23286983

Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Chen, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Guo-Min; Wang, Xiong; Guo, Qi; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Dan; Deng, Jian

2012-12-10

106

Phenylazoindole dyes--part I: the syntheses, characterizations, crystal structures, quantum chemical calculations and antimicrobial properties.  

PubMed

In this study, the synthesis of four new phenylazo indole dyes (dye 1-4) were carried out by diazotization of 4-aminoacetophenone and coupling with various 2- and 1,2-disubstituted indole derivatives. The dyes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, HRMS and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Azo-hydrazone tautomeric bahavior of the dyes in different solvents (DMSO, methanol, acetic acid and chloroform) was investigated by using (1)H NMR and UV-vis results. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding calculated values. The results of experimental data and theoretical calculations showed that the azo tautomer is more stable than hydrazone tautomer. In addition to this, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was also evaluated. PMID:23735210

Sefero?lu, Zeynel; Yalç?n, Ergin; Babür, Banu; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Y?lmaz, Ebru; ?ahin, Ertan

2013-05-14

107

Phenylazoindole dyes - Part I: The syntheses, characterizations, crystal structures, quantum chemical calculations and antimicrobial properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the synthesis of four new phenylazo indole dyes (dye 1-4) were carried out by diazotization of 4-aminoacetophenone and coupling with various 2- and 1,2-disubstituted indole derivatives. The dyes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, HRMS and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Azo-hydrazone tautomeric bahavior of the dyes in different solvents (DMSO, methanol, acetic acid and chloroform) was investigated by using 1H NMR and UV-vis results. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding calculated values. The results of experimental data and theoretical calculations showed that the azo tautomer is more stable than hydrazone tautomer. In addition to this, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was also evaluated.

Sefero?lu, Zeynel; Yalç?n, Ergin; Babür, Banu; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Y?lmaz, Ebru; ?ahin, Ertan

2013-09-01

108

Resonant Optical Torque in Dichroic Azo Dye Doped Nematic Liquid Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical torque is experimentally studied in Disperse Red dichroic dye doped E7 nematic liquid crystal. Creation of a transitory out-of-plane (3D) anisotropy axis is observed in a geometry were in-plane reorientation is observed in pure nematics. The non-monotone behavior of dye absorption during the excitation and relaxation is correlated with the 3D reorientation. This shows that the photo-isomerization of

T. V. Galstian; E. Brasselet; D. Dumont

2002-01-01

109

Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Gentian Violet in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a report on gentian violet, a dye belonging to a chemical class known as the di- and triaminophenylmethanes. Gentian violet has been used for the control of fungal and intestinal parasites, for various uses in veterinary medicine and is added to t...

N. Littlefield

1984-01-01

110

Photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal film doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study discusses the photoalignment effect in a liquid-crystal (LC) film that is doped with nanoparticles and azo-dye. The vertical alignment induced by nanoparticles of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes can be changed into homogeneous alignment by the absorption of photoexcited azo-dye. An electrically tunable polarization-dependent LC phase grating is also produced using the method. Both nanoparticle- and azo-dye-induced vertical and homogeneous alignments are noncontact alignment and are highly promising for low-temperature plastic processes.

Chen, Wen-Zheng; Tsai, Yi-Tai; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

2009-05-01

111

A comparative study on growth, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of undoped and dye doped bis glycine cadmium chloride single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye inclusion crystals have attracted researchers in the context of crystal growth for applications in solid state lasers. Attempt to grow tris glycine cadmium chloride (TGCC) crystals yielded bis glycine cadmium chloride crystals. Single crystals of bis glycine cadmium chloride (BGCC) and organic dye, namely xylenol orange tetra sodium salt (XO) doped BGCC crystals, were grown from aqueous solutions by

B. Raju; A. Saritha; G. Bhagavannarayana; K. A Hussain

2011-01-01

112

Enhanced optical nonlinearities in some dye-doped nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear refractive index of some pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystals was measured and compared using extraordinary polarized light. The optical torque of the nematic liquid crystals was strongly enhanced by a small amount of dye impurities (Sudan Black B). This observation is found to be in good agreement with the Janossy model. The dependence of the enhancement factor on the nematic host structure was investigated. The sign of all nonlinear refractive indices were determined by the Z-scan technique.

Jafari, A.; Tajalli, H.; Ghanadzadeh, A.

2006-08-01

113

Study of Color Fastness Properties onto Bleached Sulfonated Jute -cotton Blended Fabrics with Basic Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw jute fiber has been sulfonated with sodium sulfite in presence of ethylinediamine (EDA) and blended with 40% cotton for production of fine yarn and fabric. Bleached raw jute fiber, bleached sulfonated jute fiber, bleached sulfonated jute -cotton blended fabric and bleached cotton fabric has been dyed with basic dyes (e.g. Crystal Violet, Chrysodine Y, Auramine O and Magenta). The

M. A. Salam

114

Biodecolourization of azo and triphenylmethane dyes by Dichomitus squalens and Phlebia spp.  

PubMed

Nine white-rot fungal strains were screened for biodecolourization of brilliant green, cresol red, crystal violet, congo red and orange II. Dichomitus squalens, Phlebia fascicularia and P. floridensis decolourized all of the dyes on solid agar medium and possessed better decolourization ability than Phanerochaete chrysosporium when tested in nitrogen-limited broth medium. PMID:11986919

Gill, P K; Arora, D S; Chander, M

2002-04-01

115

Determination of polar anchoring energy of dye-doped liquid crystals by measuring capacitance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar anchoring energy of a dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) cell is determined based on capacity measurements. Experimental results indicate that under the illumination of a pump beam, the polar anchoring energy (7.90×10-6 J/m2) includes the adsorption-induced anchoring energy (5.74×10-6 J/m2) and the preexisting-dye-induced anchoring energy (2.16×10-6 J/m2). The latter is attributed to the torque, which is induced by the dye molecules on the boundary surface even before illumination. After the illumination, the adsorption-induced anchoring energy remains and the preexisting-dye-induced anchoring energy disappears, with the former revealing that weak anchoring affects the decay time and threshold voltage of the DDLC cell. Moreover, plotting the polar angle distributions in the DDLC cell reveals its correlation with variations in the capacitance of the DDLC cell.

Huang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Zuo-Zhong; Lo, Kuang-Yao; Lee, Chia-Rong

2010-06-01

116

Polarization tunable circular Dammann grating generated from azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polarization tunable circular Dammann grating (CDG) was generated from an azo-dye (Methyl Red from Aldrich) doped liquid crystal (LC, E7 from Merck) cell. A simple multi-exposure photo-aligned process, based on cell assembled with non-rubbing glass substrates, was used to fabricate the binary phase liquid crystal CDG zone plane consisted of even zone with homogenous LC structure and odd zone

D. Luo; H. T. Dai; X. W. Sun

2011-01-01

117

Aminotriarylmethane Dyes Are High-Affinity Noncompetitive Antagonists of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of aminotriarylmethane dyes were examined for bind- ing to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from Torpedo californica. Several compounds were found to bind to the non- competitive antagonist site of the AChR as demonstrated by inhibition of (3H)phencyclidine binding; apparent KD values ranged from 50 nM to .100 mM. One dye with high affinity, crystal violet, revealed a

MONICA M. LURTZ; STEEN E. PEDERSEN

118

Competitive sorption of anionic and cationic dyes onto cetylpyridinium-modified montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-and multi-solute competitive sorptions of anionic dyes; Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Orange II (OR) and Methyl Orange (MO) and cationic dyes; Thioflavin T (TT), Methylene Blue (MB) and Crystal Violet (CV) onto montmorillonite modified with a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride (CP), were investigated. In single-solute sorption, the sorption affinity, as represented by Freundlich sorption coefficient (KF) and Langmuir sorption capacity

Won Sik Shin

2008-01-01

119

Origin of enhanced light harvesting in colloidal-crystal-based dye-sensitised solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light harvesting enhancement observed when photonic colloidal crystals are integrated in dye sensitized titanium oxide solar cells is investigated herein. Such absorptance increment is explained in terms of slow photon propagation at certain ranges of wavelengths lying within the photonic pseudogap and partial localization in an absorbing layer placed onto the colloidal lattice. Based on those findings, not only

A. Mihi; F. J. López-Alcaraz; H. Míguez

2006-01-01

120

Ambient temperature plastic crystal electrolyte for efficient, all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

Doping the molecular plastic crystal of succinonitrile with solid N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium iodide salt and iodine has produced a highly conductive solid iodide/triiodide conductor. Furthermore, it was employed for a highly efficient, all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell. PMID:15493896

Wang, Peng; Dai, Qing; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Forsyth, Maria; Macfarlane, Douglas R; Grätzel, Michael

2004-10-27

121

Optically recorded tunable microlenses based on dye-doped liquid crystal cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on optically recorded microlenses in conventional liquid crystal cells doped with the azo-dye methyl-red. The focal length can be tuned electrically and changed in a wide range with just a small variation of the applied dc voltage. No patterned electrodes, built-in polymeric lens, or patterned molecular reorientation are required.

Lucchetti, Liana; Tasseva, Jordanka

2012-04-01

122

Adsorption kinetics of methyl violet onto perlite.  

PubMed

This study examines adsorption kinetics and activation parameters of methyl violet on perlite. The effect of process parameters like contact time, concentration of dye, temperature and pH on the extent of methyl violet adsorption from solution has been investigated. Results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption reaction is first order with respect to dye solution concentration with activation energy of 13.2 kJ mol(-1). This low activation energy value indicates that the adsorption reaction is diffusion controlled. The activation parameters using Arrhenius and Eyring equations have been calculated. Adsorption increases with increase of variables such as contact time, initial dye concentration, temperature and pH. PMID:12685751

Do?an, Mehmet; Alkan, Mahir

2003-01-01

123

Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the effect of light-induced gliding of the easy axis of dye-doped nematic liquid crystal on an aligning polymer surface. The observed drift of the easy axis is over tens of degrees and is caused by light-induced anisotropic adsorption and/or desorption of dye molecules on or from the aligning layer in the presence of light-induced bulk torque. We present a theoretical model that explains the experimental data in terms of the light-induced changes of the adsorbed dye molecules angular distribution due to their exchange with the dye molecules from the liquid crystal bulk.

Fedorenko, Denis; Slyusarenko, Kostyantyn; Ouskova, Elena; Reshetnyak, Victor; Ha, Kiryong; Karapinar, Ridvan; Reznikov, Yuriy

2008-06-01

124

Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of light-induced gliding of the easy axis of dye-doped nematic liquid crystal on an aligning polymer surface. The observed drift of the easy axis is over tens of degrees and is caused by light-induced anisotropic adsorption and/or desorption of dye molecules on or from the aligning layer in the presence of light-induced bulk torque. We present a theoretical model that explains the experimental data in terms of the light-induced changes of the adsorbed dye molecules angular distribution due to their exchange with the dye molecules from the liquid crystal bulk. PMID:18643285

Fedorenko, Denis; Slyusarenko, Kostyantyn; Ouskova, Elena; Reshetnyak, Victor; Ha, KiRyong; Karapinar, Ridvan; Reznikov, Yuriy

2008-06-12

125

Dye-concentration-dependent lasing behaviors and spectral characteristics of cholesteric liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser behavior and spectral changes occurring in cholesteric liquid crystals with varying dye-doped concentrations were investigated when pumped at 532 nm. It was found that the long-wavelength band edge and the laser line exhibit a blue shift over 21 nm with increasing dye concentration. The circularly polarized fluorescence spectra were examined, and the location of the sense reversion of circular polarization was determined to coincide well with the discrete lasing lines. The blue shift can be ascribed to the decrease in average refractive index and pitch of the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals. The dependence of the slope efficiency and threshold energy on the dye concentration can be attributed to the shift in photonic stopband and the change in penetration depth of excitation. The temperature and incident angle of pumping beam also have a significant impact on the lasing properties. The optimal dye concentration is found to be 0.5 wt% at 30.5 °C with an incident angle of 10°. The laser emission located at 601.4 nm with slope efficiency of 4 % was achieved above the threshold energy of 14.3 ?J.

Wang, Zhongyang; Yang, Can; Li, Wensong; Chen, Lujian; Wang, Xiaozhong; Cai, Zhiping

2013-09-01

126

Organic\\/polyoxometalate hybridization dyes: Crystal structure and enhanced two-photon absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structures of four novel organic–inorganic hybrid dyes, namely trans-4-(4?-(N,N-Dialkylaminostyryl))-N-Methyl-pyridinium[Mo6O192?] [alkyl = Et(POM1), Pr(POM2), n-Bu(POM3) and Me, hydroxyethyl(POM4)], were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Hybridization of the organic chromophores with polyoxometalate enhanced their two-photon absorption cross sections and thermal stability. The linear optical properties of the hybrid dyes were investigated using absorption and fluorescence spectra in both the solution and

Jieying Wu; Guiju Hu; Peng Wang; Fuying Hao; Hongping Zhou; Aimin Zhou; Yupeng Tian; Baokang Jin

2011-01-01

127

Resolution in optically addressed spatial light modulators based on dye-doped liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-doped nematic liquid crystals (LCs) are studied as materials for single-layer optically addressed spatial light modulators. The dopant is 2,5-azo-substituted anthraquinone (ASAQ) dye. The resolution in the ASAQ-doped LC systems does not depend on the device thickness (in the 5-125 ?m range). The efficiency increases with the increase of the thickness and begins to saturate in devices thicker than 40 ?m. The limiting resolution in the thick devices is 400 line pairs per millimeter. The limitations of performance (efficiency and resolution) in the studied systems are discussed.

Trushkevych, Oksana; Collings, Neil; Crossland, William A.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

2006-12-01

128

Orientation and Electronic Structure of Ion Exchanged Dye Molecules on Mica: An X-Ray Absorption Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye molecules are frequently used to determine the specific surface area and the ion exchange capacity of high-surface-area materials such as mica. The organic molecules are often considered to be planar and to adsorb in a flat orientation. In the present study we have investigated the orientation and electronic structure of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) on muscovite

Dorothee Fischer; Walter R. Caseri; Georg Hähner

1998-01-01

129

The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triphenylmethanes – Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The

Michalina Oplatowska; Ryan F. Donnelly; Rita J. Majithiya; D. Glenn Kennedy; Christopher T. Elliott

2011-01-01

130

Multifunctional kaolinite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron used for the adsorption and degradation of crystal violet in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Kaolinite-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (K-nZVI) was successfully synthesized as a multifunctional composite and used for the degradation of crystal violet (CV). The presence of kaolinite not only decreased the aggregation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) with maintenance of reactivity, but also facilitated reaction by increasing the local concentration of CV in the vicinity of nZVI as an adsorbent. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and batch experiments, which showed that 97.23% of CV was removed using K-nZVI, while only 78.72% and 39.22% of CV were removed using nZVI and kaolinite after 30 min, respectively. Different factors impacting on degradation of CV were investigated as well. On the basis of these results, a removal mechanism was proposed including: (i) prompt adsorption of CV to the K-nZVI phase, and (ii) reduction of CV by Fe(0) on K-nZVI. Furthermore, different adsorption and reduction kinetics were employed to examine the removal process of CV, where a better fit with the pseudo-second-order model for adsorption and pseudo-first-order model for reduction process was observed, and reduction was the rate limiting step. In addition, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated for a specific study of the important adsorption step. Finally, the application of K-nZVI to treat wastewater showed the removal efficiency higher than 99.9%. PMID:23489613

Chen, Zhengxian; Wang, Ting; Jin, Xiaoyin; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

2013-02-21

131

Correlation of slime production investigated via three different methods in coagulase-negative staphylococci with crystal violet reaction and antimicrobial resistance.  

PubMed

This study investigated slime production by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) using the standard tube (ST), Congo red agar (CRA) plate and Christensen's tube (CT) methods, and compared the results with those of the crystal violet reaction (CVR) test. The potential correlation between slime production and antimicrobial resistance was also evaluated. In total, 205 CNS strains were isolated from biological samples: 92 (44.9%) were shown to produce slime by the ST method; 96 (46.8%) by the CRA plate method; 90 (43.9%) by the CT method; and 89 (43.4%) strains were CVR positive. Eighty-three (40.5%) CNS strains were positive for slime production by the ST, CRA and CT methods. The findings of the ST, CRA and CT test methods were consistent with each other but were not related to CVR positivity. Based on the ST method, rates of antibiotic resistance to several antimicrobial agents were higher in slime-positive strains than in slime-negative strains and, in some cases, this was statistically significant. PMID:19215681

Bozkurt, H; Kurtoglu, M G; Bayram, Y; Ke?li, R; Berkta?, M

132

Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic\\/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a dye-doped organic\\/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal containing a dye-doped defect layer for defect-mode photonic band gap lasing. The multilayer laser structure consists of alternating layers of titania nanoparticles and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with an active emission layer of organic dyes in PMMA. Low threshold lasing has been demonstrated at a single defect-mode wavelength of the 1D

Jongseung Yoon; Wonmok Lee; Jean-Michel Caruge; Moungi Bawendi; Edwin L. Thomas; Steven Kooi; Paras N. Prasad

2006-01-01

133

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent—iron humate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent—iron humate—was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in

Pavel Janoš; Veronika Šmídová

2005-01-01

134

Terpyridine-based smart organic–inorganic hybrid gel as potential dye-adsorbing agent for water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A terpyridine-based organic–inorganic hybrid gelator possessing triethoxylsilane moiety was synthesized and its adsorption capacity for aromatic dyes in the absence and the presence of metal ions such as Zn2+ and Cu2+ was measured by UV–vis spectroscopy. From aqueous solutions of dyes, the hybrid gel, in the absence of metal ions, adsorbed 97.4% for basic blue 41, 94.2% for crystal violet,

Eun Jin Cho; Il Yun Jeong; Soo Jin Lee; Won Seok Han; Jeong Ku Kang; Jong Hwa Jung

2008-01-01

135

In situ space- and time-resolved sorption kinetics of anionic dyes on individual LDH crystals.  

PubMed

Fluorescence spectroscopy is employed to follow the ion exchange of an emissive dye--a carboxylated perylene imide--on a layered double hydroxide. The exchange of the carboxylate ions starts at the edges of the layered double hydroxide crystals and is followed by diffusion to the basal plane. Such space-resolved observations provide a solid basis for modelling and studying the mechanisms of exchange. PMID:16224759

Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Sels, Bert F; Loos, Davey; Kohl, Christopher; Müllen, Klaus; Jacobs, Pierre A; Hofkens, Johan; De Vos, Dirk E

2005-11-11

136

Anomalous wavelength dependence of the dye-induced optical reorientation in nematic liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We report on Z-scan measurements of the spectral dependence of dye-induced enhancement of optical torque in nematic liquid crystals. It is found that the enhancement factor changes sign from positive to negative as photon energy increases from 2.4 to 2.7 eV. Modification of our earlier model is proposed to describe the observed spectral dependence. PMID:19859482

Kósa, T; Jánossy, I

1995-06-01

137

Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes  

PubMed Central

Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively.

Mogharabi, Mehdi; Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

138

Aggregation behavior and chromonic liquid crystal properties of an anionic monoazo dye  

SciTech Connect

X-ray scattering and various optical techniques are utilized to study the aggregation process and chromonic liquid crystal phase of the anionic monoazo dye Sunset Yellow FCF. The x-ray results demonstrate that aggregation involves {pi}-{pi} stacking of the molecules into columns, with the columns undergoing a phase transition to an orientationally ordered chromonic liquid crystal phase at high dye concentration. Optical absorption measurements on dilute solutions reveal that the aggregation takes place at all concentrations, with the average aggregation number increasing with concentration. A simple theory based on the law of mass action and an isodesmic aggregation process is in excellent agreement with the experimental data and yields a value for the 'bond' energy between molecules in an aggregate. Measurements of the birefringence and order parameter are also performed as a function of temperature in the chromonic liquid crystal phase. The agreement between these results and a more complicated theory of aggregation is quite reasonable. Overall, these results both confirm that the aggregation process for some dyes is isodesmic and provide a second example of a well-characterized chromonic system.

Horowitz, Viva R.; Janowitz, Lauren A.; Modic, Aaron L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081 (United States); Heiney, Paul A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Collings, Peter J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 19081 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2005-10-01

139

Emission property of inverse opal photonic crystal TiO2 infiltrated by laser dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic crystal has received much attention due to their unique structure and optical property. Photonic crystal which has photonic bandgap can be used to manipulate propagation of light and can be apply in designing integrated optical devices to realize all-optical circuits. Three dimensional photonic crystals which have complete photonic bandgap give more potential in application since they can manipulate propagation of light in all direction. Modified opal photonic crystal by infiltrating matrix material into voids between particles produce inverse opal photonic crystal which has complete photonic bandgap. In this experiment, opal photonic crystal formed from particles polystyrene was used as template material to produce inverse opal photonic crystal. Material dielectric TiO2 which has refractive index about 2,5-2,8 was used as matrix material to fill voids between particles. Simple method that was used to infiltrate precursor TiO2 dielectric is dipping method. Calcination as the final process was done at 550°C to remove all template material to form an air hole structure called inverse opal photonic crystal. To investigate inverse opal photonic crystal TiO2as an optical devices, DCMlaser dye wasinfiltrated into inverse opal TiO2. Based on emission measurement, there is a sharp peak at 808 nm that is identified as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE).

Safriani, Lusi; Wahid, Abdul; Hidayat, Sahrul

2013-09-01

140

Optical phase conjugation in azo-dye doped chiral liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on optical phase conjugation phenomenon observed in chiral nematic liquid crystal showing band gap type Bragg reflection. The phase conjugate to the signal beam is observable only in the small temperature interval when the Bragg condition is fulfilled and only for circularly polarized light. The optical phase conjugation signals were observed at low cw laser light intensities (<100 mW/cm2, ? = 532 nm). Estimated value of third order optical susceptibility ?(3) = 2.8 × 10-17 m2/V2 is attributed to enhancement due to photoisomerisation of azo-dye (disperse red 1) inducing molecular reorientation process of liquid crystal molecules.

Karpinski, Pawel; Miniewicz, Andrzej

2012-10-01

141

Nanoparticles assembled by aptamers and crystal violet for arsenic(III) detection in aqueous solution based on a resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral assay.  

PubMed

Aptamer-assembled nanomaterials have captured much attention from the field of analytical chemistry in recent years. Although they have been regarded as a promising tool for heavy metal monitoring, report involving aptamer-based biosensors for arsenic detection are rare. Herein we developed a highly sensitive and selective aptamer biosensor for As(iii) detection based on a Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS) spectral assay. Prior to As(iii) detection, we firstly assembled a variety of nanoparticles with different sizes via controlling the concentration of arsenic-binding aptamers in crystal violet (CV) solutions. The results of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning probe microscope (SPM) testified that the introduction of As(iii) had indeed changed the size of nanoparticles, which caused a great variation in the RRS intensity at 310 nm. In the presence of 100 ppb As(iii), a maximum decline in the ratio of RRS intensity was achieved for large nanoparticles assembled from 200 nM of aptamers and CV molecules, where the average size of nanoparticles had decreased from 273 nm to 168 nm. In the case of small nanoparticles, the maximum increase ratio of the RRS intensity was obtained when the concentration of aptamer was over 600 nM. Combined with an RRS spectral assay, an effective biosensor has been developed for As(iii) detection, using the above large and small nanoparticles as the target recognition element. The present biosensor has a detection limit as low as 0.2 ppb, a dynamic range from 0.1 ppb to 200 ppb, and high selectivity over other metal ions. Such an efficient biosensor will play an important role in environmental detection. PMID:23034818

Wu, Yuangen; Zhan, Shenshan; Xing, Haibo; He, Lan; Xu, Lurong; Zhou, Pei

2012-10-04

142

Photodeactivation of ethyl violet: a potential hazard of Sodasorb.  

PubMed

Breathing circuit cannisters containing functional CO2 absorbent are critical to prevent rebreathing CO2 during general anesthesia using closed or semiclosed breathing systems. Ethyl violet is the indicator dye added to Sodasorb to indicate impending exhaustion of the absorbent. A case of CO2 rebreathing due to failure of ethyl violet indicator in exhausted Sodasorb was encountered. Laboratory investigation demonstrated that dye failure could result from photodeactivation caused by fluorescent lights. Using a fixed intensity fluorescent light source and quantitative spectrophotometric analysis, a highly significant dose-response relationship was demonstrated between duration of light exposure and the decrease in ethyl violet concentration. After 24 h of fluorescent light exposure with a received flux density of 46 nwatts/cm2 at 254 nm, the concentration of functional ethyl violet remaining in pulverized Sodasorb was 16% of the baseline value. Furthermore, using multiple light sources of various intensities, the greater the intensity of light, the more rapid the rate of decline of the ethyl violet concentration. It is recommended to minimize the problem by using ultraviolet filters and incorporating additional ethyl violet in Sodasorb. Finally, ethyl violet undergoes temporal deactivation after a Sodasorb container is opened, even if it is stored in the dark. PMID:2105069

Andrews, J J; Johnston, R V; Bee, D E; Arens, J F

1990-01-01

143

Polymer photonic crystal dye lasers as label free evanescent cell sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye doped polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers are applied for evanescent wave sensing of cells. The lasers are rectangular shaped slab waveguides of dye doped polymer on a glass substrate, where a photonic crystal is formed by 100 nm deep air-holes in the surface of the 375 nm high waveguides. The lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP) in Ormocore hybrid polymer doped with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. The lasers emit in the chip plane at a wavelength around 595 nm when pumped with 5 ns pulses from a compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. We investigate the sensitivity of photonic crystal band-edge lasers to partial coverage with HeLa cells. The lasers are chemically activated with a flexible UV activated anthraquinone based linker molecule, which enables selective binding of cells and molecules. When measuring in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS), which has a refractive index close to that of the cells, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the cell density on the sensor surface. Our results demonstrate that nanostructured hybrid polymer lasers, which are cheap to fabricate and very simple to operate, can be selectively chemically activated with UV sensitive photolinkers for further bioanalytical applications. This opens the possibility to functionalize arrays of optofluidic laser sensors with different bio-recognition molecules for multiplexed sensing. The linear relationship between cell coverage and wavelength indicates that the slight refractive index perturbation from the partial coverage of the sensor influences the entire optical mode, rather than breaking down the photonic crystal feedback.

Christiansen, Mads B.; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Jakobsen, Mogens H.; Mortensen, Niels A.; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

2009-08-01

144

New Developments in Liquid Crystal Photo-Aligning by Azo-Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal (LC) photo-alignment using azo-dyes is reviewed. This alignment method is very different from previously reported ones, which are due to mechanisms such as photo-crosslinking, photo degradation, and photo-isomerization. We present the basic physical mechanisms of the photo-induced orientational order in various photo-aligning materials and in azo-dye layers in particular. This method is based on rotational diffusion in a potential created by the light field as well as intermolecular forces. It will be shown that this photo-aligning method can provide a controllable pretilt angle and strong anchoring energy of the LC cell, as well as having high thermal and ultraviolet (UV) stability. The application of this method to the alignment and fabrication of various types of LC displays is also discussed.

Kwok, Hoi-Sing; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.; Takada, Hirokazu; Takatsu, Haruyoshi

2005-09-01

145

Spontaneous emission of dye molecules, semiconductor nanocrystals, and rare-earth ions in opal-based photonic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photonic crystals based on silica colloidal crystals (artificial opals) exhibit pronounced stopbands for electromagnetic wave propagation and the corresponding modification of the photon density of states in the visible range. These spectrally selective features can be enhanced by impregnating opals with higher refractive materials like, e.g., polymers. Doping of these structures with dye molecules, semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots), and rare-earth

S. V. Gaponenko; V. N. Bogomolov; E. P. Petrov; A. M. Kapitonov; D. A. Yarotsky; I. I. Kalosha; A. A. Eychmueller; A. L. Rogach; J. McGilp; U. Woggon; F. Gindele

1999-01-01

146

Molecular organization and aggregation in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of azo dye/liquid crystal mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of azo dye/liquid crystal mixtures in monolayers formed at air-water (Langmuir films) and air-solid substrate (Langmuir-Blodgett films) interfaces was performed. Three azo dyes with various molecular structure and two liquid crystal materials: 4-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) and trans-4-octyl(4'-cyanophenyl)-cyclohexane (8PCH) were used. The morphology of Langmuir films was monitored by means of a Brewster angle microscope (BAM). Moreover, a surface pressure and electronic absorption spectra of the monolayer spread on the water surface of dye/liquid crystal mixtures as a function of a mean molecular area were simultaneously recorded. In addition, the absorption for Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited on quartz plates was measured. Information about intermolecular interactions in the mixtures of the nonamphiphilic dye and the liquid crystal with polar terminal group was obtained. Conclusions about the formation of self-aggregates between dye molecules have been drawn. The influence of the dye molecular structure and its concentration on aggregates’ geometry was found.

Inglot, K.; Marty?ski, T.; Bauman, D.

2009-06-01

147

Characterization of N3 dye adsorption on TiO2 using quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the kinetics of dye adsorption on semiconductors is crucial for designing dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with enhanced efficiency. Harms et al. recently applied the Quartz-Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (QCM-D) to study in situ dye adsorption on flat TiO2 surfaces. QCM-D measures adsorption in real time and therefore allows one to determine the kinetics of the process. In this work, we characterize the adsorption of N3, a commercial RuBipy dye, using the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor to simulate the TiO2 substrate of a DSSC. We report equilibrium constants that are in agreement with previous absorbance studies of N3 adsorption, and therefore demonstrate the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor as a valid and readily available planar TiO2 morphology to study dye adsorption.

Wayment-Steele, Hannah K.; Johnson, Lewis E.; Dixon, Matthew C.; Johal, Malkiat S.

2013-09-01

148

Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity dependence of optical nonlinearity in a nematic liquid crystal doped with an azo-dye is investigated. The reorientational part of the nonlinearity changes from self-defocusing to self-focusing character while the intensity passes through the saturation value of trans-cis photoisomerization. This observation, in accordance with previous models, indicates that the optical torque generated by the trans-isomers is of opposite sign than the torque generated by the cis-isomers. At very low intensities a further reorientational nonlinearity was found, which is attributed to light-induced orientational redistribution of adsorbed molecules at the surface.

Becchi, M.; Janossy, I.; Shankar Rao, D. S.; Statman, D.

2004-05-01

149

Anomalous intensity dependence of optical reorientation in azo-dye-doped nematic liquid crystals.  

PubMed

The intensity dependence of optical nonlinearity in a nematic liquid crystal doped with an azo-dye is investigated. The reorientational part of the nonlinearity changes from self-defocusing to self-focusing character while the intensity passes through the saturation value of trans-cis photoisomerization. This observation, in accordance with previous models, indicates that the optical torque generated by the trans-isomers is of opposite sign than the torque generated by the cis-isomers. At very low intensities a further reorientational nonlinearity was found, which is attributed to light-induced orientational redistribution of adsorbed molecules at the surface. PMID:15244837

Becchi, M; Janossy, I; Shankar Rao, D S; Statman, D

2004-05-25

150

Influence of the layer thickness and concentration of dye molecules on the emission amplification in cholesteric liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

The propagation of light through a planar layer of a cholesteric liquid crystal doped with dye molecules is considered. The features of the emission spectra of the crystal are studied both in the absence and presence of dielectric boundaries. The increase in the emission intensity is investigated for different layer thicknesses and different concentrations of dye molecules. It is shown that an anomalously strong increase in the emission intensity with the diffraction intrinsic polarisation takes place in the case of a comparatively small crystal thickness and a relatively low concentration of dye molecules. The obtained results can be used for the development of miniature lasers with the circular polarisation of the fundamental radiation mode. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Alaverdyan, R B; Gevorgyan, A A; Chilingaryan, A D; Chilingaryan, Yu S [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia)

2008-05-31

151

Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes.  

PubMed Central

Reduction of seven azo dyes (amaranth, Ponceau SX, Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, tartrazine, Orange II, and methyl orange) was carried out by cell suspensions of predominant intestinal anaerobes. It was optimal at pH 7.4 in 0.4 M phosphate buffer and inhibited by glucose. Flavin mononucleotide caused a marked enhancement of azo reduction by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Other electron carriers, e.g., methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, phenosafranin, neutral red, crystal violet, flavin adenine dinucleotide, menadione, and Janus Green B can replace flavin mononucleotide. These data suggest that an extracellular shuttle is required for azo reduction.

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Egan, M

1978-01-01

152

Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes.  

PubMed

Reduction of seven azo dyes (amaranth, Ponceau SX, Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, tartrazine, Orange II, and methyl orange) was carried out by cell suspensions of predominant intestinal anaerobes. It was optimal at pH 7.4 in 0.4 M phosphate buffer and inhibited by glucose. Flavin mononucleotide caused a marked enhancement of azo reduction by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Other electron carriers, e.g., methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, phenosafranin, neutral red, crystal violet, flavin adenine dinucleotide, menadione, and Janus Green B can replace flavin mononucleotide. These data suggest that an extracellular shuttle is required for azo reduction. PMID:25047

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Egan, M

1978-03-01

153

Particle beam liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of triphenylmethane dyes: application to confirmation of malachite green in incurred catfish tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, leucomalachite green, gentian violet, leucogentian violet, brilliant green, pentamethyl gentian violet, N?,N?-tetramethyl gentian violet and N?,N?-tetramethyl gentian violet) have been characterized by particle beam liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The electron ionization spectra obtained of these dyes by this technique exhibit similar fragmentation, with the formation of phenyl and substituted phenyl radicals, and loss of alkyl groups

Sherri B. Turnipseed; José E. Roybal; Heidi S. Rupp; Jeffrey A. Hurlbut; Austin R. Long

1995-01-01

154

Kinetics of adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from waste apricot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbent (WA11Zn5) has been prepared from waste apricot by chemical activation with ZnCl2. Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by N2 adsorption and DFT plus software. Adsorption of three dyes, namely, Methylene Blue (MB), Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV), onto activated carbon in aqueous

Yunus Önal

2006-01-01

155

Gentian Violet Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, the use of 1 % and 2 % aqueous solutions of gentian violet (GV) is an acceptable treatment of thrush in infants. GV is generally considered efficacious; in fact, one study found GV superior to nystatin in treating thrush in infants. 1 Oral nystatin is usually prescribed as the first-line drug for this infection, while GV is commonly reserved

Janice P. Piatt; Paul S. Bergeson

1992-01-01

156

Feedback-free single-beam pattern formation by nanosecond pulses in dye-doped liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, optical feedback and/or two counter-propagating beams are necessary to form high-definition patterns in the cross section of a laser beam after passing through a nonlinear medium. In this paper we present an observation of pattern formation in liquid crystal media in a single laser beam without any external feedback. We found that after irradiation of a dye-doped liquid crystal cell with repetitive nanosecond pulses, the beam coming out of the liquid crystal cell exhibits a spectacular kaleidoscopic change of beam patterns in the far field. The patterns vary from pulse to pulse in an ordered manner cycling through a variety of complicated forms. We speculate that localized phase separation of the dye from the liquid crystal host occurs in the focal region of the beam in our experiments, and that the observed far-field patterns result from the laser-beam diffraction on these absorptive and refractive inhomogeneities.

Lepeshkin, Nick N.; Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Boyd, Robert W.; Marshall, Kenneth L.

2006-09-01

157

Theory of a dye laser in a mesogenic matrix near a transition to the liquid crystal phase  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic distributed feedback mechanism is proposed to account for the experimental results (blue shift of the wavelength, reduction of the threshold) on the lasing of a dye in a liquid crystal matrix. It is shown that this mechanism involves scattering by inhomogeneous fluctuations of the order and provides a correct quantitative description of the experimental data.

Lyakhov, G.A.; Svirko, Y.P.

1985-10-01

158

Liquid crystal-directed assembly and phase morphology of a squaraine dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The squaraine (SQ) dye, 2,4-bis [4-(N,N-di-n-hexylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl]squaraine was synthesised, and a series of SQ dye\\/cholesteryl pelargonate binary mixtures with varying dye concentrations (1%, 3%, 7.5%, 10.8%, 15% and 20% w\\/w) were prepared. Their phase transitions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, polarised light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The SQ dye itself exhibited no liquid crystalline behaviour. The concentration of the dye

Maher A. Qaddoura; Kevin D. Belfield; Paul A. Heiney

2012-01-01

159

Manipulation and assembly of small objects in liquid crystals by dynamical disorganizing effect of push-pull-azobenzene-dye.  

PubMed

The phase transition of a nematic liquid crystal containing a push-pull azobenzene dye could be induced efficiently during irradiation with visible light. The dynamical disorganizing effect of the push-pull azobenzene dye on the liquid crystalline order through its trans-cis-trans photoisomerizaion cycle under visible light was contributed to the efficient phase transition. Then, the effects of light irradiation on the motion of small objects dispersed in the liquid crystals containing the push-pull azobenzene were explored, and the manipulation and assembly of those objects were successfully achieved in the nematic phase but also in the smectic phase. The combination of the photo-controlled dynamical change in the liquid crystalline order and the intrinsic self-assembly property of a liquid crystal is promising for use in technologies that require not only the organization of small objects but also the photo-driving of nano- and micro-sized mechanical materials. PMID:23835605

Kurihara, Seiji; Ohta, Kazuhiro; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Ryo; Kuwahara, Yutaka; Ogata, Tomonari; Kim, Sun-Nam

2013-07-01

160

Dyeing KDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the growth and spectroscopy of well-defined mixed crystals of KH2PO4 (KDP) containing both natural and synthetic organic dyes in the {010} and {101} growth sectors. Our summary reevaluates historical dye inclusions, reveals others discovered in a directed screening, and ultimately describes dyes rationally synthesized for the recognition of KDP surfaces. Absorption and emission spectroscopies with polarized light are

J. Anand Subramony; Sei-Hum Jang; Bart Kahr

1997-01-01

161

Decolorization of 1:2 metal complex dye Acid blue 193 by a newly isolated fungus, Cladosporium cladosporioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides isolated from coal sample as a decolorizing microorganism. It decolorized five different azo and triphenylmethane dyes like acid blue 193, acid black 210, crystal violet, reactive black B(S) and reactive black BL\\/LPR both on solid and in liquid broth medium. Culture broth of this fungus decolorized completely 100 mg of acid blue 193 l?1 in 8 days. The extracellular

M. H. Vijaykumar; Y. Veeranagouda; K. Neelakanteshwar; T. B. Karegoudar

2006-01-01

162

Distributed feedback leaky laser emission from dye doped gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal thin film patterned by soft lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal (GDLC) thin films doped with organic laser dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) were prepared via a sol–gel procedure of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ethyl triethoxisilane (ETES). As characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), surface-relief structures were successfully patterned on lower refractive index GDLC thin films by soft lithographic technology, which support distributed feedback (DFB) laser emission based

Lujian Chen; Fengyu Gao; Chun Liu; Qiong Zhou; Sensen Li; Yikun Bu; Zhiping Cai

2011-01-01

163

Pretransitional enhancement of the optical nonlinearity of thin dye-doped liquid crystals in the nematic phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a critical enhancement of the nonlinear optical response of dye-doped liquid crystals obtained by approaching the clearing point in the nematic phase. The enhancement of the nonlinear diffraction efficiency has been measured in the range 0.2-0.3 deg below the nematic-isotropic transition temperature. It allows reaching a nonlinear refractive index higher than 40 cm2/W in all the tested cells.

Lucchetti, L.; Gentili, M.; Simoni, F.

2005-04-01

164

Colossal optical nonlinearity induced by a low frequency external electric field in dye-doped liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the effects of a low-frequency electric field on the optical nonlinear response of thin dye-doped liquid crystal cells. Experimental data show that the external field allows reaching extremely high values of the optical nonlinearity without any critical control of the cell interfaces. A qualitative interpretation of the collected data, based on the light-induced modulation of the bulk voltage through surface modifications, is proposed.

Lucchetti, L.; Gentili, M.; Simoni, F.

2006-03-01

165

21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The substance listed in paragraph (a) of this section...

2004-04-01

166

Fast Optical Switching Using Oriented Cyanine Dye-Doped Nematic Liquid Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cyanine dye, 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium iodide (NK-125), is doped in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5 CB), and the mixture is sandwiched between two pieces of rubbed glass plates. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the oriented NK-125-5CB layers are measured by the resonant femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique at 760 nm. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of one of the present samples is 5.5×10-8 esu. The slow DFWM response of the NK-125-5CB layers due to a population grating is accelerated by the increasing laser power because of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). On the other hand, we do not observe a similar phenomenon for NK-125-polyethylene glycol (PEG-400). Oriented NK-125 molecules in nematic liquid crystals must have very high ASE efficiency. Hence the population grating in a DFWM signal disappears within about 4 ps. It is expected that NK-125-5CB can be used as a material for very fast all-optical switching.

Jin, Zhao-Hui; Li, Zhong-Yu; Kazuo, Kasatani; Hiroaki, Okamoto

2006-10-01

167

Dye removal, catalytic activity and 2D crystallization of chloroplast H(+)-ATP synthase purified by blue native electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The proton-ATP synthase of thylakoid membranes from spinach chloroplasts (CF(O)F(1)) and its subcomplexes CF(O) and CF(1) were isolated by blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) [Neff, D. and Dencher, N.A. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 259, 569-575] and subsequently electroeluted from the gel. A method was developed to remove most of the dye Coomassie G-250 (CBG) using gel filtration, a prerequisite for many biophysical investigations. The dye was removed from the electroeluted CF(O)F(1), CF(O) or CF(1) and exchanged with the detergent CHAPS. ATP hydrolysis activity of CF(1) and ATP synthesis activity of reconstituted CF(O)F(1) were determined before and after dye removal. The secondary structure of CF(O) was studied by CD spectroscopy in the presence and the absence of the dye. CBG neither abolishes the catalytic activity of the isolated CF(O)F(1) and CF(1) nor affects the subunit composition and the high alpha-helical content of CF(O). In crystallization attempts, 2D arrays of CF(O)F(1) and of CF(O) before and after dye removal were obtained. In the aggregates of CF(O), circular structures with a mean diameter of 6.7 nm were observed. Our results indicate that the combination of BN-PAGE and dye removal by gel filtration is a suitable approach to obtain catalytically active protein complexes for further functional and structural characterization. PMID:10825454

Poetsch, A; Neff, D; Seelert, H; Schägger, H; Dencher, N A

2000-06-01

168

New violet-excitable reagents for multicolor flow applications.  

PubMed

We have recently added three new fluorophores-BD Horizon™ V450, BD Horizon V500, and BD Horizon V550 (V450, V500, and V550; BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) to our existing AmCyan product, forming a group of four violet-excitable dyes from which we have produced functional antibody conjugates. These conjugates, with emission maxima that range from 450 to 535 nm, are compatible with multilaser flow cytometry (FCM) and can be used for polychromatic FCM in three-color or two-color combinations; in fact, V500 fills a spectral opening that has thus far not been exploited by other manufacturers of FCM reagents. We here report that conjugates based on BD Horizon dyes performed well within a useful sensitivity range, established by testing a representative group of violet-excitable FCM reagents currently available, and that V500 has better compatibility with FITC in multicolor applications than does AmCyan. PMID:23765858

Abrams, Barny; Diwu, Zhenjun; Guryev, Oleg; Suni, Maria; Dubrovsky, Tim

2013-06-13

169

Laser dye technology  

SciTech Connect

The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

Hammond, P R

1999-09-01

170

Use of gentian violet to differentiate in vitro and ex vitro-formed roots during acclimatization of grapevine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dye gentian violet was added to culture medium in order to distinguish in vitro and ex vitro-formed roots during acclimatization of micropropagated plantlets. Shoots of the grapevine rootstock Kober 5BB were rooted on media containing the dye (0.3 and 0.15 mg·l-1) for 3 weeks. The dye coloured the roots. Root length was reduced by the presence of the dye,

Ivana Gribaudo; M. Asuncion Morte; Andrea Schubert

1995-01-01

171

Final report on the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43.  

PubMed

Acid Violet 43 is an anthraquinone color that may be used as a colorant in cosmetic formulations that are hair dyes, colors, and coloring rinses. Batches of Acid Violet 43 that are certified to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) specifications are termed Ext. D & C Violet No. 2. Hair dyes and colors containing Acid Violet 43 are considered coal tar ingredients and, as such, routinely bear a caution statement regarding potential skin irritation and instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation in any given individual. Expected concentrations of use are less than or equal to 1%. Impurities include anthracenedione derivatives, p-toluidine, and p-toluidine sulfonic acid, as well as heavy metals. Based on extensive safety test data, the U.S. FDA has established specifications (including limits on impurities) for Ext. D & C Violet No. 2 that allow its use in any cosmetic. It is the certified color (Ext. D & C Violet No. 2) that has been evaluated in the following safety tests. Oral toxicity tests do not demonstrate significant acute toxicity. In a short-term dermal toxicity study using guinea pigs and a subchronic dermal toxicity study using rabbits, no signs of systemic toxicity and no significant local skin reactions were noted. This ingredient was not genotoxic in bacterial assays, nor was it carcinogenic when applied to mouse skin at a 1% concentration. Accordingly, Acid Violet 43 was determined to be safe for use in hair dye formulations, when impurities are limited as follows: < or = 18% volatile matter (at 135 degrees C) and chlorides and sulfates (calculated as sodium salts); < or = 0.4% water-insoluble matter; < or = 0.2% 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.2% 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.1% p-toluidine; < or = 0.2% p-toluidine sulfonic acids, sodium salts; < or = 1% subsidiary colors; < or = 20 ppm lead (as Pb); < or = 3 ppm arsenic (as As); < or = 1 ppm mercury (as Hg); and with > or = 80% total color. PMID:11766130

Fiume, M Z

2001-01-01

172

[Properties of a triphenylmethane dyes decolorization enzyme TpmD from Aeromonas hydrophila strain DN322].  

PubMed

A novel bacterial decolorization enzyme for triphenylmethane dyes from Aeromonas hydrophila strain DN322 was purified, named TpmD. The purified enzyme catalyzes the decolorization of several triphenylmethane dyes, i.e., crystal violet, basic fuchsin, brilliant green and malachite green. The enzyme was identified by the clear transparent band development of zymogram stained with crystal violet, basic fuchsin, brilliant green and malachite green after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) respectively. The decolorization enzyme was enzymologically characterized. The results showed that the molecular weight of TpmD is 29.4kDa and its isoelectric point (pI) is 5.6. The maximal activity of TpmD for above four triphenylmethane dyes was observed at 50 degrees C - 55 degrees C and pH 7.4 - 8.0. The temperature for losing half of the activity (t1/2) within 4h is 62 degrees C. The activities of decolorization enzyme are relatively stable at pH range of 5.5 - 9.0. The K(m) and V(max) of TpmD for decolorizing crystal violet, basic fuchsin, brilliant green and malachite green are 24.3, 40.6, 54.2, 68.5 micromol/L respectively, V(max) are 19.6, 74.1, 82.8, 115.6 micromol x L(-1) x s(-1) respectively. Both NADH/NADPH and molecular oxygen are necessary for the enzyme to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes, indicate the enzyme is an NADH/NADPH-dependent oxygenase. PMID:16933606

Ren, Sui-Zhou; Guo, Jun; Wang, Ya-Li; Cen, Ying-Hua; Sun, Guo-Ping

2006-06-01

173

Fabrication of pseudo-pi vertical alignment mode liquid crystal devices with ultra-violet polymerisation and investigations of their electro-optical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we applied the non-contact photo-polymerisation method in fabricating pseudo-polyimide (PI) liquid crystal (LC) devices with vertical alignment copolymer films, in the hope of solving the problems associated with traditional rubbing alignment processes. We mixed different photo-polymerisation-type acrylic monomers and negative dielectric anisotropy LC at proper weight percentages, and induced phase separation behaviour between the photo-polymerisation-type acrylic monomers

Czung-Yu Ho; Jiunn-Yih Lee

2010-01-01

174

Effect of carbon and nitrogen source amendment on synthetic dyes decolourizing efficiency of white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

Decolourization activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for three synthetic dyes viz., congo red, malachite green and crystal violet and impact of additional carbon and nitrogen supply on decolourization capacity of fungus were investigated. Maximum decolourizing capacity was observed up to 15 ppm. Addition of urea as nitrogen source and glucose as carbon source significantly enhanced decolourizing capacity (up to 87%) of fungus. In all the cases, both colour and COD were reduced more in non-sterilized treatments as compared to sterilized ones. Significant reductions in COD content of dye solutions (79-84%) were recorded by fungus supplied with additional carbon and nitrogen. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) between colour and COD of dye solutions was recorded. Thus, a readily available carbon and nitrogen source is imperative to enhance the bioremediation activity of this fungus which has been the most suitable for synthetic dyes and textile industry wastewater treatment. PMID:18831336

Pant, Deepak; Singh, Anoop; Satyawali, Yamini; Gupta, R K

2008-01-01

175

Distributed feedback leaky laser emission from dye doped gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal thin film patterned by soft lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gel-glass dispersed liquid crystal (GDLC) thin films doped with organic laser dye Rhodamine 6G (R6G) were prepared via a sol-gel procedure of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ethyl triethoxisilane (ETES). As characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), surface-relief structures were successfully patterned on lower refractive index GDLC thin films by soft lithographic technology, which support distributed feedback (DFB) laser emission based on leaky mode propagation. The performance of the DFB laser emission was investigated and the spectral narrowing of the emitted radiation and the fine structure pattern were found to be controlled by the doping concentration of liquid crystal (LC) 4-cyano-4?-pentylbiphenyl (5CB). We also showed the synchronous excitation of a DFB lasing with random lasing mediated by light scattering inside the same GDLC leaky waveguide.

Chen, Lujian; Gao, Fengyu; Liu, Chun; Zhou, Qiong; Li, Sensen; Bu, Yikun; Cai, Zhiping

2011-11-01

176

Direct and seamless coupling of TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal to dye-sensitized solar cell: a single-step approach.  

PubMed

A TiO(2) nanotube layer with a periodic structure is used as a photonic crystal to greatly enhance light harvesting in TiO(2) nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Such a tube-on-tube structure fabricated by a single-step approach facilitates good physical contact, easy electrolyte infiltration, and efficient charge transport. An increase of over 50% in power conversion efficiency is obtained in comparison to reference cells without a photonic crystal layer (under similar total thickness and dye loading). PMID:22102221

Yip, Cho Tung; Huang, Haitao; Zhou, Limin; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Feng, Tianhua; Li, Jensen; Tam, Wing Yim

2011-11-07

177

IncP-1-beta plasmid pGNB1 isolated from a bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant mediates decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.  

PubMed

Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1beta plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1beta plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

2007-08-03

178

Cationic red-violet - a selective reagent for the extraction-photometric determination of lead  

SciTech Connect

To increase the selectivity of the determination of lead, the authors investigate the complex formation of lead with bromide ions and the basic cyanine dye, cationic red-violet (CRV). In contrast to the triphenylmethane, rhodamine, azine, thiazine, and azo-dyes, CRV forms ionic associates with bromide complexes of lead, which are extractable by inert solvents. This permitted the authors to develop a new, highly selective method of extraction-photometric determination of lead.

Kish, P.P.; Balog, I.S.; Bazel', Y.R.

1986-03-01

179

21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity...Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in...

2013-04-01

180

Fluorescence screening of leucomalachite green and leucogentian violet residues in catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tripheylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and gentian violet (GV) are effective fungicides, ectoparasiticides and disinfectants in aquaculture. This practice may leave toxic residues in seafood which is not allowed by FDA and many regulatory agencies worldwide. In this work, residues of their me...

181

Effect of Gentian Violet, Corticosteroid and Tar Preparations in Staphylococcus-aureus-Colonized Atopic Eczema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In atopic eczema (AE), skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus plays a possible role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with AE were screened for their cutaneous colonization with S. aureus. The antibacterial and clinical efficacy of topical therapy with the antiseptic dye gentian violet, a potent glucocorticosteroid or a tar solution (liquor carbonis detergens) was evaluated

Knut Brockow; Petra Grabenhorst; Dietrich Abeck; Bernd Traupe; Johannes Ring; Udo Hoppe; Florian Wolf

1999-01-01

182

21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589...Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by...

2013-04-01

183

21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589...Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by...

2009-04-01

184

Colour Microscopy in Ultra-Violet Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

ULTRA-VIOLET microscopy has important advantages in the study of different microscopic objects1. In 1939 I suggested a new method of microscopy in ultra-violet rays, making use of selective absorption or reflexion of microscopic objects in the ultra-violet2.

E. M. Brumberg

1943-01-01

185

Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires  

SciTech Connect

A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport (see picture) and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A. J.; Grimes, C. A.; Mallouk, T. E.

2012-03-12

186

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent-iron humate.  

PubMed

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent-iron humate-was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in most cases) dramatically the sorption of basic (cationic) dyes. Typically, the dye sorption was enhanced in the presence of low concentrations of anionic surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations, a steep decrease in the dye sorption was observed in some systems, probably due to the formation of micelles that solubilize the dye molecules and prevent their sorption. A model describing these experimental dependencies was proposed. The sorption of basic dyes onto iron humate may be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Diffusion processes were identified as the main mechanisms controlling the rate of the dye sorption. PMID:16162351

Janos, Pavel; Smídová, Veronika

2005-11-01

187

Violet and blue upconversion-emission from erbium-doped ZBLAN-fibers with red diode laser pumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violet (402 nm) and blue (470 nm) upconversion-emission with powers of several 10 ?W from Er3+:ZBLAN fibers under red laser pumping have been obtained. Efficient red-to-violet and red-to-blue upconversion was found using laser diodes at 638 nm, a helium–neon-laser at 633 nm, and a tunable DCM-dye-laser. Pumping at the optimal excitation wavelength at 638 nm, the upconversion emission exhibited a

Sebastian Ferber; Volker Gaebler; Hans-Joachim Eichler

2002-01-01

188

Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

2012-12-01

189

Optically and thermally controllable light scattering based on dye-doped liquid crystals in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films-coated liquid crystal cell.  

PubMed

This paper presents the optically controllable light scattering based on dye-doped liquid crystals (DDLCs) in a cell, whose substrates are coated with poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) films. The optical control mechanism is the light-induced dissolution of PVK in DDLCs, which reforms the disordered LC distribution into multiple and micron-sized LC domains. The induced thermal effect on the process is investigated in detail. Scanning electron microscopy images are obtained to show the surface structures of the produced PVK films. The generated scattering can be switched back to the original one by particular thermally induced phase separation. Results indicate that the light-induced thermal effect and photoisomerization lead to the dissolution of PVK in DDLCs. Finally, scattering mode light shutter with different transmission is successfully achieved by illuminating the cell under various light intensities. PMID:23187479

Chen, Yuan-Di; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Cheng, Ko-Ting

2012-11-19

190

Fast Optical Switching Using Oriented Cyanine Dye-Doped Nematic Liquid Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyanine dye, 2-[7-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)-1,3,5-heptatrienyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium iodide (NK-125), is doped in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5 CB), and the mixture is sandwiched between two pieces of rubbed glass plates. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the oriented NK-125-5CB layers are measured by the resonant femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique at 760 nm. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of one of the present samples is

Zhao-Hui Jin; Zhong-Yu Li; Kasatani Kazuo; Okamoto Hiroaki

2006-01-01

191

Decolourisation of industrial dyes by solid-state cultures of Pleurotus pulmonarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-state system to obtain rapid in vivo industrial dye decolourisation by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius is proposed. When cultivated on glucose\\\\ammonium tartrate–corncob solid-state medium, P. pulmonarius decolourised structurally different synthetic dyes (including azo, triphenylmethane, heterocyclic and polymeric dyes). Amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R (RBB), methyl violet, ethyl violet and brilliant cresyl

Giovana Kirst Tychanowicz; Adriana Zilly; Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza; Rosane Marina Peralta

2004-01-01

192

Degradation of textile dyes mediated by plant peroxidases.  

PubMed

The peroxidase enzyme from the plants Ipomea palmata (1.003 IU/g of leaf) and Saccharum spontaneum (3.6 IU/g of leaf) can be used as an alternative to the commercial source of horseradish and soybean peroxidase enzyme for the decolorization of textile dyes, mainly azo dyes. Eight textiles dyes currently used by the industry and seven other dyes were selected for decolorization studies at 25-200 mg/L levels using these plant enzymes. The enzymes were purified prior to use by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic techniques. Peroxidase of S. spontaneum leaf (specific activity of 0.23 IU/mg) could completely degrade Supranol Green and Procion Green HE-4BD (100%) dyes within 1 h, whereas Direct Blue, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G and Chrysoidine were degraded >70% in 1 h. Peroxidase of Ipomea (I. palmata leaf; specific activity of 0.827 U/mg) degraded 50 mg/L of the dyes Methyl Orange (26%), Crystal Violet (36%), and Supranol Green (68%) in 2-4 h and Brilliant Green (54%), Direct Blue (15%), and Chrysoidine (44%) at the 25 mg/L level in 1 to 2 h of treatment. The Saccharum peroxidase was immobilized on a hydrophobic matrix. Four textile dyes, Procion Navy Blue HER, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G, Procion Green HE-4BD, and Supranol Green, at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L were completely degraded within 8 h by the enzyme immobilized on the modified polyethylene matrix. The immobilized enzyme was used in a batch reactor for the degradation of Procion Green HE-4BD and the reusability was studied for 15 cycles, and the half-life was found to be 60 h. PMID:12396133

Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Nair, R Aswathi; Abraham, T Emilia

193

Synthesis and characterization of fluorescent acenequinones as dyes for guest-host liquid crystal displays.  

PubMed

Syntheses and spectroscopic properties of alkoxy-substituted para-acenequinones are reported. These compounds showed excellent alignment in nematic liquid crystals as evidenced by polarized UV-vis absorption and fluorescence measurements. [structure: see text] PMID:17298074

Chen, Zhihua; Swager, Timothy M

2007-02-14

194

Nonlinear optical properties of new photosensitive smart materials based on nematic liquid crystal with H-bonded dye-polymer complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the new photosensitive heterogeneous systems based on nematic liquid crystal (LC) doped with H-bonded polymer-azo-dye complex were studied. The excitation of the heterosystem by continuous laser irradiation at 532 nm produces the refractive index variation up to 10-2 measured within the spatial profile analysis in the far field. The phenomenon could be attributed to the photoinduced transformation of the azo dye from trans to cis form that reduces the order parameter of the LC in the vicinity of the complex.

Uklein, A. V.; Vasko, A. A.; Ouskova, E. V.; Brodyn, M. S.; Gayvoronsky, V. Ya.

2013-06-01

195

Preparation of immunoblot test stripes from a Rubella virus-like particles dye crystal complex as antigen.  

PubMed

Stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO24S) cells were the source for Rubella virus-like particles (RVLP) containing all structural proteins (E1, E2, C and their dimers). RVLP are secreted from the CHO24S cells into the medium and the time-point for collecting the medium with the highest yield of >100 kDa proteins (with 17 mg protein from 10 ml cell culture supernatant) was after 2 days of incubation. Different methods for RVLP isolation from the cell culture supernatants were assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting (using sera positive or negative for Rubella virus (RV)-specific antibodies or an anti-E1 monoclonal antibody). A combination of membrane filtration with a rapid, novel gradient ultracentrifugation step (using Coomassie brilliant blue G crystals as adsorbens for RVLP that facilitated virus isolation) was the most suitable technique. 132 RV-positive human sera (RV IgG > 20 IU/ml by commercial ELISA) were tested by our "self made" immunoblot test stripes (using RVLP adsorbed to dye crystals as antigen) for the presence or absence of antibodies specific for RV structural proteins. 57.6% of these sera had antibodies against E1, E2 and C, 31% against E1 and C, and 1.5% against E1 only, whereas 3.8% had no RV specific antibodies and only 6.0% were equivocal which demonstrated that these "self made" test stripes can reliably differentiate RV antibody specificities. PMID:15868096

Giessauf, A; Flaim, M; Walder, G; Dierich, M P; Würzner, R

2005-05-02

196

Outer Penetration Barrier of Escherichia coli K-12: Kinetics of the Uptake of Gentian Violet by Wild Type and Envelope Mutants  

PubMed Central

Wild-type strains of Escherichia coli K-12 adsorb gentian violet to the cell surface, but the dye is not transported into the cytoplasm. However, when some mutants that have an altered outer membrane are exposed to gentian violet, the dye is also found in the ribosomal fraction. The transport into the cytoplasm is inhibited at 0 C and requires that the concentration of gentian violet exceeds a threshold value. The initial rate of uptake as well as the amount of gentian violet found in the cytoplasm increases with the concentration of the dye in the medium. The rate of transport of the dye into the cytoplasm is much lower for stationary mutant cells than for exponentially growing cells. The rate of uptake into the cytoplasm increases with increasing deficiency of carbohydrate in the lipopolysaccharide (carbohydrate content lpsB > lpsA > galU). However, other components are also responsible for the barrier since an envA mutant which is not altered in the lipopolysaccharide carbohydrates show an extremely rapid uptake of the dye. The rate of uptake for the envA mutant was the highest found and the same as that of spheroplasts. Growth in the presence of agents affecting the murein sacculus, e.g., lysozyme and sublethal concentrations of penicillin, increased the rate of uptake of gentian violet. Brief treatments with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid drastically impaired the barrier function. Inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol also opened the barrier to gentian violet. In conclusion, the outer part of the bacterial envelope is a penetration barrier for gentian violet and probably also for other substances. The lipopolysaccharide, the murein and also other components are important for the function of this barrier. Resistance to gentian violet was found to be inversely correlated to the rate of penetration of the dye into the cytoplasm.

Gustafsson, Petter; Nordstrom, Kurt; Normark, Staffan

1973-01-01

197

Phytoremediation of triphenylmethane dyes by overexpressing a Citrobacter sp. triphenylmethane reductase in transgenic Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Triphenylmethane dyes are extensively utilized in textile industries, medicinal products, biological stains, and food processing industries, etc. They are generally considered as xenobiotic compounds, which are very recalcitrant to biodegradation. The widespread persistence of such compounds has generated concerns with regard to remediation of them because of their potential carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity. In this study, we present a system of phytoremediation by Arabidopsis plants developed on the basis of overexpression of triphenylmethane reductase (TMR) from the Citrobacter sp. The morphology and growth of TMR transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed significantly enhanced tolerances to crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG). Further, HPLC and HPLC-MS analyses of samples before and after dye decolorization in culture media revealed that TMR transgenic plants exhibited strikingly higher capabilities of removing CV from their media and high efficiencies of converting CV to non-toxic leucocrystal violet (LCV). This work indicates that microbial degradative gene may be transgenically exploited in plants for bioremediation of triphenylmethane dyes in the environment. PMID:22573270

Fu, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

2012-05-11

198

Photovoltage enhancement from cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals and 4-tert-butylpyridine in Co(ii/iii) mediated dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Two cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals (LCs), 5CB (4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl) and 8CB (4-cyano-4'-octylbiphenyl), are introduced as additives into Co(ii/iii) electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). An electrolyte containing a combination of these LCs and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibits higher photovoltage than one with only TBP, resulting in higher power conversion efficiency. PMID:23985828

Koh, Teck Ming; Li, Hairong; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Mathews, Nripan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Grimsdale, Andrew C

2013-08-29

199

Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard-particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

E. M. Gaddy

1976-01-01

200

Ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for spectrophotometric determination of dyes.  

PubMed

For the first time, ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction (D-SPE) has been applied for determination of trace levels of dyes in aqueous and fish samples. The contaminant used as a model compound was crystal violet (CV), a cationic dye, and was preconcentrated without any derivatization or ion-pair formation. The method is based on rapid injection of ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe. The sample preparation time is decreased by the fact that the sorbent dispersed in the bulk solution and extraction can be achieved very fast. In this way, the separation of sorbent from the aqueous bulk was achieved by a magnet, and no centrifugation is required. These significant features which obtained with this method are of key interest for routine trace laboratory analysis. The influence of different variables on D-SPE was investigated. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 3.3-90?gL(-1), and the enrichment factor (EF) 267 was obtained. Detection limit was 1.51?gL(-1) (n=7), and the relative standard deviation of 5.6% at 50ngmL(-1) was obtained (n=7). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of crystal violet in various samples. PMID:23849184

Davudabadi Farahani, Malihe; Shemirani, Farzaneh

2013-05-30

201

Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells using imidazolium-type ionic liquid crystal systems as effective electrolytes.  

PubMed

A novel ionic liquid crystal (ILC) system (C(12)MImI/I(2)) with a smectic A phase used as an electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) showed the higher short-circuit current density (J(SC)) and the higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency than the system using the non-liquid crystalline ionic liquid (C(11)MImI/I(2)), due to the higher conductivity of ILC. To investigate charge transport properties of the electrolytes in detail, the exchange reaction-based diffusion coefficients (D(ex)) were evaluated. The larger D(ex) value of ILC supported that the higher conductivity of ILC is attributed to the enhancement of the exchange reaction between iodide species. As a result of formation of the two-dimensional electron conductive pathways organized by the localized I(3)- and I- at S(A) layers, the concentration of polyiodide species exemplified by I(m)- (m = 5, 7, ...) was higher in C(12)MImI/I(2). However, as the increment of the concentration of polyiodide species is less than that of D(ex), the contribution of a two-dimensional structure of the conductive pathway through the increase of collision frequency between iodide species was proposed. Furthermore, a quasi-solid-state ionic liquid crystal DSSC was successfully fabricated by employing a low molecular gelator. Addition of the 5.0 g/L gelator to ILC improved light-to-electricity conversion efficiency through the increase of J(SC) due to the enhancement of the conductivity in C(12)MImI/I(2)-gel. PMID:17474701

Yamanaka, Noriyo; Kawano, Ryuji; Kubo, Wataru; Masaki, Naruhiko; Kitamura, Takayuki; Wada, Yuji; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Yanagida, Shozo

2007-05-10

202

Silica nanoparticle doped organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Organic ionic plastic crystal, 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium iodide (P??I), which possesses a broad plastic phase from -36 to 135 °C, was doped with silica nanoparticles (SiO? NPs) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (EMII), for the preparation of SiO?/EMII/P??I solid-state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thermal properties of all the electrolytes, including solid-solid phase transitions and melting temperatures, were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of silica particles on the ionic conductivity, diffusion of I?/I?? redox couple in electrolytes, and photovoltaic performance for solid-state DSSCs were investigated. The fabricated solid-state DSSCs yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 5.25% under simulated air mass 1.5 solar spectrum illuminations at 50 mW cm?˛. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on SiO?/EMII/P??I solid-state electrolytes show good stability after an accelerating aging test, demonstrating potential practical applications. PMID:23384003

Shi, Chengzhen; Qiu, Lihua; Chen, Xiaojian; Zhang, Haigang; Wang, Lei; Yan, Feng

2013-02-15

203

Density of states and lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present simulations of optical propagation in cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) films and find a stop band in which the wave is evanescent and the density of states is zero. Sharp structure is found in the calculated transmission spectra near the band edge. This corresponds to enhanced residence times and lower group velocities, as well as to significant enhancements of the energy density and of the density of states within the samples. These simulation are consistent with our measurements of suppressed emission within the stop band and of enhanced emission at the band edge for dye molecules doped into CLCs. We also observe spatially coherent emission from the CLC sample with narrow spectral lines at the edge of the stop band and a distinct threshold behavior for the coherent emission. The results of computer simulations together with observations of emission and lasing demonstrate that the optical properties of CLCs, including laser action at the modes closest to the band edge, are consequences of its band gap structure. The compact nature of these structures and the ease with which they ca be fabricated suggest that they may be useful for producing integrated lasers and photonic devices.

Kopp, Victor I.; Genack, Azriel Z.

1999-05-01

204

Investigation of enhancement of photoinduced reorientation of liquid-crystal molecules in the presence of azo-dye and gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical-Kerr-effect configuration is used to study the enhancement of photo-induced molecular reorientation in a twisted nematic liquid crystal due to the presence of metal nanoparticles. The system consisting of a liquid crystal with photoisomerizable dye Disperse Orange 3 shows an enhancement of the Kerr-like response at 532 nm excitation light when doped with 15 nm in size gold nanoparticles. A simple theoretical model predicting the behavior and magnitude of the expected response has been formulated. The contribution of localized surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles to light-induced torque is discussed.

Karpinski, P.; Miniewicz, A.

2009-12-01

205

On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We report the results of an investigation carried on Methyl Red-doped nematic liquid crystals with the aim of studying the basic mechanism of the extraordinarily large nonlinear response recently reported. We show that the experimental data can be explained as due to light-induced modifications of the anchoring conditions leading to director reorientation on the irradiated surface, which in turn gives rise to a bulk reorientation through the cell. We have called this phenomenon SINE (Surface Induced Nonlinear Effect) to remind that it occurs "without" (= sine in latin language) a direct optical or electric torque on the director in the bulk. PMID:19421276

Simoni, F; Lucchetti, L; Lucchetta, D; Francescangeli, O

2001-07-16

206

Dye adsorption on mesoporous activated carbon fiber obtained from pitch containing yttrium complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of acid dyes (Acid Blue 9, Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Orange 51), direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Yellow 11, and Direct Yellow 50), and basic dyes (Basic Brown 1 and Basic Violet 3) on a highly mesoporous activated carbon fiber (Y-ACF) obtained from pitch containing yttrium acetylacetonate was investigated in terms of size

Hisashi Tamai; Takeshi Yoshida; Masahiko Sasaki

1999-01-01

207

[Studies on "allura red AC standard", dye standards of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences].  

PubMed

"Allura Red AC Standard (C.I. 16035)", Dye Standards of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences was prepared. The content of this Dye Standards was determined by the titanium trichloride method. This content averaged 95.5%. Ultra violet-visible absorption and infrared spectra of the Dye Standard were also determined. PMID:1364399

Kimura, M; Kakiuchi, M; Kawamoto, R; Tsuji, S; Shibata, T; Ito, Y

1991-01-01

208

Decolorization of industrial dyes by a Brazilian strain of Pleurotus pulmonarius producing laccase as the sole phenol-oxidizing enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a Brazilian strain ofPleurotus pulmonarius to decolorize structurally different synthetic dyes (including azo, triphenylmethane, heterocyclic and polymeric dyes) was\\u000a investigated in solid and submerged cultures. Both were able to decolorize completely or partially 8 of 10 dyes (Amido Black,\\u000a Congo Red, Trypan Blue, Methyl Green, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Methyl Violet, Ethyl Violet, Brilliant Cresyl Blue). No

A. Zilly; C. G. M. Souza; I. P. Barbosa-Tessmann; R. M. Peralta

2002-01-01

209

Adsorption of basic dyes onto montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-Mont) was exchanged with titanium cations and the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10) on these montmorillonites were measured to examine the ion-exchange effects on the basic dyes adsorption. The relationship between the dye adsorption and the alteration of pore structures of montmorillonite induced by ion-exchange processes was discussed. Moreover, the

Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Ting-Chu Hsu; Chung-Kung Lee; Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Fu-Chuang Huang

2004-01-01

210

Anisotropy in Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility of a Squarylium Dye in a Nematic Liquid Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A squarylium dye is dissolved in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) and oriented by sandwiching mixtures between two pieces of rubbed glass plates. The optical absorption spectra of the oriented squarylium dye-5CB layers exhibit high anisotropy. The third-order nonlinear optical responses and susceptibilities chi(3)e of squarylium dye in 5CB are measured with light polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the orientational direction by the

Zhao-Hui Jin; Zhong-Yu Li; Kazuo Kasatani; Hiroaki Okamoto

2006-01-01

211

Metabolism of Gentian Violet in Chickens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the possibility that gentian violet ingested by poultry may occur as a residue in edible tissues, the metabolism study was undertaken to measure and identify metabolites of gentian violet which may occur in tissues of broiler chickens fed genti...

J. J. McDonald

1985-01-01

212

Removal of Acid Violet 17 from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Pistachio Nut Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorbents prepared from pistachio nut shell, an agricultural waste biomass, were successfully used to remove Acid Violet 17 from an aqueous solution. The activated carbons PNS1, PNS2, and PNS3 were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform – Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and (BET). The effect of pH, adsorbent dosage, and temperature on dye removal was studied. Maximum color

P. Vijayalakshmi; V. Sathya Selva Bala; K. V. Thiruvengadaravi; P. Panneerselvam; M. Palanichamy; S. Sivanesan

2010-01-01

213

Pulsed electric linear dichroism of triphenylmethane dyes adsorbed on montmorillonite K10 in aqueous media  

SciTech Connect

Electric linear dichroism (ELD) spectra of two cationic triphenylmethane dyes, crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG), bound to sodium montmorillonite K10 (MK-10) were studied at 20 C in aqueous media at two mixing ratios, D/S, of 0.10 and 0.24 in the 700- to 400 nm wavelength region and in the applied electric field strength range between 0 and 3 kV/cm. The specific parallel and perpendicular dichroism ({Delta}A{sub {parallel}}/A and {Delta}A{sub {perpendicular}}/A) spectra of dye-adsorbed MK-10 suspension were measured at a fixed field strength with an apparatus equipped with a 512-channel photodiode array detector. By changing the field strength over a wide range, a series of the reduced dichroism values of the bound dyes were measured at a fixed wavelength. By fitting these dichroism values to theoretical orientation functions, the intrinsic reduced dichroism ({Delta}A/A){sub int} spectra at the limiting high fields (ELD spectrum) were determined for CV and MG bound to MK-10. No appreciable difference was observed at the two D/S values. The ELD spectra of these bound dyes are undulatory but never constant, throughout their absorption region; thus, the dye plane does not lie flatly either on the surface or between layers of MK-10 particle.

Yamaoka, Kiwamu; Sasai, Ryo

2000-05-01

214

The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.  

PubMed

Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. PMID:21596089

Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

2011-05-10

215

Linear dichroism studies of binding site structures in solution. Complexes between DNA and basic arylmethane dyes.  

PubMed

The interaction between B-form DNA and twelve cationic triaryl-methane dyes was studied with respect to optical properties and stabilities, using linear dichroism (LD) and aqueous two-phase partition techniques. Monovalent dyes derived from crystal violet as a rule form a single strong complex (K1 ca 10(5) M-1; site density per nucleotide base n1 ca 0.1 at 0.1M ionic strength) in which the plane of the dye is at an angle of less than 50 degrees to the local DNA helix axis. The complex with fuchsin is weaker (10(4) M-1) but can be explained by a similar orientation. For some of the dyes (those with pseudo-C2v symmetry) the angular orientations of two molecule-fixed axes can be obtained. For the divalent methyl green a second complex appears to be formed at low ionic strength. Methyl green (and to some extent 2-thiophene green and malachite green) show exciton splitting in the LD spectrum and circular dichroism assignable to exciton coupling between transition dipoles roughly parallel to the helical strands, indicating a dye-dye interaction. The optical data, supported by fitting experiments with space-filling models, suggests a general structure for the binding site. The dye is not intercalated but is bound to exposed hydrophobic regions in the major groove. The ligand is in part (the charged amino groups) in contact with the phosphoribose chain but its main surface lies against the hydrophobic base-pair stack. For a diphenylmethane dye, Michler's hydro blue, a perpendicular orientation was observed, possibly due to intercalation. PMID:647099

Nordén, B; Tjerneld, F; Palm, E

1978-03-01

216

Uptake of dyes by a promising locally available agricultural solid waste: coir pith  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of rhodamine-B and acid violet by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. The adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity was found to be 2.56 mg and 8.06 mg dye per g of the adsorbent for rhodamine-B and acid violet, respectively.

C Namasivayam; R Radhika; S Suba

2001-01-01

217

Molecular interaction of oxazine dyes in aqueous solution: Temperature dependent molecular disposition of the aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature dependent molecular interaction of oxazine dyes, viz., brilliant cresyl blue (C.I. Basic dye), cresyl violet (C.I. Basic violet 3) and nile blue (C.I. Basic blue 12) are studied in aqueous media within a concentration range of 5.0×10?6M to 8.0×10?4M by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The effect of temperature on the geometrical structure of the dimer in solution along with the

Amitabha Chakraborty; Ratan Adhikari; Swapan K. Saha

2011-01-01

218

Quinoid conjugated dye designed for efficient sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraquinoid rings are introduced in the ?-conjugation of all-organic donor-?-acceptor dyes as sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells, to drastically shift optical response from violet-blue to near-infrared and to significantly enhance photoabsorption. Taking Y1 as a model, real time electron dynamics simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory confirm that paraquinoid conjugation maintains high thermal stability and ultrafast electron-hole separation at ambient temperature.

Jiao, Yang; Ma, Wei; Meng, Sheng

2013-10-01

219

Anisotropy in Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility of a Squarylium Dye in a Nematic Liquid Crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A squarylium dye is dissolved in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) and oriented by sandwiching mixtures between two pieces of rubbed glass plates. The optical absorption spectra of the oriented squarylium dye-5CB layers exhibit high anisotropy. The third-order nonlinear optical responses and susceptibilities ?(3)e of squarylium dye in 5CB are measured with light polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the orientational direction by the resonant femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. Temporal profiles of the DFWM signal of the oriented squarylium dye-5CB layers with light polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the orientational direction are measured with a time resolution of 0.3 ps (FWHM), and are found to consist of two components, i.e., the coherent instantaneous nonlinear response and slow response due to the formation of excited molecules. A high anisotropic ratio of ?(3)e, 10.8±1.2, is observed for the oriented layers.

Jin, Zhao-Hui; Li, Zhong-Yu; Kasatani, Kazuo; Okamoto, Hiroaki

2006-03-01

220

Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel.  

PubMed

Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic-acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO(2)-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH(3)-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were soaked with alkaline solution; meanwhile the center of pore size distribution was changed from 9 to 3-4 nm. These composites efficiently captured phenol in gaseous and liquid phases, superior to mesoporous silica such as MCM-48 or SBA-15 and zeolite NaY, and the equilibrium data of gaseous adsorption could be well fitted to Freundlich model. These modified silicas also exhibited high adsorption capacity forward basic dyes such as crystal violet (CV) and leuco-crystal violet (LCV), reaching the adsorption equilibrium within 1 h and offering a new material for environment protection. PMID:21458822

Tao, Yu Fei; Lin, Wei Gang; Gao, Ling; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jia Yuan; Wei, Feng; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jian Hua

2011-03-06

221

New liquid crystal-embedded PVdF- co -HFP-based polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid crystal (LC; E7 and\\/or ML-0249)-embedded, poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)-based, polymer electrolytes were prepared for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrolytes contained\\u000a 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (PMII), tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), and iodine (I\\u000a 2), which participate in theI\\u000a 3\\u000a ? \\/I\\u000a ? redox couple. The incorporation of photochemically stable PVdF-co-HFP in the DSSCs created a stable polymer electrolyte that resisted leakage and

G. Vijayakumar; Meyoung Jin Lee; Myungkwan Song; Sung-Ho Jin; Jae Wook Lee; Chan Woo Lee; Yeong-Soon Gal; Hyo Jin Shim; Yongku Kang; Gi-Won Lee; Kyungkon Kim; Nam-Gyu Park; Suhkmann Kim

2009-01-01

222

UltraViolet: Redefining the Movie Industry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

You may have heard of UltraViolet. No, we are not referring to the segment of the electromagnetic spectrum, a syntax highlighting engine, or the slightly off-beat sci-fi movie by Kurt Wimmer. We are referring to Hollywood's latest attempt to prevent Napsterization of the movie industry. UltraViolet is the public face of the Digital Entertainment Consortium Ecosystem (DECE), a cross-industry consortium

Ton Kalker; Rajan Samtani; Xin Wang

2012-01-01

223

Photoinduced reordering in thin azo-dye films and light-induced reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid-crystal easy axis.  

PubMed

We theoretically study the kinetics of photoinduced reordering triggered by linearly polarized (LP) reorienting light in thin azo-dye films that were initially illuminated with LP ultraviolet pumping beam. The process of reordering is treated as a rotational diffusion of molecules in the light intensity-dependent mean-field potential. The two-dimensional diffusion model which is based on the free energy rotational Fokker-Planck equation and describes the regime of in-plane reorientation is generalized to analyze the dynamics of the azo-dye order parameter tensor at varying polarization azimuth of the reorienting light. It is found that, in the photosteady state, the intensity of LP reorienting light determines the scalar order parameter (the largest eigenvalue of the order parameter tensor), whereas the steady state orientation of the corresponding eigenvector (the in-plane principal axis) depends solely on the polarization azimuth. We show that, under certain conditions, reorientation takes place only if the reorienting light intensity exceeds its critical value. Such threshold behavior is predicted to occur in the bistability region provided that the initial principal axis lies in the polarization plane of reorienting light. The model is used to interpret the experimental data on the light-induced azimuthal gliding of the liquid-crystal easy axis on photoaligned azo-dye substrates. PMID:23005436

Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, V G; Pasechnik, S V; Dubtsov, A V

2012-07-13

224

Photoinduced reordering in thin azo-dye films and light-induced reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid-crystal easy axis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We theoretically study the kinetics of photoinduced reordering triggered by linearly polarized (LP) reorienting light in thin azo-dye films that were initially illuminated with LP ultraviolet pumping beam. The process of reordering is treated as a rotational diffusion of molecules in the light intensity-dependent mean-field potential. The two-dimensional diffusion model which is based on the free energy rotational Fokker-Planck equation and describes the regime of in-plane reorientation is generalized to analyze the dynamics of the azo-dye order parameter tensor at varying polarization azimuth of the reorienting light. It is found that, in the photosteady state, the intensity of LP reorienting light determines the scalar order parameter (the largest eigenvalue of the order parameter tensor), whereas the steady state orientation of the corresponding eigenvector (the in-plane principal axis) depends solely on the polarization azimuth. We show that, under certain conditions, reorientation takes place only if the reorienting light intensity exceeds its critical value. Such threshold behavior is predicted to occur in the bistability region provided that the initial principal axis lies in the polarization plane of reorienting light. The model is used to interpret the experimental data on the light-induced azimuthal gliding of the liquid-crystal easy axis on photoaligned azo-dye substrates.

Kiselev, Alexei D.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Dubtsov, A. V.

2012-07-01

225

Biodegradation of azo and phthalocyanine dyes by Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen fungal strains, known for their ability to degrade lignocellulosic material or lignin derivatives, were screened\\u000a for their potential to decolorize commercially used reactive textile dyes. Three azo dyes, Reactive Orange 96, Reactive Violet\\u000a 5 and Reactive Black 5, and two phthalocyanine dyes, Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Blue 38, were chosen as representatives\\u000a of commercially used reactive dyes. From

A. Heinfling; M. Bergbauer; U. Szewzyk

1997-01-01

226

Electrochemically enhanced removal of polycyclic aromatic basic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon cloth electrodes.  

PubMed

Open-circuit (OC) adsorption and electrosorption behaviors of three polycyclic aromatic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon cloth (ACC) were investigated. The selected dyes were crystal violet (BB-3), basic blue7 (BB-7), and basic blue11 (BB-11). OC adsorption and electrosorption processes were monitored by in situ UV-visible spectrophotometry. Electrosorption was carried out by polarization of an ACC electrode, galvanostatically. Considerable enhancements in removal capacity and duration of the dyes were achieved upon polarization of ACC. Kinetic data for OC adsorption and electrosorption were successfully treated according to pseudo-first-order law, and rate constants were determined. Adsorption isotherms were derived, and the data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Both the rate and extent of adsorption and electrosorption of dyes were found to increase in the order of BB-7 < BB-11 < BB-3. This order was discussed in terms of correlation between sizes of dye species and of ACC pores. Electrodesorption experiments were carried out to explore possibilities of regeneration of ACC. PMID:20704233

Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

2010-08-15

227

Hydrogen production and metal-dye bioremoval by a Nostoc linckia strain isolated from textile mill oxidation pond.  

PubMed

Biohydrogen production by Nostoc linckia HA-46, isolated from a textile-industry oxidation-pond was studied by varying light/dark period, pH, temperature and ratio of carbon-dioxide and argon in the gas-mixture. Hydrogen production rates were maximum under 18 h of light and 6 h of darkness, pH 8.0, 31°C, a CO(2):Ar ratio 2:10. Hydrogen production of the strain acclimatized to 20 mg/L of chromium/cobalt and 100 mg/L of Reactive red 198/crystal violet dye studied in N-supplemented/deficient medium was 6-10% higher in the presence of 1.5 g/L of NaNO(3). Rates of hydrogen production in the presence of dyes/metals by the strain (93-105 ?mol/h/mg Chlorophyll) were significantly higher than in medium without metals/dyes serving as control (91.3 ?mol/h/mg Chlorophyll). About 58-60% of the two metals and 35-73% of dyes were removed by cyanobacterium. Optimal conditions of temperature, pH and metals/dyes concentration for achieving high hydrogen production and wastewater treatment were found practically applicable as similar conditions are found in the effluent of regional textile-mills. PMID:21109423

Mona, Sharma; Kaushik, Anubha; Kaushik, C P

2010-11-09

228

Improving the decolorization for textile dyes of a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase by directed evolution.  

PubMed

To obtain better performing laccases for textile dyes decolorization, random mutagenesis of Lac591, a metagenome-derived alkaline laccase, was carried out. After three rounds of error-prone PCR and high-throughput screening by assaying enzymatic activity toward the phenolic substrate 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), a mutant (Lac3T93) with remarkably improved enzymatic activity was obtained. Sequence analysis revealed that four amino acid substitutions (N40S, V55A, F62L, and E316V) were accumulated in the Lac3T93. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the specific activity of Lac3T93 toward 2,6-DMP was increased to 4.8-fold (61.22 U/mg), and its optimal temperature and pH were changed to 60°C and 8.0 from 55°C and 7.5 of the wild-type enzyme, respectively. Furthermore, the degradation ability of Lac3T93 for textile dyes was investigated, and the new variant represented improved decolorization percentage for four industrial dyes with complex phenyl structure (Basic Blue 3, Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Crystal Violet) and higher decolorization efficiency for Indigo Carmine than that of the parent enzyme. Furthermore, the decolorization percentage of Lac3T93 for five dyes in the absence of hydroxybenzotrizole (HBT) is clearly higher than those of the wild-type enzyme with 1 mM HBT, and HBT can further improve its decolorization ability. PMID:21523474

Liu, Yu Huan; Ye, Mao; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xia; Li, Gang

2011-04-27

229

Decolorization of synthetic dyes by solid state cultures of Lentinula ( Lentinus) edodes producing manganese peroxidase as the main ligninolytic enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the white-rot fungus Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes to decolorize several synthetic dyes was investigated using solid state cultures with corn cob as substrate. Cultures, containing amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R, methyl violet, ethyl violet and Poly R478 at 200 ppm, were completely decolorized after 18 days of incubation. Partial decolorization was

Cinthia Gandolfi Boer; Larissa Obici; Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza; Rosane M. Peralta

2004-01-01

230

Fine and hyperfine structure spectra of the ultra-violet 2 3S --> 5 3P transition in 4He and 3He with a frequency doubled CW ring laser, detected via associative ionization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution laser spectroscopy coupled to a sensitive method of detection via mass analysis of He+2 ions produced in He(5 3P) + He(1 1S) collisions, is used to obtain the fine and hyperfine spectra of the ultra-violet He 2 3S --> 5 3P transition. A cw tunable UV radiation around 294.5 nm is generated by intracavity frequency doubling a Rhodamine 6G single mode ring dye laser using an ADA crystal. Both spectra enable fine and hyperfine structures to be determined within a few MHz. The magnetic dipole coupling constant A of the 5 3P term of 3He is found to be -4326 +/- 9 MHz (-0.1443 +/- 0.0003 cm-1).

Runge, S.; Pesnelle, A.; Perdrix, M.; Sevin, D.; Wolffer, N.; Watel, G.

1982-06-01

231

Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-08-01

232

Resonant Rayleigh scattering for the determination of trace amounts of mercury (II) with thiocyanate and basic triphenylmethane dyes  

SciTech Connect

Intense resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) appears when mercury (II) reacts with thiocyanate and a basic triphenylmethane dye (BTPMD), such as crystal violet (CV), ethyl violet (EV), brilliant green (BG), malachite green (MG) or indine green (IG), to form an ion-association complex of the type (BTPMD){sub 2}[Hg(SCN){sub 4}]. The characteristics of RRS spectra of the ion-association complexes and suitable conditions for the reactions were investigated. The intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of mercury (II) in the range of 0--2.0 {micro}g/25 ml. The RRS methods have very high sensitivities for determination of mercury (II); their detection limits are between 1.68 ng/ml and 6.00 ng/ml on different dye systems. The effects of foreign ions and ways to improve the selectivity were studied. The new highly sensitive methods for the determination of trace amounts of mercury based on the RRS of the ion-association complexes have been developed.

Liu, S.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G. [Southwest Normal Univ., Chongqing (China). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry

1998-05-01

233

Dye removal, catalytic activity and 2D crystallization of chloroplast H +ATP synthase purified by blue native electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton-ATP synthase of thylakoid membranes from spinach chloroplasts (CFOF1) and its subcomplexes CFO and CF1 were isolated by blue native electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) [Neff, D. and Dencher, N.A. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 259, 569–575] and subsequently electroeluted from the gel. A method was developed to remove most of the dye Coomassie G-250 (CBG) using gel filtration, a prerequisite for

Ansgar Poetsch; Dirk Neff; Holger Seelert; Hermann Schägger; Norbert A. Dencher

2000-01-01

234

Photoelectron time-resolved spectra of silver halide micro-crystal adsorbing green-sensitizing dye J-aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave absorption and dielectric spectrum detection technology, with high time resolution (less than 1ns), was used for non-contact measurement of electron property in solid materials. In this paper, the photoelectron decay time-resolved spectrums of silver halide, which adsorbed the green-sensitive cyanine dyes J-aggregate, are measured by microwave absorption and dielectric spectrum detection technology. From the experiment, we find that the photoelectron decay time and the photoelectron lifetime of silver halide, which adsorbed the dye, is shorter than that of the pure silver halide; the photoelectron decay time of silver bromide is faster than the photoelectron decay time of silver chloride, the free photoelectron lifetime of silver chloride and silver bromide is 51.66ns and 13.84ns respectively; the variety extent of silver bromide is bigger than that of the silver chloride after sensitized. The effect of the dye concentration on photoelectron decay of silver halide is obvious, for silver bromide and silver chloride, the photoelectron decay become faster while the concentration increases.

Xiang, Fenghua; Zhang, Jixian

2007-01-01

235

Simultaneous decolorization of binary mixture of reactive yellow and acid violet from wastewaters by electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

Dyes are common pollutants in a large variety of industrial wastewaters, and the treatment of these wastes has been extensively studied by coagulation. For the removal of pollutants from the wastewaters, different techniques have been used and electrocougulation is one of the widely used methods. This process is very effective in removing organic pollutants including dyestuff wastewater. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the operating parameters, such as current density, electrolyte concentration, dyestuff concentration, and pH of solution on decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of wastewater containing two different dyes in same solution by direct current electrocoagulation. The amount of dye removed was found by application of first derivative spectrophotometric method to the synthetic dye mixtures. In this work synthetic dye mixture which include C.I. Reactive Yellow 145 (RY145) and C.I. Acid Violet 90 (AV 90) were used for electrocougulation (EC) process with iron electrodes. In the presence of both dye molecules, the optimum pH was found to be 4, optimum NaCI concentration was 3000 mg/L and optimum current density was 5.56 mA/cm2. Under these conditions in the case of 100 mg/L-1 each dye concentration at 20 degrees C and 3 cm interelectro distance the color removal efficiency was reached 97.7% for AV 90 and 97.1% for RY145 in 10 minutes time duration. Dye concentration dependent highest COD removal efficiency was measured as 82% around at 100 mg/L dye concentration. PMID:21866763

Keskin, Can Serkan; Ozdemir, Abdil; Sengil, I Ayhan

2011-01-01

236

FDA's Regulation of Gentian Violet Appears Reasonable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Food and Drug Administration has not approved the use of gentian violet as a food additive or as an animal drug. GAO found no indication that FDA's position was unreasonable or that regulatory actions taken by FDA were improper. In 9 or 10 cases where...

1980-01-01

237

Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization  

PubMed Central

The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds.

Moldes, Diego; Fernandez-Fernandez, Maria; Sanroman, M. Angeles

2012-01-01

238

Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.  

PubMed

The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

2012-04-01

239

Removal of Acid Violet 17 from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from sunflower seed hull  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Violet 17 (AV17) was carried out using various activated carbons prepared from sunflower seed hull (SSH), an agricultural solid waste by-product. The effect of parameters such as agitation time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature were studied. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied and the Langmuir model was found to best report

N. Thinakaran; P. Baskaralingam; M. Pulikesi; P. Panneerselvam; S. Sivanesan

2008-01-01

240

Persistence of gentian violet and leucogentian violet in channel catfish ( ictalurus punctatus) muscle after water-borne exposure 1 1 The opinions expressed in this manuscript are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gentian violet is a triphenylmethane dye that is an antifungal\\/antiparastic agent. GV is similar to malachite green that has been used in the aquaculture industry for treatment or prevention of external fungal and parasitic infections in fish and fish eggs although it (MG) is not approved for this use. For these reasons, GV’s potential for misuse by the aquaculture industry

Harold C. Thompson; Larry G. Rushing; Theresa Gehring; Rebecca Lochmann

1999-01-01

241

Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization  

PubMed Central

Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0–10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0–60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by ?-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications.

2013-01-01

242

The Swift Ultra-Violet\\/Optical Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ultra-Violet\\/Optical Telescope (UVOT) is one of three instruments flying aboard the Swift Gamma-ray Observatory. It is designed to capture the early (?1 min) UV and optical photons from the afterglow of gamma-ray\\u000a bursts in the 170–600 nm band as well as long term observations of these afterglows. This is accomplished through the use\\u000a of UV and optical broadband filters

Peter W. A. Roming; Thomas E. Kennedy; Keith O. Mason; John A. Nousek; Lindy Ahr; Richard E. Bingham; Patrick S. Broos; Mary J. Carter; Barry K. Hancock; Howard E. Huckle; S. D. Hunsberger; Hajime Kawakami; Ronnie Killough; T. Scott Koch; Michael K. Mclelland; Kelly Smith; Philip J. Smith; Juan Carlos Soto; Patricia T. Boyd; Alice A. Breeveld; Stephen T. Holland; Mariya Ivanushkina; Michael S. Pryzby; Martin D. Still; Joseph Stock

2005-01-01

243

Ultra-Violet Rays and Mosquito Larvć  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work which I have been conducting at this laboratory on the possible effect ultra-violet rays may have on the activation of ovarian function in female mosquitoes, has disclosed the fact that mosquito larvć are highly susceptible to a remarkable form of injury by radiations from the unshielded mercury-arc generated by the ordinary Cooper-Hewitt vacuum type of quartz lamp.

Malcolm E. MacGregor

1931-01-01

244

Continuously tunable energy transfer laser operation in four-dye mixture systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical as well as experimental investigation of the energy transfer dye laser (ETDL) operation has been performed, aimed at development of a dye laser which covers a wide wavelength range without exchanging a dye mixture. The following two dye mixtures are shown to be very effective: Rhodamine 6(R6G)-Safrain T(ST)-Cresyl Violet (CV)-Nile Blue(NB) and Coumarin 1 (C1)-Acriflavine(A)-Uranine(U)-R6G. Their desirable dye concentrations are derived and the tuning characteristics are measured. Continuous tuning was achieved over 130 nm in either case, and hence almost the entire visible range is covered with these two ETDL's.

Muto, S.; Ito, C.; Inaba, H.

1983-11-01

245

Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).  

PubMed

Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds. PMID:23179707

Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

2013-01-01

246

Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang

2005-01-01

247

Cataphoretic assembly of cationic dyes and deposition of carbon nanotube and graphene films.  

PubMed

Cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of thin films from aqueous solutions of crystal violet (CV) dyes. The films contained rod-like particles with a long axis oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface. The proposed deposition mechanism involved cataphoresis of cationic CV(+) species, base generation in the cathodic reactions, and charge neutralization at the electrode surface. The assembly of rod-like particles was governed by ?-? interactions of polyaromatic CV molecules. The deposition kinetics was studied by quartz crystal microbalance. CV dyes allowed efficient dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene in water at relatively low CV concentrations. The feasibility of cathodic EPD of MWCNT and graphene from aqueous suspensions, containing CV, has been demonstrated. The deposition yield was investigated at different CV concentrations and deposition voltages. The relatively high deposition yield of MWCNT and graphene indicated that CV is an efficient dispersing, charging, and film forming agent for EPD. Electron microscopy data showed that at low CV concentrations in MWCNT or graphene suspensions and low deposition voltages, the films contained mainly MWCNT or graphene. The increase in the CV concentration and/or deposition voltage resulted in enhanced co-deposition of CV. The EPD method developed in this investigation paves the way for the fabrication of advanced nanocomposites by cathodic electrodeposition. PMID:23540434

Su, Y; Zhitomirsky, I

2013-03-05

248

Templated preparation of porous magnetic microspheres and their application in removal of cationic dyes from wastewater.  

PubMed

Porous magnetic microspheres with large particle size (350-450 microm) were prepared with sulfonated macroporous polydivinylbenzene as a template. The preparation process included ferrous ion exchange and following oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles exceeded 20 wt% in microspheres after the preparation process was repeated three times. X-ray diffraction profiles indicated that the crystalline phase of as-formed magnetic nanoparticles was magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). TEM images revealed rod-like magnetite crystal after the first oxidation cycle, however, the crystal morphologies were transferred into random shape after more oxidation cycles. The applicability of porous magnetic microspheres for removal of cationic dyes from water was also explored. The results exhibited that basic fuchsin and methyl violet could be quickly removed from water with high efficiency. More importantly, the magnetic microspheres could be easily regenerated and repeatedly employed for wastewater treatment. Therefore, a novel methodology was provided for fast removal cationic dyes from wastewater. PMID:20619794

Liu, Qingquan; Wang, Li; Xiao, Anguo; Gao, Jingming; Ding, Wenbing; Yu, Haojie; Huo, Jia; Ericson, Mĺrten

2010-05-21

249

Total Optical Torque and Angular Momentum Conservation in Dye-Doped Liquid Crystal Droplets Spun by Circularly Polarized Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micrometric droplets of nematic liquid crystal dispersed in water were trapped and made to spin in the focus of a circularly polarized laser beam. The measured rotation speed is directly proportional to the angular momentum exchanged per unit time by the droplet with the electromagnetic field, that is to the total optical torque acting on the droplet. We searched for

Carlo Manzo; Domenico Paparo; Lorenzo Marrucci; Istvan Jánossy

2006-01-01

250

Optical phase conjugation and efficient wave front correction of weak light beams by dye-doped liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of optical phase conjugation by thin nematic liquid crystal films by using submilliwatt incident power without any external applied field. The light-induced average birefringence evaluated by solving the wave equations for the four interacting waves, is in agreement with that typical of the colossal optical nonlinearity recently observed in the same materials. The high conjugated reflectivity values, obtained with the analyzed samples, allows correction of severely aberrated wave fronts of very weak light beams.

Lucchetti, L.; di Fabrizio, M.; Gentili, M.; Simoni, F.

2003-12-01

251

The nonlinear refraction sign turned to reverse by intercalating cresyl violent dye into layered titanate nanosheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state dye-doped materials are an attractive alternative to conventional liquid dye solution. In this study, the spectral characteristics of dye cresyl violet before and after intercalating into layered titanate nanosheets and forming a nanohybrid thin film were investigated by measuring absorption and fluorescence spectra. In addition, their nonlinear optical properties were studied using single beam z-scan technique under irradiation of low power continuous wave (CW) produced by DPSS laser with a wavelength of 532 nm. The nonlinear studying results reveal that the dye cresyl violet in solution has a negative nonlinear refractive index, but it reverses to positive after the dye is intercalated into layered titanate nanosheets with a negative nonlinear refractive index forming CV/HTO nanohybrid thin film. This method can provide a way to turn to reverse nonlinear refraction sign of the materials.

Dou, Chunsheng; Wen, Puhong; Kong, Xingang; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Feng, Qi

2011-02-01

252

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Sřsted

253

Crystal Structures of Two Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidases Reveal a Beta-Bar Fold With a Conserved Heme-Binding Motif  

SciTech Connect

BtDyP from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (strain VPI-5482) and TyrA from Shewanella oneidensis are dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs), members of a new family of heme-dependent peroxidases recently identified in fungi and bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structures of BtDyP and TyrA at 1.6 and 2.7 Angstroms, respectively. BtDyP assembles into a hexamer, while TyrA assembles into a dimer; the dimerization interface is conserved between the two proteins. Each monomer exhibits a two-domain, {alpha}+{beta} ferredoxin-like fold. A site for heme binding was identified computationally, and modeling of a heme into the proposed active site allowed for identification of residues likely to be functionally important. Structural and sequence comparisons with other DyPs demonstrate a conservation of putative heme-binding residues, including an absolutely conserved histidine. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments confirm heme binding, but with a stoichiometry of 0.3:1 (heme:protein).

Zubieta, C.; Krishna, S.S.; Kapoor, M.; Kozbial, P.; McMullan, D.; Axelrod, H.L.; Miller, M.D.; Abdubek, P.; Ambing, E.; Astakhova, T.; Carlton, D.; Chiu, H.J.; Clayton, T.; Deller, M.C.; Duan, L.; Elsliger, M.A.; Feuerhelm, J.; Grzechnik, S.K.; Hale, J.; Hampton, E.; Han, G.W.; /JCSG /SLAC, SSRL /Burnham Inst. Med. Res. /UC, San Diego /Scripps Res. Inst. /Novartis Res. Found.

2007-10-31

254

Orientation and electronic structure of ion exchanged dye molecules on mica: An X-ray absorption study  

SciTech Connect

Dye molecules are frequently used to determine the specific surface area and the ion exchange capacity of high-surface-area materials such as mica. The organic molecules are often considered to be planar and to adsorb in a flat orientation. In the present study the authors have investigated the orientation and electronic structure of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) on muscovite mica, prepared by immersing the substrates for extended periods into aqueous solutions of the dyes of various concentrations. The K{sup +} ions of the mica surface are replaced by the organic cations via ion exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that only one amino group is involved in the interaction of CV and MG with the muscovite surface, i.e., certain resonance structures are abolished upon adsorption. With near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy a significant tilt angle with respect to the surface was found for all investigated species. A flat orientation, as has often been proposed before, can effectively be ruled out. Hence, results are in marked contrast to the often quoted orientation and suggest that the specific surface areas determined with dyes may, in general, be overestimated.

Fischer, D.; Caseri, W.R.; Haehner, G. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

1998-02-15

255

Effect of some operational parameters on textile dye biodegradation in a sequential batch reactor.  

PubMed

The combination of anaerobic and aerobic periods in the operation cycle of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was chosen to study biological color removal from simulated textile effluents containing reactive, sulfonated, monoazo and diazo dyes, respectively, Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Remazol Black B. 90% color removal was obtained for the violet dye in a 24-h cycle with a Sludge Retention Time (SRT) of 15 days and an aerated reaction phase of 10 h. For the black dye only 75% color removal was achieved with the same operational conditions and no improvement was observed with the increase of the SRT to 20 days. For the violet dye a reduction of the color removal values from 90 to 75% was observed with the increase of the aerated reaction phase from 10 to 12 h. However, this increase did not promote the aerobic biodegradation of the produced aromatic amines. Abiotic tests were performed with sterilized SBR samples and no color removal was observed in cell-free supernatants. However color removal values of 30 and 12% were observed in the presence of sterilized cells and supernatants with violet and black dye, respectively and could be attributed to the presence of active reducing principles in the sterilized samples. PMID:11500210

Lourenço, N D; Novais, J M; Pinheiro, H M

2001-08-23

256

Gentian violet solution for staining the anterior capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo evaluate the histopathological changes after injecting gentian violet solution into the anterior chamber of rats and to describe a technique that uses gentian violet to allow a clear view of the anterior capsule during continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) in human eyes with white mature cataract.

Kaan Ünlü; Ahmet Askünger; Sevin Söker; Nihal Kilinç; Candan Karaca; Meral Erdinc

2000-01-01

257

Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate ancestor possessed ultraviolet (UV) vision and many species have retained it during evolution. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are mediated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (?max) at approximately 360 and 390–440 nm, respectively. It is not well understood why and how these functional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish (Lepidopus fitchi) with a ?max of 423 nm, an example of violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in fish. Mutagenesis experiments and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computations show that the violet-sensitivity was achieved by the deletion of Phe-86 that converted the unprotonated Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal to a protonated form. The finding of a violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in scabbardfish suggests that many other fish also have orthologous violet pigments. The isolation and comparison of such violet and UV pigments in fish living in different ecological habitats will open an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision.

Tada, Takashi; Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo

2009-01-01

258

Transmission of Ultra-violet Rays in Quartz Fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

ULTRA-VIOLET rays cannot penetrate deeply into tissues; consequently, investigations of their biological effects have been limited to unicellular forms, cells in tissue culture, and the surface cells of organs and organisms. In my apparatus designed for conducting ultra-violet photons to the deeper cells of the brain, penetration of the tissue is achieved with quartz fibres which act as conductors for

J. Baskerville Hyde

1963-01-01

259

Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this earth science/math/art activity, learners use simple ingredients to grow crystals and examine the repeating geometric shapes and patterns. Learners compare the growth of crystals from four types of crystal-starters (table salt, Borax, sand, and Epsom salt) to see which starter grows the most crystals in 14 days. Learners report their results online and find out what other learners discovered. Afterward, learners can use the crystals they grew to create works of art.

Science, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

260

Optically tunable/switchable omnidirectionally spherical microlaser based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal microdroplet with an azo-chiral dopant.  

PubMed

This paper presents an optically wavelength-tunable and intensity-switchable dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) spherical microlaser with an azo-chiral dopant. Experimental results present that two functions of optical control - tunability of lasing wavelength and switchability of lasing intensity - can be obtained for this spherical microlaser at low and high intensity regimes of non-polarized UV irradiation, respectively. If the DDCLC microdroplet is subjected to weak UV irradiation, azo-chiral molecules may transform to the bent cis state at a low concentration rate. The effect can slightly decrease the local order of LCs and thus the helical twisting power of the CLC in the microdroplet. As a result, the CLC pitch may become slightly elongated, which will cause the gradual red-shift of both omnidirectional PBG and lasing emission of the DDCLC spherical microdroplet. In contrast, when the microdroplet is subjected to strong UV irradiation, numerous azo-chiral molecules may simultaneously change to bent cis-isomers to seriously disarrange the helical texture of the CLC, which will quickly deform the PBG and deactivate the lasing emission of the microdroplet. Prolonged irradiation of a blue beam after strong UV irradiation may cause the cis azo-chiral molecules quickly convert back rod-like trans-isomers, which may then regenerate the CLC Bragg onion and PBG structures and reactivate the lasing emission of the microdroplet. Optical control of the DDCLC spherical microlaser is realized on a scale of seconds and minutes when UV irradiation is strong and weak, respectively. The 3D DDCLC spherical microlaser is a highly promising controllable 3D micro-light source or microlaser (e.g., all-optical 3D single photon microlaser) for applications of 3D all-optical integrated photonics, laser displays, and biomedical imaging and therapy, and as a 3D UV microdosagemeter or microsensor. PMID:23842363

Lin, Jia-De; Hsieh, Meng-Hung; Wei, Guan-Jhong; Mo, Ting-Shan; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

2013-07-01

261

Determination of leucogentian violet and gentian violet in catfish tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography with visible detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive analytical procedure for the determination of residues of leucogentian violet (LGV) and gentian violet (GV) in catfish tissue is presented. Frozen (?20°C) catfish fillets were cut into chunks and then blended in a Waring blendor. A 10-g amount of catfish muscle tissue was homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile-buffer, partitioned against methylene chloride, and cleaned up on tandem neutral

Larry G. Rushing; Sharon F. Webb; Harold C. Thompson

1995-01-01

262

Purification and characterization of a novel laccase from Coprinus cinereus and decolorization of different chemically dyes.  

PubMed

Laccase is a blue copper oxidase with multiple copper ions and widely distributed in higher plant and fungi. To date, numerous fungal laccases have been reported by many researchers. In present work, a new laccase gene, named CcLCC5I, from Coprinus cinereus was synthesized chemically according to the yeast bias codon and integrated into Pichia pastoris GS115 genome by electroporation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant laccase has a molecular mass of approximately 56.8 kDa. Its biochemical properties was carried out using substrate 2-2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). It was showed that the optimum pH and temperature of the laccase is 3.0 and 55 °C, respectively. Except for copper ions, most metal ions inhibited the laccase activity at a high concentration about 10 mM. Sodium sulfite can also highly inhibit laccase activity whereas EDTA had no inhibitory effect on the laccase activity. The CcLCC5I have high ability to decolor not only azo but also aryl methane dyes. The recombinant laccase decolored 44.6 % orange G, 54.8 % Crystal Violet, and 87.2 % Malachite green at about 2.6 h. The novel laccase may be a good candidate for breeding engineering strains used in the treatment of industrial effluent containing azo and aryl methane dyes. PMID:23073779

Lin, Yaqiu; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Zhisheng; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

2012-10-17

263

Sers of Crystal Violet in Sandblast Roughened Silver Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an alternative way for SERS-active substrate preparation, the sandblast method. The roughened surface prepared by this method is more durable than the silver coated surface which is easily spoiled by moisture. Because the roughness is almost only dependent on the size and the speed of the abrasive, the roughness of the surface can easily be

Ping Peng; Kow-Je Ling; W. S. Tse

1990-01-01

264

LIB 4395 Analyses of Crystal Violet & Brilliant Green  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... method was measured by extracting five fish samples fortified with 2 ng/g of LCV and with 2 ng/g of BG on each of three days; LCV inter-day data is ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

265

The Fenton Chemistry and Its Combination with Coagulation for Treatment of Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Violet 19 were subjected to Fenton\\/Fenton?like oxidation and its combination with lime coagulation. The analysis indicated no dependence of chemical oxidation efficacy on dye concentration in the range of 0.1–1 g L. Complete or nearly complete (higher than 95%) color removal of all treated samples was observed. Dye:H2O2 weight ratio of

Niina Kulik; Yekaterina Panova; Marina Trapido

2007-01-01

266

Photofading of ballpoint dyes studied on paper by LDI and MALDI MS.  

PubMed

The determination of the age of an ink entry from a questioned document is often a major problem and a controversial issue in forensic sciences. Therefore, it is important to understand the aging process of the different components found in ink. The aim of this work is to characterize the degradation processes of methyl violet and ethyl violet, two typical ballpoint dyes by using laser desorption/ionization (LDI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS), and to evaluate the possible application of the method to forensic examination of documents. The mass spectrometric methods were first tested and were found to be adequate for the purpose of this work. Moreover, it is possible to analyze the dye from a stroke directly from the paper (LDI-MS), so the sample preparation is minimized. The degradation of the dyes methyl violet and ethyl violet in strokes from a ballpoint pen was studied under laboratory conditions influenced by different factors such as light, wavelength of light, heat, and humidity. Then, strokes from the same ballpoint were aged naturally in the dark or under the influence of light over one year and then analyzed. The results show that the degradation of these dyes strongly depends on light fluence. Humidity also increases degradation, which can be explained by the basicity of the paper. The influence of heat on the degradation process was found to be rather weak. It was also observed that the dyes from the ink strokes did not show significant degradation after one year of storage in the dark. In conclusion, the storage conditions of a questioned document and the initial composition of the dyes in the ink have to be known for correct interpretation of the age of an ink entry. Measurements over longer periods of time are necessary to follow the degradation of dyes exempt from light exposure. LDI was found adequate and very useful for the analysis of ballpoint dyes directly from paper without further pretreatment. PMID:16443368

Weyermann, Céline; Kirsch, Dieter; Costa-Vera, César; Spengler, Bernhard

2006-01-27

267

``Fast'' amplifying optical Kerr gate using stimulated emission of organic non-linear dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a ``fast'' optical Kerr gate (OKG) which can act at the same time as light amplifier. As a Kerr medium we used different laser dyes (Cresyl violet, Nile blue, Rhodamine 640). The most efficient at available wavelengths (595 nm and 297 nm) was Cresyl violet dissolved in methanol. With a classical OKG arrangement we obtained a maximum transmission of 4000% at 650 nm (strong amplification of the transmitted signal), this wavelength corresponding to a gain maximum of Cresyl violet. The opening time of the OKG was 15 ps limited by the reorientation time of the dye molecule in methanol solvent. With a special OKG arrangement based on the use of two delayed opening pulses, we obtained 240% transmission at the same wavelength with an opening time of 2.5 ps. Possible improvements of the method are described.

Jonusauskas, G.; Oberlé, J.; Abraham, E.; Rulličre, C.

1997-02-01

268

Optimization of salting-out crystallization for an efficient in situ separation of synthetic anthraquinone- and azo-type reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solute can be deposited from solution by the addition of another soluble substance which effectively reduces the solubility of original solute. The process is referred to as ‘salting-out’ and it is one of the proper methods for effective separation of synthetic reactive dyes in industry. To develop an efficient salting-out process for recovering representative anthraquinone- and azo-type reactive dyes,

Jaehoon Cho; Jin Ku Cho; Junsuk Lee; Dohoon Lee; Sangyong Kim

2009-01-01

269

Metallo-hydrazone complexes immobilized in zeolite Y: Synthesis, identification and acid violet-1 degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of hydrazone ligand (SAPH) derived from salicylaldehyde and phenylhydrazine have been encapsulated in zeolite-Y super cages via ship-in-a-bottle synthesis. Detailed characterization of the intrazeolitic complexes were performed by elemental analysis, spectral (FT-IR, UV-Vis.) studies, magnetic measurements and X-ray diffraction. Furthers, surface texture and thermal analysis (TG, DTG, DTA) have provided further evidence for successful immobilization of the metal complexes inside zeolite Y. Investigation of the stereochemistry of these incorporated chelates pointed out that, SAPH ligand is capable to coordinate with the central metal through the (CN), phenolic (OH) and (NH) groups forming polynuclear structures. The involvement of zeolite oxygen in coordination was postulated in the hybrid materials. The intrazeolitic copper, cobalt and nickel-SAPH complexes have distorted tetrahedral, octahedral and square-pyramidal configurations, respectively. The zeolite encapsulated complexes are thermally stable up to 800 °C except Cu(II) sample which is thermally stable up to midpoint 428 °C. The assessment of the catalytic activity was performed by the use of the photo-degradation of acid violet-1 dye as a probe reaction in presence of H2O2 as an oxidant. Decolorization of acid violet-1 dye was examined under the same conditions whereas the unpromoted zeolite and CuII, CoII, NiII-hydrazone complexes supported on zeolite showed 13% and 76%, 53%, 43% color removal, respectively. The results revealed that, the zeolite encapsulated Cu(II) complex generally exhibited better catalytic efficiency (76%) compared with other investigated zeolite encapsulated metal-hydrazone samples.

Ahmed, Ayman H.; Thabet, M. S.

2011-12-01

270

Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. PMID:23321372

Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

2013-01-12

271

Removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution by perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of perlite for the removal of methyl violet from aqueous solutions at different concentration, pH, and temperature has been investigated. Adsorption equilibrium is reached within 1 h. The capacity of perlite samples for the adsorption of methyl violet was found to increase with increasing pH and temperature and decrease with expansion and increasing acid-activation. The adsorption isotherms are described

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2003-01-01

272

The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) provides the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with the capability of quickly detecting and characterizing the optical and ultraviolet properties of gamma ray burst counterparts. The UVOT design is based on the design of the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. It is a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with microchannel plate intensified charged-coupled devices (MICs) that deliver sub-arcsecond imaging. These MICs are photon-counting devices, capable of detecting low intensity signal levels. When flown above the atmosphere, the UVOT will have the sensitivity of a 4m ground based telescope, attaining a limiting magnitude of 24 for a 1000 second observation in the white light filter. A rotating filter wheel allows sensitive photometry in six bands spanning the UV and visible, which will provide photometric redshifts of objects in the 1-3.5z range. For bright counterparts, such as the 9th magnitude GRB990123, or for fainter objects down to 17th magnitude, two grisms provide low-resolution spectroscopy. .

Roming, Peter; Hunsberger, S. D.; Nousek, John; Mason, Keith

2001-10-01

273

Metallophyte status of violets of the section Melanium.  

PubMed

Violets from metal-enriched soils have controversially been described as both heavy-metal accumulators and excluders in the literature. The present study solves the issue for violets of the section Melanium (zinc violets, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria and V. lutea ssp. westfalica; hartsease or wild pansy, Viola tricolor; and mountain pansy, V. lutea). The aims were to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and in the roots and shoots of field-collected plants, to evaluate the potential impact of colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on heavy-metal concentrations in the plant tissues, and to quantitatively define the localisation of the elements in root cross-sections. When these violets grow in low-metal soils, higher concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the roots and shoots than in the soil, whereas the opposite was seen in samples from high-metal soils. Under all field conditions examined, the roots of all of these species were colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. However, V. tricolor was marginally colonised when the concentrations of Zn and P were higher in the soil. Determination of the spatial distribution of the elements in root cross-sections of these violets indicates tissue-specific deposition of elements within the vascular tissue, the cortex, and the rhizodermis. These data indicate that violets of the section Melanium are heavy-metal excluders. PMID:23859423

Hermann, Bothe; Katarina, Vogel-Mikuš; Paula, Pongrac; Matevž, Likar; Neva, Stepic; Primož, Pelicon; Primož, Vavpeti?; Luka, Jeromel; Marjana, Regvar

2013-07-13

274

Sensitization to reactive textile dyes in patients with contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Reactive dyes are used especially for colouring natural fibres (cotton, silk and wool) that are widely used in Western countries, particularly Italy, in the production of clothes. The aim of our study was to investigate sensitization to the most commonly used reactive textile dyes in patients undergoing patch tests, and to assess the clinical relevance of contact sensitization to these dyes. 1813 consecutive patients underwent patch tests with the GIRDCA standard series and an additional textile series of 12 reactive dyes. 18 of these patients were sensitized to reactive dyes (0.99%) (4 only to reactive dyes). The dyes most frequently responsible for positive patch tests were Red Cibacron CR and Violet Remazol 5R (respectively, 8 and 5 positivities). In 5 cases only was a history of intolerance to particular garments given; of 4 patch tests performed with pieces of garment, 2 were positive. In 1 occupationally-exposed patient, airborne contact dermatitis was suspected. Owing to the lack of up-to-date patch test series, some cases of allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are probably misdiagnosed: new colouring agents are continuously introduced to the market, so that a close relationship with textile industry is necessary to improve our diagnostic tools. PMID:8833459

Manzini, B M; Motolese, A; Conti, A; Ferdani, G; Seidenari, S

1996-03-01

275

Fenton degradation of organic compounds promoted by dyes under visible irradiation.  

PubMed

The influence of dyes on the Fenton reaction of organic compounds under visible irradiation (lambda > 450 nm) was examined. It was found that the presence of dyes could accelerate greatly the Fenton reaction of organic compounds such as salicylic acid, sodium benzenesulfonate, benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, and trichloroacetic acid under visible irradiation and that a complete mineralization of those compounds could also be achieved. The dyes such as Alizarin Violet 3B which has an anthraquinone structure unit showed much more significant effect on the reaction than the dyes such as malachite green without the quinone unit. A reaction mechanism of dye AV as a cocatalyst in the photo-Fenton reaction of organic compounds under visible irradiation is proposed based on the cycle of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) catalyzed by quinone species and an electron transfer from the excited dye molecule to Fe3+. PMID:16124319

Ma, Jiahai; Song, Wenjing; Chen, Chuncheng; Ma, Wanhong; Zhao, Jincai; Tang, Yalin

2005-08-01

276

Adsorption and degradation of the cationic dyes over Co doped amorphous mesoporous titania–silica catalyst under UV and visible light irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt doped amorphous mesoporous titania–silica with Ti\\/Si mass ratio of 0.8 (Co–TiO2–SiO2) was synthesized and used for the photodegradation of six cationic dyes (gentian violet, methyl violet, methylene blue, fuchsin basic, safranine T, and Rhdamine B) under UV and visible light illumination. The catalyst was characterized by a combination of various physicochemical techniques, such as N2 physisorption, diffuse reflectance UV–vis,

Junjie Li; Shiqing Liu; Yuyang He; Jiaqiang Wang

2008-01-01

277

The contribution of azo dyes to the mutagenic activity of the Cristais River.  

PubMed

To verify whether dyes emitted within the discharge of a dye processing plant were contributing to the mutagenicity repeatedly found in the Cristais River, Sao Paulo, Brazil, we chemically characterized the following mutagenic samples: the treated industrial effluent, raw and treated water, and the sludge produced by a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) located approximately 6 km from the industrial discharge. Considering that 20% of the dyes used for coloring activities might be lost to wastewaters and knowing that several dyes have mutagenic activity, we decided to analyze the samples for the presence of dyes. Thin layer chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of three prevalent dyes in all samples, except for the drinking water. This combination of dyes corresponded to a commercial product used by the industry, and it tested positive in the Salmonella assay. The structures of the dye components were determined using proton magnetic resonance and mass spectrometric (MS) methods, and the dyes were tested for mutagenicity. The blue component was identified as the C.I. Disperse Blue 373, the violet as C.I. Disperse Violet 93, and the orange as C.I. Disperse Orange 37. The dyes showed mutagenic responses of 6300, 4600, and 280 revertants/microg for YG1041 with S9 respectively. A bioassay-directed fractionation/chemical analysis showed that the C.I. Disperse Blue 373 contributed 55% of the mutagenic activity of the DWTP sludge. We showed that these dyes contributed to the mutagenic activity found in the Cristais River environmental samples analyzed and are indirectly affecting the quality of the related drinking water. Therefore, we believe that this type of discharge should be more thoroughly characterized chemically and toxicologically. Additionally, human and ecological risks associated with the release of dye processing plant effluents should be more fully investigated, especially where the resultant water is taken for human consumption. PMID:15910902

de Aragăo Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Freeman, Harold S; Warren, Sarah H; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Terao, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Claxton, Larry D

2005-06-01

278

Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.  

PubMed

Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen. PMID:7039509

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

1981-10-01

279

Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.  

PubMed Central

Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen.

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

1981-01-01

280

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

281

Adsorption studies of methylene blue and gentian violet on sugarcane bagasse modified with EDTA dianhydride (EDTAD) in aqueous solutions: kinetic and equilibrium aspects.  

PubMed

In this study the adsorption of cationic dyes by modified sugarcane bagasse with EDTA dianhydride (EB) was examined using methylene blue (MB) and gentian violet (GV) as model compounds in aqueous single solutions. The synthesized adsorbent (EB) was characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, and BET. The capacity of EB to adsorb dyes was evaluated at different contact times, pH values, and initial dye concentrations. According to the obtained results, the adsorption processes could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted by the Langmuir model. Maximum adsorption capacities for MB and GV on EB were found to be 202.43 and 327.83 mg/g, respectively. The free energy change during adsorption of MB and GV was found to be -22.50 and -24.21 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that chemisorption is the main mechanism controlling the adsorption process. PMID:23428463

Gusmăo, Karla Aparecida Guimarăes; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Melo, Tânia Márcia Sacramento; Gil, Laurent Frédéric

2013-02-21

282

Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains four documents explaining crystals. The topic is covered at an advanced level in relation to nanotechnology and requires background knowledge in eight grade science. A powerpoint with illustrations and instructor guide containing activities are included to aid in teaching this subject. Additionally, links to related videos, a lab handout, and discussion questions are available.

2012-10-16

283

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

284

Teratologic Evaluation of Genitian Violet (CAS No. 548-62-9) in CD Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gentian Violet (GV) a commonly used topical antimicrobial agent, was evaluated for teratogenicity following maternal exposure. Timed-pregnant CD rats (minimum 20 per dose groups) were dosed by gavage on gestational days 6 through 15 with gentian violet (0...

1982-01-01

285

Decolourisation of diverse industrial dyes by some Phlebia spp. and their comparison with Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

Three species of Phlebia, viz. P. brevispora, P. fascicularia and P. floridensis have been evaluated for their potential to decolourise eight industrial dyes including; reactive yellow, reactive orange, reactive red, rathidol scarlet, coracryl black, coracryl pink, coracryl violet and coracryl red. The cultures used for the present study were pre adapted by growing these on yeast glucose agar medium supplemented with Poly-R 478, a reference dye. The fungal cultures were grown in mineral salts broth and harvested after different incubation periods to obtain their cell free enzyme extracts which were then used to assess their ability to decolourise the above mentioned dyes. The extracts obtained from the cultures grown for six days significantly decolourised the tested dyes. The study revealed Phlebia spp. to be better dye decolourisers than Phanerochaete chrysosporium. PMID:15378532

Arora, Daljit Singh; Chander, Mukesh

2004-01-01

286

Analysis of Antibacterial Action of Polyvinyl Chloride Surface Modified with Gentian Violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of incorporation of gentian violet into medical-grade polyvinyl chloride was studied in this work. The antibacterial properties of the resulting blend were evaluated and the influence of the amount of gentian violet assessed. Dispersion of the gentian violet in the polyvinyl chloride following the blending of the two components was uniform as was demonstrated by the optical images,

M. Sowe; M. Polaskova; I. Kuritka; T. Sedlacek; M. Merchan

2009-01-01

287

21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500...Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The...Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally...

2009-04-01

288

21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500...Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The...Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally...

2013-04-01

289

21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30...Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food...Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally...

2009-04-01

290

21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30...Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food...Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally...

2013-04-01

291

Violet and Blue Light Emissions from Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline silicon thin films with a grain diameter from three to seven nanometers were fabricated on silicon substrates. It is demonstrated for the first time that the thin films show intense violet and blue luminescence at room temperature. The luminescence spectra include three peaks at wavelengths of 415 nm, 437 nm and 465 nm. Anodizations of these thin films introduce

Xinwei Zhao; Olaf Schoenfeld; Junichi Kusano; Yoshinobu Aoyagi; Takuo Sugano

1994-01-01

292

Penetration of Ultra-Violet Rays through Chitin  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTENBURG in 1928 found that the fluorescence of certain salts was only very slightly, if at all, affected when Drosophila melanogaster were interposed between the discharge tube of a Cooper Hewitt lamp and the salts at which the rays were directed. From this he concluded that the ultra-violet rays penetrated the chitin rather freely. His conclusion has been accepted by

G. Eloff; V. L. Bosazza

1938-01-01

293

Alleged Ultra-violet Rays from Filament Lamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the note referring to the proposed electric lighting in the House of Commons by metal filament lamps, in NATURE of June 6 (p. 352), it is stated that ``The present proposal is to use metallic filament lamps enclosed in holophane globes behind amber-coloured glass to cut off completely all ultra-violet rays.'' Investigations made in America and in Germany show

A. P. Trotter

1912-01-01

294

Predicting azo dye toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature regrading azo dye carcinogenicity was examined to establish, if possible, guidelines to predict the human health risks of new azo dyes. Three different mechanisms for azo dye carcinogenicity were identified, all involving metabolic activation to reactive electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind DNA. In the order of decreasing number of published references, these mechanisms are 1. Azo dyes that are

Mark A. Brown; Stephen C. De Vito

1993-01-01

295

MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DRY MATERIAL FEEDER FOR DELIVERY OF RED AND VIOLET DYE MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Uniform delivery of dry material for stable concentrations of aerosols in inhalation exposure chambers is essential in inhalation experiments. his paper characterizes an AccuRate dry material feeder with modifications, for different helix sizes, actuation rates, nozzle types and ...

296

Decolorization of synthetic dyes by solid state cultures of Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes producing manganese peroxidase as the main ligninolytic enzyme.  

PubMed

The ability of the white-rot fungus Lentinula (Lentinus) edodes to decolorize several synthetic dyes was investigated using solid state cultures with corn cob as substrate. Cultures, containing amido black, congo red, trypan blue, methyl green, remazol brilliant blue R, methyl violet, ethyl violet and Poly R478 at 200 ppm, were completely decolorized after 18 days of incubation. Partial decolorization was observed in the cultures containing 200 ppm of brilliant cresyl blue and methylene blue. High manganese peroxidase activity (2600 U/g substrate), but very low lignin peroxidase (<10 U/g substrate) and laccase (<16 U/g substrate) activities were detected in the cultures. In vitro, the dye decolorization was markedly decreased by the absence of manganic ions and H2O2. These data suggest that manganese peroxidase appear to be the main responsible for the capability of L. edodes to decolorize synthetic dyes. PMID:15158501

Boer, Cinthia Gandolfi; Obici, Larissa; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane M

2004-09-01

297

Removal of Acid Violet 17 from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from sunflower seed hull.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Acid Violet 17 (AV17) was carried out using various activated carbons prepared from sunflower seed hull (SSH), an agricultural solid waste by-product. The effect of parameters such as agitation time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature were studied. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied and the Langmuir model was found to best report the equilibrium isotherm data. Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 116.27 mg/g. Kinetic data followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Maximum colour removal was observed at pH 2.0. It was observed that the rate of adsorption improves with increasing temperature and the process is endothermic. The adsorbent surface was analysed with a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that activated sunflower seed hull could be an attractive option for colour removal from dilute industrial effluents. PMID:17689864

Thinakaran, N; Baskaralingam, P; Pulikesi, M; Panneerselvam, P; Sivanesan, S

2007-06-02

298

Color variations of cotton dyed with reactive Cu-complex azo dyes by histidine, and testing methods for color fastness to perspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of histidine (His) on cellophane films dyed with five reactive Cu-complex azo dyes, CI Reactive Red 23, CI Reactive Violet 5, and 1:1 and 1:2 Cu-complex azo dyes, from aqueous His was estimated as a function of immersing time. During the incomplete abstraction of copper on immersion, the dyed films adsorbed His to a larger extent than the

Yasuyo Okada; Tomoko Nagashima; Hiromi Iizuka; Masako Asano; Zenzo Morita

1997-01-01

299

Photoporation and cell transfection using a violet diode laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction and subsequent expression of foreign DNA inside living mammalian cells (transfection) is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. We direct a compact 405 nm laser diode source into an inverted optical microscope configuration and expose cells to 0.3 mW for 40 ms. The localized optical power density of ~1200 MW/m2 is six orders of magnitude lower than that used in femtosecond photoporation (~104 TW/m2). The beam perforates the cell plasma membrane to allow uptake of plasmid DNA containing an antibiotic resistant gene as well as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Successfully transfected cells then expand into clonal groups which are used to create stable cell lines. The use of the violet diode laser offers a new and simple poration technique compatible with standard microscopes and is the simplest method of laser-assisted cell poration reported to date.

Paterson, L.; Agate, B.; Comrie, M.; Ferguson, R.; Lake, T. K.; Morris, J. E.; Carruthers, A. E.; Brown, C. T. A.; Sibbett, W.; Bryant, P. E.; Gunn-Moore, F.; Riches, A. C.; Dholakia, Kishan

2005-01-01

300

Dialyzing room disinfection with ultra-violet irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections represent a major problem in dialysis treatment, thus the dialyzing room should be kept abacterial as possible. We have installed 15-watt ultra-violet (uv) lamps for every 13.5 m2 on the ceiling for the purpose of the room disinfection and used them for 16 hours nightly after working hours. Bacteria were killed with over 10 hours irradiation even at the

H. Inamoto; Y. Ino; M. Jinnouchi; K. Sata; T. Wada; N. Inamoto; A. Osawa

1979-01-01

301

Pyrocatechol Violet Complexation at the Boehmite–Water Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid\\/base reactions and pyrocatechol violet complexation at the boehmite–solution interface have been investigated in 0.10 M K(Cl) solution at 298.2 K in the range 5.0??log h?9.0. Equilibrium measurements were performed as potentiometric titrations complemented by spectrophotometric analysis of a ligand (batch adsorption experiments). The experimental data were evaluated on the basis of the extended constant capacitance model, allowing for inner-sphere

Stuart L. Simpson; Kipton J. Powell; Staffan Sjöberg

2000-01-01

302

Violet red bile 2 agar for stressed coliforms.  

PubMed

Counts on a new, autoclave-sterilizable violet red bile (VRB-2) agar were compared with counts on freshly boiled VRB agar. Yields on VRB-2 agar averaged 217, 180, 130, and 112% of counts obtained on the control medium for samples of water, cottage cheese, frozen vegetables, and raw milk, respectively. The general principle used for the development of VRB-2 agar could be applied to many other kinds of selective plating media. PMID:1092265

Hartman, P A; Hartman, P S; Lanz, W W

1975-04-01

303

Violet RedBile 2AgarforStressed Coliforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

violet redbile(VRB-2) agarwere compared withcountsonfreshly boiled VRB agar.Yields onVRB-2agar averaged 217,180,130, and112%ofcounts obtained onthecontrol mediumfor samples ofwater, cottage cheese, frozen vegetables, andrawmilk, respectively. Thegeneral principle usedforthedevelopment ofVRB-2agarcould beapplied to manyother kinds ofselective plating media. Whena bacterial population isexposed to environmental stress, somecells maybecome injured. A substantial volume ofdataexists in theliterature showing thatinjured cells maynot growafter exposure tosecondary stresses, such ashightemperatures

ANDWAYNE W. LANZ

1975-01-01

304

Fluorescence Effects from Corals irradiated with Ultra-Violet Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN January 1957, three months after the official inauguration of the Aquarium of Nouméa which my wife and I established in New Caledonia, we obtained the first effects of fluorescence through irradiation with ultra-violet rays of deep-water corals. The different specimens treated had been collected in the lagoon at a depth of 35-40 m., about twenty miles from our station

R. Catala-Stucki

1959-01-01

305

Picosecond dynamics of cresyl violet H-aggregates adsorbed on SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites  

SciTech Connect

The H-aggregates of cresyl violet dye which are formed on the negatively charged SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites, exhibit relatively short-lived excitonic singlet state with a lifetime of about 35 ps. The difference absorption maximum ({lambda}{sub max}=470 nm) is blue shifted compared to the corresponding singlet excited state of monomer ({lambda}{sub max}=515 nm). Time-resolved transient absorption measurements show that these dye aggregates are capable of injecting electrons from the triplet excited state into SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites. The rate constant for heterogeneous electron transfer as measured from the formation of cation radical and electron trapping in SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites was 2.0{times}10{sup 8}s{sup {minus}1}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Liu, D.; Kamat, P.V. [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

1996-07-01

306

Dye-sensitized Photoreactivation of X-ray Damage in Diploid Yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an investigation of the binding of aminoacridine dyes to deoxyribonucleic acid in living cells we have shown that the nucleic acid fluorochrome, acridine orange (3,6,-bis-dimethylaminoacridine), sensitizes both haploid and diploid yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to visible light1. The significance of the survival curves obtained for this acridine orange-sensitized photo-inactivation was further examined by experiments involving additivity of X-rays, ultra-violet and

David Freifelder; Robert B. Uretz

1960-01-01

307

THE FLUORESCENCE EFFICIENCIES OF THE CN VIOLET BANDS IN COMETS  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out calculations of the fluorescent equilibrium of the CN molecule in the solar radiation field as a function of heliocentric radial velocity and distance. The detailed rotational line intensities of the CN violet 0-0 band have been recalculated for radial velocities between -60 and +60 km s{sup -1} and at 10 distances in steps of {radical}2 from 0.25 to 5.7 AU. Comparisons with observed CN violet 0-0 band profiles yield reasonable agreement and remaining discrepancies are well understood. Based on the derived equilibrium rotational level populations of the ground state, 1-1 band rotational line intensities were also calculated. Total band fluorescence efficiencies for the violet {Delta}{nu} = 0 sequence are tabulated for the above range of distances and velocities, permitting the interpolation to any given comet's observational circumstances. These fluorescence efficiencies, L/N, or 'g-factors', needed to reduce CN emission band fluxes to CN abundances, are also accessible via a Web-based service. The values at any heliocentric distance vary by about a factor of two with varying velocities, but the specific structure of this variation with velocity changes dramatically with distance.

Schleicher, David G., E-mail: dgs@lowell.ed [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

2010-10-15

308

Kinetic studies of reactive azo dye decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

The decolorization kinetics of Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV-5R) and Remazol Black B (RB-B) (mono- and diazo reactive dyes, respectively) was investigated in the first 9 h (anaerobic phase) of a 24-h cycle anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Two distinct, successive decolorization periods were observed for both dyes, apparently due to different decolorization mechanisms. The apparent first-order rate constants were much lower for the second periods. First-order kinetics were apparently followed for both periods of RBV-5R but not for the first decolorization period of RB-B, possibly due to the occurrence of mass transfer limitations. PMID:16791728

Lourenço, Nídia D; Novais, Júlio M; Pinheiro, Helena M

2006-05-23

309

A spectroscopic study of dyes decomposition by irradiated nanocrystalline TiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 films prepared by wet-chemical techniques and deposited on the ITO glass was tested by examining the decomposition of violet gentian (VG), methylen blue (MB) and methyl green (MG) aqueous solutions under UV light illumination. The photodegradation processes of dyes have been studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. The comparative results of the present study demonstrate the capability of UV irradiation of the TiO2/ITO photocatalytic system to degrade studied organic dyes from aqueous solutions.

Rosu, M. C.; Suciu, R. C.; Kasco, I.; Dreve, S. V.; Indrea, E.; Silipas, T. D.

2009-08-01

310

Hierarchically assembled one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructures: echinoid- and labyrinth-shaped TiO2 crystals for dye sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

TiO2 nanostructures have been studied intensively for decades for their photocatalytic properties. Recently, several interesting TiO2 nanostructures with controlled surface facets or shapes were reported. However, systemic approaches to obtain designed nanostructures are still rare. Here, various hierarchical 1D TiO2 nanostructures, including TiO2 nanorods, echinoid-shaped TiO2, and labyrinth-structured TiO2, were fabricated by a one-pot hydrothermal process. Concentrated HCl was added to a solution having a Ti4+/H+ ratio that ranged from 1/4 to 1/8. The highly concentrated acid stabilized hydrolysis and hindered condensation, thereby balancing nucleation and growth of TiO2 nanostructures in the hydrothermal treatment step. Dye-sensitized solar cells prepared using the hierarchical 1D TiO2 nanostructures have shown higher photon to current conversion efficiency in the wavelength over 600 nm compared to those prepared with TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:23035455

Cha, Seung I; Hwang, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Yuhyun; Seo, Sean Hee; Lee, Dong Yoon

2012-09-01

311

Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo...

S. Allinikov

1979-01-01

312

Tunable Liquid Crystal Random Laser Radiation Based on Photonic Crystal Micro-Cavity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tunable liquid crystal random lasers is produced by filled liquid crystal which doped laser dye and scattering particles to the slab photonic crystal defect based on liquid crystal refractive index sensitive to changes in temperature and electric field properties, narrow-band filter characteristics of photonic crystal micro-cavity. The structure of liquid crystal tunable random lasers designed. By use of Maxwell

Xiang-zhong Qian

2011-01-01

313

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

314

Photochemical manipulation of colloidal structures in liquid-crystal colloids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated photochemical manipulation of physical properties and colloidal structures in liquid-crystal (LC) colloids containing azobenzene compounds. In a LC suspension where polymeric particles were dispersed in a host LC, we achieved photochemical control of light-scattering properties of the suspension. In a nematic phase, when the suspension was sandwiched with two glass plates, the film became opaque. This would be attributable to an appearance of both multidomain structures of LC alignment and mismatches of refractive indices between the materials. The opaque state turned into a transparent one when a nematic-to-isotropic phase transition was induced by the trans-to-cis photoisomerization of the azo-dye. This will result from a disappearance of both the multidomain structures and the refractive-index mismatches in the isotropic phase. The transparent film went back into the initial opaque film when the nematic phase was obtained by the cis-to-trans photoisomerization. In a LC emulsion in which glycerol or water droplets were dispersed in liquid crystals, we examined photochemical change of defect structures and inter-droplet distances by the photochemical manner. At the initial state, Saturn ring and hedgehog defects were formed around the droplets. For the glycerol droplets, we observed structural transformations between Saturn ring and boojums on irradiation with ultra-violet and visible light. For the water droplets, the inter-droplet distances varied by changing defect size on the irradiation. These phenomena would result from modulation of anchoring conditions of the droplets by the photoisomerization of the azo-dyes.

Yamamoto, T.; Tabe, Y.; Yokoyama, H.

2007-05-01

315

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building on work done in Phase I of this study (See AD-748 863), research on near-infrared dye lasers continued along several lines. Eighteen more Kodak organic dyes were screened for laser action using a linear flash lamp for excitation. Six dyes lased b...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1973-01-01

316

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and fungi are discussed in detail. The disadvantages of physical and chemical treatment processes of dye wastewater are also discussed. Biological treatment processes have many advantages over the chemical and physical treatment processes such as possibility of degradation of dye molecules to carbon dioxide and water and formation of less sludge in

Wamik Azmi; Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1998-01-01

317

Violet Emission in ZnO Nanorods Treated with High-Energy Hydrogen Plasma.  

PubMed

Violet photoluminescence was observed in high-energy hydrogen-plasma-treated ZnO nanorods at 13 K. The photoluminescence spectrum is dominated by a strong violet emission and a shoulder attributed to excitonic emission. The violet emission shows normal thermal behavior with an average lifetime of about 1 ?s at 13 K. According to the time-resolved and excitation density-dependent photoluminescence, it was found that the violet emission is determined by at least two emitting channels, which was confirmed by annealing experiments. Evidence was also given that the violet emission is related to hydrogen. We suggested that the hydrogen-related complex defects formed under high-energy hydrogen plasma treatment are responsible for this violet emission. PMID:24066677

Chen, Cong; Lu, Yangfan; He, Haiping; Xiao, Mu; Wang, Zheng; Chen, Lingxiang; Ye, Zhizhen

2013-10-09

318

A DNA Crystal Designed to Contain Two Molecules per Asymmetric Unit  

SciTech Connect

We describe the self-assembly of a DNA crystal that contains two tensegrity triangle molecules per asymmetric unit. We have used X-ray crystallography to determine its crystal structure. In addition, we have demonstrated control over the colors of the crystals by attaching either Cy3 dye (pink) or Cy5 dye (blue-green) to the components of the crystal, yielding crystals of corresponding colors. Attaching the pair of dyes to the pair of molecules yields a purple crystal.

T Wang; R Sha; J Birktoft; J Zheng; C Mao; N Seeman

2011-12-31

319

Sterilization of Water by Ultra-Violet Rays of the Mercury-Vapor Quartz Lamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury-vapor quartz lamps are applied industrially for the production of ultra-violet rays for the sterilization of water. To obtain ultra-violet rays economically it is important to study the temperature of the luminous part of the lamp. There are different ways for measuring the ultra-violet power, based on physical, chemical or bacteriological reactions. Such reactions are compared between them. The paper

M. von Recklinghausen

1914-01-01

320

The investigation of inclusion behavior of Solvent Violet 9 with 4-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes and its recognition to DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion behavior of Solvent Violet 9 (SV9) with 4-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes (SCXn) (n = 4, 6, 8) was investigated at various pH values by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. SV9 is able to form an inclusion complex with calixarenes. Different absorption behaviors were observed for the dye with the various host calixarenes. The molecular binding abilities were affected by the configuration of the calixarene cavities and the solution pH. Various experimental conditions, including calixarenes concentrations, were investigated and the results suggested that the three calixarene were most suitable for inclusion of the dye at pH = 3.05. The formation constant could be calculated. The inclusion behavior of the complexes was studied in detail using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Finally, the interactions of SV9 with Salmon testes DNA in SCXn supramolecular system were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption show that the interaction of SV9 with DNA depends on the concentration ratio of SV9 to DNA and the pH values. The binding constants of inclusion complexes with DNA are calculated. It was observed that SCXn can affect the interactive mode of SV9 with DNA.

Chao, Jianbin; Wang, Hong fang; Zhang, Yongbin; Huo, Fangjun; Yin, Caixia

2013-02-01

321

Study of Galactic structure using ultra-violet surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for studying the structure of our Galaxy from images in multiple Near-UV & Far-UV filters of the up-coming Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) onboard ASTROSAT, has been explored. Source counts from the available GALEX data have been compared with the Besançon model of the stellar population synthesis (Robin et al. 2003). The results obtained from the raw GALEX photometric catalogue and using only the ``primaries", avoiding multiple detections (Budavári et al. 2009) turn out to be identical.

Todmal, S. S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Robin, A. C.

322

Evaluation of laser desorption mass spectrometry and UV accelerated aging of dyes on paper as tools for the evaluation of a questioned document.  

PubMed

Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) may be used for the detection and identification of dyes found in inks. Naturally-aged and artificially-aged blue and black ballpoint pen inks containing the cationic dye methyl violet were analyzed on paper. The average molecular weight of the dye sample was calculated from LD mass spectral data and plotted versus time. The resulting aging curves demonstrate that, as dye degradation increases, the average molecular weight of the dye decreases. Typical variables involved in ink aging, such as the type of paper and ink formulation, were investigated. Results show that these variables influence the rate of dye degradation. Furthermore, UV accelerated aging has been developed and tested as an alternative to thermal approaches. PMID:12455647

Grim, Donzna M; Siegel, Jay; Allison, John

2002-11-01

323

Adsorption of basic dyes by dried waste sludge: Kinetic, equilibrium and desorption studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried waste sludge was used as adsorbent to remove methylene blue, crystal violet and basic fuchsine using batch systems. Rate experiments were performed at various initial adsorbate concentrations, adsorbent concentration and reaction temperature. The experimental data were analyzed using several kinetic equations to determine the best-fit equation and related parameters were calculated. It was shown that the adsorption of respective

Xue Song Wang; Hai Qing Lin

2011-01-01

324

Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent at carbon-felt cathode.  

PubMed

Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ +H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used as a model among them to study the influence of some experimental parameters on the decay kinetics, COD removal and current efficiency. The results in such electro-Fenton system are explained in terms of the many parasitic reactions involving .OH. Higher efficiency values are obtained with rising organic content and decreasing applied current. The first stage of the mineralization process, involving aromatic by-products, leads to fast decoloration as well as quick initial COD removal that fit well to a pseudo-first-order kinetics. At prolonged electrolysis time, the mineralization rate and efficiency decrease due to the formation of hardly oxidizable compounds and the enhancement of wasting reactions. Solutions of all four TPMs are quickly degraded following a pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The absolute rate constant (kTPM) for their reaction with .OH increases in the order MeGdyes with initial COD ca. 1000 mg l(-1) is totally depolluted with efficiency near 100% at the beginning of the treatment. A general scheme for the mineralization of TPMs is proposed. PMID:18486964

Sirés, Ignasi; Guivarch, Elodie; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A

2008-05-19

325

Hartley's fractional crystallization and Weigert's effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the course of slow evaporation of an azo-dye chrysophenine-saturated gelatin-water solution, dye crystals that developed two different interference colors were observed in the gelatin; the colors were yellow and blue. The crystals that produce a blue interference color undergo disintegration on exposure to non-polarized light from a mercury lamp.

Ebralidze, Tariel D.; Ebralidze, Nadia A.

2004-02-01

326

Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes and simulated dyebath wastewater.  

PubMed

The study related to photocatalytic degradation of three reactive dyes, namely, Reactive Red 141 (RR141), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Violet 13 (RV13) was carried out. Further, two simulated textile dyebath wastewaters were prepared and examined for photocatalytic degradation. Three dyes were subjected to photodegradation in a batch annular immersion well photoreactor equipped with a 400W Medium Pressure Mercury Lamp (MPML). The UV illuminated TiO2 containing aqueous suspensions found to remove colour as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD). The photocatalytic activity was monitored by measuring the rates of decolorization and COD removal as a function of concentration of the dye and treatment time. The photodegradation efficiency of these three reactive dyes was found in the order of RR141 > RO16 > RV13. The first order rate constant (k(app)) for decolorization was 3-9 times higher than the k(app) for COD removal. The rate constants for degradation of simulated wastewater were also of the similar order of magnitude. These results suggest that TiO2/UV photocatalysis may be envisaged as a method for treatment of diluted coloured wastewaters not only for decolourization, but also for polishing of the COD parameter. PMID:18179125

Joshi, Priyanka; Purohit, Jaishree; Neti, Nageswara Rao

2006-10-01

327

The Genetic and Physiological Effects of the Action of Ultra-Violet Radiation on Higher Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book deals with the role of ultra-violet radiation in the life activity of higher plants. Reported are the characteristics of genetical and physiological effects of ultra-violet radiation, functional biochemical changes, and the molecular basis in the...

A. P. Dubrov

1974-01-01

328

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

329

Influence of polarization orientation of violet light on the diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin.  

PubMed

When a grating is recorded in a bacteriorhodopsin film by two linear parallel polarized beams together with an auxiliary violet light, the diffraction efficiency has a dependence on the polarization orientation of the violet light as well as its intensity. A method for calculating the diffraction efficiency of gratings in bacteriorhodopsin is proposed based on the two-state photochromic model, considering the saturation effect and the polarization status of all the involved lights. It is found that the polarization orientation of the violet light produces an approximate-cosine and an approximate-sine modulation on the steady-state diffraction efficiency separately at low and high intensities, respectively. The parallel polarized violet light can improve the steady-state diffraction efficiency to a larger degree than the perpendicularly polarized violet light when both are at their optimal intensities. The optimal intensity for the parallel polarized violet light is lower than that of the perpendicular polarized one. Thus, the improvement of the steady-state diffraction efficiency is less sensitive to the intensity of perpendicular polarized violet light than to that of parallel polarized violet light. PMID:18516137

Yao, Baoli; Gao, Peng; Han, Junhe; Chen, Liju; Wang, Yingli; Lei, Ming

2008-06-01

330

Tetrazolium Violet Induced Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells  

PubMed Central

Tetrazolium violet is a tetrazolium salt and has been proposed as an antitumor agent. In this study, we reported for the first time that tetrazolium violet not only inhibited human lung cancer A549 cell proliferation but also induced apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in the G1 phase. The results showed that tetrazolium violet significantly decreased the viability of A549 cells at 5-15 ?M. Tetrazolium violet -induced apoptosis in A549 cells was confirmed by H33258 staining assay. In A549, tetrazolium violet blocked the progression of the cell cycle at G1 phase by inducing p53 expression and further up-regulating p21/WAF1 expression. In addition, an enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and its two forms of ligands, membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), as well as caspase, were responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by tetrazolium violet. The conclusion of this study is that tetrazolium violet induced p53 expression which caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings suggest that tetrazolium violet has strong potential for development as an agent for treatment lung cancer.

Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Nan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Kong, Qing-Zhong; Zhao, Yun-Feng

2012-01-01

331

Investigation on photocatalytic degradation of ethyl violet dyestuff using visible light in the presence of ordinary rutile TiO2 catalyst doped with upconversion luminescence agent.  

PubMed

To use solar irradiation or interior lighting efficiently, a new photocatalyst with high catalytic activity in visible light was sought. In this work, an upconversion luminescence agent, 40 CdF(2).60 BaF(2).1.0 Er(2)O(3), was synthesized and its fluorescent spectrum was determined. It is found that this upconversion luminescence agent can emit five upconversion fluorescent peaks below 387nm under the excitation of 488nm visible light. The upconversion luminescence agent has revealed an improvement over ordinary titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation for the photocatalytic degradation of ethyl violet in aqueous solution as a model compound. The TiO(2) photocatalyst doped with upconversion luminescence agent was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The photocatalytic degradation of ethyl violet was tracked by UV-vis and (1)H-NMR spectra, and the influences of irradiation time, initial concentration of ethyl violet, addition amount of TiO(2) catalyst and initial pH value were also investigated. To affirm the complete mineralization, the total organic carbon (TOC) was also tested. The degradation rate of ethyl violet in the presence of doped rutile TiO(2) photocatalyst reached 87.08% at 4.0h visible light irradiation, which was obviously higher than the corresponding degradation rate (35.42%) in the presence of undoped rutile TiO(2) powder. The research results show that the upconversion luminescence agent is necessary to transform visible lights into ultraviolet lights and thus make the best use of visible lights. By calculation, the upconversion efficiency of the emission peak at 380nm was estimated to be about 0.78%. The TiO(2) powder doped upconversion luminescence agent under visible light irradiation is able to decompose the ethyl violet in aqueous solution efficiently, therefore, this method may be envisaged as a technology for treating dyes wastewaters using solar energy, especially at textile industries in developing countries. PMID:16730367

Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guan; Zhang, Zhaohong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Zhao, Gang; Wen, Fuyu; Pan, Zhijun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Peng; Kang, Pingli

2006-05-26

332

Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment.  

PubMed

Organic wastes have been burned for reclamation. However, they have to be recycled and reused for industrial sustainable development. Carbonaceous materials were produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. There are many phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of carbonaceous materials. The base consumption of the carbonaceous materials was larger than that of the commercially activated carbon. The carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were applied to the adsorbates for the removal of basic dyes (methylene blue and gentian violet) in wastewater. This result indicated that the adsorption of dyes depended upon the surface polar groups on the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the Freundlich constants of isotherms for the adsorption of methylene blue and gentian violet onto the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than those for adsorption onto activated carbon or ceramic activated carbon. The interaction was greatest between the surface or porosity of the carbonaceous materials and methylene blue and gentian violet. The microwave treatment would be useful for the carbonization of organic wastes to save energy. PMID:12702420

Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Kazuoki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Tamura, Takamichi; Tanada, Seiki

2002-10-01

333

Investigation of the lasing characteristics of new laser dyes for the green and red parts of the spectrum  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was made of the lasing characteristics of solutions of various new dyes in the coumarin, naphthalimide, and benzanthrone classes pumped transversely by the second harmonic of ruby laser radiation. Lasing in the blue, green, and red parts of the spectrum was obtained for most of the compounds studied. A comparison was made between these materials and laser dyes widely used in these spectral ranges. The compounds studied included some with a lasing efficiency substantially higher than uranin in the green and cresyl violet in the red, and with a photostability not inferior to these two.

Krymova, A.I.; Petukhov, V.A.; Popov, M.B.

1985-10-01

334

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Investigation of the lasing characteristics of new laser dyes for the green and red parts of the spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made of the lasing characteristics of solutions of various new dyes in the coumarin, naphthalimide, and benzanthrone classes pumped transversely by the second harmonic of ruby laser radiation. Lasing in the blue, green, and red parts of the spectrum was obtained for most of the compounds studied. A comparison was made between these materials and laser dyes widely used in these spectral ranges. The compounds studied included some with a lasing efficiency substantially higher than uranin in the green and cresyl violet in the red, and with a photostability not inferior to these two.

Krymova, A. I.; Petukhov, V. A.; Popov, M. B.

1985-10-01

335

The response characteristics of tetrazolium violet solutions to gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dosimetry characteristics of various solutions of tetrazolium violet, TV, (2,5-diphenyl-3-(1-naphthyl)-2H-tetrazolium chloride) to gamma irradiation are reported. The optical absorption spectra of these solutions show peaks between 400 and 600 nm with a shoulder at around 550 nm. The dose response of the optical absorbance values of aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions containing different concentrations of TV was measured in the 250 Gy up to 75 kGy dose range. The formation of formazan product was observed due to radiolytic reduction in both solutions. Its formation was found more pronounced in N2-saturated as well as in alkaline solutions. The results indicate that the 1 mM TV solution can be used for food irradiation and medical sterilization dosimetry at gamma irradiation facilities.

Emi-Reynolds, G.; Kovács, András; Fletcher, J. J.

2007-08-01

336

Comparison of photocatalytic degradation of dyes in relation to their structure.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of a series of six acid dyes (Direct Red 80, Direct Red 81, Direct Red 23, Direct Violet 51, Direct Yellow 27, and Direct Yellow 50) has been tested compared in terms of color removal, mineralization, and toxicity (Lactuca sativa L. test) after photocatalysis on immobilized titanium dioxide. The dyes were examined at their natural pH and after hydrolysis at pH 12. Results show that hydrolysis decreases strongly the efficiency of color removal, that full mineralization takes much longer reaction time than color removal, and that toxicity is only very partially reduced. Some structural parameters, related to the structure and the topology of the dye molecules, could be correlated with the apparent color removal rates at natural pH. PMID:23423868

Byberg, R; Cobb, J; Martin, L Diez; Thompson, R W; Camesano, T A; Zahraa, O; Pons, M N

2013-02-20

337

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near infrared laser action has been demonstrated for 9 Kodak organic dyes, using a linear flash lamp for excitation. The spectral region covered by these 9 dyes extends from 850 nm to at least 960 nm, with no tuning attempted so far. Output is in the kilo...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1972-01-01

338

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

339

Fluorescent Dyes for Luminescent Solar Concentrators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dyes were developed, for application in luminescent solar concentrators. Most suitable are perylen dyes and perylimid dyes, boron complexes of naphtholactam dyes and polycarbocyclic dyes. These compounds cover the whole color range from yellow to blue. In...

R. Iden G. Seybold A. Stange H. Eilingsfeld

1984-01-01

340

Turnable Second Harmonic Generation from an Organic Dye Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet light has been generated from a Rhodamine 60 organic dye laser by frequency doubling with a KDP crystal. The second harmonic was tuned from 2900Ĺ to 3000Ĺ with peak powers of 40 watts.Organic dye lasers have now been reported with output wave-lengths extending throughout the visible and near infrared. The tunability and output energies now available in the visible

B. G. Huth; G. I. Farmer; L. M. Taylor; M. R. Kagan

1968-01-01

341

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

342

Dye system for dye laser applications  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dye of the DCM family, (2-methyl-6-(2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, P.R.

1991-05-21

343

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

344

Solubility and growth rate of reactive blue49 and black8 dyes in salting-out system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive dyeing is one of most widely used methods for the coloration of cellulosic fibers. Reactive dyes have a low utilization\\u000a degree compared to other types of dyestuff, since the functional group also bonds to water, creating hydrolysis. Salting out\\u000a crystallization process was used to obtain dye crystals from solution. Physical properties and growth rate were measured for\\u000a the design

Hyun Kak Han; Hyong-Ki Jung

2009-01-01

345

Three-dimensional graphene oxide nanostructure for fast and efficient water-soluble dye removal.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated the potential of graphene nanomaterials as environmental pollutant adsorbents by utilizing the characteristics of ultralarge surface area and strong ?-? interaction on the surface. We generated a three-dimensional (3D) graphene oxide sponge (GO sponge) from a GO suspension through a simple centrifugal vacuum evaporation method, and used them to remove both the methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) dyes which are main contaminants from the dye manufacturing and textile finishing. The efficiency and speed of dye adsorption on a GO sponge was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, temperature, and pH. The adsorption process shows that 99.1% of MB and 98.8% of MV have been removed and the equilibrium status has been reached in 2 min. The 3D GO sponge displays adsorption capacity as high as 397 and 467 mg g(-1) for MB and MV dye, respectively, and the kinetic data reveal that the adsorption process of MB and MV dyes is well-matched with the pseudo second-order model. The MB and MV adsorption on the 3D GO sponge involved in endothermic chemical adsorption through the strong ?-? stacking and anion-cation interaction with the activation energy of 50.3 and 70.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The 3D GO sponge has demonstrated its high capability as an organic dye scavenger with high speed and efficiency. PMID:22206476

Liu, Fei; Chung, Soyi; Oh, Gahee; Seo, Tae Seok

2012-01-19

346

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

347

Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-TAM dyes, 2,2-(2-(pyridinyl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethyl indoline) derivatives and unusual stability of 4-pyridinyl compound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solid-state structures and unequivocal stereochemistries of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes 2,2'-(2-(pyridin-4 or 3-yl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives were established by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the EE isomer was formed for the 4-pyridinyl compound, whereas the 3-pyridinyl compound formed ZE isomers. In addition, the latter have a so-called three-bladed propeller conformation, whereas the former possess a Y-shaped conformation. These pyridine-based LTAM compounds stack to form a dimer, adopting either an orthorhombic, with Pcmn space group, or monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group in the crystal unit cell.

Ma, So-Young; Keum, Sam-Rok

2013-09-01

348

Vibrios from Fish Pen Slime Which Mimic Escherichia coli on Violet Red Bile Agar  

PubMed Central

Organisms from fish pen slime which mimicked coliforms and Escherichia coli on Violet Red Bile Agar were identified as members of the genus Vibrio on the basis of metabolic and morphological characteristics. Images

Rosen, A.; Levin, R. E.

1970-01-01

349

Teratologic Evaluation of Gentian Violet (CAS Number 548-62-9) in New Zealand White Rabbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gentian Violet (GV), a commonly used topical antimicrobial agent, was evaluated for teratogenicity following maternal exposure. Artificially inseminated New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were dosed by gavage on gestational days 6 through 19 with gentian vio...

R. Wolkowski-Tyl . Jones-Price J. R. Reel M. C. Marr L. Langhoff-Paschke

1983-01-01

350

Excitation Energy Migration in a Photonic Dye-Zeolite Antenna: Computational Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitation energy migration between dyes embedded in hexagonal crystals of cylinder morphology is an attractive phenomenon for the construction of photonic anten- nae (1, 2). Detailed knowledge of the zeolite structure, the organization and the spectro- scopic properties of the dyes and the nature and strength of the host-guest interactions is required to optimize energy migration (EnM). Whether a dye-zeolite

Marc Meyer; Mikalai M. Yatskou; Michel Pfenninger; Stefan Huber; Anatoli Digris; Victor Skakun; Eugene Barsukov; Vladimir V. Apanasovich

2003-01-01

351

Color-sensitive photoconductivity of nanostructured ZnO/fast green dye hybrid films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by sol gel method have been investigated in conductivity and photoconductivity measurements in view of applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The absorption of ZnO film sensitized by Fast Green dye (FGF) has been studied by UV spectroscopy which indicates that after the dye is adsorbed on the ZnO electrode, its absorption spectra showed red-shift in the peak position compared to the absorbance spectra of dye in ethanol. The films, in which dye molecules are located within the ZnO crystals, are found to show higher sensitivity to illumination with visible light in photoconductivity measurements due to a high proportion of surface dye molecules are being excited by ?-electrons acting as sensitizers.

Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

2013-06-01

352

Effect of Ultra-violet Light on Mouse Skin over a Wide Range of Intensities  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHETHER the effect on the living skin of a constant dose of ultra-violet radiation is the same if given with high intensity in a short pulse as if given with low intensity over a longer period of time has not apparently been recorded. We have therefore examined the tissue injury caused in mouse skin by ultra-violet light of wave-length about

S. Claesson; G. Wettermark; L. JUHLIN

1957-01-01

353

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

354

Dye-Sensitization Studies of ZnO Using Total Internal-Reflection Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown how a total internal reflection technique using pulsed light can be employed in the study of the photooxidation of an oxadicarbocyanine dye at ZnO single crystal electrodes. The quantum efficiency for photocurrent production by this dye is mea...

M. T. Spitler

1981-01-01

355

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.  

PubMed

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

2001-04-01

356

Solid hosts for dye laser rods: Part 1, Criteria for choosing a host material  

SciTech Connect

This paper will attempt to provide selection criteria for polymers as hosts for flashlamp-pumped dye laser rods. The properties of transparent polymer materials are compared with typical inorganic crystal and glass hosts. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Erickson, G.F.

1987-01-01

357

Investigation of ultra violet (UV) resistance for high strength fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra long duration balloons (ULDB), currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), requires the use of high strength fibers in the selected super-pressure pumpkin design. The pumpkin shape balloon concept allows clear separation of the load transferring functions of the major structural elements of the pneumatic envelope, the tendons and the film. Essentially, the film provides the gas barrier and transfers only local pressure load to the tendons. The tendons, in the mean time, provide the global pressure containing strength. In that manner, the strength requirement for the film only depends on local parameters. The tendon is made of p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO) fibers, which is selected due to its high strength to weight ratio when compared to other high performance, commercially available, fibers. High strength fibers, however, are known to degrade upon exposure to light, particularly at short wavelengths. This paper reports the results of an investigation of the resistance of four commercial high strength fibers to ultra violet (UV) exposure. The results indicate that exposing high strength fibers in continuous yarn form to UV led to serious loss in strength of the fibers except for Spectra® fibers. The adverse changes in mechanical behavior occurred over short duration of exposure compared to the 100 day duration targeted for these missions. UV blocking finishes to improve the UV resistance of these fibers are being investigated. The application of these specially formulated coatings is expected to lead to significant improvement of the UV resistance of these high performance fibers. In this publication, we report on the mechanical behavior of the fibers pre- and post-exposure to UV, but without application of the blocking finishes.

Said, M. A.; Dingwall, Brenda; Gupta, A.; Seyam, A. M.; Mock, G.; Theyson, T.

358

Photodegradation of dye pollutants catalyzed by porous K3PW12O40 under visible irradiation.  

PubMed

Microporous solid K3PW12O40 is prepared by precipitation of phosphotungstic acid and potassium ion, followed by calcination. Using this material as photocatalyst, a series of dye pollutants, such as rhodamine B, malachite green, rhodamine 6G, fuchsin basic, and methyl violet, were efficiently degraded in the presence of H202 under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). The photocatalyst was characterized via SEM, BET surface area, FT-IR, and XRD. The photocatalyst has relative large surface area, and the Keggin structure of phosphotungstic ions is intact during the precipitation and calcination. The degradation kinetics, TOC changes, degradation products, ESR detection of active oxygen species, and the effect of radical scavengers are also investigated to clarify the degradation process and the reaction pathway. The dyes can be facilely bleached and mineralized (ca. 40% of TOC removal for RhB), and the main degradation products of RhB detected, besides CO2, are the small organic acids. They are released from the surface of the catalyst to the bulk solution during the degradation of the dye, which avoids the poisoning of photocatalyst by the intermediates. The formation of active oxygen species such as the O2-*/ HO2* and *OH are detected during the degradation of dye, and they are proposed to be responsible for the degradation of dyes. The K3PW12040 catalyst is very stable and very easily separated from the reaction system for reuse. PMID:16830569

Chen, Chuncheng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Pengxiang; Song, Wenjing; Ma, Wanhong; Zhao, Jincai

2006-06-15

359

Stability of holographic gratings recorded in photopolymer films using different dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, stability of holographic gratings recorded in four photopolymer films with different dyes was experimentally examined. Also, dye concentration was optimized to get high diffraction efficiency. Each film contains triethanolamine and acrylamide in polyvinyl alcohol matrix, and one type of dye: eosin Y, methyl violet, rhodamine B or rose bengal. Dye concentrations were adjusted so that transmittances of the four films 60 ?m thick were approximately 94%. The photopolymer films were exposed by two intersecting beams of a YVO laser at 532 nm to form holographic grating with spatial frequency of 653 line/mm until the diffraction efficiency reached its maximum. The power of each recording beam was 10 mW, and its diameter was 2.25 mm each. Diffraction efficiency was measured using a YVO laser beam for the recorded films undergoing either 300 sec reconstruction or 5-day dark storage. The photopolymer film containing eosin Y showed the best stability both for a 300 sec reconstruction and for 5-day storage. Regarding optimization of dye concentration, the diffraction efficiencies of more than 60 % were obtained when an amount of eosin Y is between 1 mg and 50 mg, which was solved in 9.1 % polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution of 110 g.

Tsuchida, Keiichi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Sekine, Seishi

2006-03-01

360

The significance of azo-reduction in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of azo dyes.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are widely used in textile, printing, cosmetic, drug and food-processing industries. They are also used extensively in laboratories as either biological stains or pH indicators. The extent of such use is related to the degree of industrialization. Since intestinal cancer is more common in highly industrialized countries, a possible connection may exist between the increase in the number of cancer cases and the use of azo dyes. Azo dyes can be reduced to aromatic amines by the intestinal microflora. The mutagenicity of a number of azo dyes is reviewed in this paper. They include Trypan Blue, Ponceau 3R, Pinceau 2R, Methyl Red, Methyl Yellow, Methyl Orange, Lithol Red, Orange I, Orange II, 4-Phenylazo-Naphthylamine, Sudan I, Sudan IV, Acid Alizarin Violet N, Fast Garnet GBC, Allura Red, Ponceau SX, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Citrus Red No. 2, Orange B, Yellow AB, Carmoisine, Mercury Orange, Ponceau S, Versatint Blue, Phenylazophenol, Evan's Blue and their degraded aromatic amines. The significance of azo reduction in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of azo dyes is discussed. PMID:6339890

Chung, K T

1983-04-01

361

Dye Removal from Textile Dye Wastewater Using Recycled Alum Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh

W Chu

2001-01-01

362

Photoluminescence properties of MgxZn1-xSe single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MgxZn1-xSe single crystals were grown by the closed tube sublimation method. The MgxZn1-xSe single crystals crystallized into zincblende and wurtzite structures in the composition ranges of x=0.0-0.1 and x=0.2-0.6, respectively. Blue and violet emissions with LO phonon replica and self-activated emissions in the MgxZn1-xSe single crystals were observed at 10 K.

Park, Sang-An; Song, Ho-Jun; Kim, Wha-Tek; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Chang-Dae; Yoon, Chang-Sun

1998-03-01

363

Order Parameters in Liquid Crystals.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The extent to which an anisotropic dye dissolved in a liquid crystal host is ordered by the host and the effect of the dye upon the host, the Guest-Host interaction, is a matter of current interest. The Guest-Host interaction between two groups, one simple and one complex, of anthraquinone dyes with hydrogen- and non-hydrogen-bonding substituents dissolved in cyanobiphenyl or phenylcyclohexane/bicyclohexane hosts has been investigated by refractive index and absorption polarization techniques. A fluorescent dye in the same hosts has also been studied using these techniques and also using the method of fluorescence polarization. Results from refractive index measurements show that the inclusion of small amounts of dye in the liquid crystal host can significantly change the refractive indices and birefringence of the host material. It is found that some dyes in the cyanobiphenyl hosts changed the ordinary refractive index of the host such that the dyed host refractive index curves crossed the pure host curve and the mixtures which exhibited this crossing behaviour always have a higher order parameter than that of the pure host. This crossing behaviour is exhibited by both hydrogen-bonding and non -hydrogen-bonding dyes, but only occurs in the cyanobiphenyl hosts. Absorption polarization results reveal that dye order parameter is increased by increasing the length of the alkyl chain attached to the anthraquinone skeleton and also by the addition of thiophenyl groups to the anthraquinone molecule, whereas the methylation of amino groups attached to the anthraquinone skeleton significantly decreases the dye order parameter. Hydroxy groups attached to the dye molecule lower the dye order parameter in PCH/BCH hosts and also influence the shape of the order parameter curve. Results using a dye with two absorption maxima in the visible suggest that the molecular orientational distribution function of the dye is asymmetrical. It is noted that the dye order parameter is very sensitive to the chemical nature of the host. Order parameters determined from fluorescence polarization measurements are found to be lower than the corresponding values measured by absorption. The fourth rank order parameters measured by this method are found to be mainly negative and are thought to be due to neglecting the effect of rotational depolarization of the fluorescent dye molecules.

Davidson, Andre Noel

364

Photochemistry on surfaces. Intermolecular energy electron transfer processes between excited Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and H-aggregates of cresyl violet on SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} colloids  

SciTech Connect

Cresyl violet, a cationic dye (CV{sup +}), forms H-aggregates on the negatively charged SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} colloids. These aggregates exhibit broad absorbance around 520 nm. By coadsorbing a sensitizer, Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, we are able to characterize the triplet excited state and reduced form of dye-aggregates on the colloidal SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} suspensions. On SiO{sub 2} surfaces, the excited state quenching of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} by dye-aggregates proceeds via an energy transfer mechanism. Picosecond laser flash photolysis experiments indicate that such a surface-promoted energy transfer is completed within 20 ps. On the other hand dye-aggregates adsorbed onto SnO{sub 2} colloids undergo photosensitized reduction since the excited sensitizer, Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+}, is efficiently quenched by the semiconductor support. The role of support material in promoting energy and electron transfer processes is described. 87 refs., 11 figs.

Liu, D.; Hug, G.L.; Kamat, P.V. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

1995-11-09

365

Contact dermatitis from textile dyes.  

PubMed

6 female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are described. Lesions were confined to areas in direct contact with the offending garment, mainly where friction and/or pressure occurred. Patch tests were positive to 2 or more disperse dyes. Thin-layer chromatography was carried out on the dyes extracted from fabrics of 3 patients, for the identification of textile dyes. PMID:7924308

Lisboa, C; Barros, M A; Azenha, A

1994-07-01

366

Photonic crystals for energy transfer experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporation of two dyes into polystyrene beads was achieved through a core-shell emulsion free polymerization. The beads consisted of a central core, a dye containing emissive layer, and an overcoat layer. The overcoat layer thickness determined the final size of the nanospheres. The nanospheres were monodisperse and spherical. The nanospheres were used to asemble two photonic crystals. One in which the stop band overlapped with the dye emission of the donor dye, and one which had no overlap. The crystals formed were characterized by photoluminescence and reflectance studies. The crystal's emission was suppressed where the stop band overlapped the emission. This suppression shows the expected angular dependence and contributes to changes in the efficiency of energy transfer from Coumarin 334 to Nile Red. Suppression of emission and energy transfer impart an angular dependence of the color of emission to the crystal. This results in a material that is tunable with angle of both its reflectivity and its emission.

Julian, Michael D.; Desousa, Ryan; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Harper, Aaron W.

2003-11-01

367

Localization of the Violet and Yellow Receptor Cells in the Crayfish Retinula  

PubMed Central

Cellular identification of color receptors in crayfish compound eyes has been made by selective adaptation at 450 nm and 570 nm, wavelengths near the ?max's of the two retinular cell classes previously demonstrated. By utilizing earlier evidence, the concentration of lysosome-related bodies (LRB) was used to measure relative light adaptation and thus wavelength sensitivity in 665 retinular cells from six eyes. The observed particle distributions demonstrate the following. Both violet and yellow receptors occur ordinarily in each retinula. Of the seven regular retinular cells two (R3 and R4 using Eguchi's numbering [1965]) have mean sensitivities significantly greater to violet and less to yellow than the other five. The latter apparently comprise "pure" yellow receptors (R1 and R7) and mixed yellow and violet receptors (R2, R5, and R6). Explanations of such ambiguity requiring two visual pigments in single retinular cells or intercellular coupling of adjacent neuroreceptors are apparently precluded by previous evidence. Present data imply alternatively some positional variability in the violet pair's location in individual retinulas. Thus R3 and R4 are predominantly the violet receptors but in some retinulas R2 and R3 or R4 and R5 (or rarely some other cell pairs) may be. The retinal distribution of such variations has yet to be determined. In agreement with intracellular recordings the blue and yellow cells here identified belong to both the vertical and horizontal e-vector sensitive channels.

Eguchi, Eisuke; Waterman, Talbot H.; Akiyama, Jiro

1973-01-01

368

Effect of anisotropic and isotropic solvent on the dipole moment of coumarin dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground state ( ?g) and the excited state ( ?e) dipole moments of two coumarin laser dyes, coumarin 440 and 460, were studied at room temperature in various solvents, viz., general solvents, alcohols and liquid crystals at 298 K. In this work, we report dipole moment of laser dyes in different anisotropic (liquid crystal) and isotropic environments for understanding the effects of environments on the molecular dipole moment and comparing them. Ground and excited state dipole moments of coumarin dyes were evaluated by means of solvatochromic shift method. It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states ( ?e) were higher than the corresponding ground state values ( ?g) in all media.

Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Ghanadzadeh, A.; Moghadam, M.

2011-03-01

369

Global Ultra-Violet Ionosphere-Thermosphere Observatory (GUVITO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV spectrographic imagers such as SSUSI and GUVI provide measurements of the aurora, ionospheric electron density, ionospheric bubbles, and thermospheric temperature, composition, and density. These imagers have been a key element of the Air Force DMSP program, but to accommodate new satellite concepts and maintain flexibility in the choice of new space systems and launch options, lighter weight and more capable UV instruments are needed to replace the current series of SSUSI sensors. Here we describe a technological alternative to the currently flying SSUSI sensors. It is a spectrographic imaging capability known as the “Global Ultra-Violet Ionosphere-Thermosphere Observatory” (GUVITO) sensor and associated software. GUVITO improves upon current instruments by being smaller in size, weight and power but with improved functionality. The GUVITO sensor represents an upgrade of the SSUSI and GUVI sensors in terms of scan mirror functionality and reliability, sensor functionality, mass, and power requirements. In particular, this improved functionality is expected to lead to enhanced capability in observing ionospheric bubbles, which are thought to cause scintillation and serious technological challenges for communications, navigation and surveillance systems. Initial development and risk reduction activities are currently funded by AFRL through a SBIR Phase II contract. The enhanced reliability and performance of the GUVITO sensor system is achieved with flight heritage components, concepts, software, hardware and is guided by key personnel experienced with both the SSUSI and GUVI hardware, software and operations. GUVITO would meet DoD priority requirements in ionospheric density, scintillation, and satellite drag, meet NPOESS IORD-II requirements for space environment Environmental Data Records (EDRs), maintain current DMSP capability, ensure long-term continuity of space environmental monitoring and leverage new technology development for future operational systems. The existing SSUSI/GUVI design consists of a scanning imaging spectrograph with a cross-track scanning mirror at the input to an off-axis parabaloid telescope which feeds a Rowland Circle spectrograph. A toroidal grating disperses the wavelength and focuses the UV photons onto a two-dimensional photon-counting detector. The detector is effectively divided into a number of spatial elements along the spacecraft track and into a number of spectral bins cross-track over the range of 115 nm to 180 nm. Full spectral information can be collected for each spatial element, but it is sufficient to save and telemeter only the spectral bins associated with selected emission lines and bands. These are mission-selectable. We find that a minimum number of colors is five, corresponding to the most significant key products that we will provide. This presentation will demonstrate and discuss some of the GUVITO capabilities in detail, together with assimilation techniques that could be used for ionospheric specification.

Curtis, N.; Crowley, G.; Christensen, A. B.; Paxton, L. J.; Robichaud, J.; Barry, M. A.; Bust, G. S.

2009-12-01

370

Tye Dye Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, make a colorful "tye dye" animal like a butterfly using markers, water, and a coffee filter. Use this activity to explore how liquids behave and how molecules in the marker ink spread when covered with water. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-02-25

371

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a flash lamp pumped, near infrared dye laser operating at a moderate repetition rate was shown. The laser produced output pulses of 17 kw peak power at a rate of 4 pulses per minute. The flow system that is essential for multiflash oper...

1973-01-01

372

Improved Lasing Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a dye comprising a 7-amino coumarin compound having a trifluoromethyl group in the 4-position which is dissolved in a liquid solvent for use as a lasing material. The compound may take the form of 7-diethylamino-4-trifluoro...

E. J. Schimitschek

1974-01-01

373

Cardiac Dye Injector Synchronizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radiographic diagnosis of heart disease, it is necessary to synchronize accurately the injection of radio-opaque dye into the circulation with the diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle. Because of the high-energy electrostatic and electromagnetic fields associated with radiographic apparatus, it was decided to make a photosensitive transducer to be clamped on the ear lobe to give an electric signal

L. David Pengelly

1961-01-01

374

Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

375

Performing vaginal lavage, crystal violet staining, and vaginal cytological evaluation for mouse estrous cycle staging identification.  

PubMed

A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

McLean, Ashleigh C; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A L

2012-09-15

376

Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification  

PubMed Central

A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status.

McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

2012-01-01

377

Dye for dye-sensitized solar cell and dye-sensitized solar cell including the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell according to embodiments of the present invention includes a compound having a silane group. The dye according to embodiments of the present invention may be used in a light absorption layer to improve photovoltaic efficiency and increase open-circuit voltage.

2011-08-02

378

Chinese medicine photosensitizer stimulated by violet ray for early-stage cancer diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel technique and equipment for the diagnosis and treatment of the gastric cancer using violet laser to stimulate the traditional Chinese medicine photosensitizer are proposed. The photosensitizer's feature that it can gather together selectively inside the tumor tissues is utilized to test and treat the early-stage gastric cancer. The characteristic absorption spectrum and fluorescence emission spectrum of the traditional Chinese medicine photosensitizer are measured, and two violet light sources matching with the spectrums are proposed as well. One is Hg- Xe lamp with a special configuration at 433nm at the peak power, and the other is violet LD with a wavelength 405nm at the peak power, which exactly matches the absorption peak of the traditional Chinese medicine photosensitizer.

Ma, Yangwu; Li, Jianping; Liang, Di; Li, Lanna

2002-09-01

379

Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans  

PubMed Central

Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.

Furey, John S.; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

2007-01-01

380

Post-Katrina fecal contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans.  

PubMed

Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system. PMID:17617670

Furey, John S; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

2007-06-01

381

Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of oxazine dyes.  

PubMed

The structure and energetic properties of four common oxazine dyes, Nile red, Nile blue A, Cresyl violet, and Brilliant cresyl blue, have been probed using a combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. IRMPD spectra of the protonated dyes, as generated from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, were collected in the range of 900-1800 cm(-1). Vibrational band assignments related to carbonyl and substituted-amine stretches were established from a comparison of the experimental spectra of these related systems as well as from a comparison with spectra generated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For Nile red, the thermochemical landscape for protonation at different basic sites was probed using DFT; comparison of IRMPD and calculated IR spectra reveals the site of protonation to be at the carbonyl oxygen. The structural information obtained here in the gas phase pertaining to these important fluorophores is anticipated to provide further insight into their associated intrinsic fluorescent properties in solution. PMID:23450155

Nieckarz, Robert J; Oomens, Jos; Berden, Giel; Sagulenko, Pavel; Zenobi, Renato

2013-04-14

382

Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes  

SciTech Connect

Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

von Trebra, R.J.

1984-01-01

383

Violet laser acupuncture--part 3: pilot study of potential effects on temperature distribution.  

PubMed

Infrared thermography for temperature distribution monitoring was performed in ten healthy volunteers (M/F, 5/5; mean age ± SD, 24.9 ± 3.3 years) before, during, and after stimulation by noninvasive violet (405 nm) laser needle at the Dazhui (GV14) acupoint. Significant (p<0.001) increases of temperature at a region of interest around the acupoint were observed. Furthermore, temperature also increased significantly (p<0.05) at a so-called "far field" area Zhiyang (GV9). In two persons, however, needle acupuncture and placebo (deactivated laser) did not have the same temperature effects. Violet laser induces changes in skin surface temperature distributions. PMID:21981866

Litscher, Gerhard; Wang, Lu; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Weibo

2011-10-01

384

Dye-modified nanochannel materials for photoelectronic and optical devices.  

PubMed

Artificial photonic antenna systems have been realised by incorporating organic dyes into zeolite L. The size and aspect ratio of the cylindrically shaped zeolite crystals can be tuned over a wide range, adding to the versatility of this host material. A 600 nm sized crystal, for example, consists of about 96 000 one-dimensional channels oriented parallel to the cylinder axis. Geometrical constraints imposed by the host structure lead to supramolecular organisation of the guests, allowing high concentrations of non- or only very weakly interacting dye molecules. A special twist is added to these systems by plugging the channel openings with a second type of fluorescent dye, a so-called stopcock molecule. The two types of molecules are precisely tuned to each other; the stopcocks are able to accept excitation energy from the dyes in the channels, but cannot pass it back. The supramolecular organisation of dyes in the zeolite channels corresponds to a first stage of organisation, allowing light-harvesting within the volume of a cylindrical crystal and radiationless energy transport to either the cylinder ends or centre. The second stage of organisation represents the coupling to an external acceptor or donor stopcock fluorophore at the channel entrances, which can then trap or inject electronic excitation energy. The third stage of organisation is realised by interfacing the material to an external device through a stopcock intermediate. We observed that electronic-excitation-energy transfer in dye-zeolite L materials occurs mainly along the channel axis and we have shown that macroscopically organised materials can be prepared. The new materials offer unique possibilities as building blocks for optical, electro-optical and sensing devices. PMID:18626875

Calzaferri, Gion; Li, Huanrong; Brühwiler, Dominik

2008-01-01

385

The deep electronic trap effect of cyanine dye on the surface structure of AgCl microcrystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the influences of cyanine dye on the photoelectron decay of silver chloride micro-crystal have been studied with Microwave absorption and dielectric spectrum detection technology. The free photoelectron decay of silver halide sensitized becomes faster than that of pure silver halide, and the FDT are 86ns and 109ns for silver chloride sensitized(5.0ml/40g AgCl emulsion) and unsensitized, respectively. The absorption peak of the dye is at about 550nm, having about 50 nm red shift compared with that in methanol. This indicates that J- aggregate is formed on micro-crystal surface, moreover the peak of dye J-aggregate becomes sharper, the width of absorption peak narrower with the increasing of the concentration of dye. Dye J-aggregate increases the concentration of deep electronic trap in the surface of silver halide micro-crystals.

Xiang, Fenghua; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jixian

2008-12-01

386

Th e vital staining of Amoeba proteus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of keeping Amoeba proteus in dilute basic dye solutions was studied. It was found that Nile blue, neutral red, and neutral violet in particular, and also brilliant cresyl blue, methylene blue, Bismarck brown, thionin, toluidine blue, and azures A and B act as vital dyes, while at comparable molarities crystal violet, dahlia, safranin, methyl green, Janus green,

JENNIFER M. BYRNE

1963-01-01

387

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

388

Retinal tolerance to dyes  

PubMed Central

Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function. Methods: Bovine retina preparations were perfused with a standard solution and the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded repeatedly. After recording of stable ERG amplitudes the nutrient solution was substituted by one of the dye solutions. The duration of retinal exposure to a dye solution was varied between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. Thereupon, the preparation was reperfused with standard solution for at least 115 minutes. The percentage of b-wave reduction after exposition was calculated. Results: Reductions of the b-wave amplitude were found for each dye solution tested. The effects after application of patent blue and indocyanine green were completely reversible within the recovery time for an exposure period of 60 and 30 seconds, respectively. The application of trypan blue lead to a loss of the b-wave when the retina was exposed for 15 seconds or longer. This effect was only partly reversible within the recovery time. Conclusion: The ERG showed toxic effects of trypan blue after a short period of retinal exposure. The intraocular application of trypan blue should be limited to selected cases. However, intraocular application of indocyanine green and patent blue in a sufficient concentration and taking account of a short period of retinal exposure seems possible.

Luke, C; Luke, M; Dietlein, T S; Hueber, A; Jordan, J; Sickel, W; Kirchhof, B

2005-01-01

389

Microwave assisted dyeing of polyester fabrics with disperse dyes.  

PubMed

Dyeing of polyester fabrics with thienobenzochromene disperse dyes under conventional and microwave heating conditions was studied in order to determine whether microwave heating could be used to enhance the dyeability of polyester fabrics. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. All samples dyed with or without microwave heating displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness. The biological activities of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungus were also evaluated. PMID:24022764

Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy

2013-09-09

390

Multilayer Optics for Soft X-ray\\/Extreme Ultra Violet Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of multilayer coating is playing an important role in the exploitation of soft x-ray\\/ extreme ultra violet (XUV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Multilayers are being developed by us, with an objective to develop optical elements for synchrotron radiation applications. XUV multilayers are fabricated using an ultra high vacuum electron beam deposition system. Interface characterizations are done using grazing

G. S. Lodha; M. H. Modi; K. J. S Sawhney; R. V. Nandedkar

391

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2013-04-01

392

Genetic structure among and within peripheral and central populations of three endangered floodplain violets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the partitioning of genetic variance in peripheral and central populations may shed more light on the effects of genetic drift and gene flow on population genetic structure and, thereby, improve attempts to conserve genetic diversity. We analysed genetic structure of peripheral and central populations of three insect-pollinated violets ( Viola elatior , Viola pumila , Viola stagnina ) to

R. L. E CKSTEIN; R. A. O' NEILL; J. DANIHELKA; A. OTTE; W. KÖHLER

2006-01-01

393

SELECTION ON FLORAL MORPHOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF FECUNDITY IN A HAWK MOTH-POLLINATED VIOLET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a 5-yr field study on the determinants of individual variation in maternal fecundity (seed production) in the narrowly endemic violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae), at a southeastern Spanish locality. Flowers of this species are characterized by a very long, thin spur and broad morphological variability, and are pol- linated by a single species of day-flying

CARLOS M. HERRERA

1993-01-01

394

Chapter 8: Sketching Expressive Visualization of a Natural Phenomenon: Ultra-violet Individual Exposure Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented in this paper aims at developing and validating a predictive tool of individual exposure to solar Ultra-Violet (UV). UV exposure depends on ambient irradiation level and individual factors related to activity (position to the sun, clothing, duration of exposure, and other forms of sun protection). We predict exposure levels of body parts on basis of ambient irradiation

Laurent Moccozet; Alexandre Cao; Antoine Milon; Pierre-Olivier Droz; David Vernez; Jean-Luc Bulliard

2008-01-01

395

22 nm node contact hole formation in extreme ultra-violet lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterning of contact hole is always the most difficult process among many types of pattern formations. Specially for the Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography (EUVL), it will be even more difficult to make perfectly circled contact hole due to the shadow effect. The shape of contact hole will be elliptical because the vertical axis opening is different from the horizontal axis opening.

Eun-Jin Kim; Kwan-Hyung Kim; Hyeong-Ryeol Park; Jun-Yeob Yeo; Jai-Soon Kim; Hye-Keun Oh

2008-01-01

396

Intense and stable blue-violet emission from porous silicon modified with alkyls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intense blue-violet band, centered at 3.0 eV, has been observed besides the red-orange band of the photoluminescence (PL) from the chemically modified porous silicon (PS) samples. The PS samples were formed on 30-50 ? cm p-type (100) Si wafers by anodic etching at large current densities and then treated with 5-cyano-1-pentynes in toluene solution at 110-120 °C. The intensities of the blue-violet lights increase with the increasing of the etching current densities, while the peak energies are hardly changed. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the modified samples show that the alkyls have been bonded to the surfaces of the nanometer crystallite silicon particles. The decays of the blue-violet emission with a lifetime about 0.5 ?s are different from the nanosecond lifetimes of the blue emissions in the oxidized PS samples reported before, and the 20 ?s lifetimes of the concomitant orange PL bands. A carbon-compounds-related luminescence center has been proposed as the origin of this blue-violet PL band.

Li, Hongliang; Xu, Dongsheng; Guo, Guolin; Gui, Linlin; Tang, Youqi; Ai, Xicheng; Sun, Zhaoyong; Zhang, Xingkang; Qin, G. G.

2000-10-01

397

Ultra-violet photoreceptors in the animal kingdom: their distribution and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until very recently, the role of ultra-violet (UV) colour perception in vertebrate and invertebrate vision has largely been ignored. However, in the past few years, a host of detailed information has become available on the widespread distribution of UV receptors in different species — from insects to mammals — and the important functions they seem to play in navigation, foraging,

Martin J. Tovée

1995-01-01

398

Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic gases cause carbon depositions on the multi-layer mirrors by Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) light irradiations in EUV lithography tool. The dependences on organic gas species, organic gas pressure and EUV light intensity in the carbon deposition were researched in order to understand this reaction. EUV light was irradiated on a (Si\\/Mo) multilayer mirror sample injecting organic gas like buthane,

S. Matsunari; T. Aoki; K. Murakami; Y. Gomei; S. Terashima; H. Takase; M. Tanabe; Y. Watanabe; Y. Kakutani; M. Niibe; Y. Fukuda

2007-01-01

399

X-Ray Bragg Reflexion, 'Spike' Reflexion and Ultra-Violet Absorption Topography of Diamonds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relation between X-ray diffracting properties and ultra-violet absorption has been studied point by point on polished plates of diamond having thicknesses from 0.1 mm to more than 1 mm and edge lengths from 2 mm to more than 1 cm. Most specimens exhib...

M. Takagi A. R. Lang

1964-01-01

400

Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ?E (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

2011-04-12

401

Extraction of Henna Leaf Dye and its Dyeing Effects on Textile Fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henna plant leaves (Lawsonia inermis) contains dye along with other ingredients. The dye component was extracted and applied on silk fibre in order to investigate the dyeing characteristics, e.g. dyeability, fastness etc. It is found that the dye up take by silk fibre was decreased with the increase of dye concentration. Similarly the absorp- tion of dye was increased with

M. M Alam; M. L. Rahman; M. Z. Haque

2007-01-01

402

Prospects for Organic Dye Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  A review of organic nanoparticles consisting of small functional dye molecules is presented in this chapter. The study of\\u000a organic dye nanoparticles does not have a lengthy history, but there is growing scientific and technological interest owing\\u000a to their special characteristics: physicochemical properties of organic dye nanoparticles considerably differ not only from\\u000a those of individual molecules due to the presence

Hiroshi Yao

403

Laser dye toxicity, hazards and recommended controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated were categorized according to their central chemical structures. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10(+2) to 10(+5) molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

Mosovsky, J. A.

404

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)|

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

405

Solid state dye laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer filled porous glass impregnates with dye molecules is used as an active medium. The most important feature of this medium is that its thermo-optical and mechanical parameters are determined by a matrix of silica which thermo-optical constants are better by two orders of magnitude then those of polymers. The investigation of generation characteristics of solid state dye laser on basis of Rhodamine 6G has shown the feasibility of its application in pulse coherent pumping laser systems. The generation thresholds are practically the same for solid state and ethanol solution. The yield of conversion of pumping energy into generation energy for solid state active element is up to 50%. The advantages of solid state active element based on polymer filled porous glass matrix realize at high temperature operation mode, for instance at frequency mode. The step refraction index temperature dependence for polymers results in increase of optical with increase of pumping energy. In the reported medium this effect does not occur nonuniformity up to pumping energy values exceeding the generation threshold by 40-50 times. Polymer based active media are destructed at the exposition of 50 ns pulses with energy of 1 J/cm2 while porous glass + polymer + Rhodamine 6G composition is not destructed at the exposition of energy up to 7-10 J/cm2. The introduced solid state dye laser is intended to be used in on-board systems, including vacuum under low temperature, where the application of flow systems operation is problematic. It should be emphasized, that using the synthesized compositions, the generation mode with microsecond pulse pumping becomes available. It opens the possibility for application of flashlamp for pumping.

Meshkovskii, Igor K.; Zemskii, Vladimir I.; Kolesnikov, Yuri L.

1995-04-01

406

Dye Sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

Wei, Di

2010-01-01

407

Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry, which damages the mechanical properties of the fibers. PMID:22055328

Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2011-10-20

408

Anisotropic media effect on the dipole moment of some coumarin dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ground state ( ?g) and the excited state ( ?e) dipole moments of two coumarin laser dyes, C500 and C503, were studied at room temperature in various solvents, viz., aprotic solvents, alcohols and liquid crystals at 298 K. We report dipole moment of laser dyes in different anisotropic (liquid crystals) and isotropic environments. The dipole moments values in different media help to investigate environment effects on the molecular dipole moment and provide a straightforward method for comparing their properties. Ground and excited state dipole moments of coumarin dyes were evaluated by means of solvatochromic shift method. It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states ( ?e) were higher than corresponding ground state values ( ?g), indicating a substantial redistribution of the ?-electron densities in a more polar excited state for the dyes investigated.

Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Ghanadzadeh, A.; Moghadam, M.; Tajalli, H.

2010-11-01

409

Powder Dyeing Method for Cosmetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powder dyeing method for cosmetics is described that is characterized in that dyes or pigments are dispersed in water or alcohol, the solution or dispersion is mixed with porous adsorbant such as silicon dioxide or alumina powder and dried, and the drie...

S. Iwao

1974-01-01

410

Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye.

Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

2011-05-01

411

Liquid Crystals Tunable Optical Metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical discussion with detailed calculations for the complex refractive indexes of metamaterials of various nanoconstituent makeups, sizes, shapes and concentrations, and periodic nanostructured patterns\\/geometry are presented. These metamaterials possess tunable subunity, zero, or negative refractive indexes, on account of the large birefringence of their nematic liquid crystal constituent. We also studied the special case involving laser dye-doped nematic liquid

Iam Choon Khoo; Andres Diaz; Justin Liou; Michael V. Stinger; Junbin Huang; Yi Ma

2010-01-01

412

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E. D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1984-01-01

413

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1986-01-01

414

Photoinduced extrinsic electrical conduction of nematic liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years the interest in media with strong nonlinear response is growing. These media allow the user to observe different nonlinear optic effects using small intensities of light. It is well known that liquid crystals are rather promising media for this research. This paper is devoted to the experimental research of the photoinduced conduction of a mixture of a nematic liquid crystal and a dye. Dependence of the conduction on the intensity of light was studied for different concentrations of a dye added to the nematic crystal. Also the problem of the optimum type of a dye for observing the photorefractive nonlinearity using Ar+- ion laser was considered. We made the experiments using the following available laser dyes: rhodamine '6G,' rhodamine 'G,' rhodamine 'C' and two ocsasine-type dyes also. The mixture of the nematic crystal 5CB and a dye was placed in a cell of 100 micrometer width, with the plates filmed with the transparent electrodes of SnO2. The dc voltage on the order of magnitude 1 V was applied to decrease the influence of the cell capacity on the conduction measurements of the samples. We used the light of two wavelengths: lambda1 equals 488 nm, lambda2 equals 514.5 nm. The best dyes for these wavelengths were the rhodamine- type dyes. Taking the other two dyes we observed much smaller effect of influence of the laser radiation on conduction of the samples. Maybe the reason was that the pump wavelength of ocsasine dyes is too far way from the wavelength of the radiation used. So the optimum dye must have the wavelength of the pump near to the wavelength used. Using rhodamine 'C' we obtained the dependencies of the induced conduction on laser light intensity for three different concentrations of the dye.

Dedov, O. V.; Krivoschekov, V. A.

1996-05-01

415

Colouring mechanism of dyed KDP crystal by quantum chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye adsorption mechanism, in particular, colouring mechanism of KDP (KH2PO4) crystal was investigated by quantum chemistry in this study. Phenomena, such as different preferentially coloured faces of KDP when co-crystallised with different dyes, are explained by the minimum and maximum values of electrostatic potential (ESP). Furthermore, it is found that the ESP distribution of a dye molecule may not necessarily

Yusuke Asakuma; Motosuke Nishimura; Qin Li; H. Ming Ang; Moses Tade; Kouji Maeda; Keisuke Fukui

2007-01-01

416

Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic c...

A. T. Hodgson D. P. Sullivan W. J. Fisk

2005-01-01

417

Adsorption of Basic Violet 14 in aqueous solutions using KMnO4-modified activated carbon.  

PubMed

In this paper, an activated carbon was prepared from Typha orientalis and then treated with KMnO(4) and used for the removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. KMnO(4) treatment influenced the physicochemical properties of the carbon and improved its adsorption capacity. Adsorption experiments were then conducted with KMnO(4)-modified activated carbon to study the effects of carbon dosage (250-1500 mg/L), pH (2-10), ion strength (0-0.5 mol/L), temperature, and contact time on the adsorption of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best with good correlation. PMID:20036370

Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chenglu; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Huayong

2009-08-19

418

Low-Temperature Ultra-Violet Absorption Spectra of Biologically Important Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE work of Holiday1 on the ultra-violet absorption spectra of amino-acids at room temperatures, and of Caspersson2 and others on the absorption characteristics of biological material, have made clear the importance of this physical approach to the greater understanding of the living cell. It has also been known for a long time that the absorption and fluorescence spectra of solids

Geoffrey L. Brown; J. T. Randall

1949-01-01

419

The Effect of Gentian Violet on Virulent Properties of Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gentian violet (GV) on phospholipase activity, proteinase activity and\\u000a germ tube formation rate of Candida albicans. Both 12 phospholipase-positive and 12 proteinase-positive C. albicans isolates with Pz values ?0.89 were obtained. A yeast suspension (1–3 × 107 cfu\\/ml) of each isolate was prepared. After a brief exposure (60 min) to sub-therapeutic concentrations (0.5

Su Ying; Sun Qing; Li Chunyang

2010-01-01

420

Pleural space sterilization using gentian violet irrigation for postbullectomy empyema associated with artificial material infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative empyema associated with artificial material infection involves several treatment problems. We report the successful\\u000a treatment of a case of post-bullectomy empyema with a small alveolar fistula that was associated with artificial material\\u000a infection by Streptococcus viridans. In this case, complete empyema space sterilization was obtained by tube drainage and daily pleural irrigation using 0.1%\\u000a gentian violet solution. This treatment

Katsuyuki Asai; Norikazu Urabe; Kazutoshi Asano

2006-01-01

421

Molecular Interactions and Thermodynamic Aspects of the Complexation Reaction between Gentian Violet and Several Cyclodextrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexation process between gentian violet (CV+) and four different cyclodextrins (a-, ß-, ?-, and HP-ß-CDs) has been investigated under different reaction conditions (pH, solvent, and temperature) by electronic absorption and 1H NMR (NOE and NOESY) spectroscopies. All the binding constants were determined by the direct spectroscopic method. The ?H and ?S complexation values have been evaluated and discussed according

M. J. Bernad Bernad; J. Gracia-Mora; D. Díaz; G. Mendoza DÍAZ

1999-01-01

422

Transient behavior of the strong violet electroluminescence of Ge-implanted SiO2 layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Si-based light emitters will be a key element of future optoelectronics. One of the most promising approaches is Ge implantation\\u000a into thin SiO2 films on crystalline Si. This system exhibits a strong violet electroluminescence with a power efficiency up to 0.5% [18],\\u000a but the mechanism of electrical excitation is not yet fully understood. In this paper the electrical excitation

L. Rebohle; T. Gebel; J. von Borany; W. Skorupa; M. Helm; D. Pacifici; G. Franzň; F. Priolo

2002-01-01

423

Equilibrium and kinetic studies of methyl violet sorption by agricultural waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed hull (SSH), an agricultural waste, was evaluated for its ability to remove methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solutions. Sorption isotherm of MV onto the SSH was determined at 30°C with the initial concentrations of MV in the range of 25–300mg\\/L. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm

B. H. Hameed

2008-01-01

424

Chondrolysis of the glenohumeral joint following a color test using gentian violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients developed chondrolysis following injection of 0.4% aqueous gentian violet into the glenohumeral joint to visualize a rotator cuff tear during surgery. In both cases, conventional radiographs revealed joint space narrowing 10-12 months after surgery. Histological examination of the humeral heads revealed loss of the articular cartilage. Résumé. Deux patient s ont développé une chondrolyse ŕ la suite d'une

Y. Shibata; K. Midorikawa; T. Koga; N. Honjo; M. Naito

2001-01-01

425

The effect of chlorhexidine and gentian violet on the adherence of Candida spp. to urinary catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infection associated with catheters is the most common infection in the hospital environment. The adherence\\u000a of microorganisms to the surface is a determining factor in colonization and infection. Antiseptics such as chlorhexidine\\u000a and gentian violet have been shown to be effective against yeasts, as well as having low toxicity and being low-cost. The\\u000a objective of the present study

D. P. Camacho; A. Gasparetto; T. I. E. Svidzinski

2007-01-01

426

Efficacy of gentian violet in the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from skin lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of gentian violet (Gv) in eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in decubitus ulcers was investigated. Decubitus ulcers (a total of 18 cases) were scrubbed with Gv aqueous solution 0·1% and ointment containing Gv 0·1% was applied daily. MRSA was not detected in these lesions for 3–34 days (average, 10·5 ± 2·5 days) after the application of Gv ointment.

M. Saji; S. Taguchi; K. Uchiyama; E. Osono; N. Hayama; H. Ohkuni

1995-01-01

427

Flow analysis methods for the direct ultra-violet spectrophotometric measurement of nitrate and total nitrogen in freshwaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second derivative ultra-violet spectrophotometric methods are described for the measurement of nitrate and total nitrogen in freshwaters using flow analysis techniques. A simple flow system consisting of a peristaltic pump and a single-reflection flow-through cell was used for the measurement of nitrate. Quantification of total nitrogen using alkaline peroxodisulfate photo-digestion was achieved by incorporating an ultra-violet photo-reactor, a hollow-fibre filter

Brady S. Gentle; Peter S. Ellis; Michael R. Grace; Ian D. McKelvie

2011-01-01

428

Stability of DNA in Escherichla coli B\\/r and BS1 irradiated with Ultra-violet Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE lethal effect of ultra-violet light on living cells is believed to result from the formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA molecules1. The different sensitivities of mutants of certain bacteria to ultra-violet light have been investigated in the light of the knowledge that ultraviolet-sensitive mutants have defective mechanisms for the repair of damaged DNA by enzymes while in ultraviolet-resistant strains

Kenshi Suzuki; Etsuko Moriguchi; Zen-Ichiro Horii

1966-01-01

429

Action of Ultra-violet Light on Skin: Effect of the Histamine Liberator 48\\/80 and Methotrimeprazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rottier and Mullink1 irradiated human skin with ultra-violet light at a place where the horny layer had been removed by repeatedly applying adhesive tape. The erythemal reaction practically disappeared at wave-lengths 250-260 mµ, but increased at 300 mµ. They therefore suggested that photolysable substances from the stratum corneum were responsible for the erythemal reaction caused by ultra-violet light of wave-length

S. Claesson; G. Wettermark; L. JUHLIN

1959-01-01

430

Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells.  

PubMed

The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion/migration/invasion of tumor cells. PMID:23817042

Kim, Hwan; Kim, Nam Doo; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Gyoonhee; Sim, Taebo

2013-06-28

431

Preparation and formation mechanism of strong violet luminescent CdS quantum dots by using a ligand exchange strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and general method has been proposed for preparing strong violet emitting CdS quantum dots, in which a ligand exchange\\u000a strategy was applied to surface passivation and functionalization with good reproducibility. The resulting quantum dots showed\\u000a a visible violet luminescence with emission peak centered near 423 nm and photoluminescence quantum yields reached over 30%.\\u000a Additionally, different mercapto-compounds used as ligands

Tian-Long Zhang; Yun-Sheng Xia; Xue-Lian Diao; Chang-Qing Zhu

2008-01-01

432

Tertiary structure and spectral tuning of UV and violet pigments in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrate species use ultraviolet (UV) vision for such behaviors as mating, foraging, and communication. UV vision is mediated by UV-sensitive visual pigments, which have the wavelengths of maximal absorption (?max) at ~360 nm, whereas violet (or blue) vision is mediated by orthologous pigments with ?max values of 390–440 nm. It is widely believed that amino acids in transmembrane (TM) I–III are solely responsible for the spectral tuning of these SWS1 pigments. Recent molecular analyses of SWS1 pigments, however, show that amino acids in TM IV–VII are also involved in the spectral tuning of these pigments through synergistic interactions with those in TM I–III. Comparisons of the tertiary structures of UV and violet pigments reveal that the distance between the counterion E113 in TM III and amino acid sites 87–93 in TM II is narrower for UV pigments than for violet pigments, which may restrict the access of water molecules to the Schiff base pocket and deprotonate the Schiff base nitrogen. Both mutagenesis analyses of E113Q and quantum chemical calculations strongly suggest that unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore is responsible for detecting UV light.

Yokoyama, Shozo; Starmer, William T.; Takahashi, Yusuke; Tada, Takashi

2010-01-01

433

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe.

2012-01-01

434

Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.

2012-01-01

435

Photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes.  

PubMed

The photocatalytic degradation of commonly used textile dyes, namely, Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Red (ME4BL), Golden Yellow (MERL), Blue-222, Methylene Blue, and Malachite Green, has been studied, using TiO2 (P25) as a photocatalyst. All the dye solutions could be decolorized. Kinetics of RB-5 oxidation reaction has been studied and was found to be of first order in dye concentration. Effects of different parameters such as catalyst amount, initial concentration of the dyes, and pH of solution along with biological parameters (TOC and COD) on the rate of degradation were studied. Experimental results showed that photocatalytic degradation of commonly used RB-5 was very effective at the optimum catalyst quantity of 2.5 g/L. PMID:21391388

Mahadwad, O K; Jasra, R V; Parikh, P A; Tayade, R J

2010-07-01

436

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye you use, follow directions carefully. Pay attention to all “Caution” or “Warning” statements. What problems ... safely? • Follow the directions in the package. Pay attention to all “Caution” and “Warning” statements. • Do a ...

437

Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1883, paraphenylene diamine (PPD) has traditionally been used for dyeing (dark color) hair in Europe [1-2] as a fresh\\u000a preparation mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [3]. In Sudan PPD is used by women to color their hair and as a body dye when added to henna ( Lawasonia alba). Henna on it’s own need to be applied two or

Mohamed I. Hamdouk; Mohamed B. Abdelraheem; Ahbab A. Taha; Mohamed Benghanem; Marc E. Broe

438

High power cw dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependance of the output power of cw dye lasers on the pump power and the system-and stream parameters is calculated and\\u000a experimentally tested. It was found that the pump power for a given system is limited to a critical value due to the influence\\u000a of thermal inhomogeneities. This critical pump power is predominantly dependant on the dye solvent, the

B. Wellegehausen; L. Laepple; H. Welling

1975-01-01

439

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-04-01

440

Optical properties of KDP crystals doped with pyrenetetrasulfonic acid salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KDP crystals with incorporated molecules of the luminophore 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (SPA) were grown from KH2PO4 solutions by the temperature lowering method. The luminescence spectra of KDP/SPA crystals and SPA solutions in distilled water and in KH2PO4 solutions, were studied. The increase of the dye content gives rise to excimer luminescence in the solutions and in KDP crystals, which is due to the formation of associated dye molecules. SPA molecules possessing negative electrostatic potential are incorporated into the pyramidal growth sector of KDP crystal.

Pritula, I. M.; Bezkrovnaya, O. N.; Lopin, A. V.; Kolybaeva, M. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Zubatyuk, R. I.; Shishkin, O. V.; Gayvoronsky, V. Ya.

2013-03-01

441

Dye laser solutions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition of matter, a cyclodextrin inclusion compound of a fluorescent dye and an {alpha}- or {beta}-chclodextrin having a substituent bonded to an oxygen atom in a glucose unit in the cyclodextrin. The substituent is selected from the class consisting of: alkyl radicals having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, radicals having the formula {bond}CH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}O{sub {ital n}}H wherein R{sup 1} is selected from hydrogen and alkyl radicals having up to about six carbon atoms, and n is equal to a small whole number up to six, and radicals having the formula {bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond}CHOH{bond}CHR{sup 1}{bond} wherein R{sup 1} has the same definition as above, such that the radicals bridge two cyclodextrin rings, and the number of the rings so bridged per molecule is from two to about six; the substituted cyclodextrin having not ore than two substituents per glucose unit.

Herkstroeter, W.G.

1990-06-12

442

Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection with Intra-Gastric Violet Light Phototherapy - a Pilot Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Helicobacter pylori infects the mucus layer of the human stomach and causes peptic ulcers and adenocarcinoma. We have previously shown that H. pylori accumulates photoactive porphyrins making the organism susceptible to inactivation by light, and that small spot endoscopic illumination with violet light reduced bacterial load in human stomachs. This study assessed the feasibility and safety of whole-stomach intra-gastric violet phototherapy for the treatment of H. pylori infection. Study Design/Materials and Methods A controlled, prospective pilot trial was conducted using a novel light source consisting of laser diodes and diffusing fibers to deliver 408-nm illumination at escalating total fluences to the whole stomach. Eighteen adults (10 female) with H. pylori infection were treated at 3 U.S. academic endoscopy centers. Quantitative bacterial counts were obtained from biopsies taken from the antrum, body and fundus, and serial urea breath tests. Results The largest reduction in bacterial load was in the antrum (>97%), followed by body (>95%) and fundus (>86%). There was a correlation between log reduction and initial bacterial load in the antrum. There was no dose-response seen with increasing illumination times. The urea breath test results indicated that the bacteria repopulated in days following illumination. Conclusion Intragastric violet light phototherapy is feasible and safe and may represent a novel approach to eradication of H. pylori, particularly in patients who have failed standard antibiotic treatment. This was a pilot study involving a small number of patients. Further research is needed to determine if phototherapy can be effective for eradicating H. pylori.

Lembo, Anthony J; Ganz, Robert A; Sheth, Sunil; Cave, David; Kelly, Ciaran; Levin, Philip; Kazlas, Peter T; Baldwin, Paul C; Lindmark, William R; McGrath, Jonathan R; Hamblin, Michael R

2009-01-01

443

Room-temperature fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the violet (412 nm).  

PubMed

Continuous oscillation on the (2)P(3/2) ? (4)I(11/2) transition of Nd(3+) in a f luorozirconate glass (ZBLAN) fiber at room temperature has been observed. When pumped at ~590 nm, a Nd:ZBLAN f iber 39 cm in length lases in the violet at 412 nm and produces ~0.5 mW of power for 320 mW of pump power and a cavity output coupling of 0.4%. The breadth of the laser's excitation spectrum is ~12 nm (581-593 nm). PMID:19862053

Funk, D S; Carlson, J W; Eden, J G

1995-07-01

444

Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

2003-03-01

445

Shrinking Violets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For all sorts of reasons, many authors have wanted to conceal their true identities from the public, and have written under the guise of assumed names, or pseudonyms. Famous authors indulging in this practice include Samuel Longhorne Clemens, better known as MARK TWAIN; William Sydney Porter, masquerading as O. HENRY; and the Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, disguised as LEWIS CARROLL.

Dmitri A. Borgmann

1973-01-01

446

Coupling pulsed dye oscillators using a phase conjugate resonator  

SciTech Connect

Four pulsed dye oscillators are coherently combined into a single phase conjugate resonator through the self-pumped conjugation process in a single crystal of BaTiO/sub 3/. We have measured the locking range and energy scaling behavior of the system. The locking range is of the order of hundreds of wavelengths. Our best results are close to the theoretical limit and show that one can obtain output energy approximately proportional to N, the number of dye gain cells. Since the N output beams are locked in phase, this implies that the peak far-field intensity would scale as N/sup 2/. We also report two properties of the photorefractive phase conjugate mirror that are relevant to such a system: the fluence required for start-up (9 J/cm/sup 2/) and the field of view (0.1 sr).

White, J.O.; Valley, G.C.

1988-12-15

447

Narrow band 390 nm emitting phosphors for photoluminescent liquid crystal displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoluminescent liquid crystal displays use a liquid crystal to modulate the intensity of ultraviolet light incident on visible emissive phosphors. In order to gain optimum performance from the liquid crystal in such a device, the activating light must cover a narrow spectral bandwidth very near to the visible (violet) region of the spectrum. Calcium sulphate europium phosphor offers an emission spectrum closely matching these requirements and has been incorporated inside low pressure mercury cold cathode fluorescent lamps. These have been used to backlight a photoluminescent liquid crystal display demonstrator.

Vecht, A.; Newport, A. C.; Bayley, P. A.; Crossland, W. A.

1998-10-01

448

Anaerobic degradation of monoazo dyes  

SciTech Connect

The anaerobic degradation of two monoazo dyes, acid red 88 (AR88) and acid orange 7, was studied utilizing serum bottle assays. When either dye was present between .05 and 50 mg/L as the sole substrate, inhibition was demonstrated, with no mineralization occurring. However, when a supplemental carbon and energy source was available no inhibition was evidence with mineralization occurring at intermediate concentrations. The degradation of AR88 and metabolite formation was examined utilizing laboratory-scale semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Addition of 50 mg/L of dye resulted in >98% removal, although mineralization was not achieved. Metabolites identified were naphthionic acid, 2-naphthol, 1,2-naphthoquinone, isoquinoline, and quinacridone. The presence of the metabolites, some of which were products of complexation and polymerization, exerted a slight inhibitory effect on the non-methanogens. The availability of a supplemental carbon source demonstrated an effect on the metabolites that are evolved and the rate at which they are formed.

Kremer, F.V.

1989-01-01

449

FATE OF COMMERCIAL DISPERSE DYES IN SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. he commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. eaction rates were fo...

450

Fate of Commercial Disperse Dyes in Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. The commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely u...

C. P. C. Yen T. A. Perenich G. L. Baughman

1991-01-01

451

Degradation of organic dyes by corona discharge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several dyes in water were individually exposed to corona discharge. Light absorbance decreased for all organic dyes with time. Absorbance losses with methylene blue, malachite green, and new coccine were studied. The loss of color was followed using an i...

S. C. Goheen M. McCulloch D. E. Durham W. O. Heath

1992-01-01

452

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

Hackel, R.P.

1992-11-24

453

Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

2010-02-01

454

Preventing rapid decomposition of rhodamine dyes in excimer-pumped pulsed dye lasers  

SciTech Connect

A simple and effective method of preventing rapid decomposition of rhodamine dyes in Lambda-Physik excimer-pumped pulsed dye lasers is presented. Teflon coating the internal metal surfaces of the dye cell greatly increases the useful lifetime of the dye solution.

Arias, P.D.; Dai, H. (Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (US))

1990-01-01

455

Effectiveness of Dye Setting Treatments on Cotton Fabrics Dyed with Direct, Reactive, and Vat Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight treatments were evaluated for their effectiveness in the setting of dyes in new cotton fabrics. Dyes representing three application classes (direct, reactive, and vat) widely used on cotton fabrics were selected. Because of the perceived problems of red dyes bleeding during laundering, five of the eight dyes selected for evaluation were red. Color and staining evaluations were made after

Patricia Cox Crews

1989-01-01

456

Mechanism of nonphotochemical hole burning: Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl alcohol films  

SciTech Connect

Polarized nonphotochemical hole-burned spectra of Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl alcohol films are presented for various burn temperatures (T{sub B}). For T{sub B}=15 K, but not for T{sub B}=2.2 K, a significant rotation of Cresyl Violet is indicated. The broad, tailing antihole is observed to depend on T{sub B}. The quantum efficiency distributions for the zero-phonon hole and pseudo-phonon sideband are quite similar, proving that the phonons created by excitation of the phonon sideband are not important for hole burning. The quantum efficiency is independent of T{sub B} over the range studied, 1.6--15 K. Over this range essentially 100% of the zero-phonon lines can be burned. The results show that the standard two-level-system (extrinsic) model for nonphotochemical hole burning is inadequate. The results are discussed in terms of an outside--in hierarchy of configurational relaxation events model (Chem. Phys. {bold 141}, 447 (1990)) as well as other models.

Shu, L.; Small, G.J. (Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States))

1992-05-01

457

Equilibrium and kinetic studies of methyl violet sorption by agricultural waste.  

PubMed

In this work, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed hull (SSH), an agricultural waste, was evaluated for its ability to remove methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solutions. Sorption isotherm of MV onto the SSH was determined at 30 degrees C with the initial concentrations of MV in the range of 25-300 mg/L. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium process was described well by the Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum SSH sorption capacity was found to be 92.59 mg/L at 30 degrees C. The kinetic data were studied in terms of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The pseudo-second-order model best described the sorption process. A single-stage batch-adsorber design of the adsorption of MV onto SSH was studied based on the Freundlich isotherm equation. The results indicated that sunflower seed hull was an attractive candidate for removing methyl violet from aqueous solution. PMID:18023971

Hameed, B H

2007-10-12

458

The light stability of azo dyes and azo dyeings II. Perspiration–Light stability of dyeings with reactive and non-Reactive derivatives, respectively, of two selected azochromophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perspiration–light stability of RC-dyed (conventional reactive dyeing) and N-dyed (substantive dyed without subsequent rinsing) cotton fabric dyeings produced with the members of ‘A’-dye and ‘B’-dye groups, respectively, have been studied. Three main factors influence the perspiration-light stability of the studied dyeings: the nature of the dye–fibre bond, the light stability of the released hydrolysed dye molecules and the action

Zs Csepregi; P Aranyosi; I Rusznák; L Töke; A V??g

1998-01-01

459

Anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass

S. Seshadri; P. L. Bishop; A. M. Agha

1994-01-01

460

Energy transfer in flashlamp pumped organic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pumping characteristics of dye lasers using multiple dyes are discussed. It turns out that varying the dye concentration may change considerably the portion of the pump light spectrum which is effective in creating population inversion. Thus the effect of an energy transfer dye depends strongly on the concentration of the lasing dye. Multiple dye systems are shown to have

P. Burlamacchi; D. Cutter

1977-01-01

461

See-through dye-sensitized solar cells: photonic reflectors for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.  

PubMed

See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics. PMID:23966106

Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P; Grätzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Tétreault, Nicolas

2013-08-21

462

Chaos in a good-cavity single-mode dye laser due to turbulent dye flow  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that the light intensity of a good-cavity single-mode standing-wave dye laser can exhibit chaotic behavior. The governing attractor is of dimensionality 6.5 and entropy 50 kbits/sec. An examination of the pump-laser beam before and after its interaction with the dye indicates that the chaos is probably due to the turbulent flow of dye within the dye cell. This interpretation is confirmed by the absence of chaos in two similar dye lasers that use a dye jet rather than a dye cell.

Chyba, T.H.; Gage, E.C.; Ghosh, R.; Lett, P.; Mandel, L.; McMackin, I.

1987-06-01

463

Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride, as compared to alum and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is a less commonly used coagulant in the field of wastewater treatment, with a cost in between alum and PAC. It has been used in this study as a coagulant to investigate the effectiveness in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of colouring matters. The colour concentration of dye

Boon Hai Tan; Tjoon Tow Teng; A. K. Mohd Omar

2000-01-01

464

Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

2010-01-01

465

Red, violet and upconversion luminescence of Eu/Sm codoped sol gel SiO2-TiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth (Eu/Sm) doped silica-titania composite systems were sensitized by sol-gel method in solid and powder forms. The crystalline phase has been identified for the annealed samples at 1000 °C by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The bonding formation of the host matrix was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The fingerprint transition lines of Eu3+ ions, with the main emission line at 616 nm, are recorded for the samples. Improvement in Eu3+ luminescence has been recorded by adding Sm3+ and by samples. Violet emission is observed under UV irradiation. Violet-blue upconversion luminescence is recorded at room temperature.

Azzouz, I. M.; Klein, Lisa C.

2012-12-01

466

Source of the violet depression in carbon stars (a study of the Balmer decrement in carbon L. P. V. s)  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to determine the nature of the agent(s) of the violet depression in N-type stars through the behavior of their Balmer decrement, slit spectrograms of two C, one CS, two S (all reported to have the violet depression) and one M type LPVs were repeatedly taken between May 1983 and November 1984. The observed phase related changes in the Balmer decrement exclude the possibility that the absorbers are circumstellar because the emission region in the best-observed star is seen to rise through the opacity source. The exact nature and number of kinds of absorbers remains to be determined.

Orlati, M.A.

1985-01-01

467

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

468

FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten commercially available rhodamine dyes have been examined for their stability in dye lasers. Except for rhodamine 101 and sulforhodamine 101, the output of the dye laser showed a time dependence in addition to the dependence upon total input energy per...

A. N. Fletcher

1981-01-01