These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Characterization of a PDLC mixed with crystal violet dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the optical characterization of a Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal which was made mixing Norland Optical Adhesive No. 65®, nematic liquid crystal and crystal violet dye, deposited between two glass substrates with indium tin oxide (ITO) as electrodes. In this device, we recorded low frequency (104 lines/mm) holographic gratings made with the interference of two beams from an Ar laser at 515 nm in emission line. We measured the diffraction efficiency of the gratings obtaining 2% when the grating was read with a beam from a He-Ne laser at 612 nm.

Villa-Manríquez, José Fabián; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Pérez-Cortés, Mario; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Ordoñez-Padilla, Manuel Jorge

2012-03-01

2

Surface enhanced Raman radiation of crystal violet dye with a SiO2 buffer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface enhanced Raman radiation of crystal violet dye has been studied by modulating the localized surface plasmon effect of silver nanoparticles. In the experiment, a buffer layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) was established between crystal violet dye and silver nanoparticles. With a probe of laser beam of 532 nm in wavelength, it was found that the intensity of the Raman

Tung-Kai Liu; Wen-Chi Hung; Ming-Shan Tsai; Chia-Ling Lo; Yu-Sung Lin; Chie-Tong Kuo; I.-Min Jiang

2011-01-01

3

Photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of Crystal Violet (Basic Violet 3) and Methyl Red dye in aqueous suspensions using Ag + doped TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of two dyes: Crystal Violet (CV), also known as C.I. Basic Violet 3, which is a cationic triphenylmethane dye and Methyl Red (MR), which is an anionic azo dye was studied using untreated TiO2 and silver ion doped TiO2 under UV irradiation. To increase the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 and to make its separation

A. K. Gupta; Anjali Pal; C. Sahoo

2006-01-01

4

Studies on the utility of plant cellulose waste for the bioadsorption of crystal violet dye.  

PubMed

Several synthetic dyes employed in textile and food industries are discharged into aquatic environment. These visible pollutants in water damage environment, as they are carcinogenic and toxic to humans. The use of cost effective and ecofriendly plant cellulose based adsorbents have been studied in batch experiments as an alternative and effective substitution of activated carbon for the removal of toxic dyes from waste water. Adsorbents prepared from sugarcane baggase, were successfully used to remove certain textile dye such as crystal violet from an aqueous solution. The present investigation potentiate the use of sugarcane baggase, pretreated with formaldehyde (referred as Raw Baggase) and sulphuric acid (referred as Chemically Activated Baggase), for the removal of crystal violet dye from simulated waste water. Experiments were carried out at neutral pH with various parameters like dye concentration, temperature, contact time and adsorbent dosage. Efficiency of raw baggase was found better than chemically activated baggase for adsorption of crystal violet dye. The data obtained perfectly fits in the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. PMID:21046996

Mahesh, S; Kumar, G Vijay; Agrawal, Pushpa

2010-05-01

5

Studies on adsorption of crystal violet dye from aqueous solution onto coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP).  

PubMed

The present study shows that the coniferous pinus bark powder (CPBP) can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet (basic dye) from aqueous solutions. Experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration, temperature, pH and dosage. The amount of dye uptake was found to vary with increasing initial solution pH and maximum adsorption was observed at pH 8. The equilibrium was attained in 2h. The amount of dye uptake (mg/g) was found to increase with increase in dye concentration and contact time. The % adsorption was found to decrease with increase in amount of adsorbent. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated and the positive value of DeltaH degrees indicates the endothermic nature of adsorption. The applicability of the three isotherm's model for the present data follows the order: Langmuir>Temkin>Freundlich. The kinetics of crystal violet on to the adsorbent can be described well by pseudo-second order>Elovich>pseudo-first order equation. PMID:19604639

Ahmad, Rais

2009-11-15

6

Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye using a Light Emitting Diode Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple method to estimate the photocatalytic reactivity performance of spray-on titanium dioxide coatings for transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This novel technique provides a standardized method to evaluate the efficiency of photocatalytic material systems over a variety of illumination levels. To date, photocatalysis assessments have generally been conducted using mercury black light lamps. Illumination levels for these types of lamps are difficult to vary, consequently limiting their use for assessing material performance under a diverse range of simulated environmental conditions. This new technique uses an ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light emitting diode (LED) array instead of a traditional black light to initiate and sustain photocatalytic breakdown. This method was tested with a UV-resistant dye (crystal violet) applied to a titanium dioxide coated glass slide. Experimental control is accomplished by applying crystal violet to both titanium dioxide coated slides and uncoated control slides. A slide is illuminated by the UV LED array, at various light levels representative of outdoor and indoor conditions, from the dye side of the slide. To monitor degradation of the dye over time, a temperature-stabilized white light LED, whose emission spectrum overlaps with the dye absorption spectrum, is used to illuminate the opposite side of the slide. Using a spectrometer, the amount of light from the white light LED transmitted through the slide as the dye degrades is monitored as a function of wavelength and time and is subsequently analyzed. In this way, the rate of degradation for photocatalytically coated versus uncoated slide surfaces can be compared. Results demonstrate that the dye absorption decreased much more rapidly on the photocatalytically coated slides than on the control uncoated slides, and that dye degradation is dependent on illumination level. For photocatalytic activity assessment purposes, this experimental configuration and methodology minimizes many external variable effects and enables small changes in absorption to be measured. This research also compares the advantages of this innovative LED light source design over traditional mercury black light systems and non- LED lamp approaches. This novel technology begins to address the growing need for a standard method that can assess the performance of photocatalytic materials before deployment for large scale, real world use.

Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; O'Neal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

2009-01-01

7

Optimizing adsorption of crystal violet dye from water by magnetic nanocomposite using response surface modeling approach.  

PubMed

A magnetic nanocomposite was developed and characterized. Adsorption of crystal violet (CV) dye from water was studied using the nanocomposite. A four-factor central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) was employed for maximizing CV removal from aqueous solution by the nanocomposite based on 30 different experimental data obtained in a batch study. Four independent variables, viz. temperature (10-50°C), pH of solution (2-10), dye concentration (240-400 mg/l), and adsorbent dose (1-5 g/l) were transformed to coded values and a second-order quadratic model was built to predict the responses. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test statistics. Adequacy of the model was tested by the correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response and enumeration of prediction errors. Optimization of the process variables for maximum adsorption of CV by nanocomposite was performed using the quadratic model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was determined as 81.70 mg/g. The model predicted maximum adsorption of 113.31 mg/g under the optimum conditions of variables (concentration 240 mg/l; temperature 50°C; pH 8.50; dose 1g/l), which was very close to the experimental value (111.80 mg/g) determined in batch experiment. PMID:21211903

Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Arun K; Sinha, Sarita

2011-02-28

8

Crystal violet dye in complexes with amphiphilic anionic calix[4]resorcinarenes: binding by aggregates and individual molecules.  

PubMed

Here, we report on a systematic study of six calix[4]resorcinarene macrocycles bearing eight carboxylic groups on the upper rim and four different lower rim substituents that are either aliphatic (2, 4, and 5) or alkylaromatic (1, 3, and 6). The macrocycles were studied in their individual aqueous solutions and in the presence of triphenylmethane dye crystal violet. It was found that binding of crystal violet with aggregated macrocycles shields it from the bulk of solution, preventing its discoloration under basic conditions and electrochemical reduction on the glassy carbon electrode. Most efficient shielding, reducing the rate of discoloration more than 173 times, as compared to solution with no macrocycle, was achieved with 6 forming aggregates of average 72 molecules in 0.1 mM solutions. PMID:23891445

Mironova, Diana A; Muslinkina, Liya A; Syakaev, Victor V; Morozova, Julia E; Yanilkin, Vitaliy V; Konovalov, Alexander I; Kazakova, Ella Kh

2013-10-01

9

Determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS: first action 2012.25.  

PubMed

During the AOAC Annual Meeting held from September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, NV, the Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Veterinary Drug Residues reviewed data for the method for determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS, previously published in the Journal of Chromatography A 1218, 1632-1645 (2006). The method data were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) found in SMPR 2009.001, published in AOAC's Official Methods of Analysis, 19th Ed. (2012). The ERP determined that the data were acceptable, and the method was approved AOAC Official First Action. The method uses acetonitrile to isolate the analyte from the matrix. Then determination is conducted by LCIMS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. Accuracy ranged from 100.1 to 109.8% for samples fortified at levels of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/kg. Precision ranged from 2.0 to 10.3% RSD for the intraday samples and 1.9 to 10.6% for the interday samples analyzed over 3 days. The described method is designed to accurately operate in the analytical range from 0.5 to 2 microg/kg, where the minimum required performance limit for laboratories has been fixed in the European Union at 2.0 microg/kg for these banned substances and their metabolites. Upper levels of concentrations (1-100 microg/kg) can be analyzed depending on the different optional calibrations used. PMID:24282960

Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Couëdor, Pierrick; Verdon, Eric; Dowell, Dawn

2013-01-01

10

Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

1988-05-01

11

Liquid phase adsorption of Crystal violet onto activated carbons derived from male flowers of coconut tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of Crystal violet, a basic dye onto phosphoric and sulphuric acid activated carbons (PAAC and SAAC), prepared from male flowers coconut tree has been investigated. Equilibrium data were successfully applied to study the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of dye onto both the carbons. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with regard to intraparticle

S. Senthilkumaar; P. Kalaamani; C. V. Subburaam

2006-01-01

12

Liquid phase adsorption of Crystal violet onto activated carbons derived from male flowers of coconut tree.  

PubMed

Adsorption of Crystal violet, a basic dye onto phosphoric and sulphuric acid activated carbons (PAAC and SAAC), prepared from male flowers coconut tree has been investigated. Equilibrium data were successfully applied to study the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of dye onto both the carbons. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with regard to intraparticle diffusion. The pseudo second order is further supported by the Elovich model, which in turn intensifies the fact of chemisorption of dye onto both the carbons. Quantitative removal of dye at higher initial pH of dye solution reveals the basic nature of the Crystal violet and acidic nature of the activated carbons. Influence of temperature on the removal of dye from aqueous solution shows the feasibility of adsorption and its endothermic nature. Mass transfer studies were also carried out. The adsorption capacities of both the carbons were found to be 60.42 and 85.84 mg/g for PAAC and SAAC, respectively. Langmuir's isotherm data were used to design single-stage batch adsorption model. PMID:16675107

Senthilkumaar, S; Kalaamani, P; Subburaam, C V

2006-08-25

13

Decolorization and biotransformation of triphenylmethane dye, methyl violet, by Aspergillus sp. isolated from Ladakh, India.  

PubMed

Methyl violet, used extensively in the commercial textile industry and as a biological stain, is a hazardous recalcitrant. Aspergillus sp. strain CB-TKL-1 isolated from a water sample from Tsumoriri Lake, Karzok, Ladakh, India, was found to completely decolorize methyl violet within 24 h when cultured under aerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. The rate of decolorization was determined by monitoring the decrease in the absorbance maxima of the dye by UV-visible spectroscopy. The decolorization of methyl violet was optimal at pH 5.5 and 30 degrees C when agitated at 200 rpm. Addition of glucose or arabinose (2%) as a carbon source and sodium nitrate or soyapeptone (0.2%) as a nitrogen source enhanced the decolorization ability of the culture. Furthermore, the culture exhibited a maximum decolorization rate of methyl violet after 24 h when the C:N ratio was 10. Nine N-demethylated decolorized products of methyl violet were identified based on UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and LC-MS analyses. The decolorization of methyl violet at the end of 24 h generated mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-Ndemethylated intermediates of pararosaniline. The variation of the relative absorption peaks in the decolorized sample indicated a linear decrease of hexa-N-demethylated compounds to non-N-demethylated pararosaniline, indicating a stepwise N-demethylation in the decolorization process. PMID:21464597

Kumar, C Ganesh; Mongolla, Poornima; Basha, Anver; Joseph, Joveeta; Sarma, V U M; Kamal, Ahmed

2011-03-01

14

Insight into biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal violet onto Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosorption performance of pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for removal of crystal violet (CV) from its aqueous solutions was investigated. To this end, the influence of operational parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied employing a batch experimental setup. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high correlation coefficients ( R 2 > 0.99) at different temperatures. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 78.22 mg g-1 at 293 K. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 58.96 kJ mol- 1 , indicating chemisorption nature of the ongoing biosorption process. A thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and exothermic nature of the biosorption process. Owing to its low cost and high dye uptake capacity, PLP has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

2012-06-01

15

Enhancement of the cytotoxicity of crystal violet against Trypanosoma cruzi in the blood by ascorbate.  

PubMed

Blood transfusion is the second most important mechanism of transmission of Chagas' disease, and crystal violet is currently used in blood banks in endemic areas in attempts to eliminate such transmission. A photodynamic action of crystal violet against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes in blood has been detected. This action was enhanced by addition of sodium ascorbate. Photoirradiation of whole blood containing crystal violet increased the concentration of ascorbyl radical and the generation of superoxide anion. Similar results were observed in incubations containing ascorbate and crystal violet in the absence of blood. Hydrogen peroxide generation was also detected in these incubations, thus confirming redox cycling of crystal violet under aerobic conditions. Since photoirradiation and addition of sodium ascorbate reduces significantly the effective dose and time of contact of crystal violet with T. cruzi-infected blood, a possible practical application of these findings is envisaged. PMID:2830513

Docampo, R; Moreno, S N; Cruz, F S

1988-01-15

16

Removal of Remazol Brilliant Violet5R dye using periwinkle shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to obtain optimal processing conditions for the adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Violet-5R (RBV-5R) dye onto activated carbon prepared from periwinkle shells (PSAC) by chemical activation with KOH using response surface methodology. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the effects of three preparation variables; CO2 activation temperature, CO2 activation time and KOH:char impregnation

Olugbenga Solomon Bello; Mohd Azmier Ahmad

2011-01-01

17

Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

1991-01-01

18

BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

19

UV-vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies and characterization of ionic-pair crystal violet-oxytetracycline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study shows the formation and characterization of the ionic-pair between the antibiotic oxytetracycline and the dye crystal violet in ammonia solution pH 9.0 ± 0.2 extracted into chloroform. The characterization was demonstrated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, 1H NMR, measurement of relaxation times T1 and IR spectroscopy, using a comparison between the signals of individual pure compounds with the signals with the mixture CV-OTC in different alkaline media. The formation of ionic-pair was also corroborated by new signals and chemical shifts. (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments show that the interaction is electrostatic.

Orellana, Sandra; Soto, César; Toral, M. Inés

2010-01-01

20

Solvent-controlled electron transfer in crystal violet lactone.  

PubMed

Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved emission experiments are used to examine the excited-state charge transfer reaction of crystal violet lactone (CVL) in aprotic solvents. Solvatochromic analysis using a dielectric continuum model suggests dipole moments of 9-12 D for the initially excited (LE) state and ?24 D for the charge-transfer (CT) state. Intensities of steady-state emission as well as kinetic data provide free energies for the LE ? CT reaction that range from +12 kJ/mol in nonpolar solvents to -10 kJ/mol in highly polar solvents at 25 °C. Reaction rates constants, which lie in the range of 10-100 ns(-1) in most solvents, depend on both solvent polarity and solvent friction. In highly polar solvents, rates are correlated to solvation times in a manner that indicates that the reaction is a solvent-controlled electron transfer on an adiabatic potential surface having a modest barrier. PMID:20831148

Li, Xiang; Maroncelli, Mark

2011-04-28

21

Biosorption characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus for the decolorization of triphenylmethane dye acid violet 49.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the possible use of Aspergillus fumigatus to remove acid violet 49 dye (AV49) from aqueous solution. In batch biosorption experiments, the highest biosorption efficiency was achieved at pH 3.0, with biosorbent dosage of 3.0 gL(-1) within about 30 min at 40 °C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the biosorption equilibrium of AV49 onto fungal biomass with maximum dye uptake capacity 136.98 mg g(-1). Biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R (2)?>?0.99), and the biosorption rate constants increased with increasing temperature. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the biosorption process was favorable, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature, with insignificant entropy changes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy strongly supported the presence of several functional groups responsible for dye-biosorbent interaction. Fungal biomass was regenerated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide and could be reused a number of times without significant loss of biosorption activity. The effective decolorization of AV49 in simulated conditions indicated the potential use of biomass for the removal of color contaminants from wastewater. PMID:24136473

Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Zohaib, Muhammad; Rauf, Naseem; Tahir, Subhe Sadiq; Parvez, Shoukat

2014-04-01

22

Exclusion of cytoplasmic fragments in flow cytometric analysis of lymph node samples from dogs with lymphoma using membrane-permeable violet laser-excitable DNA-binding fluorescent dye (DyeCycle Violet)  

PubMed Central

Background Cytoplasmic fragments derived from fragile neoplastic lymphocytes are common in samples of lymph nodes collected from dogs with lymphoma. These cytoplasmic fragments interfere with accurate gating of target cells and quantification protocols used for flow cytometry because of their variable size and expression of lymphoid cell surface antigens on their membranes. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a method to efficiently exclude cytoplasmic fragments from flow cytometric analysis of canine lymph nodes in which lymphoma was present. Methods Single-cell suspensions of neoplastic cells were prepared from biopsy samples and fine-needle aspirates of lymph nodes from 23 dogs with lymphoma. Suspensions were stained using a violet laser-excitable (405 nm) membrane-permeable DNA-binding fluorescent dye (DyeCycle Violet, DCV), incubated with antibodies against CD3, CD5, CD21, CD22, and CD45, and then stained with 7-amino-actinomycin D, an argon-excitable (488 nm) membrane-impermeable DNA-binding fluorescent dye. Multi-parameter flow cytometry was used for analysis based on selective uptake and laser-activated fluorescence of these dyes. Results Cytoplasmic fragments, which were DCV-negative and CD45-positive, and dead cells, which were positive for 7-amino-actinomycin D, were efficiently separated from neoplastic cells. Conclusion Staining with DyeCycle Violet is a useful method to improve flow cytometric gating methods and quantitative analyses of lymph node samples from dogs with lymphoma. PMID:21198735

Ito, Daisuke; O'Brien, Timothy D.; Modiano, Jaime F.

2011-01-01

23

Catalytic Activity of Biomorphic ?-MoO3 in the Degradation of Methyl Violet Dye  

PubMed Central

Abstract A network of fibers comprising orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide (?-MoO3) crystals were synthesized using paper as template via a biomorphic approach. The template was completely removed by annealing the sample at 600°C for 5?min. Monoclinic MoO3 was formed and consequently converted into orthorhombic ?-MoO3 after prolonged annealing. Three milligrams of the biomorphic ?-MoO3 could degrade up to 90% of a methyl violet aqueous solution with a concentration of 20?mg/L under normal visible light. The size of the ?-MoO3 grains and the porosity of the biomorphic sample affected catalytic performance. PMID:22969268

Diao, Zhenyu; Kwong, Fung-Luen; Li, Jia; Lian, Jiabiao; Lai, Kwing-To; Ng, Dickon H.L.

2012-01-01

24

Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

2013-12-01

25

Isolation and Characterization of Paracoccus sp. GSM2 Capable of Degrading Textile Azo Dye Reactive Violet 5  

PubMed Central

A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100?mg/L) within 16?h, while maximally it could decolorize 800?mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0–9.0 and 25–40°C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v). UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2. PMID:24883397

Bheemaraddi, Mallikarjun C.; Shivannavar, Channappa T.; Gaddad, Subhashchandra M.

2014-01-01

26

Microwave induced catalytic degradation of crystal violet in nano-nickel dioxide suspensions.  

PubMed

Nickel oxide catalyst was obtained by precipitation-oxidation method with the assistance of microwave irradiation. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface area and porosity analyzer. On the basis of the results, the as-prepared product was nano-NiO(2) with OH group and active oxygen. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared product might be attributed to its microwave absorbing property and the role of active oxygen, OH group under microwave irradiation. The microwave induced catalytic degradation process (MICD) with as-prepared product was further applied to degrade triphenylmethane dye crystal violet (CV). 97% of a 100 mg L(-1) sample of CV was rapidly degraded in 5 min with the corresponding 81% TOC removal. The main intermediates were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS and GC-MS techniques. The LC-ESI-MS analytical results demonstrated that a series of N-de-methylation products were obtained in a stepwise manner, namely mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-de-methylated CV species. Nine organic acids with benzene ring and four low molecular acids were yielded with the assistance of GC-MS. The proposed degradation pathways were discussed in this study. The degradation processes might include N-de-methylation, destruction of conjugated structure and opening-benzene ring. MICD, as a potential technique with wide application perspective, can be used to purify triphenylmethane dye wastewater with nanosized nickel dioxide. PMID:19748731

He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Yu, Kai; Ju, Yongming; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Lianhong

2010-01-15

27

Quantifying hydrogen peroxide in iron-containing solutions using leuco crystal violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Hydrogen peroxide is present in many natural waters and wastewaters. In the presence of Fe(II), this species decomposes to form hydroxyl radicals, that are extremely reactive. Hence, in the presence of Fe(II), hydrogen peroxide is difficult to detect because of its short lifetime. Here, we show an expanded use of a hydrogen peroxide quantification technique using leuco crystal violet

Corey A. Cohna; Aimee Pak; Daniel Strongin; Martin A. Schoonen

2005-01-01

28

3-Carboxy-6-chloro-7-hydroxycoumarin: a highly fluorescent, water-soluble violet-excitable dye for cell analysis.  

PubMed

In our search for new violet-excitable dyes with improved photophysical and photochemical properties, we examined several halogen-substituted hydroxycoumarins and found that chlorinated derivatives are at least as bright as their fluorinated analogs. A monochlorinated hydroxycoumarin was found to have a high quantum yield (approximately 0.98), and human leucocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, and CD45) conjugated with this dye exhibited reliable performance in flow cytometry assays. Additional studies were performed, with BD Horizon V450-antibody conjugates being included in eight-color cocktails aimed at subsetting lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Such cocktails can frequently be unstable due to the tendency of one or more components to lose structural integrity, photobleach, or develop unwanted affinities for another component. However, the cocktails employed in this study enabled several different applications to be run and established that multicolor reagent mixtures containing V450-antibody conjugates are functional and stable. PMID:19135024

Abrams, Barny; Diwu, Zhenjun; Guryev, Oleg; Aleshkov, Sergei; Hingorani, Ravi; Edinger, Mark; Lee, Rita; Link, Joe; Dubrovsky, Tim

2009-03-15

29

Determination of malachite green and crystal violet in processed fish products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents analysis of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) residues in processed fish products. Samples were homogenized and extracted with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile. The extracted residues were partitioned into dichloromethane, in situ oxidized to chromic forms with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and cleaned up on neutral alumina and propylsulfonic acid cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. MG and CV

Jun Bae Lee; Hee Yun Kim; Young Mi Jang; Ji Young Song; Sung Min Woo; Mi Sun Park; Hyun Sook Lee; Soon Kyu Lee; Meehye Kim

2010-01-01

30

Thermal analytic study of the adsorption of crystal violet by laponite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of crystal violet on laponite was investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. DTA, TG and DTG curves were recorded in air. The evolved H2O, CO2, NO2, H2 and C2H6 were simultaneously determined by mass spectrometry. The thermal analysis curves were compared on one hand with the thermal analysis curves of laponite and on the other hand with

S. Yariv; M. Müller-Vonmoos; G. Kahr; A. Rub

1989-01-01

31

Electrochemical degradation of crystal violet with BDD electrodes: effect of electrochemical parameters and identification of organic by-products.  

PubMed

This paper explores the applicability of electrochemical oxidation on a triphenylmethane dye compound model, hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (or crystal violet, CV), using BDD anodes. The effect of the important electrochemical parameters: current density (2.5-15 m A cm(-2)), dye concentration (33-600 mg L(-1)), sodium sulphate concentration (7.1-50.0 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-11) on the efficiency of the electrochemical process was evaluated. The results indicated that while the current density was lower than the limiting current density, no side products (hydrogen peroxide, peroxodisulphate, ozone and chlorinated oxidizing compounds) were generated and the degradation, through OH radical attack, occurred with high efficiency. Analysis of intermediates using GC-MS investigation identified several products: N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N-methylaniline, 4-dimethylaminophenol, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) diphenylmethane, 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) benzophenone. The presence of these aromatic structures showed that the main CV degradation pathway is related to the reaction of CV with the OH radical. Under optimal conditions, practically 100% of the initial substrate and COD were eliminated in approximately 35 min of electrolysis; indicating that the early CV by-products were completely degraded by the electrochemical system. PMID:20709357

Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E; Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L; Peñuela, Gustavo; González, Ignacio; Nava, Jose L; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

2010-09-01

32

Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V as the functional biomaterial used to remove crystal violet and Cu(II).  

PubMed

Burkholderia vietnamiensis C09V (B.V. C09V) was used to remove both crystal violet (CV) and Cu(II) because dye effluents often contain dyes and metal ions. Inhibiting the strain?s growth through the biosorption of Cu(II) on B.V. C09V and promoting its growth by using CV as a carbon source led to the degradation of CV (30mg/L). It fell to 36.9 percent and the amount of Cu(II) (50mg/L) removed rose to 34.9 percent in the presence of both CV and Cu(II). This outcome is comparable to the single presence of CV and Cu(II). EDS analysis showed that Cu(II) was adsorbed onto the strain (the atomic percentage of Cu(II) was 1.9 percent), while kinetic studies indicated that firstly, the decolorization of CV fitted well to the pseudo first-order degradation kinetic model and secondly, the biosorption of Cu(II) fitted well to the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The degradation rate constants of CV were stable in the 0.101-0.0068/h range and R(2) was both higher than 0.981 when Cu(II) concentrations were present. Furthermore, the biosorption capacity of Cu(II) ranged from 38.8 to 20.3mg/g at the CV concentration of 30mg/L (both R(2)>0.96). This suggests that the strain has the potential to degrade CV and facilitate the biosorption of Cu(II) in dye effluent. PMID:24780226

Zhou, Fengfei; Cheng, Ying; Gan, Li; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

2014-07-01

33

Removal of basic dyes from aqueous medium using a novel polymer: Jalshakti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to remove basic dyes such as safranine T, methylene blue, crystal violet, light green, brilliant milling violet and patent blue VS from their aqueous solutions using biodegradable polymeric absorbent material, viz., Jalshakti® (JS). Results showed that 93% safranine T, 98% methylene blue and 84% crystal violet were adsorbed on JS relative to their initial concentration (10mgL?1).

Rita Dhodapkar; N. N. Rao; S. P. Pande; S. N. Kaul

2006-01-01

34

Visible absorption spectra of crystal violet in supercritical ethane - methanol solution.  

SciTech Connect

The effects of concentration and mole fraction of methanol in supercritical ethane on the absorption spectra of crystal violet (CV) were examined. Keeping the concentration of CV in the cell constant at 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1}, both the methanol concentration (from 0.4 to 1.2 mol l{sup -1}) and pressure of ethane (from 60 to 150 bar) were varied. The degree of solvation of CV depends both on the mole fraction and concentration of cosolvent. The dimerization of CV was found to decrease with pressure, and with the ratio between methanol and CV concentrations.

Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

2002-11-01

35

Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash—kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, bagasse fly ash (BFA) (generated as waste material from sugar mill), was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange-G (OG), and Methyl Violet (MV), from aqueous solution. Batch studies were performed to address various experimental parameters like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial concentration for the removal of these dyes. Effective pH for OG

Indra D. Mall; Vimal C. Srivastava; Nitin K. Agarwal

2006-01-01

36

Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals  

E-print Network

Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye- doped liquid crystals Tsung-Hsien Lin,1,2 Yuhua, Florida 32816 swu@mail.ucf.edu http://lcd.creol.ucf.edu Abstract: A scattering-free, polarization controllable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a photo-induced alignment of the dye-doped liquid

Wu, Shin-Tson

37

[Spectrophotometric determination of microamount phosphorus with crystal violet-heteropoly molybdophosphoric acid in the presence of starch].  

PubMed

The determination of phosphorus with crystal violet-heteropoly molybdophosphoric acid in the presence of starch has been studied. In the medium of 0.15 mol.L-1 H2SO4, the apparent molar absorptivity of the ion associated complex is 1.98 x 10(5) L.cm-1.mol-1 at 548 nm, and it is stable for more than 24 hours. Beer's law is obeyed over the range of 0-8 micrograms.(50 mL)-1 for phosphorus. The molar ratio of heteropoly molybdophosphoric acid to crystal violet is established to be 1:5. The method is satisfactory for the determination of phosphorus in iron basic samples. PMID:12938332

Kai, Xiao-ming

2002-06-01

38

Study of the concentration and separation of cadmium with microcrystalline phenolphthalein modified by crystal violet.  

PubMed

A new method for cadmium separation and concentration with microcrystalline phenolphthalein modified by crystal violet (CV) was developed in the paper. In the presence of potassium iodide (KI) and CV, cadmium are quantitatively absorbed on microcrystalline phenolphthalein in the pH range 1.0-6.0 as the forms of water-insoluble ion-associated complexes (CdI(3)(-)).(CV(+)) and (CdI(4)(2-)).(CV(+))(2). Effect of different parameters such as phenolphthalein amount, stirring time, the concentration of CV and KI, various salts and metal ions was studied in detail. During the present study, a significant enhancement of the extraction of cadmium was observed. Cd(II) can be completely separated from Zn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Cr(III) and Al(III) in this microcrystalline system and well concentrated without the interference of these metal ions at high level. The possible reactive mechanism of cadmium concentration has been discussed. Analytical results obtained by this new method were very gratifying. PMID:18969688

Li, Quanmin; Ouyang, Ruizhuo; Liu, Guoguang

2004-11-15

39

Quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet and its use to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phagocytosis is a complex process involving attachment, ingestion and intracellular processing of bacteria by phagocytes. A great difficulty in the evaluation of this process is to differentiate between attachment of the particles to the cell surface and internalization of the particles by the cells. Various techniques have been used to differentiate internalized and surface-attached bacteria in cultured cells, but only a few permit differentiations between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. In this study the quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet on acridine orange stained bacterial biofilm and planktonic bacterial cells is used to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria within macrophages. Method: One week old Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was grown on perspex and glass substrates in All-Culture medium (nutrient-rich condition) and phosphate buffered saline (nutrient-deprived condition). As model systems, human monocytic (THP-1) and histiocytic (U937) cell lines were used. These cell lines were incubated with the biofilm bacteria for 4 hrs in CO II incubator at 37 °C. The cells and bacteria were stained with acridine orange and quenched with crystal violet to distinguish between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. Results: The presence of green-fluorescing internalized bacteria was detected within the macrophages under the planktonic, nutrient-rich and nutrient-deprived biofilm conditions. All infecting bacteria take up acridine orange and fluoresced green, crystal violet quenched the fluorescence of extra-cellular adhering bacteria so that only fluorescent intracellular bacteria would be visible under fluorescent light microscopy.

Mathew, S.; Lim, Y. C.; Kishen, A.

2008-06-01

40

Adsorption study for the removal of a basic dye: experimental and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective adsorbent is developed from saw dust and its various adsorption characteristics are studied for removing a basic dye (crystal violet) from its aqueous solution. Equilibrium data are fitted to various adsorption isotherms. It is seen that about 341mg of crystal violet can be removed using 1g of the adsorbent at 298K. Kinetic study is also carried out to

Sourja Chakraborty; Sirshendu De; Sunando DasGupta; Jayanta K. Basu

2005-01-01

41

Imazaquin adsorbed on pillared clay and crystal violet-montmorillonite complexes for reduced leaching in soil.  

PubMed

Ground water pollution due to herbicide leaching has become a serious environmental problem. Imazaquin [2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)quinoline-3-carboxylic acid] is an herbicide used to control broadleaf weeds in legume crops. Imazaquin is negatively charged at the basic pH of calcareous soils and exhibits high leaching potential in soils. Our aim was to design formulation of imazaquin to reduce herbicide leaching. Imazaquin sorption on pillared clay (PC) and crystal violet (CV)-montmorillonite complexes was studied. The CV-montmorillonite complexes become positively charged with adsorption of CV above the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of montmorillonite, and thus can sorb imazaquin. The Langmuir equation provides a good fit to isotherms of imazaquin sorption on PC and CV-montmorillonite complexes, but for charged complexes an equation that combines electrostatics with specific binding was preferred. Maximal imazaquin sorption was 17.3 mmol kg-1 for PC and 22.2 mmol kg-1 for CV-montmorillonite complexes. The extents of imazaquin desorption into water were 21% for PC and 5% for CV-clay complexes. The presence of anions decreased imazaquin sorption on both sorbents in the sequence phosphate > acetate > sulfate. Reduction of imazaquin sorption by the anions and the extent of its desorption in electrolyte solutions were higher for PC than for CV-clay complexes. Leaching of imazaquin from CV-montmorillonite formulations through soil (Rhodoxeralf) columns was two times less than from PC formulations and four times less than that of technical imazaquin. The CV-montmorillonite complexes at a loading above the CEC appear to be suitable for preparation of organo-clay-imazaquin formulations that may reduce herbicide leaching significantly. PMID:12371183

Polubesova, Tamara; Nir, Shlomo; Gerstl, Zev; Borisover, Mikhail; Rubin, Baruch

2002-01-01

42

Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater. PMID:24579659

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

2014-04-01

43

Base effects on fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of crystal violet adsorbed on Au nanoparticles surface.  

PubMed

The Surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) of Au nanoparticle films deposited on Si and SiO2 substrates are presented. From the experimental results, it is concluded that the fluorescence peak intensity changes in a similar way with the Raman intensity for the various substrates. Both the fluorescence and the Raman intensity were much stronger on SiO2 substrate than on the Si substrate. That is due to the Crystal Violet (CV) adsorbed on the substrate having different refractive index effect the electrical field near the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle size effect on the Raman and fluorescence was also studied. PMID:23646561

Chai, Penglan; Liu, Jun; Tang, Jun; Shi, Yunbo; Xue, Chenyan; Wen, Huanfei

2013-02-01

44

Adsorption kinetics of methyl violet onto perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines adsorption kinetics and activation parameters of methyl violet on perlite. The effect of process parameters like contact time, concentration of dye, temperature and pH on the extent of methyl violet adsorption from solution has been investigated. Results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption reaction is first order with respect to dye solution concentration with activation

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2003-01-01

45

Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scattering-free, polarization controllable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a photo-induced alignment of the dye-doped liquid crystal film. This photo-aligned liquid crystal zone plate provides orthogonal polarization states for odd and even zones. The different focus orders can be separated because of their different polarization states. The fabrication process is relatively simple and the operation voltage is less

Tsung-Hsien Lin; Yuhua Huang; Andy Y. G. Fuh; Shin-Tson Wu

2006-01-01

46

Dye-Doped Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films for Flexible Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red, green, and blue dyes were doped to polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films for flexible display applications. Dichroic dye-doped liquid crystal droplets had a bipolar configuration. The E7-DG6071-dye composition showed better chromaticity data than other compositions. The small-particle-size red-dye-doped PDLC film showed good color differences. To improve the color difference, the dye particle size has to be small, and the bead milling process can make dye particles small. In this system, the bigger the liquid crystal droplet size, the higher the PDLC film driving voltage (Von), except in the LC-DG6071-red dye composition. This is the reason that the splay deformation increase is greater than the droplet size increase. In the electro-optic characteristics of dye-doped PDLC film, the TL205-DG6071-red dye composition had the lowest Von and the TL205-DG7052-red dye had the highest contrast ratio.

Yang, Kee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Byeong-Dae

2010-05-01

47

Dye adsorption feature on titania surface and role of dye aggregation inhibitor monitored by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certified efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) with a cell area larger than 1 cm2 reached 11.0%, which is almost same as that of amorphous silicon type solar cells. However, the efficiency is not as high as 20-25 % of crystal silicon type solar cells. Therefore, researches to find photo-conversion systems in the area of near infrared and infrared regions are being done to increase the efficiency. It has been reported that the efficiency of DSCs is affected by dye-adsorption behaviors on titania surfaces. However, there was no report on how dyes are adsorbed on titania and the relationship between dye adsorption and solar cell efficiency. We now report the adsorption behavior of dye molecules, which are monitored by Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM), and discuss the role of dye aggregation inhibitors which affect seriously the solar cell efficiency.

Hirota, Ryohei; Ogomi, Yuhei; Pandey, Shyam S.; Hayase, Shuzi

2012-09-01

48

Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal  

E-print Network

Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal Ying demonstrate a direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC codes: (230.3720) Liquid crystal devices; (160, 3710) Materials References and links 1. V. I. Kopp, Z. Q

Wu, Shin-Tson

49

Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal  

E-print Network

Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal Ying demonstrate a direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC codes: (230.3720) Liquid-crystal devices, (160, 3710) Materials References and links 1. V. I. Kopp, Z. Q

Wu, Shin-Tson

50

Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol sorbed onto crystal violet-modified organoclay by Arthrobacter sp. 4H?.  

PubMed

Organoclays are effective sorbents for removal of organic contaminants from water, but their regeneration capacity limits their practical use as a biotechnological process for bioremediation. Here, the sorption of p-nitrophenol (PNP) to crystal violet (CV)-modified montmorillonite and its biodegradation by the bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 4H? were studied in a batch aqueous system. The degree of PNP sorption was dependent on the degree of CV modification (loaded at 80 % or 100 % of the clay's cation-exchange capacity-CVM80 and CVM100, respectively). CV sorption to the clay reduced its toxicity to bacteria. PNP at an initial concentration of 0.72 mM was degraded at rates of 65 % and 42 % in CVM80 and CVM100 suspensions, respectively. Both free and CV-clay-adsorbed PNP concentrations were reduced by the bacteria at rates proportional to the degree of CV modification. Three successive cycles of PNP reloading-degradation in the organoclay suspension demonstrated the potential of this matrix's regeneration and reuse toward maximal removal efficiency of organic pollutants. PMID:23715856

Masaphy, Segula; Zohar, Shay; Jander-Shagug, Gurinaz

2014-02-01

51

Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of malachite green and crystal violet in water after cloud point extraction using partial least squares regression.  

PubMed

In this work, a new method has been proposed to simultaneously determine the trace amount of malachite green and crystal violet from aqueous solution by spectrophotometry after cloud point extraction (CPE) using partial least squares regression. The optimal extraction and operating conditions, such as pH, reagents concentration and effect of time and temperature, and so on, have been investigated using the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. The maximum absorption wavelength for malachite green and crystal violet is 624 and 579 nm, respectively; linearity is obeyed in the range of 9.9-800 and 16-1000 ng mL(-1) with detection limit of 2.9 and 4.8 ng mL(-1), and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) are 0.0197 and 0.0343, respectively. The proposed method has been applied successfully to simultaneously determine the trace amount of malachite green and crystal violet in real matrix samples with the recoveries of 92.45-102.5%. PMID:19939555

An, Lin; Deng, Jian; Zhou, Liang; Li, Hui; Chen, Fei; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yating

2010-03-15

52

Use of dye to distinguish salt and protein crystals under microcrystallization conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method of screening crystal growth conditions is provided wherein molecules are crystallized from solutions containing dyes. These dyes are selectively incorporated or associated with crystals of particular character thereby rendering crystals of particular character colored and improving detection of the dyed crystals. A preferred method involves use of dyes in protein solutions overlayed by oil. Use of oil allows the use of small volumes of solution and facilitates the screening of large numbers of crystallization conditions in arrays using automated devices that dispense appropriate solutions to generate crystallization trials, overlay crystallization trials with an oil, provide appropriate conditions conducive to crystallization and enhance detection of dyed (colored) or undyed (uncolored) crystals that result.

Cosenza, Larry (Inventor); Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Gester, Thomas E. (Inventor); Hamrick, David T. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

53

Simultaneous determination of malachite green, crystal violet, methylene blue and the metabolite residues in aquatic products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work describes solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry for determination of malachite green and metabolite leucomalachite green, crystal violet and metabolite leucocrystal violet, methylene blue and metabolites including azure A, azure B and azure C in aquatic products. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer and purified by liquid extraction with dichloromethane, and then on MCAX solid-phase extraction cartridges. Then the extract was evaporated at 45°C by nitrogen blow. The residue was dissolved and separated by an Acquity BEH C18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile (A) and 5 mmol/L of ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid (B). Analytes were confirmed and quantified using a tandem mass spectrometry system in multiple reaction mode with triple quadrupole analyzer using positive polarity mode. The limits of detection of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet were 0.15 µg/kg, the limits of quantification were 0.50 µg/kg, and the average recoveries were more than 75% with spiked residues from 0.5 to 10 µg/kg. The relative standard deviations were less than 13%. The limits of detection of methylene blue, azure A, azure B and azure C were 0.3 µg/kg, the limits of quantification were 1.0 µg/kg, the average recoveries were more than 70% with spiked residues from 1.0 to 10 µg/kg and the relative standard deviations were less than 15%. The method has the merits of simplicity, sensitivity and rapidity, and can be used for simultaneous determination of the analytes in aquatic products. PMID:22542891

Xu, Ying-Jiang; Tian, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Gong, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Huan-Jun; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Min

2012-08-01

54

Crystallization of fused silica surfaces by ultra-violet laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the increased use of high power lasers has created problems in optical elements due to laser damage. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes in a publication ISO 11254 a laser-power resilience (LPR) test which we used to verify that by flattening the glass substrate of an optical element, we could improve the resistance to laser damage. We report on an evaluation of two types of samples of fused silica substrate whose surface roughness differed (R{sub a} = 0.20 nm and R{sub a} = 0.13 nm) using customized on-line laser damage testing. To induce laser damage to samples, we used the fifth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG pulse laser (wavelength: 213 nm, pulse width: 4 ns, repetition frequency: 20 Hz). Results show that flattening reduced the progression of laser damage in the meta-phase laser damage phase by 1/3 of that without flattening. However, pro-phase laser damage which started at fluence 2.39 J/cm{sup 2} was unrelated to surface roughness. To analyze the pro-phase laser damage, we used x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and variable pressure-type scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). From XRD data, we observed XRD patterns of cristobalite (111), cristobalite (102), {alpha}-quartz (111), and {beta}-quartz (102). Raman spectrum data showed an increase in the three-membered ring vibration (600 cm{sup -1}), four-membered ring vibration (490 cm{sup -1}), and many-membered ring vibration (450 cm{sup -1}, 390 cm{sup -1}, and 300 cm{sup -1}). We observed patchy crystallized areas on the sample surfaces in the VP-SEM images. Based on these experimental results, we believe that the dominant factors in pro-phase laser damage are their physical properties. Substrate and thin film material must be appropriately selected in producing an optical element with a high level of resilience to laser exposure.

Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi [Sigma Koki Co., Ltd., 1-19-9 Midori, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0021 (Japan)

2012-07-15

55

Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals  

E-print Network

Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals Tsung-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) is demonstrated. The CLC texture can be changed from random distribution: (230.3720) Liquid-crystal devices; (050.1970) Diffractive optics References and links 1. S

Wu, Shin-Tson

56

Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

Parkinson, Bruce

2010-06-04

57

Photo-stimulated phase and anchoring transitions of chiral azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We report concurring phase and anchoring transitions of chiral azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals. The transitions are induced by photo-stimulation and stable against light and thermal treatments. Photochromic trans- to cis-isomerization of azo-dye induces an augmented dipole moment and strong dipole-dipole interaction of the cis-isomers, resulting in the formation of nano-sized dye-aggregates. Consequent phase separation of the aggregates of a chiral azo-dye induces phase transition from a chiral to nonchiral nematic phase. In addition, the deposition of dye-aggregates at the surfaces brings about anchoring transition of LC molecules. The stability and irreversibility of the transition, together with no need of pretreatments for LC alignment, provide fascinating opportunity for liquid crystal device applications. PMID:24514707

Kundu, Sudarshan; Kang, Shin-Woong

2013-12-16

58

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2014-04-01

59

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2013-04-01

60

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2010-04-01

61

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2011-04-01

62

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2012-04-01

63

Intramolecular charge transfer with crystal violet lactone in acetonitrile as a function of temperature: reaction is not solvent-controlled.  

PubMed

Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) with crystal violet lactone (CVL) in the excited singlet state takes place in solvents more polar than n-hexane, such as ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile (MeCN). In these solvents, the fluorescence spectrum of CVL consists of two emission bands, from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state. The dominant deactivation channel of the lowest excited singlet state is internal conversion, as the quantum yields of fluorescence (0.007) and intersystem crossing (0.015) in MeCN at 25 °C are very small. CVL is a weakly coupled electron donor/acceptor (D/A) molecule, similar to an exciplex (1)(A(-)D(+)). A solvatochromic treatment of the LE and ICT emission maxima results in the dipole moments ?e(LE) = 17 D and ?e(ICT) = 33 D, much larger than those previously reported. This discrepancy is attributed to different Onsager radii and spectral fluorimeter calibration. The LE and ICT fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN are double exponential. As determined by global analysis, the LE and ICT decays at 25 °C have the times ?2 = 9.2 ps and ?1 = 1180 ps, with an amplitude ratio of 35.3 for LE. From these parameters, the rate constants ka = 106 × 10(9) s(-1) and kd = 3.0 × 10(9) s(-1) of the forward and backward reaction in the LE ? ICT equilibrium are calculated, resulting in a free enthalpy difference ?G of -8.9 kJ/mol. The amplitude ratio of the ICT fluorescence decay equals -1.0, which signifies that the ICT state is not prepared by light absorption in the S0 ground state, but originates exclusively from the directly excited LE precursor. From the temperature dependence of the fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN (-45 to 75 °C), activation energies E(a) = 3.9 kJ/mol (LE ? ICT) and E(d) = 23.6 kJ/mol (ICT ? LE) are obtained, giving an enthalpy difference ?H (= E(a) - E(d)) of -19.7 kJ/mol, and an entropy difference ?S = -35.5 J mol(-1) K(-1). These data show that the ICT reaction of CVL in MeCN is not barrierless. The ICT reaction time of 9.2 ps is much longer than the mean solvent relaxation time of MeCN (0.26 ps), indicating, in contrast with earlier reports in the literature, that the reaction is not solvent controlled. This conclusion is supported by the observation of double exponential LE and ICT fluorescence with the same decay times. PMID:23865629

Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Zachariasse, Klaas A

2013-08-22

64

IncP-1  Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 25 May 2007\\/Accepted 27 July 2007 Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequenc- ing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very

Andreas Schluter; Irene Krahn; Florian Kollin; Gabriele Bonemann; Michael Stiens; Rafael Szczepanowski; Susanne Schneiker; Alfred Puhler

2007-01-01

65

Removal of dyes from water using crosslinked aminomethane sulfonic acid based resin.  

PubMed

A new polymeric resin with amino sulfonic acid pendant functions has been prepared for the extraction of acidic and basic dyes from water. Beaded polymer supports were prepared by suspension polymerization of vinyl benzyl chloride (0.9 mol) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (0.1 mol). The resulting copolymer beads were modified with amino methane sulfonic acid. The dye adsorption capacity of the resin was found as 0.16 g dye/g resin for ramazol black and 0.15 g dye/g resin for crystal violet. The pH depending measurements and dye sorption kinetics of the resin were also investigated. PMID:20401517

Kaner, Damla; Saraç, Ayfer; Senkal, Bahire Filiz

2010-08-01

66

Dichroic dye-dependent studies in guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (GHPDLC) films were prepared using a nematic liquid crystal, photo-curable polymer and dichroic dye (anthraquinone blue) by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) technique. Non-ionic dichroic dye (1%, 2% and 4% wt./wt. ratio) was taken as guest in PDLC host. Polarizing microscopy shows that in the absence of electric field, liquid crystal (LC) droplets in polymer matrix mainly exhibit bipolar configuration, however, relatively at higher field, maltese-type crosses were observed. Our results show that ?1% dye-doped PDLC film shows better transmission and faster response times over pure polymer-dispersed nematic liquid crystal (PDNLC) and higher concentrated (2% and 4%) GHPDLC films.

Malik, Praveen; Raina, K. K.

2010-01-01

67

Amplification of Laser Emission from Cholesteric Liquid Crystals by Planar Cells with Laser Dye Nematic and Isotropic Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possibility have been shown for amplification of weak emission intensity of microlasers based on cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) by thin planar layers of both isotropic dye solutions and dye doped nematic liquid crystals. Very high gain index values (up to 500 cm) and absolute amplification of about 15 have been demonstrated. Especially important is the anisotropy of gain in nematics,

N. M. Shtykov; M. I. Barnik; V. V. Lazarev; S. P. Palto; B. A. Umanskii; L. M. Blinov; G. Cipparrone

2008-01-01

68

Enhancement in ferroelectric, pyroelectric and photoluminescence properties in dye doped TGS crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure and dye doped (0.1 and 0.2 mol%) Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. A pyramidal coloring pattern, along with XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the dye doping. Decrease in dielectric constant and increase in Curie temperature (Tc) were observed with increasing doping concentration. Low absorption cut off (231 nm) and high optical transparency (>90%) resulting in large band gap was observed in UV-VIS studies. In addition, strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed in which the relative intensity were found to be reversed as a result of doping. In P-E hysteresis loop studies, a higher curie temperature and an improved and more uniform figure of merit over a large region of the ferroelectric phase were observed. The improved dielectric, optical and ferroelectric/pyroelectric properties make the dye doped TGS crystals better candidate for various opto- and piezo-electronics applications.

Sinha, Nidhi; Goel, Neeti; Singh, B. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Kumar, Binay

2012-06-01

69

Enhancement of the fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes caused by their interaction with nanoparticles from ?-diketonate complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet in aqueous and alcoholic-aqueous solutions in which nanoparticles from Ln(III) and Sc(III) diketonates are formed at concentrations of complexes in a solution of 5-30 ?M. We have shown that, if the concentrations of the dyes in the solution are lower than 0.5 ?M, dye molecules are incorporated completely into nanoparticles or are precipitated onto their surface. The fluorescence intensity of these incorporated and adsorbed Malachite Green and Crystal Violet molecules increases by several orders of magnitude compared to the solution, which takes place because of a sharp increase in the fluorescence quantum yields of these dyes and at the expense of the sensitization of their fluorescence upon energy transfer from ?-diketonate complexes entering into the composition of nanoparticles. We have shown that, if there is no concentration quenching, the values of the fluorescence quantum yield of the Crystal Violet dye incorporated into nanoparticles and adsorbed on their surface vary from 0.06 to 0.13, i.e., are close to the fluorescence quantum yield of this dye in solid solutions of sucrose acetate at room temperature. The independence of the fluorescence quantum yield of Crystal Violet on the morphology of nanoparticles testifies to a high binding constant of complexes and the dye. The considerable fluorescence quantum yields of triphenylmethane dyes in nanoparticles and sensitization of their fluorescence by nanoparticle-forming complexes make it possible to determine the concentration of these dyes in aqueous solutions by the luminescent method in the range of up to 1 nM.

Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

2014-08-01

70

Application of zeolite MCM-22 for basic dye removal from wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCM-22 was employed as an effective adsorbent for removal of basic dyes including methylene blue, crystal violet, and rhodamine B from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated. The adsorption capacity of MCM-22 for three dyes follows an order of MB>CV?RB. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows the pseudo second-order kinetics and the adsorption is a two-step

Shaobin Wang; Huiting Li; Longya Xu

2006-01-01

71

Adsorption Behaviour of Basic Dyes on the Humic Acid Immobilized Pillared Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the adsorption of three basic dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV) and rhodamine B (RB) on the humic acid (HA) immobilized pillared clay (PILC) (HA-PILC) was studied. The adsorption capacity of dyes at 30 °C using HA–PILC was foundto be 2.6, 2.0 and 2.3 times greater than that using PILC for the removal of MB,

V. P. Vinod; T. S. Anirudhan

2003-01-01

72

Pattern forming instability induced by light in pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystals  

E-print Network

We study theoretically the instabilities induced by a linearly polarized ordinary light wave incident at a small oblique angle on a thin layer of homeotropically oriented nematic liquid crystal with special emphasis on the dye-doped case. The spatially periodic Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the secondary instability after the stationary Freedericksz transition is analyzed.

D. O. Krimer; G. Demeter; L. Kramer

2002-07-03

73

Dye-concentration-dependent lasing behaviors and spectral characteristics of cholesteric liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser behavior and spectral changes occurring in cholesteric liquid crystals with varying dye-doped concentrations were investigated when pumped at 532 nm. It was found that the long-wavelength band edge and the laser line exhibit a blue shift over 21 nm with increasing dye concentration. The circularly polarized fluorescence spectra were examined, and the location of the sense reversion of circular polarization was determined to coincide well with the discrete lasing lines. The blue shift can be ascribed to the decrease in average refractive index and pitch of the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals. The dependence of the slope efficiency and threshold energy on the dye concentration can be attributed to the shift in photonic stopband and the change in penetration depth of excitation. The temperature and incident angle of pumping beam also have a significant impact on the lasing properties. The optimal dye concentration is found to be 0.5 wt% at 30.5 °C with an incident angle of 10°. The laser emission located at 601.4 nm with slope efficiency of 4 % was achieved above the threshold energy of 14.3 ?J.

Wang, Zhongyang; Yang, Can; Li, Wensong; Chen, Lujian; Wang, Xiaozhong; Cai, Zhiping

2014-06-01

74

Manipulation of small objects in liquid crystals by dynamical disorganizing effect of push-pull-azobenzene-dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few research group reports formation of ordered structures of colloidal particles due to topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal. In this paper, we describe the photochemical phase transition of a nematic liquid crystal by the photoisomerization of azobenzene dyes, focusing especially on the dynamical effect of the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization cycle of a push-pull azobenzene dye. Then, we discuss the effects of light irradiation on the motion of small objects dispersed in the nematic and smectic liquid crystals contatining a push-pull azobenzene dye, and successfully manipulate those objects by pushing, trapping and dragging them.

Kuwahara, Yutaka; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Ryo; Ogata, Tomonari; Kim, Sun-Nam; Kurihara, Seiji

2014-02-01

75

The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triphenylmethanes – Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The

Michalina Oplatowska; Ryan F. Donnelly; Rita J. Majithiya; D. Glenn Kennedy; Christopher T. Elliott

2011-01-01

76

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent—iron humate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent—iron humate—was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in

Pavel Janoš; Veronika Šmídová

2005-01-01

77

The study of polarization converter with photo-induced ripple structure on dye-doped liquid crystal cell.  

E-print Network

??In this research, the polarization converters were manufactured by impinging intensity-gradient-distribution laser on DDLC (dye-doped liquid crystal) samples, which the gradient distributed light intensity was… (more)

Chiang, Chun-Pin

2011-01-01

78

Light shutter using dichroic-dye-doped long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals.  

PubMed

We propose a light shutter device using dichroic-dye-doped liquid crystals (LCs) whose Bragg reflection wavelength is set to be infrared by controlling the pitch of cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs). A dye-doped long-pitch ChLC cell is switchable between the dark planar state and the transparent homeotropic state. It has the advantages of high transmittance, low operation voltage, and an easy fabrication process relative to previous LC light shutter devices. The proposed light shutter device is expected to achieve high visibility for transparent organic light-emitting diode displays and emerging smart windows, which can be used in airplanes, cars, and other similar applications. PMID:24514486

Yu, Byeong-Hun; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Ki-Han; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

2013-12-01

79

Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrated a highly efficient, polarization-independent and electrically tunable Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal using double-side photoalignment technique. The maximum diffraction efficiency reaches 37%, which approaches the theoretical limit ~41%. Such a lens functions as a half-wave plate, and this feature could be well preserved under the applied voltage. In addition, the device is simple to fabricate, and

Liang-Chen Lin; Hung-Chang Jau; Tsung-Hsien Lin; Andy Y. Fuh

2007-01-01

80

Random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals: the role of confinement geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first experimental evidence of random laser action in a partially ordered, dye doped nematic liquid crystal with long-range dielectric tensor fluctuations is reported. Above a given pump power the fluorescence curve collapses and discrete sharp peaks emerge above the residual spontaneous emission spectrum. The spectral linewidth of these emission peaks is narrow banded, typically around 0.5nm. The unexpected surviving

G. Strangi; S. Ferjani; V. Barna; A. De Luca; C. Versace; N. Scaramuzza; R. Bartolino

2007-01-01

81

Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes  

PubMed Central

Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively. PMID:22899898

Mogharabi, Mehdi; Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

82

Nonlinear optical organic co-crystals of merocyanine dyes and phenolic derivatives with short hydrogen bonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the co-crystallization of merocyanine dyes M ( M: R-N +C 5H 4-CH?CH-C 6H 4O -, M1: R=CH 3, M2: R=HO-CH 2-CH 2-) with phenolic and aniline derivatives and show that the short or very short hydrogen bond between the two phenolic oxygen atoms which lead to a self-assembly of the M dyes and phenol derivatives is the key steering force for the co-crystallization process. The co-crystal formation was studied by melting point determination, by second-harmonic generation using the Kurtz and Perry powder test, and X-ray structural analysis. We present detailed results on the growth, polymorphism, and nonlinear optical properties of co-crystals of derivatives of M1 ( M2) and m-nitrophenol (mNP) and co-crystals of M2 and methyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDB). Three phases of the co-crystal M2·mNP and three phases of the co-crystal M2·MDB were found. Both M2·MDB(I) and (II) have the same crystal structure (space group symmetry Cc determined by X-ray diffraction), but show different linear and nonlinear optical properties. This unusual property in the co-crystals of M2·MDB(I) and (II) may be caused by a different proton location of the short hydrogen bond (O-H-O) in the aggregation between M2 and MDB which could not be resolved by X-ray diffraction.

Bosshard, Christian; Pan, Feng; Wong, Man Shing; Manetta, Sabine; Spreiter, Rolf; Cai, Chengzhi; Günter, Peter; Gramlich, Volker

1999-07-01

83

Emission property of inverse opal photonic crystal TiO2 infiltrated by laser dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic crystal has received much attention due to their unique structure and optical property. Photonic crystal which has photonic bandgap can be used to manipulate propagation of light and can be apply in designing integrated optical devices to realize all-optical circuits. Three dimensional photonic crystals which have complete photonic bandgap give more potential in application since they can manipulate propagation of light in all direction. Modified opal photonic crystal by infiltrating matrix material into voids between particles produce inverse opal photonic crystal which has complete photonic bandgap. In this experiment, opal photonic crystal formed from particles polystyrene was used as template material to produce inverse opal photonic crystal. Material dielectric TiO2 which has refractive index about 2,5-2,8 was used as matrix material to fill voids between particles. Simple method that was used to infiltrate precursor TiO2 dielectric is dipping method. Calcination as the final process was done at 550°C to remove all template material to form an air hole structure called inverse opal photonic crystal. To investigate inverse opal photonic crystal TiO2as an optical devices, DCMlaser dye wasinfiltrated into inverse opal TiO2. Based on emission measurement, there is a sharp peak at 808 nm that is identified as amplified spontaneous emission (ASE).

Safriani, Lusi; Wahid, Abdul; Hidayat, Sahrul

2013-09-01

84

Dyeing of Jute Fabric Using Indigosol Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleached jute fabric has been dyed with three indigosol dyes, namely Indigosol Violet I4R, Indigosol Golden Yellow IGK, and Indigosol Blue O4B, having different sensitivity to oxidation. Development stage (i.e., oxidation, neutralization, and soaping of the dyed fabric) plays the most important role for dyeing of jute fabric with indigosol dyes. Concentrations of chemicals in different processing steps such as

S. N. Chattopadhyay; N. C. Pan; A. K. Roy; A. Khan

2009-01-01

85

Transition metal dithiolene complexes as near-IR dyes for liquid crystal device applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both commercial and military applications (e.g., free-space IR communications and sensor protection) exist for guest-host liquid crystal (LC) devices operating in the near- to mid-IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near-IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near-IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. These new dye complexes are extraordinarily stable, possess liquid crystalline phases in their own right with the proper terminal functional groups, and can have melting points below room temperature. The latter property is especially significant for producing liquid crystal/dye mixtures with both high dye concentration and good resistance to phase separation. Because they are zerovalent, they can exhibit high solubility in LC hosts (up to 10 wt%). The ?max in these materials can range from 600 nm to 1600 nm, depending on structure. With enantiomerically enriched terminal substituents, nickel dithiolenes can induce a chiral mesophase in a nonchiral nematic host. This finding opens the possibility of generating novel LC mixtures with two degrees of tunability: an electronic absorbance band tunable by synthesis, and a selective reflection band tunable by temperature or applied electric field. Such a materials system would be particularly advantageous in sensor protection for dealing with frequency-agile laser threats.

Marshall, Kenneth L.; Schudel, Benjamin; Lippa, Irene A.

2004-01-01

86

Characterization of N3 dye adsorption on TiO2 using quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the kinetics of dye adsorption on semiconductors is crucial for designing dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with enhanced efficiency. Harms et al. recently applied the Quartz-Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (QCM-D) to study in situ dye adsorption on flat TiO2 surfaces. QCM-D measures adsorption in real time and therefore allows one to determine the kinetics of the process. In this work, we characterize the adsorption of N3, a commercial RuBipy dye, using the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor to simulate the TiO2 substrate of a DSSC. We report equilibrium constants that are in agreement with previous absorbance studies of N3 adsorption, and therefore demonstrate the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor as a valid and readily available planar TiO2 morphology to study dye adsorption.

Wayment-Steele, Hannah K.; Johnson, Lewis E.; Dixon, Matthew C.; Johal, Malkiat S.

2013-09-01

87

Efficiency Enhancement in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) structure that employs three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) to enhance the light absorption and improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) by using coherent scattering phenomena. All the DSSC structures with the 3D PC layer exhibited higher short-circuit current densities and higher PCE (10.8%) than those of traditional DSSCs (9.5%) because light that passed through the photoanode was diffracted, thereby making it possible to reuse it. The PCE is improved without affecting the delicate kinetic balance between the charge separation and recombination that is required to improve light-harvesting efficiency (LHE).

Hwang, Dae-Kue; Lee, Byunghong; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Chang, Robert P. H.

2012-12-01

88

Effect of dichroic dye on phase separation kinetics and electro-optical characteristics of polymer dispersed liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dichroic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared using a nematic liquid crystal, photo-curable polymer and dichroic azo dye by polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) method. Dynamics of PIPS and morphology development in the mixtures containing dye have been investigated by means of UV-VIS spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The phase separation and segregation of LC droplets was found to be dependent on the amount of dye used. LC droplets predominantly exhibited bipolar configuration that changed to maltese type crosses under the influence of an applied electric field. The extent of interaction and anchoring energy between the LC and polymer were examined by measuring contact angle in consequence of dye addition. Due to less interfacial interaction, PDLC with low dye content (?0.06 wt%) gave a good contrast ratio, relatively low threshold voltage and a value of high transmittance in the ON-state. UV-VIS spectroscopy results show that the molecular orientation of dye in LC droplets can be controlled with an applied field to induce nonlinearity in these materials. In particular, the dye concentration can be optimized to obtain promising electronic materials with minimum threshold and high contrast for display applications.

Deshmukh, R. R.; Malik, M. K.

2013-02-01

89

Aggregation Properties and Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Based on Naphthalenetetracarboxylic Acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

R003 is a dye produced for thin film optical components by Optiva, Inc.^1 made from the sulfonation of the dibenzimidazole derivative of naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid. Its molecular structure is very different from the aggregating food dye previously investigated in our laboratory^2 and R003 forms a liquid crystal phase at significantly lower concentrations. We have performed polarizing microscopy, absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction experiments in order to determine the phase diagram and aggregate structure. In addition, we have included both translational and orientational entropy in the theoretical analysis of the aggregation process, and have used a more realistic lineshape in analyzing the absorption data. Our results indicate that the ``bond energy'' for molecules in an aggregate is even larger than for the previously studied dye and that the aggregate structure has a cross-sectional area equal to two or three molecular areas rather than one.^1Lazarev, P., N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, SID Int. Symp. Digest of Tech. Papers, San Jose, California, June XXXII, 571 (2001).^2V. R. Horowitz, L. A. Janowitz, A. L. Modic, P. A. Heiney, and P. J. Collings, Phys. Rev. E 72, 041710 (2005).

Tomasik, Michelle; Collings, Peter

2007-03-01

90

Transition metal dithiolene complexes as near-IR dyes for liquid crystal device applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both commercial and military applications (e.g. free-space IR communications and sensor protection) exist for guest-host LC devices operating in the near-to mid IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. These new dye complexes are extraordinarily stable, possess liquid crystalline phases in their own right with the proper terminal functional groups, and can have melting points below room temperature. The latter property is especially significant for producing liquid crystal/dye mixtures with both high dye concentration and good resistance to phase separation. Because they are zerovalent, they can exhibit high solubility in LC hosts (up to 10% wt%). The absorbance maximum in these materials can range from 600 nm to 1500 nm, depending on structure. With enantiomerically-enriched terminal substituents, nickel dithiolenes can induce a chiral mesophase in a non-chiral nematic host. This finding opens the possibility of generating novel LC mixtures with two degrees of tunability- an electronic absorbance band tunable by synthesis, and a selective reflection band tunable by temperature or applied electric field. Such a materials system would be particularly advantageous in sensor protection for dealing with frequency-agile laser threats.

Marshall, Kenneth L.; Schudel, Benjamin; Lippa, Irene A.

2003-12-01

91

Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate single-mode laser operation in dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings. The gratings are fabricated in cells made from specifically chosen glass substrates to decrease the refractive index difference between the waveguide core layer and cladding layer. The phase separation degree of liquid crystal after holographic recording is further optimized to confine only the lowest propagation mode in the device. The mode selection mechanism is explained under the framework of the waveguide distributed feedback (DFB) theory. The wavelength of single-mode lasing can be tuned between 620 and 660 nm by varying the grating period. Our results show the HPDLC technique could provide single-mode organic DFB lasers in a tunable, simple, and large-area manner.

Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Quan; Xuan, Li; Chen, Linsen

2014-10-01

92

Mode competition of two bandedge lasing from dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser.  

PubMed

Mode competition of two-lasing modes at the photonic bandedge from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal lasing was studied by the alternation of temperatures. The increase or decrease of the wavelengths from photonic bandedges versus the alternation of temperature is attributed to the variation of helical twist power (HTP) and thus it shows the completely different result by choosing two of different nematic liquid crystals (MDA-981602 and MDA-3970). At certain temperature, the intensity contrast and slope efficiency between long and short emission lasing peaks were dominated from the experienced gain or loss of laser for the position of the photonic bandedge. By the linear combination of these two lasing modes with different emission wavelengths and intensity contrast at distinct temperature, the wide tuning of the output colors can be revealed from the CIE chromaticity diagram and thus it has opportunity to be used in the display technology in the near future. PMID:24787875

Lin, Ja-Hon; Chen, Po-Yen; Wu, Jin-Jei

2014-04-21

93

Optical phase conjugation in azo-dye doped chiral liquid crystal  

SciTech Connect

We report on optical phase conjugation phenomenon observed in chiral nematic liquid crystal showing band gap type Bragg reflection. The phase conjugate to the signal beam is observable only in the small temperature interval when the Bragg condition is fulfilled and only for circularly polarized light. The optical phase conjugation signals were observed at low cw laser light intensities (<100 mW/cm{sup 2}, {lambda} = 532 nm). Estimated value of third order optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2} is attributed to enhancement due to photoisomerisation of azo-dye (disperse red 1) inducing molecular reorientation process of liquid crystal molecules.

Karpinski, Pawel; Miniewicz, Andrzej [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

2012-10-15

94

Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes.  

PubMed Central

Reduction of seven azo dyes (amaranth, Ponceau SX, Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, tartrazine, Orange II, and methyl orange) was carried out by cell suspensions of predominant intestinal anaerobes. It was optimal at pH 7.4 in 0.4 M phosphate buffer and inhibited by glucose. Flavin mononucleotide caused a marked enhancement of azo reduction by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Other electron carriers, e.g., methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, phenosafranin, neutral red, crystal violet, flavin adenine dinucleotide, menadione, and Janus Green B can replace flavin mononucleotide. These data suggest that an extracellular shuttle is required for azo reduction. PMID:25047

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Egan, M

1978-01-01

95

Security devices based on liquid crystals doped with a colour dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal properties make them useful for the development of security devices in applications of authentication and detection of fakes. Induced orientation of liquid crystal molecules and birefringence are the two main properties used in security devices. Employing liquid crystal and dichroic colorants, we have developed devices that show, with the aid of a polarizer, multiple images on each side of the device. Rubbed polyimide is used as alignment layer on each substrate of the LC cell. By rubbing the polyimide in different directions in each substrate it is possible to create any kind of symbols, drawings or motifs with a greyscale; the more complex the created device is, the more difficult is to fake it. To identify the motifs it is necessary to use polarized light. Depending on whether the polarizer is located in front of the LC cell or behind it, different motifs from one or the other substrate are shown. The effect arises from the dopant colour dye added to the liquid crystal, the induced orientation and the twist structure. In practice, a grazing reflection on a dielectric surface is polarized enough to see the effect. Any LC flat panel display can obviously be used as backlight as well.

Carrasco-Vela, C.; Quintana, X.; Otón, E.; Geday, M. A.; Otón, J. M.

2011-12-01

96

Fast Nolinear Optical Mechanisms in Bi-Layered Cells Composed by Lyotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals with Dye and Viologen Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of the fast optical nonlinearity are studied in two types of cells based on lyotropic ionic liquid crystals (LILC) of metal alkanoates. They are (I) bi-layer cell, which consists of a thin dye film covered by LILC, and (II) LILC with electrochromic impurity (viologen). Applying dc electric voltage to the cell II leads to adsorption of viologen redox products

A. Bordyuh; Yu. Garbovskiy; S. Bugaychuk; G. Klimusheva; V. Reshetnyak

2009-01-01

97

Highly efficient plastic crystal ionic conductors for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

We have developed highly efficient, ambient temperature, solid-state ionic conductors (SSICs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by doping a molecular plastic crystal, succinonitrile (SN), with trialkyl-substituted imidazolium iodide salts. High performance SSICs with enhanced ionic conductivity (2-4?mScm?¹) were obtained. High performance solid-state DSSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.8% were fabricated using our SSICs combined with unique hierarchically nanostructured TiO? sphere (TiO?-SP) photoelectrodes; these electrodes have significant macroporosity, which assists penetration of the solid electrolyte into the electrode. The performance of our solid-state DSSCs is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported thus far for cells using plastic crystal-based SSICs, and is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art DSSCs which use ionic liquid type electrolytes. This report provides a logical strategy for the development of efficient plastic crystal-based SSICs for DSSCs and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24343425

Hwang, Daesub; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Armel, Vanessa; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Kim, Dongho; Jang, Sung-Yeon

2013-01-01

98

Highly Efficient Plastic Crystal Ionic Conductors for Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

We have developed highly efficient, ambient temperature, solid-state ionic conductors (SSICs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by doping a molecular plastic crystal, succinonitrile (SN), with trialkyl-substituted imidazolium iodide salts. High performance SSICs with enhanced ionic conductivity (2–4?mScm?1) were obtained. High performance solid-state DSSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.8% were fabricated using our SSICs combined with unique hierarchically nanostructured TiO2 sphere (TiO2-SP) photoelectrodes; these electrodes have significant macroporosity, which assists penetration of the solid electrolyte into the electrode. The performance of our solid-state DSSCs is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported thus far for cells using plastic crystal-based SSICs, and is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art DSSCs which use ionic liquid type electrolytes. This report provides a logical strategy for the development of efficient plastic crystal-based SSICs for DSSCs and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24343425

Hwang, Daesub; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Armel, Vanessa; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Kim, Dongho; Jang, Sung-Yeon

2013-01-01

99

Highly Efficient Plastic Crystal Ionic Conductors for Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed highly efficient, ambient temperature, solid-state ionic conductors (SSICs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by doping a molecular plastic crystal, succinonitrile (SN), with trialkyl-substituted imidazolium iodide salts. High performance SSICs with enhanced ionic conductivity (2-4 mScm-1) were obtained. High performance solid-state DSSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.8% were fabricated using our SSICs combined with unique hierarchically nanostructured TiO2 sphere (TiO2-SP) photoelectrodes; these electrodes have significant macroporosity, which assists penetration of the solid electrolyte into the electrode. The performance of our solid-state DSSCs is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported thus far for cells using plastic crystal-based SSICs, and is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art DSSCs which use ionic liquid type electrolytes. This report provides a logical strategy for the development of efficient plastic crystal-based SSICs for DSSCs and other electrochemical devices.

Hwang, Daesub; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Armel, Vanessa; Macfarlane, Douglas R.; Kim, Dongho; Jang, Sung-Yeon

2013-12-01

100

Photocatalytic degradation of dyes in aqueous solution operating in a fluidised bed reactor.  

PubMed

This work reports a preliminary design of a new photochemical reactor and its application to photochemical degradation of two dyes, Crystal Violet and Azure B, operating in both batch and continuous processes. A novel kind of photocatalyst, consisting of ZnO immobilised in alginate gel beads, which is able to photodegrade organic dyes effectively, has been employed in the present study. When this photocatalyst, at a concentration of 1 g of ZnO per litre of alginate gel at 3%, was employed in batch process, almost total decolourisation of Crystal Violet in reaction times lower than 120 min was observed. Operating in continuous process at different residence times, it was possible to achieve a total decolourisation of both Crystal Violet and Azure B. Moreover, the total organic carbon content (TOC) was reduced to 90% in the former and to 52% in the latter. These results indicated that the photoreactor developed in the present work was able to degrade effectively dyes of different structures, revealing the non-specificity of the system. PMID:11806536

Couto, S Rodríguez; Domínguez, A; Sanromán, A

2002-01-01

101

Tailoring of random lasing characteristics in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplified spontaneous emission and random lasing are investigated in random systems with dye-doped nematic liquid crystals. And that temporal stability of random lasing is analyzed. The influence of pumping polarization as well as the multiple scattering and reflection between boundaries on the emission behavior and the formation of coherent feedback is investigated in detail. For freely suspended samples, certain emission wavelength can be obtained by changing the pump wavelength. This feature is useful in making wavelength-tunable lasers. Moreover, as the pumping thickness of wedge sample increases, the emission spectrum is red shifted and the average spacing of adjacent spikes decreases. This property can be applied in laser mode selection, i.e., the number of modes within certain wavelength range can be chosen.

Ye, Lihua; Hou, Cong; Lv, Changgui; Zhao, Chong; Yin, Zhile; Cui, Yiping; Lu, Yanqing

2014-04-01

102

Tailoring of random lasing characteristics in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplified spontaneous emission and random lasing are investigated in random systems with dye-doped nematic liquid crystals. And that temporal stability of random lasing is analyzed. The influence of pumping polarization as well as the multiple scattering and reflection between boundaries on the emission behavior and the formation of coherent feedback is investigated in detail. For freely suspended samples, certain emission wavelength can be obtained by changing the pump wavelength. This feature is useful in making wavelength-tunable lasers. Moreover, as the pumping thickness of wedge sample increases, the emission spectrum is red shifted and the average spacing of adjacent spikes decreases. This property can be applied in laser mode selection, i.e., the number of modes within certain wavelength range can be chosen.

Ye, Lihua; Hou, Cong; Lv, Changgui; Zhao, Chong; Yin, Zhile; Cui, Yiping; Lu, Yanqing

2014-06-01

103

Photo-isomerization fronts in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals.  

PubMed

An experimental study of the photo-isomerization dynamics in dye-doped nematic crystals is reported, which shows that, when the sample is illuminated by a Gaussian beam, and for high enough input power, a transition from the nematic to the isotropic phase takes place in the illuminated area. The two phases are spatially connected via a front propagating outward from the center of the beam and following the local intensity profile and thus inducing a photo-controlled optical aperture. The optical intensity and temperature fields on the sample follow the same dynamical profile. The front dynamics is described by a phenomenological bi-stable model with an inhomogeneous control parameter, directly related to the beam intensity profile. PMID:24686624

Odent, V; Clerc, M G; Falcón, C; Bortolozzo, U; Louvergneaux, E; Residori, S

2014-04-01

104

Manipulation and assembly of small objects in liquid crystals by dynamical disorganizing effect of push-pull-azobenzene-dye  

PubMed Central

The phase transition of a nematic liquid crystal containing a push-pull azobenzene dye could be induced efficiently during irradiation with visible light. The dynamical disorganizing effect of the push-pull azobenzene dye on the liquid crystalline order through its trans-cis-trans photoisomerizaion cycle under visible light was contributed to the efficient phase transition. Then, the effects of light irradiation on the motion of small objects dispersed in the liquid crystals containing the push-pull azobenzene were explored, and the manipulation and assembly of those objects were successfully achieved in the nematic phase but also in the smectic phase. The combination of the photo-controlled dynamical change in the liquid crystalline order and the intrinsic self-assembly property of a liquid crystal is promising for use in technologies that require not only the organization of small objects but also the photo-driving of nano- and micro-sized mechanical materials. PMID:23835605

Kurihara, Seiji; Ohta, Kazuhiro; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Ryo; Kuwahara, Yutaka; Ogata, Tomonari; Kim, Sun-Nam

2013-01-01

105

Manipulation and assembly of small objects in liquid crystals by dynamical disorganizing effect of push-pull-azobenzene-dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase transition of a nematic liquid crystal containing a push-pull azobenzene dye could be induced efficiently during irradiation with visible light. The dynamical disorganizing effect of the push-pull azobenzene dye on the liquid crystalline order through its trans-cis-trans photoisomerizaion cycle under visible light was contributed to the efficient phase transition. Then, the effects of light irradiation on the motion of small objects dispersed in the liquid crystals containing the push-pull azobenzene were explored, and the manipulation and assembly of those objects were successfully achieved in the nematic phase but also in the smectic phase. The combination of the photo-controlled dynamical change in the liquid crystalline order and the intrinsic self-assembly property of a liquid crystal is promising for use in technologies that require not only the organization of small objects but also the photo-driving of nano- and micro-sized mechanical materials.

Kurihara, Seiji; Ohta, Kazuhiro; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Ryo; Kuwahara, Yutaka; Ogata, Tomonari; Kim, Sun-Nam

2013-07-01

106

Differential dichrome staining of tissue culture monolayers: alternate dyes and possible mechanism.  

PubMed

A polyacid-dependent dichrome has been devised which will differentiate epithelial from mesenchymal cells in young dividing primary cultures. Epithelial cells and colonies and nuclei are stained with metanil yellow, the stain is fixed and differentiated with phosphotungstic acid, and the mesenchymal elements are stained with toluidine blue. Several other dyes are tested for substitution in this method. Biebrich scarlet and aniline blue could be substituted for the metanil yellow; Bismarck brown T, Janus green B, crystal violet, and neutral red could be substituted for the basic dye. PMID:89718

Everett, M M; Miller, W A

1978-11-01

107

Decolorization of synthetic dyes using a copper complex with glucaric acid.  

PubMed

Selected azo, acridine, triphenyl methane, anthraquinone and thiazine-based dyes were decolorized using a catalytic system consisting of Cu(II)/glucaric acid/H(2)O(2). More than 90% decolorization was obtained with 100 ppm Acridine Orange, Azure B, Chicago Sky Blue, Crystal Violet, Methyl Orange, Poly B-411, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Blue 2, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R within 24 h. Seventy to eighty percent decolorization was achieved within the first 6 h. The decolorizaton was not affected by pH. The involvement of hydroxyl radicals produced in the system in the decolorization of the dye molecules was confirmed by electron spin resonance study. PMID:14575741

Verma, Pradeep; Shah, Vishal; Baldrian, Petr; Gabriel, Jirí; Stopka, Pavel; Trnka, Tomás; Nerud, Frantisek

2004-01-01

108

DYES ADSORPTION ONTO ORGANOCLAY AND MCM-41  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of acid dye (Amido Naphthol Red G, AR1) onto hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) chloride modified montmorillonite and basic dye (Basic Violet 10, BV10) onto MCM-41 was studied to examine the potential of organoclay and MCM-41 for the removal of acid and basic dye from wastewater. The revolutions of surface and pore structure of montmorillonite induced by surfactant modified process were

Lain-Chuen Juang; Cheng-Cai Wang; Chung-Kung Lee; Ting-Chu Hsu

109

First Crystal Structure of a Fungal High-redox Potential Dye-decolorizing Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) belong to the large group of heme peroxidases. They utilize hydrogen peroxide to catalyze oxidations of various organic compounds. AauDyPI from Auricularia auricula-judae (fungi) was crystallized, and its crystal structure was determined at 2.1 ? resolution. The mostly helical structure also shows a ?-sheet motif typical for DyPs and Cld (chlorite dismutase)-related structures and includes the complete polypeptide chain. At the distal side of the heme molecule, a flexible aspartate residue (Asp-168) plays a key role in catalysis. It guides incoming hydrogen peroxide toward the heme iron and mediates proton rearrangement in the process of Compound I formation. Afterward, its side chain changes its conformation, now pointing toward the protein backbone. We propose an extended functionality of Asp-168, which acts like a gatekeeper by altering the width of the heme cavity access channel. Chemical modifications of potentially redox-active amino acids show that a tyrosine is involved in substrate interaction. Using spin-trapping experiments, a transient radical on the surface-exposed Tyr-337 was identified as the oxidation site for bulky substrates. A possible long-range electron transfer pathway from the surface of the enzyme to the redox cofactor (heme) is discussed. PMID:23235158

Strittmatter, Eric; Liers, Christiane; Ullrich, Rene; Wachter, Sabrina; Hofrichter, Martin; Plattner, Dietmar A.; Piontek, Klaus

2013-01-01

110

Comparison of the performance of photonic band-edge liquid crystal lasers using different dyes as the gain medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary concern of this work is to study the emission characteristics of a series of chiral nematic liquid crystal lasers doped with different laser dyes (DCM, pyrromethene 580, and pyrromethene 597) at varying concentrations by weight (0.5-2 wt %) when optically pumped at 532 nm. Long-wavelength photonic band-edge laser emission is characterized in terms of threshold energy and slope efficiency. At every dye concentration investigated, the pyrromethene 597-doped lasers exhibit the highest slope efficiency (ranging from 15% to 32%) and the DCM-doped lasers the lowest (ranging from 5% to 13%). Similarly, the threshold was found to be, in general, higher for the DCM-doped laser samples in comparison to the pyrromethene-doped laser samples. These results are then compared with the spectral properties, quantum efficiencies and, where possible, fluorescence lifetimes of the dyes dispersed in a common nematic host. In accordance with the low thresholds and high slope efficiencies, the results show that the molar extinction coefficients and quantum efficiencies are considerably larger for the pyrromethene dyes in comparison to DCM, when dispersed in the liquid crystal host.

Mowatt, Carrie; Morris, Stephen M.; Song, Myoung Hoon; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Friend, Richard H.; Coles, Harry J.

2010-02-01

111

Optical tuning of extraordinary optical transmission through a metallic hole array using azobenzene dye-doped nematic liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tuning of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through a metallic hole array is achieved using an azobenzene dye-doped nematic liquid crystal. The liquid crystal is aligned homeotropically on the hole array and is sandwiched by a counter substrate placed at a distance of approximately 1 µm from the hole array. Upon UV irradiation, the azobenzene dye photo-isomerizes from the trans conformation to the cis conformation and disturbs the liquid crystalline order, causing a decrease in the effective refractive index. The tuning range achieved was 80 nm, and corresponded to a refractive index shift of 0.086. Optical tuning of EOT properties is potentially important for future all-optical processing of signals.

Kobashi, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Takayuki; Miura, Atsushi; Ikeda, Naoki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Fujikawa, Hisayoshi; Ozaki, Masanori

2014-01-01

112

Dye-sensitized nanoarrays with discotic liquid crystals as interlayer for high-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells.  

PubMed

The well-aligned and highly uniform one-dimensional ZnO with organic dyes core/shell (ZNs) and ZnO with dyes and liquid crystals core/double-shells nanoarrays (ZNLs) with controllable lengths were fabricated as electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ditetrabutylammonium cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) dye (N719) was presented to reduce the surface defects of ZnO nanoarrays (NAs). In addition, the shell modification could decrease the electron injection barrier between ZnO and active layer, thereby facilitating electron injection effectively and forming a direct electron transport channel into the cathode. Due to the orientation of nanoarrays and the self-organization of 3,6,7,10,11-pentakis(hexyloxy)-2-hydroxytriphenylene liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystalline mesophase and isotropic phase transition, the components of active layer would be driven rearrange and infiltrate among the interspaces of nanoarrays more orderly. The increased interfacial contact between cathode and active layer would benefit charge generation, transportation and collection. On the basis of these advantages, it was found the N719 shell and N719/LCs double-shells modifications of ZnO NAs could boost the photovoltaic performance of PSCs with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3% and 8.0%, respectively. PMID:25269148

Shi, Yueqin; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Yiwang

2014-10-22

113

Final report on the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43.  

PubMed

Acid Violet 43 is an anthraquinone color that may be used as a colorant in cosmetic formulations that are hair dyes, colors, and coloring rinses. Batches of Acid Violet 43 that are certified to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) specifications are termed Ext. D & C Violet No. 2. Hair dyes and colors containing Acid Violet 43 are considered coal tar ingredients and, as such, routinely bear a caution statement regarding potential skin irritation and instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation in any given individual. Expected concentrations of use are less than or equal to 1%. Impurities include anthracenedione derivatives, p-toluidine, and p-toluidine sulfonic acid, as well as heavy metals. Based on extensive safety test data, the U.S. FDA has established specifications (including limits on impurities) for Ext. D & C Violet No. 2 that allow its use in any cosmetic. It is the certified color (Ext. D & C Violet No. 2) that has been evaluated in the following safety tests. Oral toxicity tests do not demonstrate significant acute toxicity. In a short-term dermal toxicity study using guinea pigs and a subchronic dermal toxicity study using rabbits, no signs of systemic toxicity and no significant local skin reactions were noted. This ingredient was not genotoxic in bacterial assays, nor was it carcinogenic when applied to mouse skin at a 1% concentration. Accordingly, Acid Violet 43 was determined to be safe for use in hair dye formulations, when impurities are limited as follows: < or = 18% volatile matter (at 135 degrees C) and chlorides and sulfates (calculated as sodium salts); < or = 0.4% water-insoluble matter; < or = 0.2% 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.2% 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.1% p-toluidine; < or = 0.2% p-toluidine sulfonic acids, sodium salts; < or = 1% subsidiary colors; < or = 20 ppm lead (as Pb); < or = 3 ppm arsenic (as As); < or = 1 ppm mercury (as Hg); and with > or = 80% total color. PMID:11766130

Fiume, M Z

2001-01-01

114

Structural insight into the interactions between a cationic dye and an anionic surfactant in crystals of 9-aminoacridinium dodecyl sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

9-Aminoacridinium dodecyl sulfate, a salt consisting of a cationic dye and an anionic surfactant, was synthesized and structurally characterized. In the crystal packing, dodecyl sulfate anions interact via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions to form monolayers. These monolayers have a corrugated surface in which shallow and deep grooves are distinguishable. 9-Aminoacridinium cations form ?-stacking columns, which are located in these grooves, and interact with dodecyl sulfate monolayers via N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The monolayers of dodecyl sulfate ions observed in the crystal structure of the title compound represent a new type of self-assembled monolayers of this surfactant in the crystals.

Sikorski, Artur; Trzybi?ski, Damian

2014-11-01

115

Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

2013-12-01

116

Effect of an azo dye (DR1) on the dielectric parameters of a nematic liquid crystal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric parameters and relaxation properties of azo dye (DR1) doped E7 and pure E7 liquid crystal (LC) have been investigated in a wide frequency range of 10 k-10 MHz through the dielectric spectroscopy method at room temperature. Dielectric anisotropy (? ?) property of the LC changes from the positive type to negative type and dielectric anisotropy values decrease with doping of DR1. The relaxation frequency fr of E7 and E7/DR1 LC was calculated by means of Cole-Cole plots. Influence of bias voltage on the dielectric parameters has also been investigated.

Özder, S.; Okutan, M.; Köysal, O.; Gökta?, H.; San, S. E.

2007-03-01

117

Degradation of organic dyes via bismuth silver oxide initiated direct oxidation coupled with sodium bismuthate based visible light photocatalysis.  

PubMed

Organic dye degradation was achieved via direct oxidation by bismuth silver oxide coupled with visible light photocatalysis by sodium bismuthate. Crystal violet dye decomposition by each reagent proceeded via two distinct pathways, each involving different active oxygen species. A comparison of each treatment method alone and in combination demonstrated that using the combined methods in sequence achieved a higher degree of degradation, and especially mineralization, than that obtained using either method alone. In the combined process direct oxidation acts as a pretreatment to rapidly bleach the dye solution which substantially facilitates subsequent visible light photocatalytic processes. The integrated sequential direct oxidation and visible light photocatalysis are complementary manifesting a > 100% increase in TOC removal, compared to either isolated method. The combined process is proposed as a novel and effective technology based on one primary material, sodium bismuthate, for treating wastewaters contaminated by high concentrations of organic dyes. PMID:22616904

Yu, Kai; Yang, Shaogui; Liu, Cun; Chen, Hongzhe; Li, Hui; Sun, Cheng; Boyd, Stephen A

2012-07-01

118

An experimental optimization study for concentration and laser power effects in the fullerene-C 60 and azo dye doped guest-host liquid crystal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current-voltage characteristics of a famous guest-host liquid crystal system have been investigated under dark and laser illumination conditions. Dependency of current modulation with respect to concentration and laser power gives some optimization possibilities and estimations on the reorientation mechanisms of the liquid crystals. The current-voltage character of pure E7 is almost unchanged with laser pumping, while the fullerene and dye doping are enhancing effects in their individual and collective usage. The negative resistance effect was observed for some certain concentrations of the dye and C 60, and this peculiarity is shown to be switched with laser illumination. The mobility of the doped LC samples was calculated by transient current measurements and its dependency on the dye concentration and the laser power was investigated. It is evaluated that the effect of methyl red is a critical parameter in photoconductivity applications of liquid crystals.

Okutan, M.; Köysal, O.; San, S. E.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

2009-11-01

119

Surface-enhanced resonance hyper-Raman scattering and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of dyes adsorbed on silver electrode and silver colloid: a comparison study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced resonance hyper-Raman scattering (SERHRS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) of three dyes, rhodamine 6G, crystal violet and basic fuchsin, are studied comparatively on electrochemically roughened silver electrode and silver colloid, respectively. All three dyes show a better SERHRS efficiency on the silver colloid than on the silver electrode, a phenomenon just opposite to what we have recently observed for pyridine and pyrazine [Chem. Phys. Lett. 305 (1999) 303]. These results suggest that the efficiency of SEHRS depends not only on the active surfaces employed (colloidal metals versus roughened electrodes) but also on the types of the adsorbed molecules.

Li, Wu-Hu; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Yu, Nai-Teng

1999-10-01

120

Effect of some operational parameters on textile dye biodegradation in a sequential batch reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of anaerobic and aerobic periods in the operation cycle of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was chosen to study biological color removal from simulated textile effluents containing reactive, sulfonated, monoazo and diazo dyes, respectively, Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Remazol Black B. 90% color removal was obtained for the violet dye in a 24-h cycle with a Sludge

N. D Lourenço; J. M Novais; H. M Pinheiro

2001-01-01

121

Lasing from dye-doped photonic crystals with graded layers in dichromate gelatin emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on optically pumped lasing from dye-doped, graded-spacing layer structures of dichromate gelatin emulsions fabricated using two-beam holographic interference. The graded layers exhibited deep and wide photonic band gaps. Multimode lasing with both a low threshold and a high quality factor was observed at the band edge of the photonic band gap. We modeled the emissions from the dye-doped graded layer system using a finite difference time domain technique and achieved good agreement with experimental results.

Kok, Mang Hin; Lu, Weixin; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Tam, Wing Yim; Wong, George K. L.; Chan, C. T.

2008-04-01

122

IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?  

PubMed Central

Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the ?-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the ?-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1? plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

Schluter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bonemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Puhler, Alfred

2007-01-01

123

IncP-1-beta plasmid pGNB1 isolated from a bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant mediates decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.  

PubMed

Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1beta plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1beta plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

2007-10-01

124

Production and delivery of violet solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expansion of conventional violet cells from laboratory numbers to pilot line numbers is described. The basic properties of a violet cell are discussed. The close interaction of all the process steps is emphasized.

1974-01-01

125

Conservation Assessment for Great-spurred Violet  

E-print Network

Tech University. #12;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Great-spurred violet (Viola selkirkii Pursh ex Goldie; Violaceae-spurred violet, Viola selkirkii, Black Hills, boreal forest, myrmecochory. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many individuals have

126

Effects of surfactants on the adsorptive removal of basic dyes from water using an organomineral sorbent-iron humate.  

PubMed

The sorption of basic dyes (methylene blue, malachite green, rhodamine B, crystal violet) onto a nonconventional organomineral sorbent-iron humate-was examined in the presence of various kinds of surfactants. It was found that nonionic (Triton X-100) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants exhibited a relatively small effect on the dye sorption. Anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate), on the other hand, affected (in most cases) dramatically the sorption of basic (cationic) dyes. Typically, the dye sorption was enhanced in the presence of low concentrations of anionic surfactants. At high surfactant concentrations, a steep decrease in the dye sorption was observed in some systems, probably due to the formation of micelles that solubilize the dye molecules and prevent their sorption. A model describing these experimental dependencies was proposed. The sorption of basic dyes onto iron humate may be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. Diffusion processes were identified as the main mechanisms controlling the rate of the dye sorption. PMID:16162351

Janos, Pavel; Smídová, Veronika

2005-11-01

127

Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

2012-12-01

128

Anaerobic biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes in a hybrid UASFB reactor for wastewater remediation.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestions have been proved more successful than aerobic systems for the degradation and destruction of dye-containing wastewaters. The performance of a hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge-filter bed (UASFB) reactor was tested with a synthetic wastewater containing Crystal violet (CV) as a carbon source and sodium acetate as a co-substrate. Continuous feeding of the reactor started with an initial OLR of 0.9 g COD/l-d and then it was increased step wise to 4 g COD l(-1) d(-1), while maintaining constant HRT (24 h). The optimum pH value and temperature for decolorization of crystal violet by this mixed culture species under anaerobic conditions were found to be 8-9 and 30-35°C respectively. N,N-dimethylaminophenol and N,N-bis (dimethylamino) benzophenone (Michler's Ketone) were detected as the degradative metabolites of Crystal Violet. Subsequently, N,N-dimethylaminophenol was further degraded to aniline in the reactor whereas Michler's ketone was not degraded under anaerobic conditions. The UASFB bioreactor was able to remove the CV completely up to a loading rate of 100 mg CV l(-1)d(-1). PMID:20449763

Mondal, Pijush Kanti; Ahmad, Rais; Usmani, Shams Qamar

2010-11-01

129

Improvement of amplified spontaneous emission by encapsulating green fluorescent dye in inverted-opal titania photonic crystals.  

PubMed

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of a green fluorescent dye (10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H,11H-[1] benzo- pyrano [6,7,8-ij]quinolizin-11-one) (C545T) encapsulated in a highly ordered three-dimensional (3D) inverted-opal titania (TiO(2)) photonic crystal (PC) microcavity were studied. Due to the utilization of a TiO(2) PC, the emission spectrum was greatly narrowed and the ASE threshold, gain, and loss were significantly improved. The threshold, gain, and loss reached 1.25 mJ pulse(-1) cm(-2), 34.69 cm(-1), and 16.9 cm(-1), respectively. The possible reason for the improvement in the ASE performance by the PC is attributed to the 3D photon localization by the microcavity effect of the PC. PMID:18709061

Zhang, Dingke; Wang, Yanping; Cao, Yanling; Ma, Dongge

2008-03-20

130

Light-scattering experiments in dye-doped liquid crystals both to determine crystal parameters and to construct consistent neural network empirical physical formulas for scattering amplitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, static laser light-scattering amplitude measurements in azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) were made versus scattering angle, temperature and applied bias voltage. Three NLC parameters were determined: the elastic constant ratios K11/K22 by regression, phase transition temperatures, and Freedericksz voltages from the graphs. They were all doping ratio dependent. Secondly, as a novel approach, by a nonlinear universal function approximator layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) we constructed an explicit form of empirical physical formulas (EPFs) for theoretically unknown nonlinear azo-dye doped NLC scattering amplitude functions. Excellent LFNN test set (i.e. yet-to-be measured experimental data) predictions prove that the constructed LFNN-EPPs estimate unknown amplitude functions consistently. The LFFN-EPFs, too, confirmed the doping-ratio dependency. Also, comparing LFNN and regression amplitude fits, the LFNN fits were significantly better. In conclusion, physical laws embedded in the physical data can be consistently extracted by LFNN. One major potential application in the nonlinear optics domain is that these LFNN-EPFs, by differentiation, integration, minimization, etc., can be used to obtain further NLC scattering amplitude related molecular structural physical quantities. This could in turn help us to develop new nonlinear optical materials.

Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Polat, Ömer

2011-04-01

131

Fabrication of Twisted Nematic Gratings Using Polarization Hologram Based on Azo-Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study establishes the feasibility of fabricating twist nematic gratings (TN-gratings) using a polarization holographic approach on the basis of the laser-induced adsorption of azo dyes by a polymer-coated glass substrate. This holographic recording is fast, and the formed TN gratings are permanent. Measurements indicate that the first-order diffracted-beam intensity from this TN grating is independent of the polarization of the incident beam. The polarization states of the zeroth- and first-order diffracted beams are perpendicular to each other. The polarization state and intensity distribution of the diffracted beams agree well with their theoretical values derived using the Jones matrix.

Wu, Shing-Trong; Chen, Yi Shin; Guo, Jian Hong; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey

2006-12-01

132

Inhalation toxicology of red and violet mixtures. Chamber concentration and particle-size distribution report  

SciTech Connect

An inhalation exposure facility was developed at the U.S. EPA, RTP, NC to conduct inhalation exposures of rodents and guinea pigs to dye mixtures used by the U.S. Army in the manufacture of smoke munitions. Initially, an evaluation of the prototype chamber aerosol homogeneity was conducted to determine the uniformity and reproducibility of the concentration and particle size of dye aerosol throughout the breathing zone of the test animals. The three dyes, DR11, SR1, and DB3, were chemically analyzed for purity and optically examined for size and shape. All pure dyes appeared to be stable at room temperature except DB3, which decomposes if not stored at 4 C. The particle size ranges varied for each pure dye and structures were either amorphous (azo dye) or crystalline (anthraquinone dyes). The bulk red and violet dye mixtures were analyzed for composition. The chemical analysis of the relative composition of each dye mixture, collected by cascade impactor sampling, revealed fractionation of the mixtures into component dyes.

Higuchi, M.A.; Davies, D.W.

1991-07-01

133

Microgap ultra-violet detector  

DOEpatents

A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

134

Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.  

PubMed

Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents. PMID:23010121

Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

2013-02-01

135

Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IMP-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

Gaddy, E. M.

1976-01-01

136

Decolorization of Alizarin Red and other synthetic dyes by a recombinant laccase from Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding for a laccase was isolated from the white-rot fungus Lenzites gibbosa by RT-PCR and expressed in the Pichia pastoris. The laccase native signal peptide efficiently directed the secretion of the recombinant laccase in an active form. Factors influencing laccase expression, such as pH, cultivation temperature, copper concentration and methanol concentration, were optimized. The recombinant enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, and was estimated to have a MW of ~61.5 kDa. The purified enzyme behaved similarly to the native laccase produced by L. gibbosa and efficiently decolorized Alizarin Red, Neutral Red, Congo Red and Crystal Violet, without the addition of redox mediators. The decolorization capacity of this recombinant enzyme suggests that it could be a useful biocatalyst for the treatment of dye-containing effluents. This study is the first report on the synthetic dye decolorization by a recombinant L. gibbosa laccase. PMID:24078122

Zheng, Miaomiao; Chi, Yujie; Yi, Hongwei; Shao, Shuli

2014-01-01

137

Photodynamic properties and photoinactivation of Candida albicans mediated by brominated derivatives of triarylmethane and phenothiazinium dyes.  

PubMed

The photodynamic activity of brominated derivatives of New Fuchsin and Azure B was studied in solution and in cell suspensions of Candida albicans. The spectroscopic and photodynamic properties of these photosensitizers were compared with those of Crystal Violet and Azure B, which represent active photosensitizer related to each family of compounds. Triarylmethane derivatives absorb intensely with a band centered at ? 570 nm, while the phenothiazinium dyes at ? 650 nm. Photooxidation of 9,10-dimethylanthracene was observed using phenothiazinium compounds indicating the formation of singlet molecular oxygen, while it was not detected using triarylmethane agents. However, triarylmethane dyes were able to photooxidize l-tryptophan. In yeast cell suspensions, the photosensitized inactivation of C. albicans increases with photosensitizer concentration, causing a ? 5 log decrease of cell survival, when the cultures are treated with 20 ?M of Crystal Violet and irradiated for 60 min. Under these conditions, the photodynamic activity of 50 ?M Azure B induced a ? 3 log decrease of cell survival. Studies of photodynamic action mechanism indicated that photoinactivation of C. albicans cells induced by triarylmethane compounds involves mainly type I photoprocess. Although, phenothiazinium derivatives produce singlet molecular oxygen, a contribution of other reactive oxygen species cannot be discarded in the photoinactivation of C. albicans. PMID:24642192

Alvarez, M Gabriela; Montes de Oca, M Noel; Milanesio, M Elisa; Ortiz, Cristina S; Durantini, Edgardo N

2014-06-01

138

Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells using imidazolium-type ionic liquid crystal systems as effective electrolytes.  

PubMed

A novel ionic liquid crystal (ILC) system (C(12)MImI/I(2)) with a smectic A phase used as an electrolyte for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) showed the higher short-circuit current density (J(SC)) and the higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency than the system using the non-liquid crystalline ionic liquid (C(11)MImI/I(2)), due to the higher conductivity of ILC. To investigate charge transport properties of the electrolytes in detail, the exchange reaction-based diffusion coefficients (D(ex)) were evaluated. The larger D(ex) value of ILC supported that the higher conductivity of ILC is attributed to the enhancement of the exchange reaction between iodide species. As a result of formation of the two-dimensional electron conductive pathways organized by the localized I(3)- and I- at S(A) layers, the concentration of polyiodide species exemplified by I(m)- (m = 5, 7, ...) was higher in C(12)MImI/I(2). However, as the increment of the concentration of polyiodide species is less than that of D(ex), the contribution of a two-dimensional structure of the conductive pathway through the increase of collision frequency between iodide species was proposed. Furthermore, a quasi-solid-state ionic liquid crystal DSSC was successfully fabricated by employing a low molecular gelator. Addition of the 5.0 g/L gelator to ILC improved light-to-electricity conversion efficiency through the increase of J(SC) due to the enhancement of the conductivity in C(12)MImI/I(2)-gel. PMID:17474701

Yamanaka, Noriyo; Kawano, Ryuji; Kubo, Wataru; Masaki, Naruhiko; Kitamura, Takayuki; Wada, Yuji; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Yanagida, Shozo

2007-05-10

139

Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye  

PubMed

This study investigated the dynamic behavior of the first-order diffraction efficiency of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films doped with a guest-host dye. PDLC films were fabricated using various LC-polymer mixing ratios, and written with various powers. Experimental results indicated that several peaks appeared in the curve of the first-order diffraction efficiency versus time. According to the light scattering study, we believe that the first peak was due to the superposition of density and absorption gratings. The density grating was associated with the spatially varied molecular weight of polymer molecules across the sample, and the absorption grating resulted from the spatially varied density of free electrons. The other peaks were caused by the superposition of the absorption and phase gratings. The phase grating was generated by the formation of a periodic structure of polymer-rich and LC-rich regions in the sample. This study also proposes a model to explain these experimental results. Moreover, the theory derived from this model correlates well with the experimental results, allowing us to determine the amplitude of the final grating. PMID:11088886

Fuh; Tsai; Lee; Fan

2000-09-01

140

Colour removal from a simulated dye wastewater using a two-phase Anaerobic packed bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, rapid technological advances in the textile and dyeing industry have yielded benefits to society but have also generated new and significant environmental problems. The treatment alternatives applicable for the removal of colour vary, depending upon the type of dye wastewater. A synthetic, simulated mixed dye waste (Basic Yellow 28, Basic Yellow 21, Basic Red 18.1, Basic Violet

A. Mahdavi Talarposhti; T. Donnelly; G. K. Anderson

2001-01-01

141

[Studies on "allura red AC standard", dye standards of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences].  

PubMed

"Allura Red AC Standard (C.I. 16035)", Dye Standards of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences was prepared. The content of this Dye Standards was determined by the titanium trichloride method. This content averaged 95.5%. Ultra violet-visible absorption and infrared spectra of the Dye Standard were also determined. PMID:1364399

Kimura, M; Kakiuchi, M; Kawamoto, R; Tsuji, S; Shibata, T; Ito, Y

1991-01-01

142

Adsorption of basic dyes onto montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-Mont) was exchanged with titanium cations and the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10) on these montmorillonites were measured to examine the ion-exchange effects on the basic dyes adsorption. The relationship between the dye adsorption and the alteration of pore structures of montmorillonite induced by ion-exchange processes was discussed. Moreover, the

Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Ting-Chu Hsu; Chung-Kung Lee; Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Fu-Chuang Huang

2004-01-01

143

Adsorption of basic dyes onto MCM-41  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes, Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10), onto MCM-41 was studied to examine the possible effect of interactions between large adsorbates and MCM-41 on the pore structure stability of MCM-41 and the potential of MCM-41 for the removal of basic dyes from wastewater. The revolutions of surface characteristics and pore structure of

Lain-Chuen Juang; Cheng-Cai Wang; Chung-Kung Lee

2006-01-01

144

Conductometric study of interaction between dyes and surface active agents.  

PubMed

The interaction of anionic surface active agents e.g. sodium decyl sulphate (SDS), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDDS), sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STDS), sodium hexadecyl sulphate (DHDS) and sodium octadecyl sulphate (DODS) with cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV) acridine orange (AO), rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) and quinacrine dihydrochloride (QD) has been studied in three regions by conductometric titration. In the first region ion pair association occurs and the species (cationic and anionic) exist in equilibrium with homogeneous solution. In the second region complexation occurs by 1:1 with MB, CV and AO and by 2:1 with QD and Rh 6G forming a heterogeneousphase, separation and equilibration containing free ions and ion-pair. In the third region the micelle formation occurs by the excess of anions in the presence of cations as well as ion-pair formation and separated complex ions that give solubilization of the complex to a homogeneous clear solution. PMID:16414765

Waqar, D; Alam, M; Hussein, W

1995-01-01

145

Copper-ligand complex for the decolorization of synthetic dyes.  

PubMed

The reaction system containing Cu(II), hydrogen peroxide and D-arabinono-1,4-lactone was found to be effective in the decolorization and reduction of toxicity of azo, thiazine-, triphenylmethane- and anthraquinone-based synthetic dyes. More than 85% decolorization was obtained with 100ppm Acridine Orange, Azure B, Chicago Sky Blue 6B, Crystal Violet, Evans Blue, Poly B-411, Reactive Blue 2, Reactive Blue 5, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R incubated for 24h in the presence of 10mM CuSO(4), 20mM D-arabinono-1,4-lactone and 80 mM H(2)O(2). The rate of decolorization was not affected by pH in the range of 3-9. The rapid decolorization was accompanied by a fast decomposition of H(2)O(2) in the reaction mixture and by a fast production of hydroxyl radicals. PMID:15504481

Verma, Pradeep; Baldrian, Petr; Gabriel, Jirí; Trnka, Tomás; Nerud, Frantisek

2004-12-01

146

Electronic absorption spectra of cresyl violet acetate in anisotropic and isotropic solvents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotropic and anisotropic solvation characteristics of cresyl violet acetate (CVA) were investigated in isotropic liquid solutions and in polar nematic matrices as a function of the solvent type and concentration. The interaction of the ionic dye with the anisotropic surrounding and with that of the isotropic solvents was investigated and compared. The experimental result suggests that the nematic liquid crystalline solvents might create stronger solvation than the isotropic solvents. The spectral shifts were correlated by the solvent permittivity and Kamlet-Taft parameters. The polarized absorption spectra of cresyl violet acetate were measured between 400 and 800 nm and the dichroic ratio R and degree of anisotropy S of this dye in the liquid crystalline host determined.

Jafari, A.; Ghanadzadeh, A.; Tajalli, H.; Yeganeh, M.; Moghadam, M.

2007-03-01

147

The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.  

PubMed

Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. PMID:21596089

Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

2011-08-01

148

A unique dye-decolorizing peroxidase, DyP, from Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1: heterologous expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis.  

PubMed

The dye-decolorizing peroxidase DyP is a key enzyme in the decolorizing fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1 that degrades azo and antraquinone dyes. The gene dyp from T. cucumeris Dec 1, which has low homology to other peroxidase genes, was cloned and transformed into Aspergillus oryzae and glycosylated DyP was expressed at high levels. Purified DyP was deglycosylated using GST Endo F1 and then crystallized in a strong magnetic field (10 T) at 283 K using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. X-ray diffraction data to 2.96 A resolution collected from a native crystal at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan) showed that the crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(5)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.15, c = 363.46 A. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contained four DyP molecules, with a corresponding Matthews coefficient (V(M)) of 2.50 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 51%. Heavy-atom derivatives of DyP have been obtained and electron-density maps have been calculated. The haem is visible and continuous electron density between the haem and protein clearly indicates the location of the proximal histidine ligand. PMID:14684913

Sato, Takao; Hara, Shusaku; Matsui, Takuro; Sazaki, Gen; Saijo, Shinya; Ganbe, Tadashi; Tanaka, Nobuo; Sugano, Yasushi; Shoda, Makoto

2004-01-01

149

An investigation of the fixation and staining of lipids by a combination of malachite green or other triphenylmethane dyes with glutaraldehyde.  

PubMed

Mixtures of the monocationic triphenylmethane dyes, malachite green or crystal violet, with glutaraldehyde, retained and stained phospholipid droplets in chloroplasts of leaves of Lolium multiflorum Lam. These dyes also stained trilinolenin; phosphatidic acid dioleoyl, dipalmitoyl; phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl, dilinoleoyl; and phosphatidylethanolamine dioleoyl on filter paper models. In this model system the dipalmitoyl derivatives of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine did not stain well, if at all. Washing of the dyed samples with 0.5 M sodium chloride solution did not remove the colour, suggesting that the interaction is unlikely to be purely ionic. Except with trilinolenin, the colour and possibly the lipid samples were removed from the filter paper model system on washing with 100% ethyl alcohol. Other triphenylmethane dyes (methyl green, light green and fast green FCF) did not retain phospholipid droplets in tissue. Fast green did, however, stain phospholipids in the model system. Two quinone-imine dyes, neutral red and toluidine blue O, while staining phospholipids in the model system did not retain droplets on the chloroplasts but did assist in the retention and staining of cell membranes. The basis of the reaction between lipid and dye is discussed in relation to the structural formulae of the dyes and model lipids. It is possible that there is an interaction between the hydrophobic fatty acid ester side chains of the lipid and the dyes. Neither the phosphate nor the polyhydric alcohol moieties of the lipid seem to be essential for staining or retention of lipid. PMID:2473211

Lawton, J R

1989-04-01

150

Novel dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cone lasers with various birefringences and associated tunabilities of lasing feature and performance.  

PubMed

This study is the first to investigate novel cone lasers and the tunabilities of their lasing feature and performance based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) films with various LC birefringences (?n). A unique conically-symmetric lasing ring with a low energy threshold occurs at a specific nonzero oblique angle (?(ring)). The low energy threshold is comparable to those for common lasing signals occurring simultaneously at the short- and long-wavelength edges (SWE and LWE) of the CLC reflection band (CLCRB) for 0°. The lasing ring is induced by the enhancement in the density of photonic state for the fluorescence with a wavelength of ?(ring) based on an edge-overlapping effect, in which ?(ring) is just located at an edge-overlapping spectral position of the SWE of the CLCRB for 0° and the LWE of the CLCRB for ?(ring). The lasing feature (i.e., the lasing wavelengths of the three lasing signals and the emitted angle of the lasing ring) are tuned by varying ?n. The simulated relationship of an oblique angle with ?n, in which the SWE of the CLCRB for that oblique angle just overlaps the LWE of the CLCRB for 0°, can be obtained by calculating the dispersion relation of a planar CLC structure with various values of ?n based on Berreman's 4 × 4 matrix approach. The result of the calculation is highly consistent with the experimental data for the dependence of ?(ring) on ?n. Furthermore, the dependence of lasing performance (energy threshold and relative slope efficiency) on ?n for the three lasing signals is also measured, which findings can be used to qualitatively identify positive interaction or competition among the three lasing signals. PMID:21935186

Lin, Shih-Hung; Lee, Chia-Rong

2011-09-12

151

Nonlinear experimental dye-doped nematic liquid crystal optical transmission spectra estimated by neural network empirical physical formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two complementary objectives related to optical transmission spectra of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) were achieved. First, at room temperature, for both pure and dye (DR9) doped E7 NLCs, the 10-250 W halogen lamp transmission spectra (wavelength 400-1200 nm) were measured at various bias voltages. Second, because the measured spectra were inherently highly nonlinear, it was difficult to construct explicit empirical physical formulas (EPFs) to employ as transmittance functions. To avoid this difficulty, layered feedforward neural networks (LFNNs) were used to construct explicit EPFs for these theoretically unknown nonlinear NLC transmittance functions. As we theoretically showed in a previous work, a LFNN, as an excellent nonlinear function approximator, is highly relevant to EPF construction. The LFNN-EPFs efficiently and consistently estimated both the measured and yet-to-be-measured nonlinear transmittance response values. The experimentally obtained doping ratio dependencies and applied bias voltage responses of transmittance were also confirmed by LFFN-EPFs. This clearly indicates that physical laws embedded in the physical data can be faithfully extracted by the suitable LFNNs. The extraordinary success achieved with LFNN here suggests two potential applications. First, although not attempted here, these LFNN-EPFs, by such mathematical operations as derivation, integration, minimization etc., can be used to obtain further transmittance related functions of NLCs. Second, for a given NLC response function, whose theoretical nonlinear functional form is yet unknown, a suitable experimental data based LFNN-EPF can be constructed to predict the yet-to-be-measured values.

Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Köysal, O?uz

2010-09-01

152

Adsorption of basic dyes in aqueous solution by clay adsorbent from regenerated bleaching earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerated bleaching earth was used for adsorption and adsorption kinetics of the three basic dyes violet 4, violet 3 and red 9 from aqueous solution. The rate of adsorption has been investigated under various parameters such as initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. Two simple models (i.e., pseudo-second-order reaction and intra-particle diffusion) have been tested to predict the adsorption parameters.

W. T. Tsai; Y. M. Chang; C. W. Lai; C. C. Lo

2005-01-01

153

Quinoid conjugated dye designed for efficient sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paraquinoid rings are introduced in the ?-conjugation of all-organic donor-?-acceptor dyes as sensitizer in dye sensitized solar cells, to drastically shift optical response from violet-blue to near-infrared and to significantly enhance photoabsorption. Taking Y1 as a model, real time electron dynamics simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory confirm that paraquinoid conjugation maintains high thermal stability and ultrafast electron-hole separation at ambient temperature.

Jiao, Yang; Ma, Wei; Meng, Sheng

2013-10-01

154

Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel.  

PubMed

Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic-acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO(2)-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH(3)-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were soaked with alkaline solution; meanwhile the center of pore size distribution was changed from 9 to 3-4 nm. These composites efficiently captured phenol in gaseous and liquid phases, superior to mesoporous silica such as MCM-48 or SBA-15 and zeolite NaY, and the equilibrium data of gaseous adsorption could be well fitted to Freundlich model. These modified silicas also exhibited high adsorption capacity forward basic dyes such as crystal violet (CV) and leuco-crystal violet (LCV), reaching the adsorption equilibrium within 1 h and offering a new material for environment protection. PMID:21458822

Tao, Yu Fei; Lin, Wei Gang; Gao, Ling; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jia Yuan; Wei, Feng; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jian Hua

2011-06-15

155

A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal.  

PubMed

Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive. PMID:25247717

Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

2014-10-01

156

Electrochemically enhanced removal of polycyclic aromatic basic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon cloth electrodes.  

PubMed

Open-circuit (OC) adsorption and electrosorption behaviors of three polycyclic aromatic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon cloth (ACC) were investigated. The selected dyes were crystal violet (BB-3), basic blue7 (BB-7), and basic blue11 (BB-11). OC adsorption and electrosorption processes were monitored by in situ UV-visible spectrophotometry. Electrosorption was carried out by polarization of an ACC electrode, galvanostatically. Considerable enhancements in removal capacity and duration of the dyes were achieved upon polarization of ACC. Kinetic data for OC adsorption and electrosorption were successfully treated according to pseudo-first-order law, and rate constants were determined. Adsorption isotherms were derived, and the data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Both the rate and extent of adsorption and electrosorption of dyes were found to increase in the order of BB-7 < BB-11 < BB-3. This order was discussed in terms of correlation between sizes of dye species and of ACC pores. Electrodesorption experiments were carried out to explore possibilities of regeneration of ACC. PMID:20704233

Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

2010-08-15

157

Resonance Rayleigh scattering method for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium with iodide-basic triphenylmethane dye systems.  

PubMed

In dilute phosphoric acid solution, cadmium (II) reacts with a large excess of I- to form [CdI4]2- which reacts further with basic triphenylmethane dyes such as crystal violet (CV), ethyl violet (EV), methyl violet (MV), brilliant green (BG) or malachite green (MG) to form an ion-association complex. This results in a significant enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity and the appearance of new RRS spectra. The characteristics of RRS spectra of the ion-association complexes, the influencing factors and the optimum conditions of these reactions have been investigated. The intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of cadmium from 0 to 60 ng mL(-1) for EV and MV systems, 0 to 80 ng mL(-1) for CV system, and 0 to 100 ng mL(-1) for BG and MG systems. The methods exhibit high sensitivities and the detection limits for cadmium are between 0.35 and 2.00 ng mL(-1) depending on the different reaction systems. The new RRS method was applied to the direct determination of traces of cadmium in pure zinc and synthetic water samples. PMID:11227575

Liu, S; Liu, Z; Li, M; Li, N; Luo, H

2000-12-01

158

Facile assembly of hybrid materials containing polyoxometalate cluster anions and organic dye cations: crystal structures and initial spectral characterization.  

PubMed

Salts of the pararosaniline dye cation and four polyoxometalate cluster anions have been isolated under both ambient and hydrothermal conditions; structural and initial spectroscopic data are consistent with significant perturbation of ion electronic states induced by charge-assisted N-H---O hydrogen bonds. PMID:18209794

Xie, Jingli; Abrahams, Brendan F; Wedd, Anthony G

2008-02-01

159

Potential use of low-cost lignocellulosic waste for the removal of direct violet 51 from aqueous solution: equilibrium and breakthrough studies.  

PubMed

An efficient biosorbent, sugarcane bagasse was used in native, HCl-treated, and Na-alginate immobilized form for the removal of Direct Violet 51 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch study was performed to optimize important process parameters, such as pH, contact time, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and temperature. Removal of Direct Violet 51 was found to be favorable at pH 2 with the biosorbent dose of 0.05 g. Biosorption process was found to be exothermic in nature. Maximum dye biosorption (39.6 mg/g) was achieved by using HCl-treated biomass. The pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models showed best fitness to the experimental data. Thermodynamic study was also performed to determine the feasibility of biosorption process. Continuous mode study was performed to optimize the important process parameters, such as bed height, flow rate, and initial dye concentration for maximum removal of Direct Violet 51 dye. The higher bed height, low flow rate, and high initial dye concentration were found to be the better conditions for maximum dye biosorption (17.28 mg/g). The linearized form of the Thomas model equation fitted well to the experimental data. The bed depth service time model was used to express the effect of bed height on breakthrough curves. Characterization of biosorbent was performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The FT-IR spectral analyses showed the involvement of hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups in biosorption process. These results indicated that sugarcane bagasse biomass could be used as a novel biosorbent for the removal of Direct Violet 51 dye from real textile and related industries. PMID:24468968

Sadaf, Sana; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Nausheen, Sana; Noreen, Saima

2014-05-01

160

Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring

Grätzel, Michael

2008-03-01

161

A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive.Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03712j

Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

2014-10-01

162

Adsorption behaviors of acid and basic dyes on crosslinked amphoteric starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosslinked amphoteric starch with carboxymethyl and quaternary ammonium groups is investigated as an adsorbent for removal of both acid and basic dyes in solution. Acid Light Yellow 2G, Acid Red G, Methyl Green and Methyl Violet were used to study the adsorption behaviors under various parameters such as pH, dose of amphoteric starches, initial dye concentration, adsorption time and adsorption

Shimei Xu; Jingli Wang; Ronglan Wu; Jide Wang; Hong Li

2006-01-01

163

Effects of synthesis temperature on the microstructures and basic dyes adsorption of titanate nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of two basic dyes (Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10)) onto titanate nanotubes (TNT) that were prepared via a hydrothermal method with different synthesis temperatures was studied to examine the potential of TNT for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. Effects of synthesis temperature on the microstructures of TNT were characterized with transmission

Chung-Kung Lee; Kuen-Song Lin; Chian-Fu Wu; Meng-Du Lyu; Chao-Chun Lo

2008-01-01

164

Simultaneous decolorization of binary mixture of reactive yellow and acid violet from wastewaters by electrocoagulation.  

PubMed

Dyes are common pollutants in a large variety of industrial wastewaters, and the treatment of these wastes has been extensively studied by coagulation. For the removal of pollutants from the wastewaters, different techniques have been used and electrocougulation is one of the widely used methods. This process is very effective in removing organic pollutants including dyestuff wastewater. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the operating parameters, such as current density, electrolyte concentration, dyestuff concentration, and pH of solution on decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of wastewater containing two different dyes in same solution by direct current electrocoagulation. The amount of dye removed was found by application of first derivative spectrophotometric method to the synthetic dye mixtures. In this work synthetic dye mixture which include C.I. Reactive Yellow 145 (RY145) and C.I. Acid Violet 90 (AV 90) were used for electrocougulation (EC) process with iron electrodes. In the presence of both dye molecules, the optimum pH was found to be 4, optimum NaCI concentration was 3000 mg/L and optimum current density was 5.56 mA/cm2. Under these conditions in the case of 100 mg/L-1 each dye concentration at 20 degrees C and 3 cm interelectro distance the color removal efficiency was reached 97.7% for AV 90 and 97.1% for RY145 in 10 minutes time duration. Dye concentration dependent highest COD removal efficiency was measured as 82% around at 100 mg/L dye concentration. PMID:21866763

Keskin, Can Serkan; Ozdemir, Abdil; Sengil, I Ayhan

2011-01-01

165

Kinetic modelling and mechanism of dye adsorption on unburned carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyeing processes are among the most environmentally unfriendly industrial processes by producing coloured wastewaters. The adsorption method using unburned carbon from coal combustion residue was studied for the decolourisation of typical acidic and basic dyes. It was discovered that the unburned carbon showed high adsorption capacity at 1.97×10?4 and 5.27×10?4mol\\/g for Basic Violet 3 and Acid Black 1, respectively.

Shaobin Wang; Huiting Li

2007-01-01

166

Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.  

PubMed

The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

2012-01-01

167

Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water. PMID:19786292

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2009-11-01

168

Adsorption of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Various Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated clay, montmorillonite, and activated carbon were used for the removal of two basic dyes, Basic Green 5 (BG5) and Basic Violet 10 (BV10). Both dynamic and equilibrium data were obtained by the batch technique. The dynamic data indicate that the activated carbon was suitable for BG5 but not for BV10 primarily due to the molecular structure, whereas the montmorillonite

2005-01-01

169

Dye Painting!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

Johnston, Ann

170

Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).  

PubMed

Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds. PMID:23179707

Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

2013-01-01

171

Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) on ASTROSAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope on ASTROSAT Satellite mission is a suite of Far Ultra Violet (FUV: 130 - 180 nm), Near Ultra Violet (NUV: 200 - 300 nm) and Visible band (VIS: 320-550nm) imagers. ASTROSAT is the multi-wavelength mission of ISRO. UVIT will image the sky simultaneously in three channels with a field of view diameter of ~ 28 arcminutes and an angular resolution < 1.8". Two identical co-aligned telescopes (T1, T2) of Ritchey-Chretien configuration (Primary mirror of ~375 mm diameter) collect the celestial radiation and feed the detector systems via a selectable filter on a filter wheel mechanism; gratings are available in the filter wheels of FUV and NUV channels for slitless low-resolution spectroscopy. The photon-counting detector system for each of the 3 channels is generically identical. One of the telescopes images in the FUV channel, while the other images in NUV and VIS channels via a beamsplitter. Images from the VIS channel are principally used for measuring drift, used in construction of images on the ground by shift and add, and to reconstruct absolute aspect of the images. Adequate baffling has been provided for reducing the scattered background from the Sun, earth albedo and other bright objects. The one-time opening mechanical cover on each telescope also works as a Sun-shield after deployment. We will present the overall (mechanical, optical and electrical) design of the payload.

Kumar, Amit; Ghosh, S. K.; Hutchings, J.; Kamath, P. U.; Kathiravan, S.; Mahesh, P. K.; Murthy, J.; Nagbhushana, S.; Pati, A. K.; Rao, M. N.; Rao, N. K.; Sriram, S.; Tandon, S. N.

2012-09-01

172

Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization  

PubMed Central

Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0–10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0–60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by ?-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

2013-01-01

173

Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of three basic dyes, named basic violet 10, basic violet 1, and basic green 4, from aqueous solutions onto sugarcane dust was studied. The results revealed the potential of sugarcane dust, a waste material, to be a low-cost sorbent. Equilibrium isotherms were analyzed using the Langmuir, the Freundlich, and the three-parameter Redlich–Peterson isotherms. In order to determine the

Yuh-Shan Ho; Wen-Ta Chiu; Chung-Chi Wang

2005-01-01

174

Size-controlled anatase titania single crystals with octahedron-like morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A simple hydrothermal method with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a chelating agent enabled growth in the presence of a base (diethylamine, DEA) of anatase titania nanocrystals (HD1-HD5) of controlled size. DEA played a key role to expedite this growth, for which a biphasic crystal growth mechanism is proposed. The produced single crystals of titania show octahedron-like morphology with sizes in a broad range of 30-400 nm; a typical, extra large, octahedral single crystal (HD5) of length 410 nm and width 260 nm was obtained after repeating a sequential hydrothermal treatment using HD3 and then HD4 as a seed crystal. The nanocrystals of size ~30 nm (HD1) and ~300 nm (HD5) served as active layer and scattering layer, respectively, to fabricate N719-sensitized solar cells. These HD devices showed greater V(OC) than devices of conventional nanoparticle (NP) type; the overall device performance of HD attained an efficiency of 10.2% power conversion at a total film thickness of 28 ?m, which is superior to that of a NP-based reference device (? = 9.6%) optimized at a total film thickness of 18-20 ?m. According to results obtained from transient photoelectric and charge extraction measurements, this superior performance of HD devices relative to their NP counterparts is due to the more rapid electron transport and greater TiO(2) potential. PMID:23116194

Shiu, Jia-Wei; Lan, Chi-Ming; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Hui-Ping; Huang, Wei-Kai; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

2012-12-21

175

Sensitively monitoring photodegradation process of organic dye molecules by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag particle.  

PubMed

Photodegradation of organic dye molecules has attracted extensive attention because of their high toxicity to water resources. Compared with traditional UV-visible spectroscopy, SERS technology can reflect more sensitively the catalytic degradation process occurring on the surface of the catalysts. In this paper, we report the synthesis and structure of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag composite, which integrates SERS active Ag nanostructure with catalytically active titania. The degradation of the typical dye molecule crystal violet (CV), as an example, is investigated in the presence of the as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag composite structure, which exhibits high catalytic activity and good SERS performance. At the same time, renewable photocatalytic activity was also investigated. PMID:25192200

Qin, Suhua; Cai, Wenya; Tang, Xianghu; Yang, Liangbao

2014-09-29

176

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

177

The nonlinear refraction sign turned to reverse by intercalating cresyl violent dye into layered titanate nanosheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state dye-doped materials are an attractive alternative to conventional liquid dye solution. In this study, the spectral characteristics of dye cresyl violet before and after intercalating into layered titanate nanosheets and forming a nanohybrid thin film were investigated by measuring absorption and fluorescence spectra. In addition, their nonlinear optical properties were studied using single beam z-scan technique under irradiation of low power continuous wave (CW) produced by DPSS laser with a wavelength of 532 nm. The nonlinear studying results reveal that the dye cresyl violet in solution has a negative nonlinear refractive index, but it reverses to positive after the dye is intercalated into layered titanate nanosheets with a negative nonlinear refractive index forming CV/HTO nanohybrid thin film. This method can provide a way to turn to reverse nonlinear refraction sign of the materials.

Dou, Chunsheng; Wen, Puhong; Kong, Xingang; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Feng, Qi

2011-02-01

178

Development of dye-sensitized solar cells composed of liquid crystal embedded, electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) nanofibers as polymer gel electrolytes.  

PubMed

In order to overcome the problems associated with the use of liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a new system composed of liquid crystal embedded, polymer electrolytes has been developed. For this purpose, three types of DSSCs have been fabricated. The cells contain electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVdF-co-HFP) polymer gel electrolyte, with and without doping with the liquid crystal E7 and with a liquid electrolyte. The morphologies of the newly prepared DSSCs were explored using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Analysis of the FE-SEM images indicate that the DSSC composed of E7 embedded on e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte has a greatly regular morphology with an average diameter. The ionic conductivity of E7 embedded on e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte was found to be 2.9 × 10(-3) S/cm at room temperature, a value that is 37% higher than that of e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte. The DCCS containing the E7 embedded, e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte was observed to possess a much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE = 6.82%) than that of an e-PVdF-co-HFP nanofiber (6.35%). In addition, DSSCs parameters of the E7 embedded, e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte (V(oc) = 0.72 V, J(sc) = 14.62 mA/cm(2), FF = 64.8%, and PCE = 6.82% at 1 sun intensity) are comparable to those of a liquid electrolyte (V(oc) = 0.75 V, J(sc) = 14.71 mA/cm(2), FF = 64.9%, and PCE = 7.17%, both at a 1 sun intensity). PMID:22422008

Ahn, Sung Kwang; Ban, Taewon; Sakthivel, P; Lee, Jae Wook; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jin, Sung-Ho

2012-04-01

179

Synthesis and characterization of bent-shaped azobenzene monomers: Guest-host effects in liquid crystals with azo dyes for optical image storage devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six novel bent-shaped monomers were synthesized such as substituted/or non-substituted 1,3-phenylene bis-{4-[(4-allyloxy)phenylazo]benzoate} ( 4a- c) and substituted/or non-substituted 1,3-phenylene bis-{4-[3-(4-allyloxy-3-fluoro)phenylazo]benzoate} ( 4d- f) in which azobenzene moiety in the periphery and substituted/or non-substituted resorcinol as central unit with polymeriable double bonds are linked at both ends of all the molecules. The mesophase behavior was investigated using polarizing optical microscopy, DSC and XRD measurements. Four members of the family show an intercalated smectic (Sm intercal) phase and two were crystalline in nature. The trans-form of azo compounds ( 4a- f) showed a strong band in the UV region (355-366 nm), which was attributed to the ?-? ? transition, and a weak band in the visible region at 455-465 nm due to the n-? ? transition. When one of the azo dye ( 4d) is mixed with liquid crystal as a guest, showed greater increase in thermal back relaxation time which is useful for creation of optical image storage devices.

Lutfor, M. R.; Hegde, G.; Kumar, S.; Tschierske, C.; Chigrinov, V. G.

2009-11-01

180

Influence of hole injection layer and work function of cathode on the performance of light-emitting liquid crystal cells with fluorescent dye-doped nematic liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the properties of rubrene-doped nematic-liquid-crystal cells to help determine the appropriate structure and material of electrodes for inducing light emission. In particular, we addressed the influence of the insertion of a hole injection layer (HIL) and the work function of the cathode on device performance. As a result, the employment of a HIL and a lower-work-function material was revealed to be effective in obtaining higher luminance and external quantum efficiency. We concluded that this improvement is caused by the facilitated carrier injection on the HIL and cathode surface, as is true for common organic light-emitting diodes.

Honma, Michinori; Horiuchi, Takao; Watanabe, Kyoko; Nose, Toshiaki

2014-11-01

181

A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste.  

PubMed

The effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing, cosmetics, etc., contains large amount of hazardous dyes. There is huge number of treatment processes as well as adsorbent which are available for the processing of this effluent water-containing dye content. The applicability of naturally available low cast and eco-friendly adsorbents, for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste by adsorption treatment, has been reviewed. In this review paper, we have provided a compiled list of low-cost, easily available, safe to handle, and easy-to-dispose-off adsorbents. These adsorbents have been classified into five different categories on the basis of their state of availability: (1) waste materials from agriculture and industry, (2) fruit waste, (3) plant waste, (4) natural inorganic materials, and (5) bioadsorbents. Some of the treated adsorbents have shown good adsorption capacities for methylene blue, congo red, crystal violet, rhodamine B, basic red, etc., but this adsorption process is highly pH dependent, and the pH of the medium plays an important role in the treatment process. Thus, in this review paper, we have made some efforts to discuss the role of pH in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:21387170

Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen; Sharma, Monika; Sahore, Vishal

2011-12-01

182

Adduct-forming tendencies of cationic triarylmethane dyes with proteins: metabolic and toxicological implications.  

PubMed

The formation of colorless adducts by four cationic triarylmethane dyes (TAM(+)s), methyl green (MeG(+)), malachite green (MG(+)), pararosaniline (PR(+)), and crystal violet (CV(+)) was studied spectrophotometrically at 25 degrees C, in 50 mM 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) buffer (pH 8), by monitoring the loss in TAM(+) color in the absence and presence of human serum proteins as potential addends. Unfractionated serum caused a rapid bleaching of MeG(+) and MG(+), while PR(+) and CV(+) were unaffected. Sephacryl S200 HR chromatographic screening of the serum revealed two composite peaks of MeG(+)-bleaching activity. The major peak (M(r) range, 40,000-130,000) overlapped with and extended on either side of the albumin peak. The minor peak corresponding to ca. 10% of the total MeG(+)-bleaching capacity had M(r) > 230,000. MG(+)-bleaching activity dominated the entire chromatographic profile and implicated a multitude of minority proteins with a high capacity to form colorless MG adducts. It is concluded that highly electrophilic TAM(+)s such as MeG(+) and MG(+) must be quantitatively trapped in the form of dye-protein adducts in biological fluids and that the primary in vivo effects (e.g. toxicity) of such dyes most likely arise from ligand-type effects on multiple protein targets. Mechanisms that call for unmodified TAM(+) structure (radical-mediated redox changes, DNA intercalation) may be more relevant to the in vivo impact of dyes such as PR(+) and CV(+) that have a lower tendency to form adducts. PMID:15549706

Tacal, Ozden; Ozer, Inci

2004-01-01

183

Acylated delphinidin glycosides from violet and violet-blue flowers of Clematis cultivars and their coloration.  

PubMed

Three new acylated delphinidin glycosides, delphinidin 3-O-beta-[(2"-trans-caffeoylglucopyranosyl)-(1 --> 2)-(6"-succinylgalactopyranoside)]-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), delphinidin 3-O-beta-[(2"-trans-caffeoylglucopyranosyl)-(1 --> 2)-(6"-trans-caffeoyl-tartaroyl-malonylgalactopyranoside)]-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and delphinidin 3-O-beta-[(2"-trans-caffeoylglucopyranosyl)-(1 --> 2)-(6"-trans-caffeoyl-tartaroyl-malonylgalactopyranoside)]-3'-O-beta-glucuronopyranoside (3), were isolated from the violet and violet-blue sepals of Clematis cultivars 'Jackmanii Superba' and 'Fujimusume'. The chemical structures of the isolated anthocyanins were determined by LC-MS, characterization of hydrolyzates, and UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The visible absorption spectra of these anthocyanins were compared with those of fresh sepals and crude extracts in pH 5.1 buffer solution. In addition, the co-pigment effect with some kaempferol glycosides and caffeoylglucose was examined. PMID:24427942

Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

2013-11-01

184

Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

1977-01-01

185

Study of photocatalytic activity of ZnS quantum dots as efficient nanoparticles for removal of methyl violet: effect of ferric ion doping.  

PubMed

Zinc sulfide quantum dots (QDs), as pure and doped with Fe(3+), were prepared for photodecolorization of methyl violet (MV), as a model dye, under UV light irradiation. The syntheses of QDs were carried out using a simple chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared samples were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The influences of operational parameters on the decolorization of MV such as dopant content, pH, dosage of nanophotocatalyst, UV irradiation time and initial dye concentration were studied. The results showed that the QDs presented high efficiency for MV decolorization, and doping of ZnS QDs with Fe(3+) enhanced the efficiency and rate of dye removal. Finally, the reproducibility and kinetic model of the dye degradation were discussed. PMID:24316540

Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

2014-03-25

186

Study of photocatalytic activity of ZnS quantum dots as efficient nanoparticles for removal of methyl violet: Effect of ferric ion doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc sulfide quantum dots (QDs), as pure and doped with Fe3+, were prepared for photodecolorization of methyl violet (MV), as a model dye, under UV light irradiation. The syntheses of QDs were carried out using a simple chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared samples were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The influences of operational parameters on the decolorization of MV such as dopant content, pH, dosage of nanophotocatalyst, UV irradiation time and initial dye concentration were studied. The results showed that the QDs presented high efficiency for MV decolorization, and doping of ZnS QDs with Fe3+ enhanced the efficiency and rate of dye removal. Finally, the reproducibility and kinetic model of the dye degradation were discussed.

Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

2014-03-01

187

Determination of textile dyes in organs of Oncorhynchus mykiss W. after in vitro exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative determination in organs of Oncorhynchus mykiss W. of a premetallized dye (C.I. Acid Violet 66) and the azoic base (C.I. Acid Red 217), used in wool dyeing, is studied in this paper. UV-VIS Spectrophotometry was used for the chromatic quantification and atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the detection of the metal. The method described here is as satisfactory for

M. C. Riva; R. Flos; M. Crespi; M. Pepió

1992-01-01

188

Regeneration Research of Porous Magnetic Microspheres during Treatment of Wastewater Containing Cationic Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application feasibility of porous magnetic microspheres in the removal of cationic dyes from wastewater was investigated. Various desorption solutions were employed for the recovery of cationic dyes from absorbents and regeneration of porous magnetic microspheres. The results showed that 1 M NaCl or 1 M KCl in water\\/methanol co-solvent had excellent desorption ability for methyl violet. This fact was further demonstrated

Qingquan Liu; Li Wang; Anguo Xiao; Haojie Yu; Mårten Ericson

2010-01-01

189

Photodegradation of Acid Violet 7 with AgBr-ZnO under highly alkaline conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photocatalytic activity of AgBr-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Acid Violet 7 (AV 7) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. AgBr-ZnO is found to be more efficient than commercial ZnO and prepared ZnO at pH 12 for the mineralization of AV 7. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization have been analyzed. Expect oxone, other oxidants decrease the degradation efficiency. Addition of metal ions and anions decrease the degradation efficiency of AgBr-ZnO significantly. The mineralization of AV 7 has also been confirmed by COD measurements. The mechanism of degradation by AgBr-ZnO is proposed to explain its higher activity under UV light. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

Krishnakumar, B.; Swaminathan, M.

2012-12-01

190

Dyes as fungal inhibitors: effect on colony diameter.  

PubMed Central

The effects of a wide range of concentrations of 13 dyes on the colony diameters of nine fungal strains (including members of the Deuteromycetes and Zygomycetes) were evaluated. Auramine at a concentration of 50 ppm (50 micrograms/ml), methylene blue at a concentration of 500 ppm, gentian violet at a concentration of 5 ppm, and phenol red at a concentration of 50 ppm performed as well as the commonly used dyes dichloran at a concentration of 2 ppm and rose bengal at a concentration of 50 ppm in that they allowed adequate colony development of the Deuteromycetes strains tested and controlled rapidly spreading fungi. PMID:1768153

Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabañes, F J

1991-01-01

191

Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. PMID:23321372

Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

2013-02-15

192

Removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution by perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of perlite for the removal of methyl violet from aqueous solutions at different concentration, pH, and temperature has been investigated. Adsorption equilibrium is reached within 1 h. The capacity of perlite samples for the adsorption of methyl violet was found to increase with increasing pH and temperature and decrease with expansion and increasing acid-activation. The adsorption isotherms are described

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2003-01-01

193

Metallophyte status of violets of the section Melanium.  

PubMed

Violets from metal-enriched soils have controversially been described as both heavy-metal accumulators and excluders in the literature. The present study solves the issue for violets of the section Melanium (zinc violets, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria and V. lutea ssp. westfalica; hartsease or wild pansy, Viola tricolor; and mountain pansy, V. lutea). The aims were to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and in the roots and shoots of field-collected plants, to evaluate the potential impact of colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on heavy-metal concentrations in the plant tissues, and to quantitatively define the localisation of the elements in root cross-sections. When these violets grow in low-metal soils, higher concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the roots and shoots than in the soil, whereas the opposite was seen in samples from high-metal soils. Under all field conditions examined, the roots of all of these species were colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. However, V. tricolor was marginally colonised when the concentrations of Zn and P were higher in the soil. Determination of the spatial distribution of the elements in root cross-sections of these violets indicates tissue-specific deposition of elements within the vascular tissue, the cortex, and the rhizodermis. These data indicate that violets of the section Melanium are heavy-metal excluders. PMID:23859423

Hermann, Bothe; Katarina, Vogel-Mikuš; Paula, Pongrac; Matevž, Likar; Neva, Stepic; Primož, Pelicon; Primož, Vavpeti?; Luka, Jeromel; Marjana, Regvar

2013-11-01

194

Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS  

PubMed Central

Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed. PMID:22748361

2012-01-01

195

Biosorption potential of synthetic dyes by heat-inactivated and live Lentinus edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges.  

PubMed

Lentinus edodes CCB-42 was immobilized in loofa sponges and applied to the biosorption of the synthetic dyes congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet. Live immobilized microorganisms achieved average decolorations of congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet of 97.8, 99.7 and 90.6 %, respectively. The loofa sponge was the support and the coadjuvant promoting dye adsorption. The biosorption conditions were optimized for each dye, yielding 30 °C, pH 5.0 and a 12 h reaction time for congo red; 25 °C, pH 3.0 and 36 h for bordeaux red; and 25 °C, pH 8.0 and 24 h for methyl violet. Operational stability was evaluated over five consecutive cycles, with both bordeaux red and congo red exhibiting decolorations above 90 %, while the decoloration of methyl violet decreased after the third cycle. In the sixth month of storage, congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet had decolorations of 93.1, 79.4 and 73.8 %, respectively. Biosorption process best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. Maximum biosorption capacity of heat-treated L. edodes immobilized in loofa sponge was determined as 143.678, 500.00 and 381.679 mg/g for congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet, respectively. Treatment with immobilized L. edodes reduced the phytotoxicity of the medium containing dyes. FT-Raman experiments suggested the occurrence of interactions between loofa sponge fibers, L. edodes and dye. L. edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges represents a promising new mode of treatment of industrial effluents. PMID:25267474

Gimenez, Gabriela Gregolin; Ruiz, Suelen Pereira; Caetano, Wilker; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Matioli, Graciette

2014-12-01

196

The different effects of oxygen and air DBD plasma byproducts on the degradation of methyl violet 5BN.  

PubMed

Through a novel design of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma plume used in fabric-fiber surface modification, its discharge byproducts mainly including downstream gases and ultraviolet light were used to treat the dye solution. The different influence of oxygen and air DBD plasmas on the degradation of methyl violet 5BN (MV-5BN), which is widely used in textile industry, was investigated in this paper. The results showed that the cooperation between ultraviolet light and active species generated by the DBD plasma can decolorize MV-5BN effectively, and the chromophore peaks attributed to the -NN- bonds in MV-5BN molecule disappeared entirely when the azo dye solutions were treated for 25 min by the air and oxygen DBD plasmas. The degradation reaction followed an exponential kinetics over time, and the peak of aromatic derivatives at 209 nm in UV-vis spectra increased nearly 2.7 times when the dye solution was treated for 30 min by air DBD plasma. However, the oxygen DBD plasma could deplete the aromatic derivatives entirely. It is found that the formation of O(3) and NO(x) in the downstream gases of air and oxygen plasmas may be responsible for the different effects on the azo dye degradation. PMID:19665839

Chen, Guangliang; Zhou, Mingyan; Chen, Shihua; Chen, Wenxing

2009-12-30

197

X-ray diffraction and ultrastructural analyses of dye-altered celluloses support van der Waals forces as the initial step in cellulose crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous conflicting diffraction studies on dye altered cellulose have supported two opposing bonding schemes within a glucan minisheet: van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. Past molecular mechanics energy analysis has been used as evidence to support the van der Waals forces model. Additional evidence from electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction is presented here. Theoretical extrapolation supports a 3-ply sheet

Susan K. Cousins; R. Malcolm Brown

1997-01-01

198

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

199

A rapid and simple method for simultaneous determination of triphenylmethane dye residues in rainbow trouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid and simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and optimized for screening and confirmation of triphenylmethane dyes including malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV), leucocrystal violet (LCV) and brilliant green (BG) in fish muscle with skin. Leucocrystal violet D6 (LCV-D6) and leucomalachite green-D5 (LMG D5) was used as internal standards. Sample preparation is a simple procedure based on solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in acetonitrile with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil ODS-4 C18 column with ammonium acetate buffer in acetonitrile gradient. The mass detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI+). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CC?) was 0.43, 0.24, 0.33, 0.28 and 0.17?gkg(-1) for MG, LMG, CV, LCV and BG respectively. The detection capability (CC?) values obtained were 0.56, 0.31, 0.43, 0.37 and 0.22?gkg(-1), respectively. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) values for the within-day and inter-day laboratory reproducibility, for MG, LMG, CV, LCV and BG at the four levels of fortification (0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2?gkg(-1)), was less than 16 and 19% respectively. Accuracy of the method was confirmed by successful participation of a proficiency test organized by FAPAS. The method has been used for the analysis of 208 fish samples of which seven samples were found to be non-compliant containing low residues of LMG and LCV. PMID:24866565

Kaplan, Muammer; Olgun, Elmas O; Karaoglu, Oznur

2014-07-01

200

Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.  

PubMed Central

Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen. PMID:7039509

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

1981-01-01

201

Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.  

PubMed

Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen. PMID:7039509

Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

1981-10-01

202

Propagation and chimeral characterization of two reverse pinwheel flowering African violet clones  

E-print Network

) is a pinwheel flowering A&ican violet with two light violet stripes extending the length of each corolla segment on each side of the parallel white center stripe. These violet stripes match to the color 93B on the R. H. S. Colour Chart (Royal...) is a pinwheel flowering A&ican violet with two light violet stripes extending the length of each corolla segment on each side of the parallel white center stripe. These violet stripes match to the color 93B on the R. H. S. Colour Chart (Royal...

Sandall, Sharon Katrina

2012-06-07

203

crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ? 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for ?-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for ?-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for ?-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for ?-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

2014-07-01

204

Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception  

PubMed Central

Aim To analyse how intraocular lens (IOL) chromophores affect retinal photoprotection and the sensitivity of scotopic vision, melanopsin photoreception, and melatonin suppression. Methods Transmittance spectra of IOLs, high pass spectral filters, human crystalline lenses, and sunglasses are used with spectral data for acute ultraviolet (UV)?blue photic retinopathy (“blue light hazard” phototoxicity), aphakic scotopic luminous efficiency, melanopsin sensitivity, and melatonin suppression to compute the effect of spectral filters on retinal photoprotection, scotopic sensitivity, and circadian photoentrainment. Results Retinal photoprotection increases and photoreception decreases as high pass filters progressively attenuate additional short wavelength light. Violet blocking IOLs reduce retinal exposure to UV (200–400?nm) radiation and violet (400–440?nm) light. Blue blocking IOLs attenuate blue (440–500?nm) and shorter wavelength optical radiation. Blue blocking IOLs theoretically provide better photoprotection but worse photoreception than conventional UV only blocking IOLs. Violet blocking IOLs offer similar UV?blue photoprotection but better scotopic and melanopsin photoreception than blue blocking IOLs. Sunglasses provide roughly 50% more UV?blue photoprotection than either violet or blue blocking IOLs. Conclusions Action spectra for most retinal photosensitisers increase or peak in the violet part of the spectrum. Melanopsin, melatonin suppression, and rhodopsin sensitivities are all maximal in the blue part of the spectrum. Scotopic sensitivity and circadian photoentrainment decline with ageing. UV blocking IOLs provide older adults with the best possible rhodopsin and melanopsin sensitivity. Blue and violet blocking IOLs provide less photoprotection than middle aged crystalline lenses, which do not prevent age related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments if the unproved phototoxicity?AMD hypothesis is valid. PMID:16714268

Mainster, M A

2006-01-01

205

Determination of the degradation products of selected sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dyes treated by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The removal of water-soluble sulphonated phenylazonaphthol dye effluents generated by textile industries is an important issue in wastewater treatment. Microbial treatment of environmental pollutants including dyes, with white rot fungi has received wide attention as a potential alternative for conventional methods in wastewater treatment. Three sulphonated phenylazonaphthol dyes with similar molecular structures Acid Orange 7, Acid Orange 8 and Mordant Violet 5 were selected and degraded by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Chemical instrumental analysis methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) were used to identify the degraded dyes. Mordant Violet 5 had two degradation pathways when degraded by P. ostreatus. The first degradation pathway for Mordant Violet 5 was for trans structure and the cis-Mordant Violet 5 followed the second pathway. Acid Orange 8 and Acid Orange 7 had the same degradation mechanism as the first degradation mechanism for Mordant Violet 5, that is cleavage of azo bond at the naphthalene ring side where benzenesulfonic acid and 1,2-naphthoquinone are formed. PMID:18778834

Lu, Yiping; Phillips, Dennis R; Lu, Lude; Hardin, Ian R

2008-10-24

206

crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polarized absorption, emission spectra and decay time measurements of Pr3+-doped CaYAlO4 single crystal have been performed at room temperature. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the spectroscopic parameters , radiative transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes and branching ratios were obtained. The stimulated emission cross-section, fluorescence lifetimes and the quantum efficiency of the promising laser transition were also calculated and compared with other reported crystals. The results show that Pr3+:CaYAlO4 is a promising candidate for visible solid-state laser emission.

Lv, Shaozhen; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Zhaojie; You, Zhenyu; Li, Jianfu; Gao, Shufang; Wang, Hongyan; Tu, Chaoyang

2014-07-01

207

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2010-04-01

208

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2014-04-01

209

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

210

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2012-04-01

211

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2011-04-01

212

21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food...

2011-04-01

213

21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food...

2010-04-01

214

Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.  

PubMed

An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150mgL(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

2014-12-01

215

Different degradation behaviors of InGaN\\/GaN MQWs blue and violet LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

InGaN\\/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) blue and violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were stressed under the injection current density of 26.5A\\/cm2 for about 400h at room temperature. Degradation behaviors of blue and violet LEDs were compared. Two stages of degradation were identified in the blue and violet LEDs. At the initial stage, the violet LEDs degraded very fast, but the blue

Liubing Huang; Tongjun Yu; Zhizhong Chen; Zhixin Qin; Zhijian Yang; Guoyi Zhang

2009-01-01

216

HPLC Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Field Violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC analyses revealed 40 compounds of phenolic nature in field violet (Viola arvensis L.), which belong for the most part to the classes of flavonoids, coumarins, and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives. Eleven compounds (luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, hyperoside, hesperidin, isoferulic acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, dicoumarin, catechol, and arbutin) have been identified in this plant for the first time.

R. A. Bubenchikov; N. F. Goncharov

2005-01-01

217

Ultrasonic assisted dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of wool fabrics using lac as a natural dye has been studied in both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The extractability of lac dye from natural origin using power ultrasonic was also evaluated in comparison with conventional heating. The results of dye extraction indicate that power ultrasonic is rather effective than conventional heating at low temperature and short time.

M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Yussef; H. Mashaly

2005-01-01

218

75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India for the period January 1, 2007, through...See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of...

2010-06-11

219

75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results...violet pigment 23 from India to determine whether...in company ownership, management, production, office...Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping...than five days after the time limit for filing...

2010-08-30

220

MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DRY MATERIAL FEEDER FOR DELIVERY OF RED AND VIOLET DYE MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Uniform delivery of dry material for stable concentrations of aerosols in inhalation exposure chambers is essential in inhalation experiments. his paper characterizes an AccuRate dry material feeder with modifications, for different helix sizes, actuation rates, nozzle types and ...

221

Grape stalks as substrate for white rot fungi, lignocellulolytic enzyme production and dye decolorization.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of grape stalks, an agroindustrial waste, for growth and lignocellulolytic enzyme production via solid-state fermentation, using the following three white rot fungi: Trametes trogii, Stereum hirsutum and Coriolus antarcticus. The decolorization of several dyes by the above mentioned cultures was also investigated. Similar values of dry weight loss of the substrate were measured after 60 days (33-43 %). C. antarcticus produced the highest laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities (33.0 and 1.6 U/g dry solid). The maximum endoglucanase production was measured in S. hirsutum cultures (10.4 U/g), while the endoxylanase peak corresponded to T. trogii (14.6 U/g). The C. antarcticus/grape stalk system seems potentially competitive in bioremediation of textile processing effluents, attaining percentages of decolorization of 93, 86, 82, 82, 77, and 58% for indigo carmine, malachite green, azure B, remazol brilliant blue R, crystal violet and xylidine, respectively, in 5 h. PMID:22997770

Levin, Laura; Diorio, Luis; Grassi, Emanuel; Forchiassin, Flavia

2012-01-01

222

OBSERVATIONS ON THE GROWTH OF BACTERIA ON MEDIA CONTAINING VARIOUS ANILIN DYES  

PubMed Central

Gentian violet and allied anilin dyes have a similar influence on bacterial growth, dividing bacteria into two groups corresponding in general to their reaction to the Gram stain. Among Gram-negative bacteria a strain is occasionally encountered which will not grow on violet agar, differentiating it from other members of the same species or variety. The reaction is quantitative, although the quantitative character is more marked with some species than with others. The streptococcus-pneumococcus group differ from other Gram-positive bacteria in their ability to grow in the presence of amounts of dye sufficient to inhibit the other species. The dysentery bacillus group shows marked variation in the presence of dyes. In the case of fuchsin the variation approaches closely a specific difference between the dysentery and paradysentery groups. The variations of the latter groups with other dyes show no correlation with the common differential characteristics. A closer study might reveal variations in other characteristics which would parallel the different reactions to dyes. Decolorization with sodium sulphite robs the dyes of some of their inhibitive powers. PMID:19867746

Krumwiede, Charles; Pratt, Josephine S.

1914-01-01

223

Molecular Structure of Cyclic Diguanylic Acid at 1 Å Resolution of Two Crystal Forms: Self-association, Interactions with Metal Ion\\/Planar Dyes and Modeling Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic ribodiguanylic acid, c-(GpGp), is the endogenous effector regulator of cellulose synthase. Its three dimensional structure from two different crystal forms (tetragonal and trigonal) has been determined by x-ray diffraction analysis at I Å resolution. Both structures were solved by direct methods and refined by block-matrix least squares refinement to R-factors of 0.112 (tetragonal) and 0.119 (trigonal). In both crystal

Yue Guan; Yi-Gui Gao; Yen-Chywan Liaw; Howard Robinson; Andrew H.-J. Wang

1993-01-01

224

Synthesis and redox properties of triarylmethane dye cation salts of anions [M6O19]2- (M = Mo, W).  

PubMed

Four salts have been isolated combining the triarylmethane dye cations pararosaniline (PR(+)) and crystal violet (CV(+)) with the hexametalates [M(6)O(19)](2-) (M = Mo, W). A new hexatungstic acid H(2)[W(6)O(19)]·4dma (dma = dimethylacetamide) was isolated and is a useful synthon for hexatungstate salts. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of PR(+) and [Mo(6)O(19)](2-) ions in [PR](2)[Mo(6)O(19)]·6dmf (dmf = dimethylformamide). A number of charge-assisted hydrogen bonds N-H···O exist between the cation -NH(2) functions and the anion oxygen atoms. Comparative cyclic voltammetry of salts [A]Cl (A = PR, CV), [Bu(4)N](2)[M(6)O(19)](2-) and A(2)[M(6)O(19)] was established in MeCN and Me(2)SO solutions and of solids in contact with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [emim][tfsa]. In the molecular solvents, the reversible potential for the process [Mo(6)O(19)](2-/3-) is less negative than the first reduction processes of the dye cations. In contrast, that for [W(6)O(19)](2-/3-) is more negative. Spectro-electrochemistry and bulk electrolysis experiments reveal significantly different pathways in the two cases. In contrast, in the [emim][tfsa] medium, a positive shift in reduction potential of at least 400 mV is seen for the anion processes but relatively little change for the dye cation processes. This means that initial reduction of the anions always precedes that of the dyes, providing significant simplification of the complex voltammetric data. Chemically modified electrodes can be used in the ionic liquid because of slow dissolution kinetics. However, reduced anion salts dissolve rapidly, allowing dissolved phase electrochemistry to be examined. The electrochemistries of the oxidized salts A(2)[M(6)O(19)] are essentially those of the individual ions, although low level interaction of A(+) with reduced anions [M(6)O(19)](3-,4-) is evident. The work establishes protocols for synthesis and handling of intensely absorbing and relatively insoluble salts which can now be applied to systems containing more complex polyoxometalate anions. PMID:21109876

Guo, Si-Xuan; Xie, Jingli; Gilbert-Wilson, Ryan; Birkett, Stephen L; Bond, Alan M; Wedd, Anthony G

2011-01-14

225

Parametrisation of Earth's polarisation spectrum in the ultra-violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate radiometric calibration of polarisation-sensitive space-borne instruments operating in the UV is important for the correct retrieval of data products that require absolute radiances such as the ozone profile. We attempt to improve this calibration through the development of a parametrisation of ultra-violet earth-shine polarisation. We have constructed a database of UV (290–330nm) top-of-atmosphere Stokes vectors for various solar

N. A. J Schutgens; P. Stammes

2002-01-01

226

Tritium decontamination of TFTR carbon tiles employing ultra violet light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritium decontamination on the surface of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter tiles used during the Deuterium–Deuterium (D–D) phase of TFTR operations was investigated employing an ultra violet light source with a mean wavelength of 172 nm and a maximum radiant intensity of 50mW\\/cm2. The partial pressures of H2, HD, C and CO2 during the UV exposure were enhanced

W. M. Shu; S. Ohira; C. A. Gentile; Y. Oya; H. Nakamura; T. Hayashi; Y. Iwai; Y. Kawamura; S. Konishi; M. F. Nishi; K. M. Young

2001-01-01

227

The dyeing of Lyocell fabric with direct dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyocell, cotton and viscose fabrics were dyed using four direct dyes. With the exception of the bordeaux dye used, dyeings on Lyocell were of slightly different colour to comparative dyeings on cotton and viscose; the colour strength (K\\/S) of the dyeings on Lyocell was lower than on cotton and viscose and the four dyes exhibited lower build-up character on Lyocell

S. M. Burkinshaw; R. Krishna

1995-01-01

228

Tests and calibration on ultra violet imaging telescope (UVIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope on ASTROSAT Satellite mission is a suite of Far Ultra Violet (FUV; 130 - 180 nm), Near Ultra Violet (NUV; 200 - 300 nm) and Visible band (VIS; 320-550nm) imagers. ASTROSAT is a first multi wavelength mission of INDIA. UVIT will image the selected regions of the sky simultaneously in three channels & observe young stars, galaxies, bright UV Sources. FOV in each of the 3 channels is ~ 28 arc-minute. Targeted angular resolution in the resulting UV images is better than 1.8 arc-second (better than 2.0 arc-second for the visible channel). Two identical co-aligned telescopes (T1, T2) of Ritchey-Chretien configuration (Primary mirror of ~375 mm diameter) collect the celestial radiation and feed to the detector system via a selectable filter on a filter wheel mechanism; gratings are available in the filter wheels of FUV and NUV channels for slit-less low resolution spectroscopy. The detector system for each of the 3 channels is generically identical. One telescope images in the FUV channel, and other images in NUV and VIS channels. One time open-able mechanical cover on each telescope also works as Sun-shield after deployment. We will present the optical tests and calibrations done on the two telescopes. Results on vibrations test and thermo-vacuum tests on the engineering model will also be presented.

Kumar, Amit; Ghosh, S. K.; Kamath, P. U.; Postma, Joe; Kathiravan, S.; Mahesh, P. K.; Nagbhushana, S.; Navalgund, K. H.; Rajkumar, N.; Rao, M. N.; Sarma, K. S.; Sriram, S.; Stalin, C. S.; Tandon, S. N.

2012-09-01

229

Tests & Calibration on Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT)  

E-print Network

Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope on ASTROSAT Satellite mission is a suite of Far Ultra Violet (FUV; 130 to 180 nm), Near Ultra Violet (NUV; 200 to 300 nm) and Visible band (VIS; 320 to 550nm) imagers. ASTROSAT is a first multi wavelength mission of INDIA. UVIT will image the selected regions of the sky simultaneously in three channels & observe young stars, galaxies, bright UV Sources. FOV in each of the 3 channels is about 28 arc-minute. Targeted angular resolution in the resulting UV images is better than 1.8 arc-second (better than 2.0 arc-second for the visible channel). Two identical co-aligned telescopes (T1, T2) of Ritchey-Chretien configuration (Primary mirror of 375 mm diameter) collect the celestial radiation and feed to the detector system via a selectable filter on a filter wheel mechanism; gratings are available in the filter wheels of FUV and NUV channels for slit-less low resolution spectroscopy. The detector system for each of the 3 channels is generically identical. One telescope images in ...

Kumar, Amit; Kamath, P U; Postma, Joe; Kathiravan, S; Mahesh, P K; S, Nagbhushana; Navalgund, K H; Rajkumar, N; Rao, M N; Sarma, K S; Sriram, S; Stalin, C S; Tandon, S N

2012-01-01

230

Biodegradation of leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes by Sphingomonas sp. CM9  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes degrading bacterium, strain CM9, was isolated from an aquafarm field. Based on\\u000a morphology, physiologic tests, 16S rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristics, it was identified as Sphingomonas sp. This strain was capable of degrading leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet and leucobasic fuchsin completely.\\u000a The relationship between bacterium growth and LMG degradation suggested that strain CM9

Jun Wu; Liguan Li; Hongwei Du; Lijuan Jiang; Qiong Zhang; Zhongbo Wei; Xiaolin Wang; Lin Xiao; Liuyan Yang

2011-01-01

231

Effects of sodium content on the microstructures and basic dye cation exchange of titanate nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of titanate nanotubes (TNT) to remove basic dye (Basic Violet 3, BV3) from aqueous solution through a cation exchange mechanism was investigated. TNT was prepared via a hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 powders in a 10M NaOH solution at 150°C for 24h, and subsequently washed with HCl aqueous solution of different concentrations. Effects of the remnant sodium contents on

Chung-Kung Lee; Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Meng-Du Lyu; Shui-Hung Hung; Shin-Shou Liu

2008-01-01

232

Adsorption of Some Basic Dyes by Acrylamide-Maleic Acid Hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, acrylamide-maleic acid (AAm\\/MA) hydrogels containing different quantities of maleic acid have been irradiated with ?-radiation. They have been used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and the adsorption of basic dyes such as methylene blue, methyl violet, and nile blue. Acrylamide-maleic acid hydrogel containing 40 mg maleic acid and irradiated at 3.73 kGy has been used for swelling

Dursun Saraydin; Erdener Karada?; Olgun Güven

1996-01-01

233

Dye remover poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... remover is a chemical used to remove dye stains. Dye remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows this ... by IV Medicines to treat pain Oxygen Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the ...

234

crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel combined interferometric-mask method for the formation of micro- and nanometric scale three-dimensional (3D) rotational symmetry quasi-crystalline refractive lattice structures in photorefractive materials is demonstrated experimentally. The method is based on micrometric scale spatial modulation of the light by amplitude mask in the radial directions and along the azimuthal angle and the use of counter-propagating beam geometry building up Gaussian standing wave, which defines the light modulation in the axial direction with half-wavelength periodicity. 3D intensity pattern can be represented as numerous mask-generated 2D quasi-periodic structures located in each anti-node of the standing wave. The formed 3D intensity distributions of the optical beams can be imparted into the photorefractive medium thus creating the micro- and sub-micrometric scale 3D refractive index volume lattices. The used optical scheme allows also the formation of 2D lattices by removing the back-reflecting mirror. 2D and 3D refractive lattices were recorded with the use of 532 nm laser beam and rotational symmetry mask in doped lithium niobate crystals and were tested by the probe beam far-field diffraction pattern imaging and direct observation by phase microscope. The formed rotational symmetry 3D refractive structures have the periods of 20-60 ?m in the radial directions, 60 ?m along the azimuthal angle and half-wavelength 266 nm in the axial direction.

Badalyan, A.; Hovsepyan, R.; Mantashyan, P.; Mekhitaryan, V.; Drampyan, R.

2014-07-01

235

Dye Like A Natural  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

Yu, Julie

2010-01-01

236

Evaluation of the performance of calix[8]arene derivatives as liquid phase extraction material for the removal of azo dyes.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study on the removal of azo dyes (Reactive Black 5, Trapaeolin 000, Methyl Orange and Direct Violet 51) with calix[n]arene derivatives from aqueous solution into the organic phase in order to explore the potential use of calixarenes as low-cost efficient extractants for wastewater dye removal. The carboxylic acid derivative of calix[8]arene shows highest affinity towards the azo dyes. The influence of NaCl (present in the solution) on extraction process was also studied. The extent of the dye removal increased with the addition of NaCl. The proposed extraction mechanism involves several kinds of interactions: electrostatic repulsion between carboxylic acid groups of calix[8]arenes and sulfonate groups of azo dyes, hydrogen bonding and formation of an inclusion complex due to three dimensional cavity type calix[n]arene molecules through host-guest interactions. PMID:18321641

Gungor, Omer; Yilmaz, Aydan; Memon, Shahabuddin; Yilmaz, Mustafa

2008-10-01

237

A DNA Crystal Designed to Contain Two Molecules per Asymmetric Unit  

SciTech Connect

We describe the self-assembly of a DNA crystal that contains two tensegrity triangle molecules per asymmetric unit. We have used X-ray crystallography to determine its crystal structure. In addition, we have demonstrated control over the colors of the crystals by attaching either Cy3 dye (pink) or Cy5 dye (blue-green) to the components of the crystal, yielding crystals of corresponding colors. Attaching the pair of dyes to the pair of molecules yields a purple crystal.

T Wang; R Sha; J Birktoft; J Zheng; C Mao; N Seeman

2011-12-31

238

Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges. In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions. The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal. The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red. However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions. Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal. Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant. The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was not detected after treating cell cultures with the decolorized solutions. Accordingly, by integrating biological and biophysicochemical processes, proteinaceous nanofibrils can be promising candidates for treatment of colored wastewaters. Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils. PMID:23999142

Morshedi, Dina; Mohammadi, Zeinab; Akbar Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi; Aliakbari, Farhang

2013-12-01

239

Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].  

PubMed

Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (?) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:24491599

Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

2014-11-01

240

Visible photoluminescence in coloured Lithium Fluoride under ultra-violet continuous wave excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?-coloured Lithium Fluoride crystals visible fluorescence at room temperature was measured under excitation with ultra-violet continuous wave light at ? = 244 nm from a frequency-doubled Ar+-ion laser. The excitation wavelength lies close to the peak of the F-centre absorption band for LiF, and the visible luminescence spectrum consists of two broad emission bands, assigned to F+3 and F2 centres in LiF. The luminescence spectrum changes in a short time after start of illumination. The main effect of 244 nm laser illumination is the observed change in the F2 emission band intensity, which is strongly and permanently bleached by the CW UV light at 244 nm as soon as it illuminates the crystal. The time evolution of the fluorescence signals can be measured, and the corresponding curves were fitted by a single exponential decay, resulting in characteristic time constants of approx 9 s and approx 30 s for the F2 and F+3 bands, respectively. The reported effects support previous work about UV laser illumination in the F-band absorption peak as an effective method to control the ratio of F2 to F+3 centres in LiF, due to permanent bleaching of the former ones.

Kalinowski, H. J.; Monterali, R. M.; Vincenti, M. A.; Nogueira, R. N.

2010-11-01

241

Spectrophotometric determination of germanium with Catechol Violet and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.  

PubMed

A ternary complex between germanium, Catechol Violet (CV) and cetyltrimethylanunoniuni bromide is proposed for the determination of germanium. The stoichiometric ratio Ge:CV is 1:2. Beer's law is obeyed from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm of Ge. The method is highly selective. Interference from Sn(IV), Fe(III), Bi(III), Cr(VI), Mo(VI), V(V) and Sb(III) in mg amounts is eliminated by extracting the germanium into carbon tetrachloride from 9M HC1 and then stripping into water before the photometric determination. PMID:18960953

Leong, C L

1971-08-01

242

Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent at carbon-felt cathode.  

PubMed

Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ +H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used as a model among them to study the influence of some experimental parameters on the decay kinetics, COD removal and current efficiency. The results in such electro-Fenton system are explained in terms of the many parasitic reactions involving .OH. Higher efficiency values are obtained with rising organic content and decreasing applied current. The first stage of the mineralization process, involving aromatic by-products, leads to fast decoloration as well as quick initial COD removal that fit well to a pseudo-first-order kinetics. At prolonged electrolysis time, the mineralization rate and efficiency decrease due to the formation of hardly oxidizable compounds and the enhancement of wasting reactions. Solutions of all four TPMs are quickly degraded following a pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The absolute rate constant (kTPM) for their reaction with .OH increases in the order MeGdyes with initial COD ca. 1000 mg l(-1) is totally depolluted with efficiency near 100% at the beginning of the treatment. A general scheme for the mineralization of TPMs is proposed. PMID:18486964

Sirés, Ignasi; Guivarch, Elodie; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A

2008-06-01

243

Tunable light source with GaN-based violet laser diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaN based violet Laser Diode has been applying for the industrial market with unique high potential characters. It has possibility Replacing Gas lasers, Dye Lasers, SHG lasers and Solid-state Lasers and more. Diode based laser extreme small and low costs at the high volume range. In addition GaN Laser has high quality with long lifetime and has possibility to cover the wide wavelength range as between 375 to 520nm. However, in general, diode based laser could only lase with Longitudinal Multi Mode. Therefore applicable application field should be limited and it was difficult to apply for the analysis. Recently, Single Longitudinal Mode laser with GaN diode has also be accomplished with external cavity by Nichia Corporation. External cavity laser achieved at least much higher than 20dB SMSR. The feature of installing laser is that Laser on the front facet with AR coating to avoid chip mode lasing. In general, external cavity laser has been required precision of mechanical assembly and Retention Capability. Nichia has gotten rid of the issue with Intelligence Cavity and YAG Laser welding assembly technique. This laser has also been installed unique feature that the longitudinal mode could be maintained to Single Mode lasing with installing internal functional sensors in the tunable laser.*1,*2 This tunable laser source could lock a particular wavelength optionally between 390 to 465nm wavelength range. As the results, researcher will have benefit own study and it will be generated new market with the laser in the near future.

Omori, Masaki; Mori, Naoki; Dejima, Norihiro

2013-03-01

244

Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with –OH groups of cotton through substitution and\\/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to

Zeeshan Khatri; Muhammad Hanif Memon; Awais Khatri; Anwaruddin Tanwari

2011-01-01

245

Ultrasonic assisted dyeing. IV. Dyeing of cationised cotton with lac natural dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of cationised cotton fabrics with lac natural dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic

M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Youssef; H. Mashaly

2007-01-01

246

Dye laser pumped by radiation from a cw YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ laser with intracavity second harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was made of lasing in dyes pumped by radiation from a cw YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ laser with intracavity second harmonic generation in an LiIO/sub 3/ crystal. The parameters of the tunable dye laser radiation were not inferior to those obtained by pumping dyes with high-power argon laser radiation.

Konvisar, P.G.; Lokhnygin, V.D.; Rustamov, S.R.; Fomichev, A.A.

1982-08-01

247

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2010-04-01

248

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

249

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2014-04-01

250

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2011-04-01

251

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2012-04-01

252

STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SKIN TISSUES FROM ULTRA-VIOLET TO SHORT-WAVE INFRARED  

E-print Network

STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SKIN TISSUES FROM ULTRA-VIOLET TO SHORT-WAVE INFRARED A Dissertation Xiaoyan Ma STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF SKIN TISSUES FROM ULTRA-VIOLET TO SHORT-WAVE INFRARED. (Under methods and theoretical models for the inverse determination of optical parameters of mammalian tissues

253

Photonic Crystal: FIB etching  

E-print Network

25 30 35 50 100 150 200 250 300 dye in water with TiO2 colloids dye in water without TiO2 colloidsWaveguide 100 m�2.5 mm The patterned area is about 4 m�100 m photonic crystal filter is formed by a line defect -­ reaction coordination dependenceMax. at Sink point Transverse decay longitudinal decay Sink point vicinity

Wang, Wei Hua

254

Venus as Viewed Through Violet and Near Infrared Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These two Galileo images of Venus show the global structure of cloud patterns at two different depths in the upper cloud layers. The large bluish image, taken through the violet filter, shows patterns at the very top of Venus' main sulfuric acid haze layer. The subsolar point is to the right, not far from the limb; the atmospheric flow runs to the left from there. The small red image, taken through a near infrared filter, shows the cloud patterns several miles below the visible cloud tops. The colors shown are artificial; the images were enhanced at the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, Arizona. The Galileo Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1991-01-01

255

The violet and ultraviolet opacity problem for carbon stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper considers the longstanding problem of the 'violet opacity' in cool carbon stars by testing, through synthetic spectra, many new and previously suggested opacity sources, based on currently available model atmospheres for carbon stars and M giant stars. While several bound-free edges of neutral metals are important opacity sources, those of Na I at at 2413 A, Mg I at 2514 A, and particularly Ca I at 2940 A are especially significant. Collectively, thousands of atomic lines are important, and the enormous line of Mg I at 2852 A influences the spectrum well into the visible. The pseudocontinuum of C3 and the photoionization continuum of CH both play noticeable but secondary roles. Synthetic spectra form the carbon star models with and without polyatomic molecules fit nicely the collected observations of the well-observed carbon star TX Psc.

Johnson, Hollis R.; Luttermoser, Donald G.; Faulkner, Danny R.

1988-01-01

256

Tie-Dye Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

Cessna, Gretchen; Cessna, Stephen

2001-03-01

257

Mirau interferometric imaging and ultra-violet correlation microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mirau Correlation Microscope (MCM) is a metrology tool, a modified standard microscope using a Mirau interferometer to obtain interferometric and confocal imaging capabilities. The commercially available MCM's are limited to a lower numerical aperture (N.A.) due to aberrations in the beamsplitter, while a higher N.A. microscope can be made in the Linnik configuration, which is essentially a focused beam Michelson interferometer. The MCM developed at Stanford is a high N.A. System with a miniature thin-film Mirau interferometer micromachined using semiconductor processing technology. Its performance is identical to a Linnik, offering not only confocal-like 3D definitions but also additional phase information from the interferometry. However, the interferometer's simplicity, compactness, and the overall system's mechanical stability and ease of alignment lead to a simple add-on unit to a standard microscope and are far more vibration free than the commercially available Linnik. This thesis reports the work towards improving the resolution performance of a conventional MCM by operating in the UV. Modification to the conventional Mirau interferometer is made with the introduction of new thin- film beamsplitters that are nonattenuative in the ultra- violet, and new interferometer structure that can be made to work with short working distance objectives. Along with special UV optics, the new MCM can be made to operate in the ultra-violet region. By operating at 248 nm Mercury line, the expected resolution improvement in both transverse and depth directions should be nearly doubled. A fully working MCM UV system at 325 nm is described in detail, and demonstrates the feasibility for a 248 nm system once a high quality 248 nm objective becomes available. Current work also allows the future possibility for implementing a 193 nm system.

Chang, Fang-Cheng

258

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

259

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

260

Application of photoacoustic, photothermal and fluorescence spectroscopies in signal enhancement and the kinetics, chemistry and photophysics of several dyes  

SciTech Connect

Modified photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies are applied in analytical studies of liquid and solid systems. Quenching of benzophenone by potassium iodide is used to demonstrate application of time resolved photothermal spectroscopies in study of fast (submicrosecond) deexcitation processes. Inherently weak X-ray photoacoustic signals at a synchrotron are enhanced by the introduction of a volatile liquid into a gas-microphone photoacoustic cell. Traditionally, photoacoustic signals have been detected either by gas coupling with a microphone or with a piezoelectric detector. However, optically detected photoacoustic signals have been used in the determination of physical properties of a liquid sample system and are successfully applied to the study of deexcitation processes of a number of dye molecules. Photothermal beam deflection photoacoustic (PBDPA), fluorescence and absorbance measurements are utilized to study the chemistry and photophysics of cresyl violet in aqueous, aqueous micellar and methanolic solutions. A concentration dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of cresyl violet is investigated. Aspects of chemistry and photophysics relating to potential use of several diazo dyes as photothermal sensitizing dyes in photodynamic therapy are explored experimentally and discussed. Photothermal beam deflection, fluorescence and absorbance measurements are again utilized. The dyes are found to have a number of interesting chemical and photophysical properties. They are also determined to be ideal photothermal sensitizing dye candidates.

Isak, S.J.

1992-06-01

261

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

262

Dyeing Effects Of Bifunctional Reactive Dyes On Knitted Cotton Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several new bifunctional reactive dyes of the Sumifix Supra range that carry monochlorotriazine and sulphato ethyl sulphone reactive systems were developed and their dyeing perfor- mance studied. Suitable characteristic properties and fastness properties were examined over the knitted cotton fab- rics. The dyes were characterized by spectral data and elemental analysis. The dyes structures were established by preparing the coupling

M. M. Dalal; K. R. Desai

1996-01-01

263

Three-dimensional graphene oxide nanostructure for fast and efficient water-soluble dye removal.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated the potential of graphene nanomaterials as environmental pollutant adsorbents by utilizing the characteristics of ultralarge surface area and strong ?-? interaction on the surface. We generated a three-dimensional (3D) graphene oxide sponge (GO sponge) from a GO suspension through a simple centrifugal vacuum evaporation method, and used them to remove both the methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) dyes which are main contaminants from the dye manufacturing and textile finishing. The efficiency and speed of dye adsorption on a GO sponge was investigated under various parameters such as contact time, stirring speed, temperature, and pH. The adsorption process shows that 99.1% of MB and 98.8% of MV have been removed and the equilibrium status has been reached in 2 min. The 3D GO sponge displays adsorption capacity as high as 397 and 467 mg g(-1) for MB and MV dye, respectively, and the kinetic data reveal that the adsorption process of MB and MV dyes is well-matched with the pseudo second-order model. The MB and MV adsorption on the 3D GO sponge involved in endothermic chemical adsorption through the strong ?-? stacking and anion-cation interaction with the activation energy of 50.3 and 70.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The 3D GO sponge has demonstrated its high capability as an organic dye scavenger with high speed and efficiency. PMID:22206476

Liu, Fei; Chung, Soyi; Oh, Gahee; Seo, Tae Seok

2012-02-01

264

Azo Dye Biodecolorization Enhanced by Echinodontium taxodii Cultured with Lignin  

PubMed Central

Lignocellulose facilitates the fungal oxidization of recalcitrant organic pollutants through the extracellular ligninolytic enzymes induced by lignin in wood or other plant tissues. However, available information on this phenomenon is insufficient. Free radical chain reactions during lignin metabolism are important in xenobiotic removal. Thus, the effect of lignin on azo dye decolorization in vivo by Echinodontium taxodii was evaluated. In the presence of lignin, optimum decolorization percentages for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B, Direct Black 38, and Direct Black 22 were 91.75% (control, 65.96%), 76.89% (control, 43.78%), 43.44% (control, 17.02%), and 44.75% (control, 12.16%), respectively, in the submerged cultures. Laccase was the most important enzyme during biodecolorization. Aside from the stimulating of laccase activity, lignin might be degraded by E. taxodii, and then these degraded low-molecular-weight metabolites could act as redox mediators promoting decolorization of azo dyes. The relationship between laccase and lignin degradation was investigated through decolorization tests in vitro with purified enzyme and dozens of aromatics, which can be derivatives of lignin and can function as laccase mediators or inducers. Dyes were decolorized at triple or even higher rates in certain laccase–aromatic systems at chemical concentrations as low as 10 µM. PMID:25285777

Meng, Jing; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu

2014-01-01

265

Color-sensitive photoconductivity of nanostructured ZnO/fast green dye hybrid films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by sol gel method have been investigated in conductivity and photoconductivity measurements in view of applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The absorption of ZnO film sensitized by Fast Green dye (FGF) has been studied by UV spectroscopy which indicates that after the dye is adsorbed on the ZnO electrode, its absorption spectra showed red-shift in the peak position compared to the absorbance spectra of dye in ethanol. The films, in which dye molecules are located within the ZnO crystals, are found to show higher sensitivity to illumination with visible light in photoconductivity measurements due to a high proportion of surface dye molecules are being excited by ?-electrons acting as sensitizers.

Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

2013-06-01

266

Molecular Models of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The paper on the synthesis of several dyes by James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett (1) provides us with the JCE Featured Molecules for this month. The authors mention various applications of these dyes, ranging from commercial dyeing to techniques for determining the course of complex biochemical processes. One of the reaction products, rhodamine B, is a member of a family of molecules that are widely used as tunable laser dyes. In this application, the rhodamines are most commonly encountered in a cationic form, rather than in the neutral form shown in the paper. In the cations, the carboxyl group is no longer part of a ring system. Several different members of the rhodamine family are included in the molecule collection because substituents have a marked effect on the effective lasing range of a given dye. Additionally, the solvent and the excitation source also influence the lasing range (2). Students can learn more about the relationship between structure, absorption and emission properties, and lasing ranges of various dyes by consulting ref 2 and from PhotochemCAD, Jonathan Lindsey's free application (3).

267

Gentian violet induces wtp53 transactivation in cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that gentian violet (GV) may have anticancer activity by inhibiting for instance NADPH oxidases (Nox genes) whose overexpression is linked to tumor progression. Nox1 overexpression has been shown to inhibit transcriptional activity of the oncosuppressor p53, impairing tumor cell response to anticancer drugs. The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that, upon cellular stress, is activated to induce target genes involved in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Thus, its activation is important for efficient tumor eradication. In this study, we examined the effect of GV on wild-type (wt) p53 activity in cancer cells. We found that GV was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of the NADPH oxidase Nox1 on p53 transcriptional activity. For the first time we show that GV was able to directly induce p53/DNA binding and transcriptional activity. In vitro, GV markedly induced cancer cell death and apoptotic marker PARP cleavage in wtp53-carrying cells. GV-induced cell death was partly inhibited in cells deprived of p53, suggesting that the anticancer activity of GV may partly depend on p53 activation. GV is US Food and Drug Administration approved for human use and may, therefore, have therapeutic potential in the management of cancer through p53 activation. PMID:24535435

GARUFI, ALESSIA; D'ORAZI, VALERIO; ARBISER, JACK L.; D'ORAZI, GABRIELLA

2014-01-01

268

Tritium decontamination of TFTR carbon tiles employing ultra violet light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium decontamination on the surface of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter tiles used during the Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) phase of TFTR operations was investigated employing an ultra violet light source with a mean wavelength of 172 nm and a maximum radiant intensity of 50 mW/ cm2. The partial pressures of H 2, HD, C and CO 2 during the UV exposure were enhanced more than twice, compared to the partial pressures before UV exposure. In comparison, the amount of O 2 decreased during the UV exposure and the production of a small amount of O 3 was observed when the UV light was turned on. Unlike the decontamination method of baking in air or oxygen, the UV exposure removed hydrogen isotopes from the tile to vacuum predominantly in forms of gases of hydrogen isotopes. The tritium surface contamination on the tile in the area exposed to the UV light was reduced after the UV exposure. The results show that the UV light with a wavelength of 172 nm can remove hydrogen isotopes from carbon-based tiles at the very surface.

Shu, W. M.; Ohira, S.; Gentile, C. A.; Oya, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Hayashi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Konishi, S.; Nishi, M. F.; Young, K. M.

2001-03-01

269

Males on guard: paternity defences in violet-green swallows and tree swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity-defence behaviour in two congeners, violet-green swallows,Tachycineta thalassina, and tree swallows,T. bicolor, was compared to identify ecological factors that influence how males avoid being cuckolded. Measurements of the proportion of time that mates spent together, their following behaviour and the rate of within-pair copulations revealed that male violet-green swallows allocated more time to guarding mates than nests and copulated with

BARBARA A. BEASLEY

1996-01-01

270

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

271

Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •FAK signaling cascade in cancer cells is profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B. •Methyl violet 2B identified by virtual screening is a novel allosteric FAK inhibitor. •Methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity. •Methyl violet 2B suppresses strongly the proliferation of cancer cells. •Methyl violet 2B inhibits focal adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells. -- Abstract: The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1 nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion/migration/invasion of tumor cells.

Kim, Hwan [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Doo [Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 2387 Dalgubeol-daero, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-010 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 2387 Dalgubeol-daero, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-010 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyeon [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyoonhee [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Taebo, E-mail: tbsim@kist.re.kr [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-26

272

An anionic chromogenic sensor based on the competition between the anion and a merocyanine solvatochromic dye for calix[4]pyrrole as a receptor site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of Brooker’s merocyanine (BM), a merocyanine dye, with calix[4]pyrrole (CP) was studied in acetonitrile. BM is violet in solution, but its interaction with CP changes the color of the solution due to the formation of CP–BM species associated through hydrogen bonding. A displacement assay was then carried out in the presence of different anions (F?, Cl?, Br?, I?,

Mônica M. Linn; Daysi C. Poncio; Vanderlei G. Machado

2007-01-01

273

Lucifer dyes-highly fluorescent dyes for biological tracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lucifer dyes are intensely fluorescent 4-aminonaphthalimides which are readily visible in living cells at concentrations and levels of illumination at which they are nontoxic. Because of their low molecular weight they frequently pass from one cell to another; this widespread phenomenon, termed dye-coupling, is thought to reveal functional relationships between cells. Lucifer dyes can also be used for ultrastructural tracing

Walter W. Stewart

1981-01-01

274

Culture of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii Showa with LED irradiation eliminating violet light enhances hydrocarbon production and recovery.  

PubMed

The green microalga Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii), race B, was cultured under light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation with and without violet light. This study examined the effect of violet light on hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. C34 botryococcene hydrocarbons were efficiently extracted by thermal pretreatments at lower temperatures when the alga was cultured without violet light. The hydrocarbon content was also higher (approximately 3%) in samples cultured without violet light. To elucidate the mechanism of effective hydrocarbon recovery and production, we examined structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The amounts of extracellular carotenoids and water-soluble polymers extracted by thermal pretreatment from the ECM were decreased when the alga was cultured without violet light. These results indicate that LED irradiation without violet light is more effective for hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. Furthermore, structural ECM components are closely involved in hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. PMID:25069809

Atobe, Sueko; Saga, Kiyotaka; Maeyama, Haruko; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

2014-10-01

275

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01

276

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

277

The significance of azo-reduction in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of azo dyes.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are widely used in textile, printing, cosmetic, drug and food-processing industries. They are also used extensively in laboratories as either biological stains or pH indicators. The extent of such use is related to the degree of industrialization. Since intestinal cancer is more common in highly industrialized countries, a possible connection may exist between the increase in the number of cancer cases and the use of azo dyes. Azo dyes can be reduced to aromatic amines by the intestinal microflora. The mutagenicity of a number of azo dyes is reviewed in this paper. They include Trypan Blue, Ponceau 3R, Pinceau 2R, Methyl Red, Methyl Yellow, Methyl Orange, Lithol Red, Orange I, Orange II, 4-Phenylazo-Naphthylamine, Sudan I, Sudan IV, Acid Alizarin Violet N, Fast Garnet GBC, Allura Red, Ponceau SX, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Citrus Red No. 2, Orange B, Yellow AB, Carmoisine, Mercury Orange, Ponceau S, Versatint Blue, Phenylazophenol, Evan's Blue and their degraded aromatic amines. The significance of azo reduction in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of azo dyes is discussed. PMID:6339890

Chung, K T

1983-04-01

278

Dye filled security seal  

DOEpatents

A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

1982-04-27

279

A method for evaluating the use of fluorescent dyes to track proliferation in cell lines by dye dilution.  

PubMed

Labeling nonquiescent cells with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-like dyes gives rise to a population width exceeding the threshold for resolving division peaks by flow cytometry. Width is a function of biological heterogeneity plus extrinsic and intrinsic error sources associated with the measurement process. Optimal cytometer performance minimizes extrinsic error, but reducing intrinsic error to the point of facilitating peak resolution requires careful fluorochrome selection and fluorescent cell sorting. In this study, we labeled the Jurkat and A549 cell lines with CFSE, CellTraceViolet (CTV), and eFluor 670 proliferation dye (EPD) to test if we could resolve division peaks in culture after reducing the labeled input widths by cell sorting. Reanalysis of the sorted populations to ascertain the level of reduction achieved always led to widths exceeding the gated limits due to the contribution of errors. Measuring detector-specific extrinsic error by sorting uniform fluorescent particles with similar spectral properties to the tracking dyes allowed us to determine the intrinsic error for each dye and cell type using a simple mathematical approach. We found that cell intrinsic error ultimately dictated whether we could resolve division peaks, and that as this increased, the required sort gate width to resolve any division peaks decreased to the point whereby issues with yield made A549 unsuitable for this approach. Finally, attempts to improve yields by setting two concurrent sort gates on the fluorescence distribution enriched for cells in different stages of the cell cycle that had nonequivalent proliferative properties in culture and thus should be practiced with caution. PMID:24166880

Begum, Julfa; Day, William; Henderson, Carl; Purewal, Sukhveer; Cerveira, Joana; Summers, Huw; Rees, Paul; Davies, Derek; Filby, Andrew

2013-12-01

280

Comparison of violet diode laser with CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The violet diode laser (405nm) has recently begun to be studied for surgical use and authors reported the soft tissue could be effectively incised by irradiation power of even less than 1W. The wavelength of this laser is highly absorbed by hemoglobin, myoglobin or melanin pigment. Cutting or ablating soft tissues by lower irradiation power might be preferable for wound healing. The CO II laser is known to be preferable for low invasive treatment of soft tissues and widely used. The CO II laser light (10.6?m) is highly absorbed by water and proper for effective ablation of soft tissues. In this paper, we report the comparison of the violet diode laser with the CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues. Tuna tissue was used as an experimental sample. In the case of the violet diode laser, extensive vaporization of tissue was observed after the expansion of coagulation. Carbonization of tissue was observed after the explosion. On the other hand, consecutive vaporization and carbonization were observed immediately after irradiation in the case of CO II laser. The violet diode laser could ablate tissue equivalently with the CO II laser and coagulate larger area than the CO II laser. Therefore the violet diode laser might be expectable as a surgical tool which has excellent hemostatis.

Hatayama, H.; Kato, J.; Inoue, A.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.

2007-02-01

281

In-Plane Orientation of a Monolayer of Lyotropic Pleochroic Dye via Layered Polyion Adsorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method to create an oriented monolayer of pleochroic dye is presented. The method is based on a proven technique for alternate layer-by-layer adsorption of polyions and dyes from aqueous solutions. The novel feature is that the water solution of dye is a lyotropic liquid crystal, which allows one to orient dye molecules uniformly, for example, by shear deposition. Using this method, one is able to stack alternate monolayers of dye and polyion while controlling the in-plane orientation of the dye within the layers. The feature of controlling the absorption axis enables one to create films with unique polarization properties. This technique could also be adapted to create optical retarders or optical compensators by building them on a layer-by-layer basis.

Schneider, Tod; Lavrentovich, Oleg

2000-03-01

282

Adsorption of basic dye from aqueous solutions by modified sepiolite: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption behavior of crystal violet (CV+) from aqueous solution onto a manganese oxide-coated (MCS) sepiolite sample was investigated as a function of parameters such as initial CV+ concentration, contact time and temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of MCS was estimated as 319mg\\/g. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order

E. Eren; O. Cubuk; H. Ciftci; B. Eren; B. Caglar

2010-01-01

283

Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification  

PubMed Central

A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

2012-01-01

284

[Allergy to dyes in stockings].  

PubMed

Skin allergies caused by the wearing of stockings and hose have received little attention. Findings in patients of an allergy department, enquiries at stocking counters of stores and recent publications indicate, however, that probably many more persons have an allergy to stocking dyes than is generally thought. Skin tests with isolated stocking dyes indicate that azo dye dispersion yellow 3, dispersion orange 3 and dispersion red 1 are the most important contact allergens. They were demonstrated in 18-21 of the 23 hose examined. In textile materials, azo dye dispersion blue 124 is predominant among allergens. Cross-reactions may occur to other dispersion azo dyes, used in cosmetics, textiles, toiletries and hygenic articles, permitted food additives and hair dyes. It is suggested that in persons who have dye allergy or intolerance, decolouration followed by colouring with natural colours be undertaken. PMID:6479046

Hausen, B M; Schulz, K H

1984-09-28

285

Kinetics of polarization gratings assisted with polarized violet light in bacteriorhodopsin films.  

PubMed

Polarization gratings can be recorded in bacteriorhodopsin films by an orthogonal pair of linearly or circularly polarized beams. If a linearly polarized auxiliary violet light is added during the grating formation, the grating becomes polarization-sensitive. A theoretical model based on the two-state photochromic theory is proposed to calculate the diffraction efficiency kinetics of these polarization gratings. In both cases, the additional linearly polarized auxiliary violet irradiation improves the steady-state diffraction efficiency and leads to a cosine modulation of the steady-state diffraction efficiency by the polarization orientation of the readout beam. Experiment results demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical model. PMID:24323270

Yu, Xianghua; Gao, Peng; Yao, Baoli; Lei, Ming; Rupp, Romano

2013-09-01

286

White light emission from polystyrene under pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports for the first time the luminescent property of polystyrene (PS), produced by pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation. We have discovered that, in air, ultra-violet (UV) irradiated PS nanospheres emit bright white light with the dominant peak at 510 nm, while in vacuum they emit in the near-blue region. From the comparison of PS nanospheres irradiated in vacuum and air, we suggest that the white luminescence is due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface of PS by photochemical oxidation. Our results potentially offer a new route and strategy for white light sources.

Kim, Eunkyeom; Kyhm, Jihoon; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Gi Yong; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Han, Il Ki; Ko, Hyungduk

2013-11-01

287

White light emission from polystyrene under pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation.  

PubMed

This paper reports for the first time the luminescent property of polystyrene (PS), produced by pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation. We have discovered that, in air, ultra-violet (UV) irradiated PS nanospheres emit bright white light with the dominant peak at 510 nm, while in vacuum they emit in the near-blue region. From the comparison of PS nanospheres irradiated in vacuum and air, we suggest that the white luminescence is due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface of PS by photochemical oxidation. Our results potentially offer a new route and strategy for white light sources. PMID:24247038

Kim, Eunkyeom; Kyhm, Jihoon; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Gi Yong; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Han, Il Ki; Ko, Hyungduk

2013-01-01

288

White light emission from polystyrene under pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation  

PubMed Central

This paper reports for the first time the luminescent property of polystyrene (PS), produced by pulsed ultra violet laser irradiation. We have discovered that, in air, ultra-violet (UV) irradiated PS nanospheres emit bright white light with the dominant peak at 510?nm, while in vacuum they emit in the near-blue region. From the comparison of PS nanospheres irradiated in vacuum and air, we suggest that the white luminescence is due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface of PS by photochemical oxidation. Our results potentially offer a new route and strategy for white light sources. PMID:24247038

Kim, Eunkyeom; Kyhm, Jihoon; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Lee, Gi Yong; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Han, Il Ki; Ko, Hyungduk

2013-01-01

289

A DNA crystal designed to contain two molecules per asymmetric unit.  

PubMed

We describe the self-assembly of a DNA crystal that contains two tensegrity triangle molecules per asymmetric unit. We have used X-ray crystallography to determine its crystal structure. In addition, we have demonstrated control over the colors of the crystals by attaching either Cy3 dye (pink) or Cy5 dye (blue-green) to the components of the crystal, yielding crystals of corresponding colors. Attaching the pair of dyes to the pair of molecules yields a purple crystal. PMID:20958065

Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Birktoft, Jens; Zheng, Jianping; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C

2010-11-10

290

AN APPARENT HYBRID VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW (TACHYCZNETA TltALASSZNA) X CLWF SWALLOW (PETROCHELIDON PYRRHONOTA) IN SAANICHTON, BRITISH COLUMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oddly-plumaged swallow that visited a nestbox in Saanichton, B.C. appeared to be a hybrid between Violet-green and swallows. This appears to be the fmt probable hybrid between these species described and probably only the second reported case of potc hybridization between Violet-green Swallow and any other species.

Bruce Whittington

291

Violet: A High-Agility Nanosatellite for Demonstrating Small Control-Moment Gyroscope Prototypes and Steering Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violet is a highly agile nanosatellite whose primary mission is to experimentally validate novel control-moment gyroscope (CMG) steering laws. It is Cornell University's entry in the University Nanosat-6 Competition, following on to Cornell's successful CUSat program. With an array of eight CMGs, Violet is capable of hosting guest investigators' steering algorithms for a variety of CMG configurations, including a 4

Jessica Gersh; Mason Peck

2009-01-01

292

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

293

Microwave assisted dyeing of polyester fabrics with disperse dyes.  

PubMed

Dyeing of polyester fabrics with thienobenzochromene disperse dyes under conventional and microwave heating conditions was studied in order to determine whether microwave heating could be used to enhance the dyeability of polyester fabrics. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. All samples dyed with or without microwave heating displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness. The biological activities of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungus were also evaluated. PMID:24022764

Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy

2013-01-01

294

Dye laser tuner  

SciTech Connect

A laser of the kind in which the lasing medium is a free flowing dye stream incorporates a means of tuning the output wave length of the laser, this means being in the form of a wedged birefringent plate which is driven in a linear mode by a linear translator so that the thickness of the birefringent plate traversed by the intracavity beam of laser light may be varied.

Arthurs, E.G.; Purdie, A.F.

1980-11-11

295

Generation of 3.5W high efficiency blue-violet laser by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state tunable Ti:sapphire laser.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report a high power, high efficiency blue-violet laser obtained by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state Q-switched tunable Ti:sapphire laser, which was pumped by a 532 nm intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. A beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal was used for frequency-doubling of the Ti:sapphire laser and a V-shape folded three-mirror cavity was optimized to obtain high power high efficiency second harmonic generation (SHG). At an incident pump power of 22 W, the tunable output from 355 nm to 475 nm was achieved, involving the maximum average output of 3.5 W at 400 nm with an optical conversion efficiency of 16% from the 532 nm pump laser to the blue-violet output. The beam quality factor M(2) was measured to be Mx(2)=2.15, My(2)=2.38 for characterizing the tunable blue laser. PMID:18542555

Ding, X; Wang, R; Zhang, H; Wen, W Q; Huang, L; Wang, P; Yao, J Q; Yu, X Y; Li, Z

2008-03-31

296

Tunable liquid crystal lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystal lasers are dye-doped distributed feedback lasing systems. Fabricated by coupling the periodic structure of a liquid crystal medium with a fluorescent dye, the emission from these systems is tunable by controlling the liquid crystal system---be it through electric or thermal field effects, photochemical reactions, mechanical deformations, etc. The laser action arises from an extended interaction time between the radiation field, the laser emission, and the matter field, the periodic liquid crystal medium, at the edge of the photonic band gap. In this thesis, several tunable liquid crystal laser systems are investigated: cholesteric liquid crystals, holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals and liquid crystal polarization gratings. The primary focus has been to fabricate systems that are tunable through electrical means, as applications requiring mechanical or thermal changes are often difficult to control. Cholesteric liquid crystal lasers are helical Bragg reflectors, with a band gap for circularly polarized light of equivalent handedness to their helix. These materials were doped with a laser dye and laser emission was observed. The use of an in-plane electric field tends to unwind the helical pitch of the film and in doing so tunable emission was demonstrated for ˜15 nm. Holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) are grating structures consisting of alternating layers of polymer and liquid crystal, with different indices of refraction. The application of an electric field index matches these layers and switches off the grating. Thus, laser emission can be switched on and off through the use of an electric field. Spatially tunable H-PDLC lasers were fabricated by creating chirped gratings, formed by divergent beams. The emission was shown to tune ˜5 nm as the pump beam was translated across a 1 inch film. Liquid crystal polarization gratings use photo-patterned alignment layers, through a polarization holography exposure, to induce an alignment in a liquid crystal film. Electrically tunable emission was demonstrated in these systems. Applications of liquid crystal lasers include emissive substrates or backplanes for displays or tunable emission sources for biology and medicine. The potential for such applications are discussed.

Woltman, Scott J.

297

LiEuMo2O8 - crystal growth, structure, and optical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centimeter size LiEu(MoO4)2 bulk single crystals have been grown by top-seeded solution growth using Li2MoO4 as a flux. The resulting crystals exhibited different coloration shades from dark to bright violet. Small single crystal fragments were studied by X-ray diffraction: CaWO4 type, space group I41/a, a = 519.74(4), c = 1132.56(11) pm, wR2 = 0.0143, 270 F2 values at 300 K and a = 518.70(4), c = 1130.25(11) pm, wR2 = 0.0197, 268 F2 values at 90 K. The Li+ and Eu3+ cations statistically occupy the 4b site. Down to 90 K, the single crystal X-ray data give no hint for cation ordering. Some of the grown crystals show dark violet color. This is due to defects in the oxygen substructure accompanied by partial reduction of Mo6+ (d0) to Mo5+ (d1) which was detected by electron spin resonance. 151Eu Mössbauer spectra of the bright and also of the dark violet LiEuMo2O8 samples show the presence of trivalent europium solely. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data exhibit weak van Vleck type paramagnetism as a consequence of trivalent europium ([Xe]4f6). The dark violet samples show slightly higher susceptibility due to the contribution of Mo5+. These data point to a formula LiEuMo2O8-x for the violet samples. 7Li solid state NMR spectra underline the single lithium sites in both samples. Both colored crystals show identical emission spectra, which indicate the same chemical surrounding of the trivalent europium ions. However, excitation spectra and thermal quenching and decay curves points to a higher defect density in the violet sample.

Schwung, Sebastian; Rytz, Daniel; Gross, Andreas; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Gerke, Birgit; Heying, Birgit; Schwickert, Christian; Pöttgen, Rainer; Jüstel, Thomas

2014-01-01

298

60.1 / A. Muravsky 60.1: Optical Rewritable Electronic Paper with Fluorescent Dye  

E-print Network

60.1 / A. Muravsky 60.1: Optical Rewritable Electronic Paper with Fluorescent Dye Doped Liquid) electronic paper is the joint result of advanced photoalignment of liquid crystals, optical engineering substrates are glued together with UV-epoxy NOA65, Norland. The cell is filled in vacuum with liquid crystal

299

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2010-04-01

300

Genetic structure among and within peripheral and central populations of three endangered floodplain violets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the partitioning of genetic variance in peripheral and central populations may shed more light on the effects of genetic drift and gene flow on population genetic structure and, thereby, improve attempts to conserve genetic diversity. We analysed genetic structure of peripheral and central populations of three insect-pollinated violets ( Viola elatior , Viola pumila , Viola stagnina ) to

R. L. E CKSTEIN; R. A. O' NEILL; J. DANIHELKA; A. OTTE; W. KÖHLER

2006-01-01

301

Dependence of Ultra-Violet Reflection of Silver on Plastic Deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in electrical conductivity of metals with mechanical strain suggests the possibility of a dependence of optical reflecting power on plastic deformation. To study this matter, and to obtain additional evidence with regard to the nature of cold working, the behavior of the minimum of reflecting power of silver in the near ultra-violet (at 3160A according to Hagen and

Henry Margenau

1929-01-01

302

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2011-04-01

303

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2012-04-01

304

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2014-04-01

305

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2013-04-01

306

SELECTION ON FLORAL MORPHOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF FECUNDITY IN A HAWK MOTH-POLLINATED VIOLET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a 5-yr field study on the determinants of individual variation in maternal fecundity (seed production) in the narrowly endemic violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae), at a southeastern Spanish locality. Flowers of this species are characterized by a very long, thin spur and broad morphological variability, and are pol- linated by a single species of day-flying

CARLOS M. HERRERA

1993-01-01

307

Integumental reddish-violet coloration owing to novel dichromatic chromatophores in the teleost fish, Pseudochromis diadema.  

PubMed

In the reddish-violet parts of the skin of the diadema pseudochromis Pseudochromis diadema, we found novel dichromatic chromatophores with a reddish pigment and reflecting platelets. We named these novel cells 'erythro-iridophores'. In standard physiological solution, erythro-iridophores displayed two hues, red and dark violet when viewed with an optical microscope under ordinary transmission light and epi-illumination optics, respectively. Under transmission electron microscopy, however, we observed no typical red chromatosomes, i.e., erythrosomes, in the cytoplasm. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of the pigment eluted from the erythro-iridophores indicated that carotenoid is the main pigment generating the reddish color. Furthermore, when the irrigating medium was a K(+)-rich saline solution, the color reflected from the erythro-iridophores changed from dark violet to sky blue, but the red coloration remained. The motile activities of the erythro-iridophores may participate in the changes in the reddish-violet shades of the pseudochromis fish. PMID:21501419

Goda, Makoto; Ohata, Mihoko; Ikoma, Hayato; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Sugimoto, Masazumi; Fujii, Ryozo

2011-08-01

308

21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.  

21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section 500.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

2014-04-01

309

Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been succesfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/?m and 5.6 V/?m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

Mamat, M. H.; Khusaimi, Z.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Rusop, M.

2011-05-01

310

Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z. [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia) and NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-05-25

311

Violets of the section Melanium, their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their occurrence on heavy metal heaps.  

PubMed

Violets of the sections Melanium were examined for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Heartsease (Viola tricolor) from several heavy metal soils was AMF-positive at many sites but not at extreme biomes. The zinc violets Viola lutea ssp. westfalica (blue zinc violet) and ssp. calaminaria (yellow zinc violet) were always AMF-positive on heavy metal soils as their natural habitats. As shown for the blue form, zinc violets germinate independently of AMF and can be grown in non-polluted garden soils. Thus the zinc violets are obligatorily neither mycotrophs nor metalophytes. The alpine V. lutea, likely ancestor of the zinc violets, was at best poorly colonized by AMF. As determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, the contents of Zn and Pb were lower in AMF colonized plants than in the heavy metal soils from where the samples had been taken. AMF might prevent the uptake of toxic levels of heavy metals into the plant organs. Dithizone staining indicated a differential deposition of heavy metals in tissues of heartsease. Leaf hairs were particularly rich in heavy metals, indicating that part of the excess of heavy metals is sequestered into these cells. PMID:21492955

S?omka, A; Kuta, E; Szarek-?ukaszewska, G; Godzik, B; Kapusta, P; Tylko, G; Bothe, H

2011-07-15

312

Crystal growth, stability and photoluminescence studies of tetra aqua diglycine magnesium (II) hexa aqua magnesium (II) bis sulfate crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystals of tetra aqua diglycine magnesium (II) hexa aqua magnesium (II) bis sulfate have been grown from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The solubility of the title compound in water at various temperatures has been determined. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the title compound crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P1¯. Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses confirm the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. The thermal stability of the grown crystal has been investigated by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis. It indicates that the material is stable upto 100 °C. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal has been evaluated by high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique. Vickers microhardness measurements indicate the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Photoluminescence of the grown crystal has been investigated and it reveals that the crystal has blue-violet fluorescence emission.

Senthil Murugan, G.; Ramasamy, P.

2011-03-01

313

Light-induced rearrangements of chemisorbed dyes on anatase(101).  

PubMed

Photoinduced molecular rearrangements are important in daily events essential for life such as visual perception and photo-protection of light harvesting complexes in plants. In this study we demonstrate that similar photoarrangements appear in an analogous technological application where the device performance is controlled by chromophores in sensitized anatase TiO(2), one of the main components for light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC). STM reveals that illumination leads to distortions of organic dyes containing conjugated backbones and of cis-bis(isothiocyanate)-bis-(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II)-bis(tetrabutylammonium), known as N719. The dyes were adsorbed in a closed-packed mode on an anatase(101) single crystal surface and imaged in the dark and under white light illumination in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV). STM images of N719 clearly suggest rearrangements caused by rotation of the dye. Conversely, organic dyes rearrange by photoisomerization depending on the number of double bonds, their position in the molecular structure and on the ligand modifications. PMID:22785456

Zuleta, Marcelo; Edvinsson, Tomas; Yu, Shun; Ahmadi, Sareh; Boschloo, Gerrit; Göthelid, Mats; Hagfeldt, Anders

2012-08-14

314

10.1128/AAC.47.7.2323-2326.2003. 2003, 47(7):2323. DOI:Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  

E-print Network

in humans and animals (23, 25). In addition the dyes are used as fabric and food dyes (2). Both malachite concentrations of the dyes malachite green and crystal violet. Cells of strains of those species decolorized the dyes. Small amounts of malachite green and its reduced, decolorized product were detected in the lipid

Falkinham, Joseph

315

Decolorization Of Textile Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on the use of ozone to decolorize textile dye solutions. The results describe the rates of reaction and the stoichiometry for the use of ozone to decolorize a simulated wastewater containing a bisazo acid dye (Acid Red 158). These rates of reaction are not sensitive to pH and are only mildly affected by temperature. The effects of

Julie Carrière; J. Peter Jones; Arthur D. Broadbent

1993-01-01

316

Optofluidic Distributed Feedback Dye Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review our recent work on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based optofluidic dye lasers using a guided wave distributed feedback (DFB) cavity. We show experimental results of single-mode operation, an integrated laser array, multiple color dye lasing, mechanical and fluidic tuning, and monolithic integration with microfluidic circuits. Potential applications and future directions are discussed

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2007-01-01

317

Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall

Yuze Sun; Jonathan D. Suter; Xudong Fan

2010-01-01

318

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E. D.; Kilpatrick, F. A.

1984-01-01

319

Crystal Notes The Crystal  

E-print Network

Crystal Notes The Crystal The crystal is defined as an ordered set of atoms (molecules) arranged. Ordered crystals exist because in their formation they must disorder their surroundings more than they are ordered. The key to growing a crystal is to cause in the disorder of the surroundings to be more than

Meagher, Mary

320

Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by using a new strong cation-exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(glycidylmethacrylate) was grafted via surface-initiated-atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on a cross-linked acrylate based resin. Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonic groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The adsorption of Crystal Violet and Basic Fuchsine on the strong cation-exchange resin was studied under different experimental conditions. The adsorption process for both

Gulay Bayramoglu; Begum Altintas; M. Yakup Arica

2009-01-01

321

Investigation of a basic dye adsorption from aqueous solution onto raw and pre-treated bentonite surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of crystal violet (CV+) by raw, Ni-saturated (Ni-), Co-saturated (Co-) and Zn-saturated (Zn-) bentonite samples were investigated. The amounts of CV+ adsorbed in equilibrium at 298.15K were 0.27, 0.37, 0.49 and 0.54mmolg?1 bentonite, which correspond to 108%, 148%, 196% and 216% of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the

E. Eren; B. Afsin

2008-01-01

322

Investigation of a basic dye adsorption from aqueous solution onto raw and pre-treated sepiolite surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature, pH and ionic strength effects on the adsorption of crystal violet (CV) by raw, base activated and Al-saturated sepiolite samples were studied. Al-saturated sepiolite has relatively weak ability for CV adsorption compared to the raw clay, whereas the highest adsorption observed for the base activated sepiolite may be due to the Na+ ions replaced part of Mg2+ located

E. Eren; B. Afsin

2007-01-01

323

Trend towards low cost, low power, ultra-violet (UV) based biological agent detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-violet fluorescence remains a corner stone technique for the detection of biological agent aerosols. Historically, these UV based detectors have employed relatively costly and power demanding lasers that have influenced the exploitation of the technology to wider use. Recent advancements from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Solid-state Ultra Violet Optical Sources (SUVOS) program has changed this. The UV light emitting diode (LED) devices based on Gallium Nitride offer a unique opportunity to produce small, low power, and inexpensive detectors. It may, in fact, be possible to extend the SUVOS technology into detectors that are potentially disposable. This report will present ongoing efforts to explore this possibility. It will present candidate UV fluorescence based detector designs along with the biological aerosol responses obtained from these designs.

Sickenberger, David

2005-11-01

324

Adsorption of Basic Violet 14 in aqueous solutions using KMnO4-modified activated carbon.  

PubMed

In this paper, an activated carbon was prepared from Typha orientalis and then treated with KMnO(4) and used for the removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. KMnO(4) treatment influenced the physicochemical properties of the carbon and improved its adsorption capacity. Adsorption experiments were then conducted with KMnO(4)-modified activated carbon to study the effects of carbon dosage (250-1500 mg/L), pH (2-10), ion strength (0-0.5 mol/L), temperature, and contact time on the adsorption of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best with good correlation. PMID:20036370

Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chenglu; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Huayong

2010-03-01

325

A novel biosorbent for dye removal: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery. PMID:18718709

Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Xu, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

2009-04-15

326

Soybean peroxidase-mediated degradation of an azo dye- a detailed mechanistic study  

PubMed Central

Background Peroxidases are emerging as an important class of enzymes that can be used for the efficient degradation of organic pollutants. However, detailed studies identifying the various intermediates produced and the mechanisms involved in the enzyme-mediated pollutant degradation are not widely published. Results In the present study, the enzymatic degradation of an azo dye (Crystal Ponceau 6R, CP6R) was studied using commercially available soybean peroxidase (SBP) enzyme. Several operational parameters affecting the enzymatic degradation of dye were evaluated and optimized, such as initial dye concentration, H2O2 dosage, mediator amount and pH of the solution. Under optimized conditions, 40 ppm dye solution could be completely degraded in under one minute by SBP in the presence of H2O2 and a redox mediator. Dye degradation was also confirmed using HPLC and TOC analyses, which showed that most of the dye was being mineralized to CO2 in the process. Conclusions Detailed analysis of metabolites, based on LC/MS results, showed that the enzyme-based degradation of the CP6R dye proceeded in two different reaction pathways- via symmetric azo bond cleavage as well as asymmetric azo bond breakage in the dye molecule. In addition, various critical transformative and oxidative steps such as deamination, desulfonation, keto-oxidation are explained on an electronic level. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses confirmed that the end products in both pathways were small chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:24308857

2013-01-01

327

One-step Synthesis of White, Orange and Violet Light Emitting ZnO Phosphors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White, orange and violet light emission has been observed for ZnO tetrapods deposited on the walls of a long quartz tube upon illumination of a UV lamp (wavelength ˜365 nm). These distinct emissions are well separated from each other. A careful collection of these distinct parts from the quartz tube also shows the same luminescence under the UV illumination. The photoluminescence spectra of these powder samples are in agreement with the visible emission.

Goswami, Gopal Krishna; Nanda, Karuna Kar

2011-07-01

328

Isolation of a blue-violet pigment from the flowers of Platycodon grandiflorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blue violet pigment was isolated in a crystalline state from the flowers ofPlatycodon grandiflorum A. DC. by the use of neutral solvents. The absorption spectrum of this pigment in buffer solution (pH 4.5) was almost identical\\u000a with that of an intact tissue. The essential component of this pigment is platyconin, i.e., delphinidin 3-dicaffeoylrutinosido-5-glucoside.

Norio Saitô; Yoshinobu Osawa; Kôzô Hayashi

1972-01-01

329

Development of an ultra-violet digital camera for volcanic SO2 imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to improve monitoring of passive volcano degassing, we have constructed and tested a digital camera for quantifying the sulfur dioxide (SO2) content of volcanic plumes. The camera utilizes a bandpass filter to collect photons in the ultra-violet (UV) region where SO2 selectively absorbs UV light. SO2 is quantified by imaging calibration cells of known SO2 concentrations. Images

G. J. S. Bluth; J. M. Shannon; I. M. Watson; A. J. Prata; V. J. Realmuto

2007-01-01

330

Development of an ultra-violet digital camera for volcanic SO 2 imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to improve monitoring of passive volcano degassing, we have constructed and tested a digital camera for quantifying the sulfur dioxide (SO2) content of volcanic plumes. The camera utilizes a bandpass filter to collect photons in the ultra-violet (UV) region where SO2 selectively absorbs UV light. SO2 is quantified by imaging calibration cells of known SO2 concentrations.Images of

G. J. S. Bluth; J. M. Shannon; I. M. Watson; A. J. Prata; V. J. Realmuto

2007-01-01

331

Luminescence degradation of InGaN\\/GaN violet LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes of optical output power and electrical property of InGaN\\/GaN violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different indium compositions have been investigated, under injection current densities of 26.5 and 79.5A\\/cm2. When injection current density was 26.5A\\/cm2, output power of LEDs with low indium composition (2%) degraded more rapidly than the ones of 10% indium inside. At a large injection level

Tongjun Yu; Shuping Shang; Zhizhong Chen; Zhixin Qin; Liang Lin; Zhijian Yang; Guoyi Zhang

2007-01-01

332

On-Orbit Characterization of the TIMED Global UltraViolet Imager (GUVI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present various aspects of the calibration techniques and on-orbit performance of the Global UltraViolet Imager (GUVI), currently operating aboard the TIMED spacecraft. On-orbit characterization of the instrument is discussed, particularly in reference to the quality of the data provided to the user community. GUVI's science objectives require a radiometric accuracy of ~8% in the far UV for the duration

B. C. Wolven; L. J. Paxton; D. Morrison; D. C. Humm; B. S. Ogorzalek; H. Kil; Y. Zhang; C. Meng; A. Christensen

2002-01-01

333

Spontaneous Emission of Organic Molecules Embedded in a Photonic Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on modification of the spontaneous emission of dye molecules embedded in a three- dimensional solid-state photonic crystal exhibiting a stop band in the visible range. Molecules embedded in artificial opal filled with a polymer show a dip in the fluorescence spectrum and nonexponential spontaneous decay kinetics containing both accelerated and inhibited components compared to the dye fluorescence in

E. P. Petrov; V. N. Bogomolov; I. I. Kalosha; S. V. Gaponenko

1998-01-01

334

High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

E-print Network

High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E soluble energy relay dyes with high molar extinction coefficients. KEYWORDS Solar cell, energy transfer, dye-sensitized dolar cell, energy relay dye, titania L ong range energy transfer has recently been

McGehee, Michael

335

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe. PMID:22476459

2012-01-01

336

Quantitative analysis of the respiratory system of the house sparrow, budgerigar and violet-eared hummingbird.  

PubMed

In the house sparrow, the budgerigar and the violet-eared hummingbird the volumes of the lungs and air sacs are estimated from silicone casts. The quantitative composition of the lungs and of their compartments are measured on lung slices, the relative volumes of the parabronchi on histological sections, and the volume composition of the blood-air capillary network of the parabronchi on electron micrographs. On electron micrographs the exchange surface and the thickness of the air-blood diffusion barrier are also measured. From these data the morphological membrane diffusion capacity is calculated and related to several organ weights. The volume of the lungs and air sacs makes up 14-22% of the total body volume, the lungs only 2.3-2.9%. The exchange surface varies from 61 cm2/g (budgerigar) over 70 cm2/g (house sparrow) to 99 cm2/g (violet-eared hummingbird). The very thin barrier in these small birds results in a membrane diffusion capacity of 0.122 in budgerigars up to 0.271 ml O2/mm Hg . min . g in violet-eared hummingbirds. The various parameters are compared with those of corresponding mammals, and the quantitative advantages of the avian respiratory system are discussed. PMID:7330491

Dubach, M

1981-10-01

337

Sensitivity enhancement in photonic crystal slab Mohamed El Beheiry,1  

E-print Network

by quality factor reductions, which are common to fabricated photonic crystal nano- structures. Finally, we-Jaricot, R. Nitschke, and T. Nann, "Quantum dots versus organic dyes as fluorescent labels," Nat. Methods 5

Fan, Shanhui

338

Identification and measurement of food and cosmetic dyes in a municipal wastewater treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Acid Blue 9, Acid Violet 17, Quinoline Yellow, Acid Red 51, Acid Red 87, and Acid Red 92 along with N-benzyl-N-ethylaniline sulfonic acid (BEASA), a synthetic precursor, were identified and measured in colored wastewater samples from a municipal treatment plant. Continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry was used to analyze BEASA. Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to analyze the other dyes, but its lack of selectivity required prior isolation of the analytes from interfering compounds by solid-phase extraction onto C[sub 18] extraction disks and onto cartridges packed with strong anion-exchange resins. The xanthene dyes (Acid Red 51, 87, and 92) were found in low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations in the plant influent and were rapidly removed by adsorption to sludge. Acid Red 92 was found to be over 35 times more concentrated on secondary sludge than in the corresponding liquid samples, indicating high levels of accumulation. The other dyes and BEASA were found in hundred ppb concentrations in both the influent and the effluent of the plant, indicating a resistance to both degradation and removal by sorption. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Borgerding, A.J.; Hites, R.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1994-07-01

339

Nanoporous membranes with cellulose nanocrystals as functional entity in chitosan: removal of dyes from water.  

PubMed

Fully biobased composite membranes for water purification were fabricated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as functional entities in chitosan matrix via freeze-drying process followed by compacting. The chitosan (10 wt%) bound the CNCs in a stable and nanoporous membrane structure with thickness of 250-270 ?m, which was further stabilized by cross-linking with gluteraldehyde vapors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed well-individualized CNCs embedded in a matrix of chitosan. Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) measurements showed that the membranes were nanoporous with pores in the range of 13-10nm. In spite of the low water flux (64 Lm(-2) h(-1)), the membranes successfully removed 98%, 84% and 70% respectively of positively charged dyes like Victoria Blue 2B, Methyl Violet 2B and Rhodamine 6G, after a contact time of 24h. The removal of dyes was expected to be driven by the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged CNCs and the positively charged dyes. PMID:25129796

Karim, Zoheb; Mathew, Aji P; Grahn, Mattias; Mouzon, Johanne; Oksman, Kristiina

2014-11-01

340

Production of laccase and manganese peroxidase by Pleurotus pulmonarius in solid-state cultures and application in dye decolorization.  

PubMed

The production of ligninolytic enzymes (laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase) by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius (FR.) Quélet was studied in solid-state cultures using agricultural and food wastes as substrate. The highest activities of laccase were found in wheat bran (2,860?±?250 U/L), pineapple peel (2,450?±?230 U/L), and orange bagasse (2,100?±?270 U/L) cultures, all of them at an initial moisture level of 85 %. The highest activities of Mn peroxidase were obtained in pineapple peel cultures (2,200?±?205 U/L) at an initial moisture level of 75 %. In general, the condition of high initial moisture level (80-90 %) was the best condition for laccase activity, while the best condition for Mn peroxidase activity was cultivation at low initial moisture (50-70 %). Cultures containing high Mn peroxidase activities were more efficient in the decolorization of the industrial dyes remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR), Congo red, methylene blue, and ethyl violet than those containing high laccase activity. Also, crude enzymatic extracts with high Mn peroxidase activity were more efficient in the in vitro decolorization of methylene blue, ethyl violet, and Congo red. The dye RBBR was efficiently decolorized by both crude extracts, rich in Mn peroxidase activity or rich in laccase activity. PMID:23645502

dos Santos Bazanella, Gisele Cristina; de Souza, Daniela Farani; Castoldi, Rafael; Oliveira, Roselene Ferreira; Bracht, Adelar; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2013-11-01

341

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-01-01

342

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

343

Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye.  

PubMed

Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton fabric using a new antibacterial reactive dye having a modified chemical structure to the commercial reactive dye CI Reactive Red 198 were studied. This modification was carried out by replacing metanilic acid in the commercial dye with 4-amino-N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfadimidine). Optimum exhaustion and fixation values were achieved at 60 g/l sodium sulphate and 20 g/l sodium carbonate for both dyes. The modified dye exhibited higher substantivity, exhaustion and fixation efficiency compared to the commercial dye. Antibacterial activities of the dyed samples at different concentrations of both dyes were studied against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The cotton dyed with the modified dye shows higher antibacterial efficacy compared to the dyed cotton fabric using the commercial dye, especially on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria. All the reactive dyeings also exhibited high fastness properties. PMID:23769529

Farouk, R; Gaffer, H E

2013-08-14

344

Selective removal of the violet color produced by anthocyanins in procyanidin-rich unfermented cocoa extracts.  

PubMed

Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is rich in procyanidins, a large portion of which degrades during the natural fermentation process of producing cocoa powder. Recent advances in technology have enabled scientists to produce unfermented cocoa powder, preserving the original profile of procyanidins present in cocoa and allowing for the development of highly concentrated procyanidin-rich extracts. During this process, the anthocyanins naturally present in unfermented cocoa remain intact, producing a violet color in the final extract. The objective of this study was to selectively remove the violet color in procyanidin-rich extracts produced from unfermented cocoa powder, while maintaining the stability and composition of procyanidins present in the matrix. Several processing parameters, including pH fluctuations, enzymatic treatments, and the addition of potassium meta-bisulfite, were explored to influence the color of procyanidin-rich extracts throughout a 60-d shelf life study. The addition of potassium meta-bisulfite (500 ppm) was found to be the most effective means of removing the violet color present in the treated extracts (L*= 71.39, a*= 8.44, b*= 9.61, chroma = 12.79, and hue = 48.8?) as compared to the control (L*= 52.84, a*= 11.08, b*= 2.24, chroma = 11.28, and hue = 11.4?). The use of potassium meta-bisulfite at all treatment levels (200, 500, and 1000 ppm) did not show any significant detrimental effects on the stability, composition, or amount of procyanidins present in the extracts over the shelf life period as monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC-MS. This research will enable the food industry to incorporate highly concentrated procyanidin-rich extracts in food products without influencing the color of the final product. PMID:22417537

Wallace, Taylor C; Giusti, M Monica

2011-09-01

345

Novel fluoranthene dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three, novel, fluoranthene-based dyes, 2-cyano-3-(5-(7,12-diphenylbenzo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylic acid, 2-(5-((5-(7,12-diphenylben-zo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl)methylene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid and 2-cyano-3-(4-(2-(7,12-diphenylbenzo[k]fluoranthen-3-yl)ethynyl) phenyl) acrylic acid, were synthesized for application as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. In each dye, the 7,12-diphenyl-benzo[k]fluoranthene moiety acted as electron donor with phenyl and thiophene units as electron spacers and carboxylic acid as electron acceptor. Tuning of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels was conveniently accomplished by changing

Xuemei Ma; Wenjun Wu; Qiong Zhang; Fuling Guo; Fanshun Meng; Jianli Hua

2009-01-01

346

27.1 / V. G. Chigrinov 27.1: Invited Paper: New Developments in Liquid Crystal Photo-Aligning  

E-print Network

-Aligning by Azo-Dyes V. G. Chigrinov, H.S. Kwok Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Incorporated, Japan Abstract Liquid crystal photo-alignment using azo-dyes is reviewed. This alignment method. The application of this method to the alignment and fabrication of various types of liquid crystal displays

347

Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

De Laat, F.

1966-01-01

348

Orange and IR to violet up-conversion processes in Nd:ZBLAN glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we investigate, compare and discuss UV and violet emission behaviour under pulsed, multi-photon orange and infra-red excitation in Nd 3+ doped ZBLAN samples of different concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5 mol.%. Supported by the obtained spectroscopic results, orange and IR excitation schemes were proposed and verified by time dependent rate equation model, which has been employed to confirm the nature of observed processes. Proposed model returns fitting results which qualitatively reflect the experimentally obtained fluorescence decays.

Klimczak, M.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.

2009-10-01

349

Application of adaptive feedback loop for ultra-violet femtosecond pulse shaper control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply an adaptive feedback loop to control a ultra-violet (UV) femtosecond pulse shaping apparatus. The adaptive feedback control is implemented by a continuous parameter genetic algorithm. We use the adaptive shaper to compensate for the pulse chirp. The genetic algorithm produces a pulse with a width of 115 fs, identical to that of the transformlimited pulse. We then apply the adaptive shaper to the Stokes pulse in a femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiment on dipicolinic acid solution. The algorithm maximizes the first CARS beat signal at the probe pulse delay of 650 fs. We confirm that a transformlimited Stokes pulse achieves the best detection sensitivity.

Huang, Yu; Dogariu, Arthur

2006-10-01

350

Graded photonic crystals by optical interference holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication of graded photonic crystals in dye doped dichromate gelatin emulsions using an optical interference holographic technique. The gradedness is achieved by imposing a gradient form factor in the interference intensity resulting from the absorption of the dye in the dichromate gelatin. Wider and deeper photonic bandgaps are observed for the dyed samples as compared to the un-dyed samples. Our method could open up a new direction in fabricating graded photonic crystals which cannot be achieved easily using other techniques.

Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

2012-08-01

351

Fluidic fibre dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the demonstration of compact fluidic fibre lasers based on capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibres, featuring single channel and multiple laterally integrated fluidic lasers respectively. Their preparation was based on capillary action and lasing occurred without the need for external mirrors or lithographically defined microstructures. The fibre lasers were found to be tunable by varying the chromophore density in the liquid core and a functional wavelength selectivity mechanism inherent in both types of lasers provided a long free spectral range that does not correspond to the length of the fibres. The enhanced mode spacing is attributed to a Vernier resonant effect.

Vasdekis, A. E.; Town, G. E.; Turnbull, G. A.; Samuel, I. D. W.

2007-04-01

352

Dyeing behavior of low temperature plasma treated wool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effects of low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment on the dyeing properties of the wool fiber were studied.\\u000a The wool fibers were treated with oxygen plasma and three types of dye that commonly used for wool dyeing, namely: (i) acid\\u000a dye, (ii) chrome dye and (iii) reactive dye, were used in the dyeing process. For acid dyeing,

C. W. Kan

2006-01-01

353

A single-element all-optical approach to chemometric prediction M.L. Myricka,*  

E-print Network

computing is described. Data for mixtures of Crystal Violet and Bismarck Brown dyes are analyzed results for fabrication of an MOE are shown. # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords

Myrick, Michael Lenn

354

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Soft-Landed Polyatomic Ions and Molecules  

E-print Network

-treated silver substrates. Organic dyes such as crystal violet and Rhodamine B, the nucleobase cytosine opened new avenues for various applications, such as surface modifica- tions,2a,b fabrication of protein

Swanson, Brian D.

355

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

356

TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

357

FATE OF COMMERCIAL DISPERSE DYES IN SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. he commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. eaction rates were fo...

358

New fluoranthene-based cyanine dye for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new fluoranthene-based unsymmetrical organic cyanine dye I and the corresponding cyanine dye II containing ethynyl unit for the purpose of comparison were designed and synthesized as sensitizers for the application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The absorption spectra, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of I and II were extensively investigated. The DSSCs based on the fluoranthene dye

Wenjun Wu; Fuling Guo; Jing Li; Jinxiang He; Jianli Hua

2010-01-01

359

Anaerobic\\/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass

S. Seshadri; P. L. Bishop; A. M. Agha

1994-01-01

360

Ligninase-catalysed decolorization of synthetic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many synthetic dyes in industrial wastewaters are resistant to degradation in conventional biological treatment process. Decolorization of eight synthetic dyes including azo, anthraquinone, metal complex and indigo were examined in white-rot fungal cultures and by fungal peroxidase-catalysed oxidation. The dyes were not decolorized by manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) while above 80% color was removed by ligninase-catalysed oxidation. Dye decolorization rate increased

Lawrence Young; Jian Yu

1997-01-01

361

Nonlinear effects in ionic smectics with nano-sized dye impurities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic holographic recording is investigated in novel class of liquid crystals namely in ionic metal-alcanoic smectics, which contain photosensitive impurities. A design of a heterostructure cell that consists of at least two layers: the first layer is a solid dye film and a second layer is an ionic smectic matrix, is proposed for dynamic holographic applications. Fast temporal relaxation of

S. Bugaychuk; Ju. Garbovskii; G. Klimusheva; A. Tolochko; O. Kolesnik; A. Vakhnin; T. Mirnaya; G. Jaremchuk; A. Ishchenko

2005-01-01

362

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

363

Synthesis and optophysical properties of dimeric aza-BODIPY dyes with a push-pull benzodipyrrolidone core.  

PubMed

A series of benzodipyrrolidone-based dimeric aza-BODIPY dyes with a push-pull structure are synthesized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction demonstrates these extended aza-BODIPY dyes are planar. The resulting aza-BODIPY chromophores exhibit intense absorption in the 450-800 nm regions and possess lower-lying LUMO energy levels. Furthermore, the push-pull substituents on aza-BODIPYs core have a positive effect on their optophysical properties. PMID:25133858

Wang, Yafei; Chen, Long; El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Aziz, Saadullah G; Müllen, Klaus

2014-10-01

364

Laser action of dyes in gelatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-gain directional stimulated emission has been observed for a number of dyes in gelatin with pumping by a nitrogen laser or a liquid dye laser. For some dyes the gel is made with water and gelatin; for others a detergent must be added or glycerin used instead of water.

T. Hansch; M. Pernier; A. Schawlow

1971-01-01

365

Microbial decolourisation and degradation of textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes and dyestuffs find use in a wide range of industries but are of primary importance to textile manufacturing. Wastewater from the textile industry can contain a variety of polluting substances including dyes. Increasingly, environmental legislation is being imposed to control the release of dyes, in particular azo-based compounds, into the environment. The ability of microorganisms to decolourise and metabolise

G. McMullan; C. Meehan; A. Conneely; N. Kirby; T. Robinson; P. Nigam; I. M. Banat; R. Marchant; W. F. Smyth

2001-01-01

366

Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.  

PubMed

The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

Cooksey, C J

2014-02-01

367

Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of synthetic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial dyes are not uniformly susceptible to microbial attack in conventional aerobic treatment because of their unique and stable chemical structures. Three synthetic dyes with typical chromophores (anthraquinone, azo and indigo) were decolorized by a white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. The responsible enzyme for dye decomposition was laccase, an extracellular oxidase released by the fungus under the conditions of slow growth

Yuxing Wong; Jian Yu

1999-01-01

368

Micelle dyeing with low liquor ratio for reactive dyes using dialkyl maleic acid ester surfactants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micelle dyeing with low liquor ratio is novel fabric dyeing method for cleaner production. Preparation and interaction of dye-surfactant micelles using dibutyl maleic acid ester sodium sulfate surfactant were investigated by UV–Vis spectra. Dyeing properties of cellulose fabrics using micelle dyeing with low liquor ratio were discussed by color yields (K\\/S), color differences (?E), exhaustion (E), fixation (F) and reactivity

Kongliang Xie; Fangfang Cheng; Weiguo Zhao; Lei Xu

2011-01-01

369

Application of rare earth as mordant for the dyeing of ramie fabrics with natural dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting appropriate metallic compounds as mordants is essential for dyeing with natural dyes. This paper presents the application\\u000a of rare earth compounds as mordant for the dyeing of ramie fabrics with four kinds of natural dyes. The influences of pre-mordanting,\\u000a simultaneous mordanting, and post-mordanting on the dyeing effect were explored. The post-mordanting was proved to give rise\\u000a to the highest

Guang Hong Zheng; Hong Bin Fu; Guang Ping Liu

370

Dyeing properties and colour fastness of wool dyed with indicaxanthin natural dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work involves the dyeing of wool with indicaxanthin, a natural dye extracted from fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica. The optimal conditions for dye extraction were to mix 50g of Juice from cactus pears with 100mL of 80% aqueous ethanol as solvent for dye extraction. Liquid chromatography was applied for the separation. Two main dyes were obtained, which were identified

A. Guesmi; N. Ben Hamadi; N. Ladhari; F. Sakli

371

Red, violet and upconversion luminescence of Eu/Sm codoped sol gel SiO2-TiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth (Eu/Sm) doped silica-titania composite systems were sensitized by sol-gel method in solid and powder forms. The crystalline phase has been identified for the annealed samples at 1000 °C by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The bonding formation of the host matrix was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The fingerprint transition lines of Eu3+ ions, with the main emission line at 616 nm, are recorded for the samples. Improvement in Eu3+ luminescence has been recorded by adding Sm3+ and by samples. Violet emission is observed under UV irradiation. Violet-blue upconversion luminescence is recorded at room temperature.

Azzouz, I. M.; Klein, Lisa C.

2012-12-01

372

Decolourization of textile industry wastewater by the photocatalytic degradation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic degradation of various dyes (Orange II, Orange G, Congo Red, Indigo Carmine, Crystal Violet, Malachite Green, Remazol Blue and Methyl Yellow) has been studied, using P25 Degussa as catalyst. All dye solutions underwent a decolourization. The kinetics of reaction have been studied and were found to be zero or first order with respect to the dyes. This was

C Hachem; F Bocquillon; O Zahraa; M Bouchy

2001-01-01

373

Optofluidic Ring Resonator Dye Microlasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss versatile, miniaturized optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers that can be operated regardless of the refractive index of the liquid. The OFRR is a piece of a thin-walled fused silica capillary that integrates the photonic ring resonator with microfluidics. In an OFRR dye laser, the active lasing materials (such as dyes) are passed through the capillary whereas the circular cross section forms a ring resonator and supports whispering gallery modes that provide optical feedback for lasing. Because of the high Q-factors extremely low lasing threshold is achieved (25 nJ/mm2). The operation wavelength can conveniently be changed by using different dyes and fine-tuned with solvent. The OFRR laser is excited through direct excitation or through efficient energy transfer. The laser can be efficiently out-coupled through a fiber taper in contact with the capillary, thus providing easy guiding for the laser emission. Theoretical analysis and experimental results for OFRR lasers are presented.

Shopova, Siyka I.; Lacey, Scott; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Sun, Yuze; Fan, Xudong

374

Optofluidic ring resonator dye microlasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of versatile, miniaturized optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers that can be operated regardless of the refractive index (RI) of the liquid. The OFRR is a piece of a thin-walled fused silica capillary that integrates the photonic ring resonator with microfluidics. In an OFRR dye laser, the active lasing materials (such as dye) are passed through the capillary whereas the circular cross section forms a ring resonator and supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that provide optical feedback for lasing. Due to the high Q-factors (> 10 9), extremely low lasing threshold can be achieved. The operation wavelength can conveniently be changed by using different dye and fine-tuned with solvent. The laser can be out-coupled through a fiber taper in touch with the capillary, thus providing an easy guiding for the laser emission. Our experiments demonstrate lasing through direct excitation and through efficient energy transfer (ET). Theoretical analysis and experimental results for OFRR lasers are presented.

Shopova, Siyka I.; Lacey, Scott; White, Ian M.; Sun, Yuze; Zhu, Hongying; Zhang, Po; Fan, Xudong

2008-02-01

375

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... who had used permanent dyes for longer durations (15 or more years). However, a case-control study in Italy found no association between ... associated with bladder cancer risk: evidence from a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2006; 15(9):1746–1749. [PubMed Abstract

376

3D microlasers from self-assembled cholesteric liquid-crystal microdroplets.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a tunable and omnidirectional microlaser in the form of a microdroplet of a dye-doped, cholesteric liquid crystal in a carrier fluid. The cholesteric forms a Bragg-onion optical microcavity and the omnidirectional 3D lasing is due to the stimulated emission of light from the dye molecules in the liquid crystal. The lasing wavelength depends solely on the natural helical period of the cholesteric and can be tuned by varying the temperature. Millions of microlasers can be formed simply by mixing a liquid crystal, a laser dye and a carrier fluid, thus providing microlasers for soft-matter photonic devices. PMID:21196976

Humar, M; Musevic, I

2010-12-20

377

Induction, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the Decolorization of Different Types of Dye  

PubMed Central

Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

2014-01-01

378

Induction, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the Decolorization of Different Types of Dye.  

PubMed

Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

2014-01-01

379

Photochemical switching between colloidal photonic crystals at the nematic-air interface S. B. Chernyshuk,1,2  

E-print Network

August 2008 A direct observation of the photochemical switching between colloidal crystals with different liquid crystal form two-dimensional hexagonal colloidal crystal at the nematic-air interface applications in infrared range photonic crystals are discussed. The number of different kinds of dyes N set

Weeks, Eric R.

380

Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

2012-08-01

381

Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

382

The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One ?M MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 ?M MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

2004-01-01

383

The use of vapour phase ultra-violet spectroscopy for the analysis of arson accelerants in fire scene debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for the analysis of arson accelerants in fire scene debris by vapour phase ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopy. The method is rapid, inexpensive, simple to use and is sufficiently sensitive and discriminating to be of use for the analysis of crime scene samples. Application to casework samples is described. On occasion, the method offers additional information to

Robert J. McCurdy; Tami Atwell; Michael D. Cole

2001-01-01

384

RIPARIAN FOREST AS HABITAT FOR THE LEAST BELL'S VIRE01 2M. Violet Gray and James M. Greaves  

E-print Network

riparian forests have disappeared, the vireos have disappeared as well, and now survive mostlyRIPARIAN FOREST AS HABITAT FOR THE LEAST BELL'S VIRE01 2M. Violet Gray and James M. Greaves as a breeding inhabitant of riparian forests. INTRODUCTION The purposes of this paper are to present data

385

Important interaction effects in the growth of InGaN violet light emitting diodes by MOCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of violet light emitting diodes (LEDs) was optimized using a statistical design of experiment (DOE) approach and several important interaction effects were found. The DOEs studied the effect of several variables on the well layer, the barrier layer, and the pAlGaN cladding layer. These variables included the gallium flow rate, the indium flow rate, the growth temperature, and

J. R. Grandusky; M. Jamila; J. A. DeLuca; S. F. LeBoeuf; X. A. Cao; S. D. Arthur

386

Important interaction effects in the growth of InGaN violet light emitting diodes by MOCVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of violet light emitting diodes (LEDs) was optimized using a statistical design of experiment (DOE) approach and several important interaction effects were found. The DOEs studied the effect of several variables on the well layer, the barrier layer, and the pAlGaN cladding layer. These variables included the gallium flow rate, the indium flow rate, the growth temperature, and

J. R. Grandusky; M. Jamil; V. Jindal; J. A. DeLuca; S. F. LeBoeuf; X. A. Cao; S. D. Arthur; F. Shahedipour-Sandvik

2005-01-01

387

Ultra-Violet Irradiation of Tobacco infected with Potato Virus Y and the Availability of Virus to Aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE many workers in widely divergent fields are interested in the biological effects of ionizing radiations, new methods of approach to this study may have wider application than is at first realized. This communication reports that ultra-violet irradiation of tobacco infected with potato virus Y can reduce the availability of virus to aphids without causing apparent injury to the plants

R. H. E. Bradley

1954-01-01

388

Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

Cottrell, Vicki M.

2013-01-01

389

Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.  

PubMed

Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant. PMID:22519123

Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

2012-01-01

390

CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE MV KYOWA VIOLET FUEL-OIL SPILL ON THE HARD CORAL, PORITES LOBATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grounding of the Merchant Vessel (MV) Kyowa Violet on a coral reef near Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, in December 2002 resulted in the release of an estimated 55,000 to 80,000 gallons of intermediate fuel oil grade 180. The immediate impact was the widespread coating of mangroves and the intertidal zone along more than 8 km of coastline. Of

Craig A. Downs; Robert H. Richmond; Woon Jaye Mendiola; Luc Rougée; Gary K. Ostrander

2006-01-01

391

Mechanical grinding of a single-crystalline metal-organic framework triggered emission with tunable violet-to-orange luminescence.  

PubMed

A metal-organic framework (MOF) featuring intriguing Borromean entanglement exhibits a unique mechanochromic luminescence with on-off switching. The concomitant excitation wavelength-dependent emission behavior can be utilized to tune the emission color from violet to orange. PMID:25384242

Sun, Jian-Ke; Chen, Cheng; Cai, Li-Xuan; Ren, Cai-Xia; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Jie

2014-11-20

392

Complementary ion and extreme ultra-violet spectrometer for laser-plasma diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous detection of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) and ion emission along the same line of sight provides comprehensive insight into the evolution of plasmas. This type of combined spectroscopy is applied to diagnose laser interaction with a spray target. The use of a micro-channel-plate detector assures reliable detection of both XUV and ion signals in a single laser shot. The qualitative analysis of the ion emission and XUV spectra allows to gain detailed information about the plasma conditions, and a correlation between the energetic proton emission and the XUV plasma emission can be suggested. The measured XUV emission spectrum from water spray shows efficient deceleration of laser accelerated electrons with energies up to keV in the initially cold background plasma and the collisional heating of the plasma.

Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Doria, D.; Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University of Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast (United Kingdom); Ehrentraut, L.; Stiel, H.; Steinke, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W. [Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Max Born Institute, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Priebe, G. [Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Max Born Institute, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Daresbury Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

393

Studying the Imaging Characteristics of Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) through Numerical Simulations  

E-print Network

Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) is one of the five payloads aboard the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)'s ASTROSAT space mission. The science objectives of UVIT are broad, extending from individual hot stars, star-forming regions to active galactic nuclei. Imaging performance of UVIT would depend on several factors in addition to the optics, e.g. resolution of the detectors, Satellite Drift and Jitter, image frame acquisition rate, sky background, source intensity etc. The use of intensified CMOS-imager based photon counting detectors in UVIT put their own complexity over reconstruction of the images. All these factors could lead to several systematic effects in the reconstructed images. A study has been done through numerical simulations with artificial point sources and archival image of a galaxy from GALEX data archive, to explore the effects of all the above mentioned parameters on the reconstructed images. In particular the issues of angular resolution, photometric accuracy and photometric...

Srivastava, Mudit K; Tandon, Shyam N

2009-01-01

394

A cationic metal-organic framework consisting of nanoscale cages: capture, separation, and luminescent probing of Cr(2)O7(2-) through a single-crystal to single-crystal process.  

PubMed

Dichromate capture: A 3D cationic metal-organic framework consisting of distorted octahedral and tetrahedral cages was constructed by using Ag(I) and 4,4'-bis(1,2,4-triazole). The complex exhibits fast exchange, high trapping capacity, and good selectivity for Cr2 O7 (2-) through single-crystal to single-crystal transformation. The complex also features a bluish violet luminescence that is distinctly quenched after Cr2 O7 (2-) exchange. PMID:24174403

Li, Xinxiong; Xu, Hongyan; Kong, Fanzhen; Wang, Ruihu

2013-12-16

395

Electrospun mixed oxide photocatalysts to decompose dyes in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, four catalysts have been studied for their photocatalytic efficiency by testing each with methylene blue dye solution. Three catalysts were synthesized by the electrospinning method and then compared with the fourth commercially available catalyst for their photocatalytic activity. The basic metal oxide studied was titanium dioxide. Nanocomposite mats of pure titania, copper doped titania and copper doped degussa P25 titania, were synthesized using the electrospinning method. The pure titania and copper doped titania nanocomposites possessed the anatase phase which was obtained by annealing the as-spun nanocomposites at 4500C. All the catalysts were analyzed for their photocatalytic activity both under ultra-violet light and under visible light. The aim of this work was to synthesize titania photocatalysts, demonstrate their photocatalytic activity with methylene blue solution under UV-light and visible light and compare their activities with the commercial titanium dioxide (degussa P25). It is important to synthesize visible light active photocatalysts as these could be activated under a wide spectrum of natural sunlight unlike the degussa titanium dioxide. Doping was incorporated in order to narrow the band gap energy of the photocatalyst for achieving higher efficiency especially under visible light irradiation. The morphology and size of the synthesized photocatalysts were studied by characterizing them with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. The photocatalytic activity tests were carried out using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. It was found that the electrospun pure titania and copper doped titania fibers were activated under the visible light spectrum unlike the degussa titanium dioxide. The copper doped titania provided to be the most efficient photocatalyst under visible light radiation and the importance of this finding can be extended for treating industrial wastewaters by just exposing it to natural sunlight in the presence of this photocatalyst.

Divya, Sherlyn

396

BODIPY Dyes In Photodynamic Therapy  

PubMed Central

BODIPY dyes tends to be highly fluorescent, but their emissions can be attenuated by adding substituents with appropriate oxidation potentials. Substituents like these have electrons to feed into photoexcited BODIPYs, quenching their fluorescence, thereby generating relatively long-lived triplet states. Singlet oxygen is formed when these triplet states interact with 3O2. In tissues, this causes cell damage in regions that are illuminated, and this is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT agents that are currently approved for clinical use do not feature BODIPYs, but there are many reasons to believe that this situation will change. This review summarizes the attributes of BODIPY dyes for PDT, and in some related areas. PMID:23014776

Kamkaew, Anyanee; Lim, Siang Hui; Lee, Hong Boon; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

2012-01-01

397

Methods of dyeing ceramic brick  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study of the possibility of bulk dyeing of ceramic brick by incorporating manganese and iron ore and metallic\\u000a slags and sludges from electroplating plants in the pastes are reported. It was found that low-melting clays should first\\u000a be bleached with chalk or fireclay or kaolin impregnated with solutions of transition metal salts in order to attain

I. V. Pishch; G. N. Maslennikova; N. A. Gvozdeva; Yu. A. Klimosh; E. I. Baranovskaya

2007-01-01

398

Spectroscopic Investigation of Ce(3+) Doped Fluoride Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doping of the trivalent rare-earth cerium ion into fluoride crystals is of interest in producing turnable ultra-violet solid state lasers. These lasers are desirable for many applications in medicine, industry, and scientific research, including remote sensing. High absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of the dipole allowed 4f-5d transitions show promise in cerium as a laser ion in crystals. Several research groups have already reported the observation of stimulated emission of cerium in LiYF4, LiSrAlF6, and LiCaAlF6. However, the color center formation in the crystals due to the excited state absorption of ultra-violet pump light adds difficulty to achieving laser action. We have investigated the spectroscopic properties of cerium such as absorption and emission spectra, and lifetimes in four different fluoride crystals, including LiCaAlF6, LiSrAlF6, KyF4 and LiYF4. We have derived the polarized absorption and stimulated emission cross sections from transmission and fluorescence emission measurements for each of the host crystals. we have measured the lifetime of the lowest 5d level; moreover, investigated the temperature dependence of this lifetime and color center formation. Our results on absorption and stimulated emission cross sections for LiCaAlF6 and LiSrAlF6 are similar to the results already published.

Reinhart, Donald H.; Armagan, Guzin; Marsh, Waverly; Barnes, James; Chai, B. H. T.

1995-01-01

399

Discharge excitation of dye vapors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been conducted to assess the feasibility of obtaining a discharge-pumped dye vapor laser. A 15 (or 50) cm active length, UV-preionized device has been developed which exhibits a specific power loading of the medium of approx. 5 MW/cu cm and will operate continuously at temperatures exceeding 400 C. Recently, hydrogen thyratron switching of the device and corona preionization have been installed to minimize jitter and dye fragmentation. Optimization of the rare gas/N2 diluent mixture has been completed and fragmentation studies for several dye molecules have been conducted. POPOP and alpha-NPO are excellent in the latter regard but Coumarin 6 rapidly decomposes in the discharge environment. The fluorescence efficiency of alpha-NPO is only 40 percent of that for POPOP under comparable conditions. BBO and PBBO are similar in structure and molecular weight to POPOP and appear to be excellent candidates for discharge excitation. Fluorescence and small signal gain measurements are in progress.

Eden, J. G.

1987-09-01

400

Dye laser traveling wave amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Injection locking was applied to a cavity-dumped coaxial flashlamp pumped dye laser in an effort to obtain nanosecond duration pulses which have both high energy and narrow-linewidth. In the absence of an injected laser pulse, the cavity-dumped dye laser was capable of generating high energy (approx. 60mJ) nanosecond duration output pulses. These pulses, however, had a fixed center wavelength and were extremely broadband (approx. 6nm FWHM). Experimental investigations were performed to determine if the spectral properties of these outputs could be improved through the use of injection-locking techniques. A parametric study to determine the specific conditions under which the laser could be injection-locked was also carried out. Significant linewidth reduction to 0.0015nm) of the outputs was obtained through injection-locking but only at wavelengths near the peak lasing wavelength of the dye. It was found, however; that by inserting weakly dispersive tuning elements in the laser cavity, these narrow-linewidth outputs could be obtained over a wide (24nm) tuning range. Since the tuning elements had low insertion losses, the tunability of the output was obtained without sacrificing output pulse energy.

Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

1985-01-01

401

Optical enhancement of dye-doped PDLC by additional dye-LC layer coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-doped PDLC has a high probability to be used as reflective optical shutter due to its good reflectance compared to normal PDLC or LC shutter structures. The black state can be significantly enhanced by the minimized surface scattering between polymer and LC surface, which makes a harmful result to the contrast ratio, one of most important factors for optical shutter. To remove this scattering effect, we have developed new combinational structure, consisted of guest dye-doped LC (DLC) and dye-doped PDLC (DPDLC). In the newly fabricated dye-doped PDLC structure, the front location of dye-doped LC layer can remove the light scattering effect of the surface of single dye PDLC structure. The proposed process can also remove the randomly distributed dyes in polymer area of dye PDLC. This technique enhances the reflectance as well as the contrast ratio.

Jung, Jae Eun; Lee, Gae Hwang; Jang, Jae Eun; Hwang, Kyu Young; Ahmad, Farzana; Muhammad, Jamil; Woo Lee, Jin; Jeon, Young Jae

2011-11-01

402

Dye Photodestruction in a Solid-State Dye Laser with a Polymeric Gain Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of dye photodestruction in a solid-state dye laser is studied, and implemented is a polymeric gain medium doped with a strongly concentrated dye. The behavior of the conversion efficiency in the polymeric gain medium pumped with different laser-pulse repetition rates and the process of dye photobleaching are analyzed. The contribution of the heating of the host material into the dye molecules deactivation is discussed. The negative effect of high dye concentration on the dye stability under a high pump repetition rate is reported and analyzed for the first time to my knowledge. A comparison of the present results with recently published data demonstrates the major role of photodestruction, rather than direct thermodestruction, in the dye stability of the solid-state gain medium. The role of additives with low molecular weights in the polymeric matrix, for increasing the stability of the gain material, is discussed.

Popov, Sergei

1998-09-01

403

Organic dyes incorporating oligothienylenevinylene for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Two new organic dyes incorporating triphenylamine as a donor and oligothienylenevinylene as a bridge have been synthesized. The new dyes cover the entire visible region and have a power conversion of up to 6.25%. PMID:23134213

Aljarilla, Ana; López-Arroyo, Leticia; de la Cruz, Pilar; Oswald, Frederic; Meyer, Toby B; Langa, Fernando

2012-11-16

404

Characterization of pore-expanded amino-functionalized mesoporous silicas directly synthesized with dimethyldecylamine and its application for decolorization of sulphonated azo dyes.  

PubMed

With dimethyldecylamine (DMDA) as the expander, a new kind of pore-expanded amino-functionalized mesoporous silicas (PEAFMS) was directly synthesized under mild alkali condition. The characteristics of PEAFMS sample demonstrated that the presence of DMDA markedly augmented the average pore diameter (19.04 nm) and strongly enhanced its decolorization ability. Subsequently, acid mordant dark yellow GG (YGG) and reactive red violet X-2R (RVX) were chosen to assess its adsorption capacity for sulphonated azo dyes. The effect of initial pH was investigated and the decolorization mechanism was illuminated. Three isotherms were conducted and the goodness of fit increased as the following order: Freundlich < Langmuir < Redlich-Peterson. The maximum adsorption capacities of YGG and RVX onto PEAFMS were 1.967 and 0.957 mmol/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetic processes were better predicted by the pseudo-second-order rate equation than the pseudo-first-order one. Adsorption thermodynamic results suggested that the adsorption behavior of both dyes onto PEAFMS was spontaneous with the chemical nature. In addition, the regeneration of PEAFMS was proved to be feasible using NaOH as the strippant. After five cycles, PEAFMS still possessed a favorable adsorption capacity for dyes. It is safely concluded that PEAFMS could be a potential adsorbent for the dye removal from wastewater. PMID:20452726

Yang, Hong; Feng, Qiyan

2010-08-15

405

Laccase-assisted dyeing of cotton.  

PubMed

Cotton cellulose was dyed "in situ" with a polymeric dye generated by oxidative coupling of colourless 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid and 1-hydroxyphenol (catechol) with laccase. Up to 70% dye fixation was obtained increasing the concentration of catechol less soluble upon oxidation from 1 to 10 mmol, while 1 mmol of diamine was used. Dye fixation was not achieved using equal molar concentrations of the reagents. PMID:16791731

Hadzhiyska, Hristina; Calafell, Margarita; Gibert, Josep M; Dagà, Josep M; Tzanov, Tzanko

2006-05-01

406

Application of Chitosan in Remediation of Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chitosan is derived from Chitin, which is the exoskeleton of a crab or shrimp shell and some other crustaceans. This project\\u000a explores this characteristic behavior of chitosan in the removal of dye from solution as a model for the potential application\\u000a in textile industry wastewater treatment. Azure dye was used as the model dye used in the textile industry wastewater

Gbekeloluwa B. Oguntimein; Olatunde Animashaun; Ivie Okpere

407

Dye loading of unimolecular, amphiphilic polymeric nanocontainers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unimolecular, amphiphilic polymeric nanocontainers based on poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-polystyrene-polymacromonomers are dispersed in organic solvents and loaded with different hydrophilic dyes in solution. The poly-2-vinylpyridine core of the nanocontainers is responsible for the dye uptake, whereas the polystyrene corona grants the solubility and stabilization of the particles. The nanocontainers are 20–30nm in diameter and possess an excellent ability to sequester dye molecules up

Michael Groß; Michael Maskos

2005-01-01

408

Residual contaminants in dye-penetrant testing  

SciTech Connect

Components of the dye-penetrant-testing process were characterized by microanalytical methods. Particulate material of a size range, which was small enough to plug the small leaks in thin-walled cans, was found. Testing of simulated leaks before and after dye-penetrant examination showed that the dye-penetrant testing had a high probability of plugging leaks < 1 x 10/sup -4/ atm-cm/sup 3//s of helium in size.

McLaughlin, J.F.; Schneider, P.G.; Eager, M.H.

1981-04-13

409

Ultrasonic dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with natural dye. Part 2: Cationization of cotton using Quat 188  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride 69% (Quat 188) using Cochineal dye was studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. Factors affecting dye extraction and dye bath exhaustion were investigated. The results indicated that the dye extraction by ultrasound at 300W was more effective at lower temperatures and times than conventional extraction. Also, the colour strength

M. M. Kamel; M. M. El Zawahry; N. S. E. Ahmed; F. Abdelghaffar

2011-01-01

410

Dyeing of modified acrylic fibers with curcumin and madder natural dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrophobic fibers are highly crysta lline and non-polar polymers hence pose a big problem for dyers. Modified acrylic fiber\\u000a containing different amounts of amidoxime groups as a function of the nitrogen content was obtained and dyed with curcumin\\u000a and madder natural dyes. The dyeing parameters, such as dye concentration, dye bath pH, salt concentration, temperature, and\\u000a time and the effect

Reda M. El-Shishtawy; G. M. Shokry; Nahed S. E. Ahmed; M. M. Kamel

2009-01-01

411

Modeling laser generation in cholesteric liquid crystals using kinetic equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of calculating the threshold pumping power necessary for laser generation in cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent dyes. Calculations have been performed with allowance for (i) specific spectral properties of the chiral cholesteric medium as a photonic structure and (ii) the spatially distributed character of feedback in the active medium. The dependences of the threshold pumping power on the sample thickness, dye concentration, and leading front widths of long pumping pulses have been studied.

Shtykov, N. M.; Palto, S. P.

2014-05-01

412

Trans-spectral organic dye laser photocoagulation.  

PubMed

Clinical research utilizing the yellow, orange, and red wavelengths of the dye laser (Rhodamine 6G and MD-631) appears to have considerable promise and may demonstrate that the liquid organic dye laser is the laser of choice for photocoagulation of many types of ocular defects. The effectiveness of the dye laser as a photocoagulation source is due to the trans-spectral availability of relatively high output power wavelengths. Therefore, a target tissue can be selectively coagulated with minimal laser energy transmitted through the refractive media and minimal damage to nearby normal tissues. The dye laser, as a photocoagulation system, should prove valuable in the therapy of many ocular diseases. PMID:2421474

L'Esperance, F A

1985-01-01

413

Retail Demand for Natural Dye Plants and Dye Plant Products: A Conjoint Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbalists, fiber artists, and herb growers are increasingly interested in growing, marketing, and using local plants as natural dyes. As the market in the United States and Canada develops, fiber art and quilting stores are the primary retail market outlets for natural dye plants and dye plant products. Conjoint analysis was used to evaluate U.S. and Canadian retailer interest in

Yuhui Zhou; Constance L. Falk; Dawn M. Vanleeuwen

2012-01-01

414

Decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes and textile and dye-stuff effluent by Kurthia sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of soil and water samples were collected from the vicinity of effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing industry. Several organisms were screened for their ability to decolorize triphenylmethane group of dyes. A Kurthia sp. was selected on the basis of rapid dye decolorizing activity. Under aerobic conditions, 98% color was removed intracellularly by this strain. A

Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1999-01-01

415

DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201000854 Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201000854 Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye- Sensitized*[a] 1. Introduction The dye-sensitized mesoscopic solar cell (DSC) has been inten- sively investigated as a promising photovoltaic cell. Its ecologi- cal and economical fabrication processes make it an attractive

McGehee, Michael

416

Snow Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is all about snow crystals and snowflakes. The many facets of snow crystals are described here, along with attempts to understand their formation. This site includes collections of super-high-resolution snow crystal photos, as well as links to learn about snow crystal classifications and how to make snow crystal fossils. Included in the study of how snow crystals form, these researchers have created snow crystals in the laboratory. Their snow crystal galleries include selections of images and movies of laboratory-grown snow crystals, as well as information on how to make your own snow crystals. The snow crystal primer describes what snow crystals are, how they form, and why they form the way they do. There is also a section on snow crystal physics.

Libbrecht, Kenneth

1999-02-01

417

Curious Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners carefully look at four known household crystals. After observing and describing the crystals, learners are given an unknown crystal, which is chemically the same as one of the four known crystals but looks different. When learners realize that they cannot identify this crystal by its appearance alone, they will suggest other tests and ways to compare the crystals to eventually identify the unknown crystal. The related activities are examples of tests learners can conduct on the crystals. After a series of these tests, learners will gather enough evidence to identify the unknown crystal.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

418

Covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes from the violet-blue flowers of Allium 'Blue Perfume'.  

PubMed

Three covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes (pigments 1-3) were extracted from the violet-blue flower of Allium 'Blue Perfume' with 5% acetic acid-MeOH solution, in which pigment 1 was the dominant pigment. These three pigments are based on delphinidin 3-glucoside as their deacylanthocyanin and were acylated with malonyl kaempferol 3-sophoroside-7-glucosiduronic acid or malonyl-kaempferol 3-p-coumaroyl-tetraglycoside-7-glucosiduronic acid in addition to acylation with acetic acid. By spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of these three pigments 1-3 were determined to be: pigment 1, (6(I)-O-(delphinidin 3-O-(3(I)-O-(acetyl)-?-glucopyranoside(I))))(2(VI)-O-(kaempferol 3-O-(2(II)-O-(3(III)-O-(?-glucopyranosyl(V))-?-glucopyranosyl(III))-4(II)-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-6(II)-O-(?-glucopyranosyl(IV))-?-glucopyranoside(II))-7-O-(?-glucosiduronic acid(VI)))) malonate; pigment 2, (6(I)-O-(delphinidin 3-O-(3(I)-O-(acetyl)-?-glucopyranoside(I))))(2(VI)-O-(kaempferol 3-O-(2(II)-O-?-glucopyranosyl(III))-?-glucopyranoside(II))-7-O-(?-glucosiduronic acid(VI)))); and pigment 3, (6(I)-O-(delphinidin 3-O-(3(I)-O-(acetyl)-?-glucopyranoside(I))))(2(VI)-O-(kaempferol 3-O-(2(II)-O-(3(III)-O-(?-glucopyranosyl(V))-?-glucopyranosyl(III))-4(II)-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-6(II)-O-(?-glucopyranosyl(IV))-?-glucopyranoside(II))-7-O-(?-glucosiduronic acid(VI)))) malonate. The structure of pigment 2 was analogous to that of a covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complex isolated from Allium schoenoprasum where delphinidin was observed in place of cyanidin. The three covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes (pigment 1-3) had a stable violet-blue color with three characteristic absorption maxima at 540, 547 and 618nm in pH 5-6 buffer solution. From circular dichroism measurement of pigment 1 in the pH 6.0 buffer solution, cotton effects were observed at 533 (+), 604 (-) and 638 (-) nm. Based on these results, these covalent anthocyanin-flavonol complexes were presumed to maintain a stable intramolecular association between delphinidin and kaempferol units closely related to that observed between anthocyanin and hydroxycinnamic acid residues in polyacylated anthocyanins. Additionally, an acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 4) was isolated from the same flower extract, and its structure was determined to be kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-(3-O-(malonyl)-?-glucopyranosiduronic acid). PMID:22704652

Saito, Norio; Nakamura, Maiko; Shinoda, Koichi; Murata, Naho; Kanazawa, Toshinari; Kato, Kazuhisa; Toki, Kenjiro; Kasai, Hiroko; Honda, Toshio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi

2012-08-01

419

The effect of dye coverage on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with a cobalt-based electrolyte.  

PubMed

The effect of dye coverage of the mesoporous TiO2 electrode on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on the cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte and the D35 dye was studied in detail. The dye coverage was controlled by using a dye bath with different dye concentrations and containing an inert salt, LiClO4, which was found to promote equilibrium conditions in the dye adsorption process. The amount of adsorbed D35 dye on mesoporous TiO2 was reasonably fit using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, with a binding constant of 55?000 M(-1). Upon increasing the dye coverage on the TiO2 electrode, the electron lifetime in the dye-sensitized solar cell increased remarkably, demonstrating the blocking behavior of the D35 dye at the TiO2-electrolyte interface. Consequently, the solar cell efficiency increased dramatically with the D35 dye coverage. PMID:24668285

Pazoki, Meysam; Lohse, Peter William; Taghavinia, Nima; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

2014-05-14

420

Phototropic liquid crystals comprising one component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phototropic liquid crystals (PtLC), in which the phase transition can be controlled by the light, are a new class of liquid crystal materials possessing number of potential applications, especially in photonic devices. So far a significant majority of PtLC materials has been realized by the doping a classical liquid crystal with a photochromic dye. Here we report PtLCs comprising a single compound. Liquid-crystalline and photochromic properties have been accomplished in alkylo-alkoxy derivatives of azobenzene. Such compounds show a rich polymorphism which can be controlled by the light. The phenomenon of the photochemical phase transition has been investigated by means of holographic grating recording.

Sobolewska, Anna; Zawada, Joanna; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Galewski, Zbigniew

2013-09-01

421

Crystal Creations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a many-faceted learning approach to the study of crystals. Provides instructions for performing activities including crystal growth and patterns, creating miniature simulations of crystal-containing rock formations, charcoal and sponge gardens, and snowflakes. (RT)

Whipple, Nona; Whitmore, Sherry

1989-01-01

422

Crystal Meth  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Home / Stories of Hope / Crystal meth Crystal meth Story Of Hope By giovanni January 3rd, 2013 ... my drug addiction having to deal with Crystal meth. I am now in recovery and fighting my ...

423

Dye laser tuning with pellicles.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin nitrocellulose membranes (pellicles) are shown to exhibit properties which make them suitable for intracavity tuning elements in high-energy pulsed dye lasers. Uncoated pellicles of 2-micron and 8-micron thickness with surface figures of lambda/1 are shown to closely approximate the properties of low-finesse etalons with wide free spectral ranges. Pellicles of 8-micron thickness, coated on both surfaces with 50% reflectivity multilayer dielectrics, are shown to be effective as spectral narrowing elements with peak transmission greater than 80% and resultant laser linewidths of 0.57 nm full width at half-maximum.

Mumola, P. B.

1973-01-01

424

In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-?-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale.

Harms, Hauke A.; Tétreault, Nicolas; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Stellacci, Francesco; Grätzel, Michael

2013-09-01

425

Optimization of nanoparticle structure for improved conversion efficiency of dye solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy dye loading and the ability to contain the light within the thin layer (typically ˜12 ?m) are the requirement needed for the photoelectrode material in order to enhance the harvesting efficiency of dye solar cell. This can be realized by optimizing the particle size with desirable crystal structure. The paper reports the investigation on the dependency of the dye loading and light scattering on the properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials by comparing 4 different samples of TiO2 in the form of nanoparticles and micron-sized TiO2 aggregates which composed of nanocrystallites. Their properties were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UVVis spectroscopy while the performance of the fabricated test cells were measured using universal photovoltaic test system (UPTS) under 1000 W/cm2 intensity of radiation. Nano sized particles provide large surface area which allow for greater dye adsorption but have no ability to retain the incident light in the TiO2 film. In contrast, micron-sized particles in the form of aggregates can generate light scattering allowing the travelling distance of the light to be extended and increasing the interaction between the photons and dye molecules adsorb on TiO2nanocrystallites. This resulted in an improvement in the conversion efficiency of the aggregates that demonstrates the close relation between light scattering effect and the structure of the photolectrode film.

Mohamed, Norani Muti; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella

2014-10-01

426

On the correlation between dye coverage and photoelectrochemical performance in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Concentration depth profiles of the ruthenium based dyes Z907 and N719 adsorbed onto titania are measured directly and used for determining the adsorption isotherm of the dyes. Dye layers formed by both grow in islands on the titania which do not cover the entire titania surface even at the maximum coverage. Impedance spectroscopy in conjunction with the adsorption isotherms shows that recombination losses mainly appear between the dye and the electrolyte solution. The short circuit current and the efficiency increase linearly with the dye coverage. The open circuit voltage slightly increases with increasing dye coverage which is interpreted as most likely to be a consequence of the higher charge in the particles upon higher dye loading on the TiO2 surface. PMID:24263223

Johansson, Viktor; Ellis-Gibbings, Lilian; Clarke, Trevor; Gorlov, Mikhail; Andersson, Gunther G; Kloo, Lars

2014-01-14

427

Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

2012-11-01

428

Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

2011-07-01

429

Liquid crystalline behaviour of some azobenzene dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of 4-aminoazobenzene dye units have been synthesised and subjected to thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage optical microscopy. It is observed that liquid crystalline phase behaviour exists for those dyes having a nitro group in the 4-position on the terminal phenyl ring and with a short hydrocarbon ‘tail’ at the amino site with a terminal

D. Campbell; L. R. Dix; P. Rostron

1995-01-01

430

A micro-cavity fluidic dye laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with other microfluidic systems without adding further process steps. A laser dye solution is pumped through a microfluidic channel containing the laser cavity. The microfluidic channel structure, which is formed in SU-8 photoresist, is sandwiched between Pyrex glass wafers, bonded together at

Bjarne Helbo; Anders Kristensen; Aric Menon

2003-01-01

431

Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been an intensive research on fungal decolorization of dye wastewater. It is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement present treatment processes. This paper examines various fungi, living or dead cells, which are capable of decolorizing dye wastewaters; discusses various mechanisms involved; reports some elution and regeneration methods for fungal biomass; summarizes the present

Yuzhu Fu; T Viraraghavan

2001-01-01

432

Fate of commercial disperse dyes in sediments  

SciTech Connect

Kinetics of disappearance of seven different disperse dyes were determined in compacted sediments at room temperature. The commercial dyes (in dispersed solid form) were representative of nitroazo, anthraquinone, and quinoline structures that are widely used. Reaction rates were found to be first order over at least two half-lives and were different for the three groups of dyes. Half-lives were on the order of hours, days and months for the nitroazobenzene, aminoanthraquinone, and quinoline dyes, respectively. Stability of the latter is consistent with detection of a quinoline dye in treatment plant sludge and in sediment from a water body receiving treated effluent. The azobenzene dyes are degraded by cleavage of the azo group to give anilines and ring-substituted phenylenediamines from the diazo component of the molecule. Products from the other portion (coupling component) of the molecule are unidentified, as yet, but are expected to be N,N-disubstituted phenylenediamines. Products of the anthraquinone dyes were unidentified, except for the case of a nitrated dye on which the nitro group was reduced.

Yen, C.P.C.; Perenich, T.A.; Baughman, G.L.

1991-01-01

433

Using dye markers to reduce pesticide use  

E-print Network

of the food dye Acid Blue 9 to the spray mix (e.g. through the use of 4 l ha-1 Dysol Turquoise; 40% Acid Blue of trees to protect against Hylobius abietis, a 0.8% dilution of the active ingredient Acid Blue 9 good, economic results when relatively high concentrations of dye are used on small areas, for example

434

Dyeing with polyaniline synthesis in fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical aspects of dyeing with polyaniline are considered. It is shown to be possible to attain the first percolation\\u000a threshold for electrically conducting polyamide fabric. An equation has been obtained for estimating the thermodynamic affinity\\u000a of the dye for the fiber.

O. V. Romankevich; Ya. V. Red’ko; Ya. O. Romankevich

2008-01-01

435

Use of slag for dye removal  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption techniques employing activated carbon have been found to be reasonably effective in the removal of some of the ionic impurities in water. However, economic considerations may require the use of inexpensive sorbents which are either naturally available or available as waste products from manufacturing processes. Slag is one such waste product obtained during the manufacture of steel, and the present study investigates dye removal characteristics of slag from colored waters. Aqueous solutions prepared from commercial grade acid, basic, and disperse dyes were used in this study, and batch pH, kinetic, and isotherm studies were undertaken on a laboratory scale. The data were evaluated for applicability to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and BET isotherm models, and the removal capacity of slag was compared with that of granular activated carbon. Results indicated approximately 94% removal of the disperse dye by slag, compared with a removal of approximately 49% achieved by activated carbon. Removal of acid dyes (dyes containing anionic groups) was reasonably good (approximately 47 and 74%), though not as good as obtained using activated carbon (approximately 100%). Column studies were conducted with a disperse dye (nonionic, slightly soluble in water), and analysis of data showed a sorption capacity of 1.3 mg of disperse dye per gram of slag. However, effluent dye concentrations were found to be higher than the permissible levels for discharge to receiving waters.

Ramakrishna, K.R.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

1998-09-01

436

Basic dye adsorption on activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Victoria Blue dye (Basic Blue 26) on carbon has been investigated. Equilibrium data have been found to obey the Langmuir isotherm. The effects of contact time, agitation, initial dye concentration and carbon particle size range were also studied.

Gordon McKay

1979-01-01

437

Identification of gentian violet concentration that does not stain oral mucosa, possesses anti-candidal activity and is well tolerated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gentian violet (GV) is recommended for initial treatment of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited\\u000a settings. Currently GV is not used because of its staining effects. In this study, we investigated the staining capacity of\\u000a three different concentrations of GV to determine a concentration that does not cause staining. The selected concentration\\u000a that did not cause staining was evaluated

R. J. Jurevic; R. S. Traboulsi; P. K. Mukherjee; R. A. Salata; M. A. Ghannoum

2011-01-01

438

Ampliative medicament allergy: concomitant sensitivity to multiple medicaments including yellow soft paraffin, white soft paraffin, gentian violet and Span 20.  

PubMed

A patient developed multiple rare medicament contact allergies including sensitivities to gentian violet, yellow and white soft paraffin, and Span 20 (sorbitan monolaurate). Nickel sensitivity antedated these medicament allergies. The possibility that nickel sensitivity is a marker of predilection to develop multiple medicament allergies was tested. We were unable to demonstrate an increased incidence of nickel sensitivity in a group of patients with 2 or more medicament allergies. PMID:7105686

Lawrence, C M; Smith, A G

1982-07-01

439

Tritium decontamination of TFTR DT graphite tiles employing ultra violet light and a Nd:YAG laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an ultra violet light source (wavelength=172 nm) and a Nd:YAG laser for the decontamination of TFTR D-T tiles will be investigated at PPPL. The development of this form of tritium decontamination may be useful for future D-T burning fusion devices which employ carbon plasma facing components on the first wall. Carbon tiles retain hydrogen isotopes, and the

C. A. Gentile; C. H. Skinner; K. M. Young; L. Ciebiera; S. W. Langish; A. von Halle; C. W. Kennedy; S. O'hira; W. M. Shu

1999-01-01

440

Tritium Decontamination of TFTR DT Graphite Tiles Employing Ultra Violet Light and a Nd:YAG Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an ultra violet (UV) light source (wavelength = 172 nm) and a Nd:YAG Laser for the decontamination of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) deuterium-tritium (D-T) tiles will be investigated at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The development of this form of tritium decontamination may be useful for future D-T burning fusion devices which employ carbon

C. A. Gentile; C. H. Skinner; K. M. Young; L. Ciebiera

1999-01-01

441

InGaN MQW violet laser diode performance with quaternary AlInGaN blocking layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violet laser diode performance with AlInGaN blocking layer has numerically been investigated by using ISE TCAD software simulation program. The effects of AlInGaN blocking layer have been studied from different perspectives, the threshold current, output power, optical intensity, and temperature characteristics. In this study, simulation results indicated that the use of AlGaInN instead of the conventional AlGaN blocking layer leads

Rafid A. Abdullah; Kamarulazizi Ibrahim

2009-01-01

442

Antiviral activity of gliotoxin, gentian violet and brilliant green against Nipah and Hendra virus in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Using a recently described monolayer assay amenable to high throughput screening format for the identification of potential Nipah virus and Hendra virus antivirals, we have partially screened a low molecular weight compound library (>8,000 compounds) directly against live virus infection and identified twenty eight promising lead molecules. Initial single blind screens were conducted with 10 ?M compound in triplicate with a minimum efficacy of 90% required for lead selection. Lead compounds were then further characterised to determine the median efficacy (IC50), cytotoxicity (CC50) and the in vitro therapeutic index in live virus and pseudotype assay formats. Results While a number of leads were identified, the current work describes three commercially available compounds: brilliant green, gentian violet and gliotoxin, identified as having potent antiviral activity against Nipah and Hendra virus. Similar efficacy was observed against pseudotyped Nipah and Hendra virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3 while only gliotoxin inhibited an influenza A virus suggesting a non-specific, broad spectrum activity for this compound. Conclusion All three of these compounds have been used previously for various aspects of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal therapy and the current results suggest that while unsuitable for internal administration, they may be amenable to topical antiviral applications, or as disinfectants and provide excellent positive controls for future studies. PMID:19889218

2009-01-01

443

7-Polyacylated delphinidin 3,7-diglucosides from the blue flowers of Leschenaultia cv. Violet Lena.  

PubMed

The triacyl anthocyanins, Leschenaultia blue anthocyanins 1 and 2 (LBAs 1 and 2) were isolated from the blue flowers of Leschenaultia R. Br. cv. Violet Lena (Goodeniaceae), in which LBA 1 was present as a dominant pigment. The structure of LBA 1 was elucidated to be delphinidin 3-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(4-O-(6-O-(4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] by application of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Since LAB 2 was isolated in small amount, its structure was tentatively assigned as either delphinidin 3-(malonylglucoside)-7-[(glucosyl-p-coumaroyl)-(glucosylcaffeoyl)-glucoside] or delphinidin 3-(malonyl-glucoside)-7-[(glucosyl-caffeoyl)(glucosyl-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside]. This is the first report of the occurrence of 7-polyacylated anthocyanins in the family of Goodeniaceae, although others have been found in the families of the Ranunculaceae, Campanulaceae, and Compositae. Moreover, delphinidin 3-glycoside-7-di-(glucosylcaffeoyl)-glucoside has been reported only in the flowers of Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae). From a chemotaxonomical viewpoint, the Goodeniaceae may be closely related to the Campanulaceae. PMID:17174991

Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

2007-03-01

444

A model for multilayer analysis in a coated extreme ultra-violet lithography projection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflection-enhancing multilayer coating is one of the key technologies in Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography (EUVL). The typical thickness of the Mo/Si multilayer coatings generally adopted in EUVL is about 300 nm, which is much greater than the operating wavelength of 13.5 nm. The EUV is reflected completely back to the vacuum before punching the substrate. This changes the actual reflective surface by dozens of waves and creates extra aberrations. In this study, an equivalent working surface model for multilayer analysis based on the energy conservation principle was developed. Under the premise of the same energy modulation function for real and model film systems, each multilayer film coated optical element with complex energy propagation is transformed into a single surface. Optical design software can be used to assess these virtual surface in terms of estimation and optimization. Finally, the model was applied to a same Schwarzschild system but with different coating solutions. And the best solution was confirmed in which the coating-induced aberrations could be compensated for by image defocus.

Wang, Jun; Jin, Chun-shui; Wang, Li-ping; Xie, Yao

2014-12-01

445

Studies on plant regeneration and somaclonal variation in Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. (African violet).  

PubMed

Efficient plant regeneration of Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet) has been obtained in the present study. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IAA and 2.0 mg L(-1) Zeatin resulted in 100% shoot regeneration and induced the highest number of shoots (average 15.0 +/- 0.8 shoots per explant) after being cultured for 8 weeks. The above hormone combination was optimum for shoot regeneration. Most of Saintpaulia ionantha plantlets derived from tissue culture system could be hardened and transferred to the greenhouse conditions with 84.0 +/- 1.6% success rate. However, regenerated plantlets of Saintpaulia ionantha (even after 12-months-old) failed to flower. Morphological characters of regenerated plantlets of Saintpaulia ionantha were observed and compared with in vivo (intact) plants. Regenerated plantlets showed some differences in morphological characters, such as height and leaf size, texture and colour, but the plantlets showed no variation in leaf arrangement and leaf margin. However, the morphological characters of the regenerated plantlets were found to be unstable. PMID:18819532

Daud, Norhayati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina

2008-05-01

446

Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planar optical lenses are fundamental elements of miniaturized photonic devices. However, conventional planar optical lenses are constrained by the diffraction limit in the optical far-field due to the band-limited wavevectors supported by free-space and loss of high-spatial-frequency evanescent components. As inspired by Einstein's radiation `needle stick', electromagnetic energy can be delivered into an arbitrarily small solid angle. Such sub-diffraction optical needles have been numerically investigated using diffractive optical elements (DOEs) together with specially polarized optical beams, but experimental demonstration is extremely difficult due to the bulky size of DOEs and the required alignment precision. Planar super-oscillatory lenses (SOLs) were proposed to overcome these constraints and demonstrated that sub-diffraction focal spots can actually be formed without any evanescent waves, making far-field, label-free super-resolution imaging possible. Here we extend the super-oscillation concept into the vectorial-field regime to work with circularly polarized light, and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a circularly polarized optical needle with sub-diffraction transverse spot size (0.45?) and axial long depth of focus (DOF) of 15? using a planar SOL at a violet wavelength of 405 nm. This sub-diffraction circularly polarized optical needle has potential applications in circular dichroism spectroscopy, super-resolution imaging, high-density optical storage, heat-assisted magnetic recording, nano-manufacturing and nano-metrology.

Yuan, Guanghui; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Roy, Tapashree; Adamo, Giorgio; Shen, Zexiang; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

2014-09-01

447

Spectrophotometric determination of tin in copper-based alloys using pyrocatechol violet.  

PubMed

In the present paper, a new procedure using Pyrocatechol Violet (PCV) for the determination of tin in copper-based alloys is proposed. The use of HEDTA as masking agent allowed tin to be determined in the presence of large amounts of copper, without any separation procedure. The method is more selective than previous methods. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and Tween-20 are used to increase the stability of the system. The method can be applied directly to an acidic solution of Sn(IV) in the range 2.0-60.0 mug with a final volume of 50 ml. The pH is adjusted to 2.0 +/- 0.2 with glycine buffer and, after 30 min, the absorbance is measured at 660 nm. Al(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Mg(II), Ca(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) do not interfere at the 500 mg level; 20 000 mug of Cu(II) and 400 mug of NaCl can be present. The interference at 100 mug of Fe(III) can be masked with ascorbic acid. Bi(III), Sb(V), Ti(IV), Mo(VI), EDTA, tartrate, citrate and iodide interfere. The proposed method was used for tin determination in several copper-based alloys and a comparison of the analytical results with certified values indicates that the procedure provides accurate and precise results. PMID:18966440

Costa, A C; Teixeira, L S; Ferreira, S L

1995-12-01

448

Major prospects of exoplanet astronomy with the World Space Observatory-UltraViolet mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) first and then of the STIS and COS spectrographs on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) demonstrate the impact that observations at UV wavelengths had and are having on modern astronomy. Several discoveries in the exoplanet field have been done at UV wavelengths. Nevertheless, the amount of data collected in this band is still limited both in terms of observed targets and time spent on each of them. For the next decade, the post-HST era, the only large (2-m class) space telescope capable of UV observations will be the World Space Observatory-UltraViolet (WSO-UV). In its characteristics, the WSO-UV mission is similar to that of HST, but all observing time will be dedicated to UV astronomy. In this work, we briefly outline the major prospects of the WSO-UV mission in terms of exoplanet studies. To the limits of the data and tools currently available, here we also compare the quality of key exoplanet data obtained in the far-UV and near-UV with HST (STIS and COS) to that expected to obtain with WSO-UV.

Fossati, L.; Bisikalo, D.; Lammer, H.; Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.

2014-11-01

449

Theoretical study of the dissociation energy and the red and violet band systems of CN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dissociation energy (D sub O) of CN is determined to be 7.65 + or - 0.06 eV. This corresponds to delta H sub f (CN) = 105.3 + or - 1.5 kcal/mole, in excellent agreement with Engleman and Rouse (1975), but considerably larger than the recent value deduced from shock-tube studies by Colket (1984). The result is obtained not only from extensive ab initio MRCI calculations using a very large Gaussian basis set, but also from extrapolation of the directly computed value by comparison of computed and experimental results fo NO, C2, and N2. As an additional calibration of the methods, the D sub O value for CN was computed from the corresponding value for CN(-) using the experimental electron affinity data. The lifetime of the nu prime = 0 level of the violet (B 2 sigma + yields X 2 sigma +) system was computed to be 62.4 ns, in good agreement with both experiment and previous calculations. Lifetimes for the red (A 2 pi yields X 2 sigma +) system decrease with increasing nu prime, which is consistent both with the recent experiment and calculations. While the computed lifetimes are significantly longer that those obtained from the experiment, they are shorter than those deduced from an analysis of the solar spectrum. However the D sub O and f (sub OO) are consistent with Lambert's model for the solar spectrum.

Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

1987-01-01

450

Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths  

PubMed Central

Planar optical lenses are fundamental elements of miniaturized photonic devices. However, conventional planar optical lenses are constrained by the diffraction limit in the optical far-field due to the band-limited wavevectors supported by free-space and loss of high-spatial-frequency evanescent components. As inspired by Einstein's radiation ‘needle stick', electromagnetic energy can be delivered into an arbitrarily small solid angle. Such sub-diffraction optical needles have been numerically investigated using diffractive optical elements (DOEs) together with specially polarized optical beams, but experimental demonstration is extremely difficult due to the bulky size of DOEs and the required alignment precision. Planar super-oscillatory lenses (SOLs) were proposed to overcome these constraints and demonstrated that sub-diffraction focal spots can actually be formed without any evanescent waves, making far-field, label-free super-resolution imaging possible. Here we extend the super-oscillation concept into the vectorial-field regime to work with circularly polarized light, and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a circularly polarized optical needle with sub-diffraction transverse spot size (0.45?) and axial long depth of focus (DOF) of 15? using a planar SOL at a violet wavelength of 405?nm. This sub-diffraction circularly polarized optical needle has potential applications in circular dichroism spectroscopy, super-resolution imaging, high-density optical storage, heat-assisted magnetic recording, nano-manufacturing and nano-metrology. PMID:25208611

Yuan, Guanghui; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Roy, Tapashree; Adamo, Giorgio; Shen, Zexiang; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

2014-01-01

451

Combinatorial fabrication and studies of intense efficient ultraviolet--violet organic light-emitting device arrays  

SciTech Connect

Arrays of ultraviolet--violet (indium tin oxide)/[copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)]/[4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP)]/[2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4oxadiazole (Bu-PBD)]/CsF/Al organic light-emitting devices, fabricated combinatorially using a sliding shutter technique, are described. Comparison of the OLED electroluminescence and CBP photoluminescence spectra indicates that the emission originates from the bulk of that layer. In arrays of devices in which the thickness of the CuPc and Bu--PBD were varied, but that of CBP was fixed at 50 nm, the optimal radiance R was obtained at CuPc and Bu--PBD thicknesses of 15 and 18 nm, respectively. At 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, R was 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, i.e., the external quantum efficiency was 1.25%; R increased to {approx}1.2 mW/cm{sup 2} at 100 mA/cm{sup 2}.

Zou, L.; Savvate'ev, V.; Booher, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Shinar, J.

2001-10-01

452

Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths.  

PubMed

Planar optical lenses are fundamental elements of miniaturized photonic devices. However, conventional planar optical lenses are constrained by the diffraction limit in the optical far-field due to the band-limited wavevectors supported by free-space and loss of high-spatial-frequency evanescent components. As inspired by Einstein's radiation 'needle stick', electromagnetic energy can be delivered into an arbitrarily small solid angle. Such sub-diffraction optical needles have been numerically investigated using diffractive optical elements (DOEs) together with specially polarized optical beams, but experimental demonstration is extremely difficult due to the bulky size of DOEs and the required alignment precision. Planar super-oscillatory lenses (SOLs) were proposed to overcome these constraints and demonstrated that sub-diffraction focal spots can actually be formed without any evanescent waves, making far-field, label-free super-resolution imaging possible. Here we extend the super-oscillation concept into the vectorial-field regime to work with circularly polarized light, and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a circularly polarized optical needle with sub-diffraction transverse spot size (0.45?) and axial long depth of focus (DOF) of 15? using a planar SOL at a violet wavelength of 405?nm. This sub-diffraction circularly polarized optical needle has potential applications in circular dichroism spectroscopy, super-resolution imaging, high-density optical storage, heat-assisted magnetic recording, nano-manufacturing and nano-metrology. PMID:25208611

Yuan, Guanghui; Rogers, Edward T F; Roy, Tapashree; Adamo, Giorgio; Shen, Zexiang; Zheludev, Nikolay I

2014-01-01

453

Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic gases cause carbon depositions on the multi-layer mirrors by Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) light irradiations in EUV lithography tool. The dependences on organic gas species, organic gas pressure and EUV light intensity in the carbon deposition were researched in order to understand this reaction. EUV light was irradiated on a (Si/Mo) multilayer mirror sample injecting organic gas like buthane, buthanol, methyl propionate, hexane, perfluoro octane, decane, decanol, methyl nonanoate, diethyl benzene, dimethyl phthalate and hexadecane. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that organic gases with heavier molecule weight or higher boiling temperature caused fast