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1

Adsorption of hazardous dye crystal violet from wastewater by waste materials.  

PubMed

The adsorption performance of the materials bottom ash (BA), a power plant waste, and de-oiled soya (DOS), a soya bean industry waste for removal of crystal violet dye, has been investigated through batch and column experiments. Batch studies have been performed to describe the impact of parameters such as pH, amount of adsorbent, dye concentration, temperature, and contact time on the removal of the dye. Experimental data have been modeled by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters (DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o), and DeltaS(o)) were evaluated for the dye-adsorbent systems, which revealed that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature. Pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic models have been applied to the experimental data and pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to describe the adsorption of the dye (crystal violet) on the adsorbents. In order to achieve bulk removal of the dye, column operations were made. Recovery of the dye was made by eluting HCl solution through the exhausted columns and almost 95% and 78% of the dye was recovered from BA and DOS columns, respectively. PMID:20045526

Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Malviya, Arti; Kaur, Dipika; Gupta, V K

2010-03-15

2

Simultaneous removal of binary mixture of Brilliant Green and Crystal Violet using derivative spectrophotometric determination, multivariate optimization and adsorption characterization of dyes on surfactant modified nano-?-alumina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study deals with the simultaneous removal of Brilliant Green (BG) and Crystal Violet (CV) by surfactant-modified alumina. The utilization of alumina nanoparticles with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) as a novel and efficient adsorbent is successfully carried out to remove two cationic dyes from aqueous solutions in binary batch systems. A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV in binary solutions. The linear concentration range and limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV were found to be: 1-20, 1-15 mg/L, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The influence of various parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration of dyes and sorbent mass on the dye adsorption is investigated. A response surface methodology achieved through performing the Box-Behnken design is utilized to optimize the removal of dyes by surfactant-modified nanoparticle alumina through a batch adsorption process. The proposed quadratic model resulting from the Box-Behnken design approach fitted very well with the experimental data. The optimal conditions for dye removal were contact time t = 50 min, sorbent dose = 0.036 g, CBG (Initial BG concentration) = 215 mg/L and CCV (Initial CV concentration) = 170 mg/L. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis, the isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were also explored.

Zolgharnein, Javad; Bagtash, Maryam; Shariatmanesh, Tahere

2015-02-01

3

Crystal Violet, Fluorenone, and Fluorene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WebWare molecules of the month for the month of September are discussed in the article by Gail Horowitz, "A Discovery Approach to Three Organic Laboratory Techniques: Extraction, Recrystallization, and Distillation". In the extraction part of the experiment, students use aqueous washes to remove a highly polar colored contaminent (crystal violet) or a nonpolar colored contaminent (fluorenone) from a desired compound (fluorene).

4

[Biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green by Rhodotorula graminis Y-5].  

PubMed

With a shaker, this paper studied the characteristics of the biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green by Rhodotorula graminis Y-5 under different adsorption time, initial pH, and temperature, as well as the desorption and recycling use of the dyes. The biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green by R. graminis Y-5 had the peaks (93.8% and 87.7%, respectively) at pH 7.0, dye concentration 50 mg x L(-1), 150 r x min(-1), 30 degrees C, and lasting 10 hours. After desorption, the biosorption rate of crystal violet and malachite green by R. graminis was 85.5% and 78.5%, respectively, indicating that the biosorption of crystal violet and malachite green was reversible, and the recycling use of the dyes by R. graminis was quite good, i. e., the dyes were renewable and could be recycled. Biosorption could be the mechanism of the decolorization of the dyes. The dyes were mostly adsorbed on the R. graminis surface -OH. The adsorption process was fast, efficient, and reversible, suggesting that R. graminis had a high potential for waste water treatment. PMID:22384600

Hu, Rong; Huang, Jian-Bo; Yang, Zhou-Ping; Cheng, Zi-Zhang; Jing, De-Jun; Huang, Qian-Ming

2011-12-01

5

Spectroscopic Investigations on the Interaction of Crystal Violet with Nonionic Micelles of Brij and Igepal Surfactants in Aqueous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet in aqueous solutions containing polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants\\u000a was investigated using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The interactions of the dye were examined in\\u000a micellar media in order to prevent dye aggregation and to ensure maximum dye and surfactant interaction. The relative fluorescence\\u000a enhancements and the binding constants of the dye to the

Stephanie A. Moore; Karen M. Glenn; Rama M. Palepu

2007-01-01

6

Removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions using coal.  

PubMed

The interaction of crystal violet (CV) and six standard reference coals with varying amounts of pyrite was studied using batch sorption experiments. The experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that pyrite-containing coal removes CV through a combination of sorption and a Fenton-like degradation reaction involving pyrite. While pure pyrite does degrade CV slowly through a Fenton-like mechanism, bituminous coals containing pyrite showed far less CV removal than subbituminous coals without pyrite. Hence, the presence of pyrite in coal does not lead to an enhanced removal of CV from solution. Instead, the surface charge of coal appears to exert a primary role on the uptake of CV. The subbituminous coals tested in this study have a negative surface charge between pH 3 and 8, which facilitates the uptake of the cationic dye. Sorption of cationic CV onto subbituminous coal leads to a charge reversal. Modeling of the sorption kinetics suggest that CV diffuses into pore space within the coal after sorbing onto the surface, which is consistent with the fact that CV is not released after uptake by the coal. The results of this study indicate that subbituminous coal might be a useful sorbent for CV contained in waste streams generated in dye processes. Coal is a cheap bulk commodity, CV does not desorb easily, and the resulting CV-containing coal could be burned to incinerate the contaminant while producing energy. PMID:24655821

Schoonen, Martin A; Schoonen, Jan M T

2014-05-15

7

TOXICITY OF AN ANTHRAQUINONE VIOLET DYE MIXTURE FOLLOWING INHALATION EXPOSURE, INTRACHEAL INSTILLATION, OR GAVAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Anthraquinone dyes in a variety of functions from drug formulations fabric colorative to area markings as might be used of the military. he effects of a prototype violet dye mixture (VDM) consisting of: Disperse Red 11 (DR11) 1,4-diamino-2-methoxy-anthraquinone and Disperse Blue ...

8

Spectrophotometric study of an ionic associate of molybdotungstophosphoric heteropolyacid with crystal violet  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the ionic associate of molybdotungstophosphoric heteropolyacid (MTPA) with a dye of the triphenylmethane series, crystal violet (CV). It is shown that the ratio MTPA:CV to 1:3 at P:W = 1:7 and to 1:4 at P:W = 1:11. The conditions of the formation and flotation of the associates were determined and a procedure was developed for the spectrophotometric determination of phosphorus in the presence of arsenic.

Ganago, L.I.; Ishchenko, N.N.; Starobinets, L.G.

1985-05-01

9

Decolorization and biotransformation of triphenylmethane dye, methyl violet, by Aspergillus sp. isolated from Ladakh, India.  

PubMed

Methyl violet, used extensively in the commercial textile industry and as a biological stain, is a hazardous recalcitrant. Aspergillus sp. strain CB-TKL-1 isolated from a water sample from Tsumoriri Lake, Karzok, Ladakh, India, was found to completely decolorize methyl violet within 24 h when cultured under aerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. The rate of decolorization was determined by monitoring the decrease in the absorbance maxima of the dye by UV-visible spectroscopy. The decolorization of methyl violet was optimal at pH 5.5 and 30 degrees C when agitated at 200 rpm. Addition of glucose or arabinose (2%) as a carbon source and sodium nitrate or soyapeptone (0.2%) as a nitrogen source enhanced the decolorization ability of the culture. Furthermore, the culture exhibited a maximum decolorization rate of methyl violet after 24 h when the C:N ratio was 10. Nine N-demethylated decolorized products of methyl violet were identified based on UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and LC-MS analyses. The decolorization of methyl violet at the end of 24 h generated mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-Ndemethylated intermediates of pararosaniline. The variation of the relative absorption peaks in the decolorized sample indicated a linear decrease of hexa-N-demethylated compounds to non-N-demethylated pararosaniline, indicating a stepwise N-demethylation in the decolorization process. PMID:21464597

Kumar, C Ganesh; Mongolla, Poornima; Basha, Anver; Joseph, Joveeta; Sarma, V U M; Kamal, Ahmed

2011-03-01

10

Modeling of crystal violet adsorption by bottom ash column.  

PubMed

The removal of crystal violet from wastewater, by means of bottom ash, was investigated in a packed bed down-flow column. The bed depth service time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data up to breakthrough time (corresponding to C(t)/C(0) = 0.1). A mass transfer model was used to analyze the mass transfer zone. The breakthrough curve was analyzed by the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Clark models. All models fit well with the experimental data. Results showed that as the flow rate increases, at a constant concentration and bed depth, the value of the adsorption capacity of bottom ash decreases. The adsorption capacity of bottom ash decreases with an increase in depth and initial crystal violet concentration. Error analyses were performed for the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Clark models. Water PMID:23833812

Nidheesh, P V; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Singh, T S Anantha

2013-06-01

11

Removal of cationic dye methyl violet 2B from water by cation exchange membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of methyl violet 2B, a cationic dye, from water using two kinds of strong-acid cation exchange membranes, ICE 450 supported (with sulfonic acid groups and ion exchange capacity of 9.6–31?eq\\/47mm disc) and P81 (with phosphate groups and ion exchange capacity of 312?eq\\/47mm disc), was investigated in this study. In the batch process, the adsorption isotherm results show that

Jeng-Shiou Wu; Chia-Hung Liu; Khim Hoong Chu; Shing-Yi Suen

2008-01-01

12

Insight into biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal violet onto Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosorption performance of pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for removal of crystal violet (CV) from its aqueous solutions was investigated. To this end, the influence of operational parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied employing a batch experimental setup. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high correlation coefficients ( R 2 > 0.99) at different temperatures. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 78.22 mg g-1 at 293 K. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 58.96 kJ mol- 1 , indicating chemisorption nature of the ongoing biosorption process. A thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and exothermic nature of the biosorption process. Owing to its low cost and high dye uptake capacity, PLP has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

2012-06-01

13

Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

1991-01-01

14

Spectrophotometric determination of iridium after flotation of ion-associates formed in iridium(III)-tin(II)-chloride-malachite green- or crystal violet systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The conditions for the formation of iridium(III) ion associates with tin(II) and basic dyes, Malachite Green (MG) and Crystal Violet (CV), in the medium of hydrochloric acid, and their flotation with organic solvents have been examined. The effect of the light on the formation of these ion associates has been observed. Floated compounds, dissolved in polar solvents (methanol, dimethyl

Zygmunt Marczenko; Krzysztof Kalinowski

1983-01-01

15

Batch Removal of Crystal Violet From Aqueous Solution by H2SO4 Modified Sugarcane Bagasse: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch adsorption studies were carried out using H2SO4 modified sugarcane bagasse (HMSB) for removal of hazardous Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. Effects of initial solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption process were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium dye uptake while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed good agreement with the experimental kinetic

Sagnik Chakraborty; Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Das Saha

2012-01-01

16

Batch Removal of Crystal Violet from Aqueous Solution by H2SO4 Modified Sugarcane Bagasse: Equilibrium, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch adsorption studies were carried out using H2SO4 modified sugarcane bagasse (HMSB) for the removal of hazardous Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium dye uptake while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model showed good agreement with the

Sagnik Chakraborty; Shamik Chowdhury; Papita Das Saha

2012-01-01

17

Biosorption characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus for the decolorization of triphenylmethane dye acid violet 49.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the possible use of Aspergillus fumigatus to remove acid violet 49 dye (AV49) from aqueous solution. In batch biosorption experiments, the highest biosorption efficiency was achieved at pH 3.0, with biosorbent dosage of 3.0 gL(-1) within about 30 min at 40 °C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the biosorption equilibrium of AV49 onto fungal biomass with maximum dye uptake capacity 136.98 mg g(-1). Biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R (2)?>?0.99), and the biosorption rate constants increased with increasing temperature. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the biosorption process was favorable, spontaneous, and endothermic in nature, with insignificant entropy changes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy strongly supported the presence of several functional groups responsible for dye-biosorbent interaction. Fungal biomass was regenerated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide and could be reused a number of times without significant loss of biosorption activity. The effective decolorization of AV49 in simulated conditions indicated the potential use of biomass for the removal of color contaminants from wastewater. PMID:24136473

Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Zohaib, Muhammad; Rauf, Naseem; Tahir, Subhe Sadiq; Parvez, Shoukat

2014-04-01

18

Removal and recovery of hazardous triphenylmethane dye, Methyl Violet through adsorption over granulated waste materials.  

PubMed

Bottom Ash a power plant waste material and De-Oiled Soya, an agricultural waste product have been successfully used for the removal and recovery of a hazardous triphenylmethane dye-Methyl Violet, from wastewaters. The characterization of each adsorbent has been carried out by I.R. and D.T.A. curves. Batch adsorption studies have been made by measuring effects of pH, sieve size, amount of adsorbent, contact time, temperature, concentration of the adsorbate solution, etc. Kinetic studies have been used to determine the nature of rate controlling step of the processes and confirm the applicability of the first order rate expression in the ongoing adsorption process. Various thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated by applying the linear forms of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The linear nature of adsorption isotherms obtained shows the dependence of the processes on the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. Furthermore, to ascertain the adsorption processes to be particle diffusion or film diffusion mechanism, Boyd and Reichenberg's expressions have been applied. For both the adsorbents, column operations have been carried out for the bulk removal of the dye. The adsorbed dye has been recovered by eluting hydrochloric acid of pH 3 through exhausted columns. PMID:17543448

Mittal, Alok; Gajbe, Vibha; Mittal, Jyoti

2008-01-31

19

Synthesis of CarAlg/MMt nanocomposite hydrogels and adsorption of cationic crystal violet.  

PubMed

CarAlg/MMt nanocomposite hydrogels composed of kappa-carrageenan (Car) and sodium alginate (Alg) biopolymers were synthesized by incorporation of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMt) nanoclay. Acrylamide (AAm), methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as monomer, crosslinker, and initiator, respectively. The structure and morphology of nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The XRD results showed exfoliated MMt nanoclay and exfoliation of MMt was confirmed by TEM graph. The resulting nanocomposites were evaluated to remove cationic crystal violet (CV) dye from water. According to data, the adsorption capacity of nanocomposites was enhanced as the clay content was increased. The experimental data were analyzed according to both Langmuir and Freundlich models and experimental maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 88.8 mg g(-1). By studying the effect of pH on the dye adsorption capacity of nanocomposites, it was revealed that the adsorption capacity of nanocomposites was enhanced at acidic pHs as the Na-MMt nanoclay and kappa-carrageenan components were increased. PMID:23987355

Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Aghaie, Huriyeh; Sheykhloie, Hossein; Vardini, Mohammad Taghi; Etemadi, Hossein

2013-10-15

20

Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures. Tumorigenicity studies of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dyes in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis Bioassay System  

SciTech Connect

The tumorigenicities of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dye were tested in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Bioassay System. The Diesel Fuel-2 gave a signigificant tumor response when tested as a tumor promoter but negative results when tested as a complete carcinogen. There were no tumor responses to either the Red or Violet Smoke Dyes when tested as a complete carcinogens. Although a few tumors occurred in the Red and Violet Smoke Dye tumor initiation studies, the response was not significantly different from that of the controls. 29 refs., 10 tabs.

Slaga, T.J.; Triplett, L.L.; Fry, R.J.M.

1985-09-01

21

Isolation and Characterization of Paracoccus sp. GSM2 Capable of Degrading Textile Azo Dye Reactive Violet 5  

PubMed Central

A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100?mg/L) within 16?h, while maximally it could decolorize 800?mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0–9.0 and 25–40°C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v). UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2. PMID:24883397

Bheemaraddi, Mallikarjun C.; Shivannavar, Channappa T.; Gaddad, Subhashchandra M.

2014-01-01

22

Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

2013-12-01

23

Activation of H2O2 by Amberlyst-15 resin supported with copper(II)-complexes towards oxidation of crystal violet.  

PubMed

Copper(II) amine complexes supported on Amberlyst-15 cation resin were prepared and characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR measurements. The kinetics of the heterogeneous oxidation of an organic dye, crystal violet, with H2O2 catalyzed by the supported catalysts was investigated in aqueous solution. The rate of reaction increases with increasing stability of the copper(II) amine complexes. The oxidation rate attained a first-order in the catalyst and the dye only at lower concentrations and second order in H2O2. A very fast formation of a peroxo-dye intermediate resulting from the interaction of H2O2 with the dye even in the presence of the catalyst was observed. PMID:11513398

Salem, I A

2001-08-01

24

[Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].  

PubMed

By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased. PMID:24066559

Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

2013-06-01

25

Modification of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by ?-Cyclodextrin in decoloration of ethyl violet dye  

PubMed Central

The photocatalytic decoloration of an organic dye, ethyl violet (EV), has been studied in the presence of TiO2 and the addition of ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD) with TiO2 (TiO2-?-CD) under UV-A light irradiation. The different operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, illumination time, pH and amount of catalyst used have also been investigated. The photocatalytic decoloration efficiency is more in the TiO2-?-CD/UV-A light system than TiO2/UV-A light system. The mineralization of EV has been confirmed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measurements. The complexation patterns have been confirmed with UV–Visible and FT-IR spectral data and the interaction between TiO2 and ?-CD have been characterized by powder XRD analysis and UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

Velusamy, Ponnusamy; Pitchaimuthu, Sakthivel; Rajalakshmi, Subramanian; Kannan, Nagarathinam

2012-01-01

26

Ion pairs of crystal violet in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles.  

PubMed

The interfacial localization and the ion pair formation of the positively charged dye crystal violet (CV) in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles (AOT RMs) were studied by several structural and spectroscopic techniques and by quantum chemical calculations. The size and shape of the AOT RMs in the presence of CV were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering, showing that CV does not significantly change the RM structure. CV localization as a function of the water to surfactant molar ratio (w(0)) was characterized by H(1) and (13)C NMR, indicating the close proximity of CV to the sulfosuccinate group of AOT at small and large w(0) values. These results were confirmed by calculation of magnetic shielding constants using the gauge-independent atomic orbital method with the HF/6-31G(d) basis set. Two different types of ion pairs between AOT and CV, i.e., contact ion pair (CIPs) and solvent-separated ion pair (SSIPs), were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations using the semiempirical ZINDO-CI method. In nonpolar isotropic solvents CIPs are formed with an association constant (K(ASSOC)) of 2 x 10(4) mol(-1) L in isooctane and 750 mol(-1) L in chloroform. In AOT RMs at low w(0), CV-AOT CIPs are also formed. By increasing w(0), there is a sharp decrease in the CIP association free energy, and SSIPs are formed. (CV(+))(H(2)O)(AOT(-)) SSIPs are stable in the AOT RM up to the largest w(0) tested (w(0) = 33). PMID:17014109

Oliveira, Carla S; Bastos, Erick L; Duarte, Evandro L; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Mauricio S

2006-10-10

27

Batch and continuous (fixed-bed column) biosorption of crystal violet by Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder.  

PubMed

In this study, batch and fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) leaf powder (JLP) to remove crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption studies were carried out as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. The biosorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer biosorption capacity of 43.39 mg g(-1) at pH 7.0, initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1), temperature=293 K and contact time=120 min. According to Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model, biosorption of CV by JLP was chemisorption. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that biosorption of CV from aqueous solution by JLP was a spontaneous and exothermic process. In order to ascertain the practical applicability of the biosorbent, fixed-bed column studies were also performed. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model as well as the BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental results at all the process parameters studied. It can be concluded that JLP is a promising biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions. PMID:22221460

Saha, Papita Das; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik

2012-04-01

28

Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) dye from aqueous solutions  

PubMed Central

In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) by ultraviolet radiation (UV), ultrasonic irradiation (US), UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz) plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%), US (<6%) and US/H2O2(<15%) processes were negligible for this kind of dye. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dyestuffs concentrations was found to fit all the experimental data. PMID:23369268

2012-01-01

29

Removal of Alizarin Violet 3R (anthraquinonic dye) from aqueous solutions by natural coagulants.  

PubMed

In this paper the ability of two natural products in removing dyes has been tested. After a preliminary screening for dye removal capacity, a tannin-based coagulant called ACQUAPOL C-1 and a vegetal protein extract derived from Moringa oleifera seed have been fully studied. The influence of several parameters such as pH, temperature or initial dye concentration (IDC) have been tested and the behavior of both coagulants has been compared. pH results to be an interesting variable and dye removal decreases as pH increases. This effect is higher in ACQUAPOL C-1 than in M. oleifera seed extract. Temperature seems not to be so affecting parameter, while IDC appears to be a very important variable in q(c) capacity, which is higher as IDC increases. Langmuir isotherm model fits very well in both cases of ACQUAPOL C-1 and M. oleifera seed extract dye removal. PMID:19481341

Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J; Delgado-Regalado, A; Jurado-Bustos, C

2009-10-15

30

Adsorptionof fast green and erythrosin-B to montmorillonite modified with crystal violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption\\u000a of erythrosin-B (EB) and fast green (FG) to a non-charged organosmectite based\\u000a on crystal violet adsorbed up to 100% of the cation exchange capacity (CEC)\\u000a was tested. Adsorption isotherms of EB and FG were prepared at 3, 24 and 50C.\\u000a All isotherms are of H-type reaching loads of approximately up to 20% of the\\u000a original CEC of the crude

G. Rytwo; R. Huterer-Harari; S. Dultz; Y. Gonen

2006-01-01

31

Double staining with crystal violet and methylene blue is appropriate for colonic endocytoscopy: An in?vivo prospective pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Endocytoscopy (EC) at ultra-high magnification enables in?vivo visualization of cellular atypia of gastrointestinal mucosae. Clear images are essential for precise diagnosis by EC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the optimal staining method for EC in the colon. Methods Thirty prospectively enrolled patients were allocated 1:1:1 to three distinct staining methods: 0.05% crystal violet (CV) alone, 1% methylene blue (MB) alone, or CV?+?MB (CM double). Normal rectal mucosae were stained with each dye and videos of EC images were recorded. Visibility of nuclei and gland formation after staining were evaluated as ‘recognizable’ or ‘not recognizable’. Time for each parameter to become ‘recognizable’ was measured, and the average times for the three staining regimens were compared. Results MB alone and CM double staining resulted in ‘recognizable’ (102?±?27 vs 89?±?22?s, P?=?0.263) nuclei within comparable periods of time, whereas CV alone was unable to identify nuclei. Gland formation became ‘recognizable’ sooner after CM double staining than after MB alone (61?±?16 vs 108?±?24?s, P?

Ichimasa, Katsuro; Kudo, Shin-ei; Mori, Yuichi; Wakamura, Kunihiko; Ikehara, Nobunao; Kutsukawa, Makoto; Takeda, Kenichi; Misawa, Masashi; Kudo, Toyoki; Miyachi, Hideyuki; Yamamura, Fuyuhiko; Ohkoshi, Shogo; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Inoue, Haruhiro

2014-01-01

32

Cell-cycle synchronisation of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using Vybrant DyeCycle Violet-based sorting.  

PubMed

Studies on the cell-cycle of Trypanosoma brucei have revealed several unusual characteristics that differ from the model eukaryotic organisms. However, the inability to isolate homogenous populations of parasites in distinct cell-cycle stages has limited the analysis of trypanosome cell division and complicated the understanding of mutant phenotypes with possible impact on cell-cycle related events. Although hydroxyurea-induced cell-cycle arrest in procyclic and bloodstream forms has been applied recently with success, such block-release protocols can complicate the analysis of cell-cycle regulated events and have the potential to disrupt important cell-cycle checkpoints. An alternative approach based on flow cytometry of parasites stained with Vybrant DyeCycle Orange circumvents this problem, but is restricted to procyclic form parasites. Here, we apply Vybrant Dyecycle Violet staining coupled with flow cytometry to effectively select different cell-cycle stages of bloodstream form trypanosomes. Moreover, the sorted parasites remain viable, although synchrony is rapidly lost. This method enables cell-cycle enrichment of populations of trypanosomes in their mammal infective stage, particularly at the G1 phase. PMID:19729042

Kabani, Sarah; Waterfall, Martin; Matthews, Keith R

2010-01-01

33

Blue-violet photoluminescence of 4-isopropyl-pyridine hydroxide crystals.  

PubMed

There is continuing interest in determining essential structural features of polymer gels, which display photoelectric and/or thermoelectric behavior. One such gel is the blend, poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-butyl methacrylate)/poly(4-vinylpyridine), dissolved in liquid pyridine. Following extended aeration of a three-component mixture, which serves as a model for the gel side chain interactions, crystallization of a new molecule, 4-isopropylpyridine hydroxide (IPPOH), occurs. X-ray diffraction, DFT modeling, and spectroscopy were used to determine the structural, electronic, and luminescent properties of the crystal. The crystal structure reveals molecules forming head-to-tail, hydrogen-bonded chains without base stacking or marked interchain interaction. The molecular chains are characterized by moderately long-lived, blue-violet luminescence excited in the near-UV. Because these photoluminescent properties resemble those of the gel from which the crystals are derived, we may posit similar structural features in the gel for which direct structural analysis is not available. PMID:24708153

Vaganova, Evgenia; Wachtel, Ellen; Leitus, Gregory; Danovich, David; Popov, Inna; Dubnikova, Faina; Yitzchaik, Shlomo

2014-05-01

34

Kinetics of Crystal Violet Fading in the Presence of TX-100, DTAB and SDS.  

PubMed

The rate constant of alkaline fading of crystal violet (CV+) was measured in the presence of non ionic (TX-100), cationic (DTAB) and anionic (SDS) surfactants. This reaction was studied at 283-303 K. The rate of reaction showed remarkable dependence on the electrical charge of the used surfactants. It was observed that the reaction rate constant increased in the presence of TX-100 and DTAB and decreased in the presence of SDS. Binding constants of CV+ with TX-100 and DTAB and the related thermodynamic parameters were obtained by classical (or stoichiometric) model. The results show that binding of CV+ to TX-100 is endothermic and binding of CV+ to DTAB and SDS is exothermic in the used concentration range of surfactants. PMID:24062031

Samiey, Babak; Ashoori, Fatemeh

2011-06-01

35

Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto pumice powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of methylene blue and crystal violet on pumice powder samples of varying compositions was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, and contact time, were also investigated. The extent of dye removal increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with increased contact

Feryal Akbal

2005-01-01

36

Aspects of cationic dye molecule adsorption to palygorskite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the adsorption of cationic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solutions (distilled water and actual groundwater) onto palygorskite clay. In particular, we discuss the effect of dissolved ions, pH, particle size, adsorbent mass, and dye initial concentration on adsorption capacity. It is clearly shown that both dyes adsorption by palygorskite in groundwater

Ahmed Al-Futaisi; Ahmad Jamrah; Rashid Al-Hanai

2007-01-01

37

Electrochemical decolourisation of structurally different dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical decolourisation of structurally different dyes (bromophenol blue, indigo, poly R-478, phenol red, methyl orange, fuchsin, methyl green and crystal violet) by means of the application of DC electric current was assessed. It was found that the electrochemical process allowed a colour removal of all dyes studied, although the decolourisation rate largely depended on the chemical structure of the

M. A. Sanromán; M. Pazos; M. T. Ricart; C. Cameselle

2004-01-01

38

A coupled biological and photocatalysis pretreatment system for the removal of crystal violet from wastewater.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a coupled photocatalytic-biological system for removing crystal violet (CV) from an aqueous solution was assessed. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor were a 1.5-h reaction time, pH 7.0, and a 2.0-min retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction reduced the toxicity of the CV solution by 94%. Subsequent evaluation of the performance and characteristics of the coupled photocatalytic-biological system in terms of CV removal revealed that the coupled system successfully removed and efficiently mineralized CV in a semi-continuous mode when the CV concentration was <150mgL(-1). Based on our analysis of the degradation products, CV degradation in this coupled system involved stepwise demethylation and aromatic ring opening. Phylogenetic analysis of the bioreactor effluent showed that the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, suggesting that this coupled system is conducive for such processes as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, and nitrification. These results were verified in a GC-MS analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on CV removal using a coupled system. PMID:23664476

Chen, Chih-Yu; Kuo, Jong-Tar; Yang, Hui-An; Chung, Ying-Chien

2013-07-01

39

Determination of malachite green and crystal violet in processed fish products.  

PubMed

This paper presents analysis of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) residues in processed fish products. Samples were homogenized and extracted with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile. The extracted residues were partitioned into dichloromethane, in situ oxidized to chromic forms with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and cleaned up on neutral alumina and propylsulfonic acid cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. MG and CV were determined at 618 and 588 nm using HPLC with a visible detector (LC-VIS) and confirmed by LC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were as follows: MG (74.8-83.8%), LMG (80.0-88.4%), CV (68.6-73.9%), and LCV (85.5-90.0%). The method modified in this study has been evaluated by application in-house to a survey of 253 processed fish products. As a result of monitoring, MG and CV were positive in one shrimp and one eel sample, respectively. Our results showed that regular monitoring of these antibiotic residues is recommended for protection of public health. PMID:20544455

Lee, Jun Bae; Kim, Hee Yun; Jang, Young Mi; Song, Ji Young; Woo, Sung Min; Park, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Soon Kyu; Kim, Meehye

2010-07-01

40

Determination of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride using photometric colloidal titration with crystal violet as a color indicator.  

PubMed

A solution of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB-HCl) was titrated with a standard solution of potassium poly(vinyl sulfate) (PVSK) using crystal violet (CV) as an photometric indicator cation. The end point was detected by a sharp absorbance change due to an abrupt decrease in the concentration of CV. A linear relationship between the concentration of PHMB-HCl and the end-point volume of the titrant existed in the concentration range from 2 to 10 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Back-titration was based on adding an excess amount of PVSK to a sample solution containing CV, which was titrated with a standard solution of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The calibration curve of the PHMB-HCl concentration to the end point volume of the titrant was also linear in the concentration range from 2 to 8 × 10(-6) eq mol L(-1). Both photometric titrations were applied to the determination of PHMB-HCl in a few contact-lens detergents. Back-titration showed a clear end point, but direct titration showed an unclear end point. The results of the back-titration of PHMB-HCl were compared with the content registered in its labels. PMID:21828919

Masadome, Takashi; Miyanishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Keita; Ueda, Hiroshi; Hattori, Toshiaki

2011-01-01

41

Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater. PMID:24579659

Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

2014-04-01

42

Dye sensitization of titanium dioxide crystals and nanocrystalline films with a ruthenium based dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dye/semiconductor interface of a recently developed highly efficient (overall conversion efficiency >13%) dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell was investigated. First, the adsorption and desorption rates of the dye (cis-di(thiocyanato)bis(2,2' -bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II):N3), and the relationship between the dye coverage and the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies were examined for nanocrystalline TiO2 films. A two-step dye adsorption mechanism was postulated where initial binding of N3 is through one carboxyl group, with subsequent binding of two or more carboxyl groups. The photon-to-current conversion efficiencies were found to increase abruptly at a coverage of about 0.3 monolayers. To explain the non-linear increases in the conversion efficiencies, a hole-hopping mechanism was proposed. At greater than 30% coverage, hole transfer between adjacent N3 molecules becomes possible and facilitates the regeneration of the oxidized N3 by the redox species (I-) in the matrix of the nanoporous structure. Natural anatase crystals were also investigated as substrates for dye sensitization by N3 to circumvent the complexity of the nanoporous structure of the nanocrystalline TiO2 films. A crystal face dependence of the sensitization yield was observed and explained with the variation in the distances between the Ti binding sites by different crystal faces. The dye sensitized photocurrents with the natural anatase crystals had millisecond rise times. The rise time decreased with greater light intensity and greater dye coverage, suggesting that trapping and detrapping of injected electrons at traps in the crystals is involved in the electron transport in the natural anatase crystals. The absorbed photon to current efficiency of the nanocrystalline films was calculated to be approximately three to seven times greater than that of the single crystals, indicating more recombination in the single crystals. Finally, the surface morphologies of natural and synthetic TiO2 crystals were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Several surface treatments were attempted to obtain flat terraced surfaces suitable for imaging the adsorbed N3.

Fillinger, Akiko

43

Quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet and its use to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phagocytosis is a complex process involving attachment, ingestion and intracellular processing of bacteria by phagocytes. A great difficulty in the evaluation of this process is to differentiate between attachment of the particles to the cell surface and internalization of the particles by the cells. Various techniques have been used to differentiate internalized and surface-attached bacteria in cultured cells, but only a few permit differentiations between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. In this study the quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet on acridine orange stained bacterial biofilm and planktonic bacterial cells is used to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria within macrophages. Method: One week old Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was grown on perspex and glass substrates in All-Culture medium (nutrient-rich condition) and phosphate buffered saline (nutrient-deprived condition). As model systems, human monocytic (THP-1) and histiocytic (U937) cell lines were used. These cell lines were incubated with the biofilm bacteria for 4 hrs in CO II incubator at 37 °C. The cells and bacteria were stained with acridine orange and quenched with crystal violet to distinguish between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. Results: The presence of green-fluorescing internalized bacteria was detected within the macrophages under the planktonic, nutrient-rich and nutrient-deprived biofilm conditions. All infecting bacteria take up acridine orange and fluoresced green, crystal violet quenched the fluorescence of extra-cellular adhering bacteria so that only fluorescent intracellular bacteria would be visible under fluorescent light microscopy.

Mathew, S.; Lim, Y. C.; Kishen, A.

2008-06-01

44

Application of LC-MS and LC-MS-MS to the analysis of photo-decomposed crystal violet in the investigation of cultural heritage materials aging.  

PubMed

In this work, the accurate liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible (LC-UV-Vis), LC-mass spectrometry (MS) and LC-MS-MS analysis of the photo-degradation products of crystal violet (CV) is reported. CV is a light fugitive early synthetic dye which had a widespread diffusion into the market starting from the end of the XIX century and was used among others by V. Van Gogh and P. Gauguin in their writings, drawings or paintings. On-line photodiode array detector enabled simultaneous UV-Vis spectra acquisition. Many degradation compounds were identified through their exact mass (2?ppm accuracy) and MS-MS technique. In particular, all CV demethylated products, demethylated Michler's ketone and particularly some compounds that most likely contain oxygen, such as N-oxides, were found. Fragmentation products are all justified by the proposed fragmentation scheme, in term of precursor exact mass and isotopic profile, characteristic losses in fragmentation and rebuilt structure formula. In particular, we hypothesized the presence of N-imido oxides and hydroxylamine derivates, never reported before, together with the demethylated derivatives of the studied dyes. All these compounds, although at trace level in our samples, contribute to the discoloration and fading of works of arts made with CV. In particular, demethylation of CV by UV light leads to formation of compounds absorbing at shorter wavelengths than CV (blue shift) or no-absorbing in visible range (yellow-colourless) with an overall effect that may appear reddish-brown. This phenomenon justifies drawings appearing grey or brown on aged yellowed paper, when CV-based inks or paints were used. The final aim was to better characterize the photo-degradation of early synthetic dyes (in particular of CV) and to gain a better insight into the discoloration and fading of purple ink strokes made of CV. PMID:23280755

Favaro, Gabriella; Confortin, Daria; Pastore, Paolo; Brustolon, Marinarosa

2012-12-01

45

Photobleaching and reorientational dynamics of dyes in a nematic liquid crystal M. Nollmann and D. Shalom  

E-print Network

Received 25 August 1998 The polarized fluorescence of excited dyes in a prototype nematic liquid crystalPhotobleaching and reorientational dynamics of dyes in a nematic liquid crystal M. No¨llmann and D of the liquid crystal, if the dyes are resonantly excited. The fluorescence emission in this latter case is able

Nollmann, Marcelo

46

Adsorption kinetics of methyl violet onto perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines adsorption kinetics and activation parameters of methyl violet on perlite. The effect of process parameters like contact time, concentration of dye, temperature and pH on the extent of methyl violet adsorption from solution has been investigated. Results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption reaction is first order with respect to dye solution concentration with activation

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2003-01-01

47

Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals have been studied for random lasing. The dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was fabricated by photoinitiated polymerization with a collimated 514.5 nm Ar+ laser beam. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix ranged from 20 to 80 nm. Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals were

Y. J. Liu; X. W. Sun; H. I. Elim; W. Ji

2006-01-01

48

Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals have been studied for random lasing. The dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was fabricated by photoinitiated polymerization with a collimated 514.5 nmAr+ laser beam. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix ranged from 20 to 80 nm. Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals were observed

Y. J. Liu; X. W. Sun; H. I. Elim; W. Ji

2006-01-01

49

An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

2014-09-01

50

Deterministically Polarized Fluorescence from Single Dye Molecules Aligned in Liquid Crystal Host  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrated for the first time to our konwledge deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules. Planar aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts provide deterministic alignment of single dye molecules in a preferred direction.

Lukishova, S.G.; Schmid, A.W.; Knox, R.; Freivald, P.; Boyd, R. W.; Stroud, Jr., C. R.; Marshall, K.L.

2005-09-30

51

Photoluminescence analysis of self induced planer alignment in azo dye dispersed nematic liquid crystal complex  

SciTech Connect

We have developed azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal complex for advanced photonic liquid crystal display technology aspects. Disperse orange azo dye self introduced planer alignment in the nematic liquid crystal without any surface anchoring treatment. Planer alignment was characterized by optical polarizing microscopy. The electro-optical switching response of dye disperse planer aligned nematic cell was investigated as a function of applied voltage with the help of photoluminescence spectrophotometer for the tuning of photoluminescence contrast.

Kumar, Rishi, E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com; Sood, Srishti, E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com; Raina, K. K., E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)

2014-04-24

52

Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals  

E-print Network

Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals Tsung: A simple method for fabricating patternable micro-mirror devices by photo-induced alignment of dye to nearly perfect planar by the photo-excited adsorbed dyes. This structure transformation leads

Wu, Shin-Tson

53

Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by kaolin: Kinetic and equilibrium studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were carried out using commercially available kaolin to adsorb two different toxic cationic dyes namely crystal violet and brilliant green from aqueous medium. Kaolin was characterized by performing particle size distribution, BET surface area measurement and XRD analysis. The effects of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, stirring speed, pH, salt concentration and temperature were studied in

B. K. Nandi; A. Goswami; M. K Purkait

2009-01-01

54

A new rapid colourimetric method for testing Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin: a crystal violet decolourisation assay.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new and accurate method for the detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using a crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA). Fifty-five M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from culture stocks stored at -80ºC were tested. After bacterial inoculation, the samples were incubated at 37ºC for seven days and 100 µL of CV (25 mg/L stock solution) was then added to the control and sample tubes. The tubes were incubated for an additional 24-48 h. CV (blue/purple) was decolourised in the presence of bacterial growth; thus, if CV lost its colour in a sample containing a drug, the tested isolate was reported as resistant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and agreement for INH were 92.5%, 96.4%, 96.1%, 93.1% and 94.5%, respectively, and 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 94.8% and 96.3%, respectively, for RIF. The results were obtained within eight-nine days. This study shows that CVDA is an effective method to detect M. tuberculosis resistance to INH and RIF in developing countries. This method is rapid, simple and inexpensive. Nonetheless, further studies are necessary before routine laboratory implementation. PMID:24676667

Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

2014-04-01

55

Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol sorbed onto crystal violet-modified organoclay by Arthrobacter sp. 4H?.  

PubMed

Organoclays are effective sorbents for removal of organic contaminants from water, but their regeneration capacity limits their practical use as a biotechnological process for bioremediation. Here, the sorption of p-nitrophenol (PNP) to crystal violet (CV)-modified montmorillonite and its biodegradation by the bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 4H? were studied in a batch aqueous system. The degree of PNP sorption was dependent on the degree of CV modification (loaded at 80 % or 100 % of the clay's cation-exchange capacity-CVM80 and CVM100, respectively). CV sorption to the clay reduced its toxicity to bacteria. PNP at an initial concentration of 0.72 mM was degraded at rates of 65 % and 42 % in CVM80 and CVM100 suspensions, respectively. Both free and CV-clay-adsorbed PNP concentrations were reduced by the bacteria at rates proportional to the degree of CV modification. Three successive cycles of PNP reloading-degradation in the organoclay suspension demonstrated the potential of this matrix's regeneration and reuse toward maximal removal efficiency of organic pollutants. PMID:23715856

Masaphy, Segula; Zohar, Shay; Jander-Shagug, Gurinaz

2014-02-01

56

A new rapid colourimetric method for testing Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin: a crystal violet decolourisation assay  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new and accurate method for the detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using a crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA). Fifty-five M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from culture stocks stored at -80ºC were tested. After bacterial inoculation, the samples were incubated at 37ºC for seven days and 100 µL of CV (25 mg/L stock solution) was then added to the control and sample tubes. The tubes were incubated for an additional 24-48 h. CV (blue/purple) was decolourised in the presence of bacterial growth; thus, if CV lost its colour in a sample containing a drug, the tested isolate was reported as resistant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and agreement for INH were 92.5%, 96.4%, 96.1%, 93.1% and 94.5%, respectively, and 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 94.8% and 96.3%, respectively, for RIF. The results were obtained within eight-nine days. This study shows that CVDA is an effective method to detect M. tuberculosis resistance to INH and RIF in developing countries. This method is rapid, simple and inexpensive. Nonetheless, further studies are necessary before routine laboratory implementation. PMID:24676667

Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

2014-01-01

57

Adsorption of anionic surfactant on alumina and reuse of the surfactant-modified alumina for the removal of crystal violet from aquatic environment.  

PubMed

The adsorption characteristics of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant on neutral alumina were studied in detail. Alumina was found to be an efficient adsorbent for SDS and could be used for the removal of SDS from its highly concentrated (several thousand ppm) solution. The equilibrium time found was 2 h. Though the removal efficiency was low (approximately 65%) at neutral pH, but in slightly acidic condition and in the presence of NaCl the efficiency could be increased dramatically (up to >98%). The adsorption isotherm study showed distinct four regions. The effects of various other parameters such as adsorbent dose, time, and the presence of different ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), and Fe3+), and nonionic surfactant on the SDS adsorption were also studied. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was increased due to the presence of these ions in general. After the adsorption of SDS on alumina, the surfactant-modified alumina (SMA) was used for the removal of crystal violet (CV), a well-known cationic dye from aquatic environment. The kinetic studies showed that 1 h shaking time was sufficient to achieve the equilibrium. The removal of CV followed the second order kinetics. Studies were conducted to see the effects of adsorbent dose and initial CV concentration on the removal of CV using SMA. The pH was maintained at 6.7+/-0.1. SMA was found to be very efficient, and approximately 99% efficiency could be achieved under optimised conditions for the removal of CV when present even at a high concentration (200 ppm). To test whether the removal of CV was possible from real water using SMA, the adsorption study was conducted using CV spiked samples using distilled water, tap water, and synthetically prepared wastewater. It was interesting to note that the removal efficiency was even better for tap water and much better for wastewater when compared to that using distilled water. Desorption of both SDS and CV from the SMA surface was possible using 1 M sodium hydroxide solutions. PMID:15663308

Adak, Asok; Bandyopadhyay, Manas; Pal, Anjali

2005-01-01

58

Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

Parkinson, Bruce

2010-06-04

59

Crystallization of fused silica surfaces by ultra-violet laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the increased use of high power lasers has created problems in optical elements due to laser damage. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes in a publication ISO 11254 a laser-power resilience (LPR) test which we used to verify that by flattening the glass substrate of an optical element, we could improve the resistance to laser damage. We report on an evaluation of two types of samples of fused silica substrate whose surface roughness differed (Ra = 0.20 nm and Ra = 0.13 nm) using customized on-line laser damage testing. To induce laser damage to samples, we used the fifth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG pulse laser (wavelength: 213 nm, pulse width: 4 ns, repetition frequency: 20 Hz). Results show that flattening reduced the progression of laser damage in the meta-phase laser damage phase by 1/3 of that without flattening. However, pro-phase laser damage which started at fluence 2.39 J/cm2 was unrelated to surface roughness. To analyze the pro-phase laser damage, we used x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and variable pressure-type scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). From XRD data, we observed XRD patterns of cristobalite (111), cristobalite (102), ?-quartz (111), and ?-quartz (102). Raman spectrum data showed an increase in the three-membered ring vibration (600 cm-1), four-membered ring vibration (490 cm-1), and many-membered ring vibration (450 cm-1, 390 cm-1, and 300 cm-1). We observed patchy crystallized areas on the sample surfaces in the VP-SEM images. Based on these experimental results, we believe that the dominant factors in pro-phase laser damage are their physical properties. Substrate and thin film material must be appropriately selected in producing an optical element with a high level of resilience to laser exposure.

Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi

2012-07-01

60

Crystallization of fused silica surfaces by ultra-violet laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, the increased use of high power lasers has created problems in optical elements due to laser damage. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes in a publication ISO 11254 a laser-power resilience (LPR) test which we used to verify that by flattening the glass substrate of an optical element, we could improve the resistance to laser damage. We report on an evaluation of two types of samples of fused silica substrate whose surface roughness differed (R{sub a} = 0.20 nm and R{sub a} = 0.13 nm) using customized on-line laser damage testing. To induce laser damage to samples, we used the fifth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG pulse laser (wavelength: 213 nm, pulse width: 4 ns, repetition frequency: 20 Hz). Results show that flattening reduced the progression of laser damage in the meta-phase laser damage phase by 1/3 of that without flattening. However, pro-phase laser damage which started at fluence 2.39 J/cm{sup 2} was unrelated to surface roughness. To analyze the pro-phase laser damage, we used x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and variable pressure-type scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). From XRD data, we observed XRD patterns of cristobalite (111), cristobalite (102), {alpha}-quartz (111), and {beta}-quartz (102). Raman spectrum data showed an increase in the three-membered ring vibration (600 cm{sup -1}), four-membered ring vibration (490 cm{sup -1}), and many-membered ring vibration (450 cm{sup -1}, 390 cm{sup -1}, and 300 cm{sup -1}). We observed patchy crystallized areas on the sample surfaces in the VP-SEM images. Based on these experimental results, we believe that the dominant factors in pro-phase laser damage are their physical properties. Substrate and thin film material must be appropriately selected in producing an optical element with a high level of resilience to laser exposure.

Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi [Sigma Koki Co., Ltd., 1-19-9 Midori, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0021 (Japan)

2012-07-15

61

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2011-04-01

62

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2013-04-01

63

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

2012-04-01

64

Vermicompost for Tinted Organic Cationic Dyes Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vermicompost was expanded as natural adsorbent for cationic dyes retention. The adsorption profiles in batch and\\u000a flow modes for crystal violet and methylene blue on vermicompost material were evaluated. In batch mode, a retention index\\u000a higher than 97% was obtained for both compounds, while in flow condition, 40 g of dried adsorbent material were enough to\\u000a remove 100 mg

Madson de Godoi Pereira; Mauro Korn; Bruno Barros Santos; Marcia Guia Ramos

2009-01-01

65

Enhanced optical nonlinearities in some dye-doped nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear refractive index of some pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystals was measured and compared using extraordinary polarized light. The optical torque of the nematic liquid crystals was strongly enhanced by a small amount of dye impurities (Sudan Black B). This observation is found to be in good agreement with the Janossy model. The dependence of the enhancement factor on the nematic host structure was investigated. The sign of all nonlinear refractive indices were determined by the Z-scan technique.

Jafari, A.; Tajalli, H.; Ghanadzadeh, A.

2006-08-01

66

Determination of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuco-metabolites in fish by HPLC-VIS detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up.  

PubMed

A high performance liquid chromatography method with visible detection (HPLC-VIS) for the determination of malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), leucomalachite green (LMG), and leucocrystal violet (LCV) in fish has been developed after clean-up through an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Residues were simultaneously extracted from fish muscle with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer. The leuco-forms, LMG and LCV, were oxidized quantitatively to the chromic CV and MG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone. Extracts were then purified on an IAC which prepared by immobilizing the anti-MG-CV antibodies by the sol-gel method. Finally, the eluents were analyzed by HPLC-VIS. The limits of detection were 0.15, 0.1, 0.18 and 0.14ng/g for MG, CV, LMG and LCV, respectively. The average recoveries in samples fortified with MG, CV, LMG and LCV over the range 0.5-10ng/g were from 71.6% to 96.8% with RSDs of 5.1-12.3% (n=6). This novel method was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring. PMID:23286983

Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Chen, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Guo-Min; Wang, Xiong; Guo, Qi; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Dan; Deng, Jian

2013-01-15

67

Enhancement in ferroelectric, pyroelectric and photoluminescence properties in dye doped TGS crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure and dye doped (0.1 and 0.2 mol%) Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. A pyramidal coloring pattern, along with XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the dye doping. Decrease in dielectric constant and increase in Curie temperature (Tc) were observed with increasing doping concentration. Low absorption cut off (231 nm) and high optical transparency (>90%) resulting in large band gap was observed in UV-VIS studies. In addition, strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed in which the relative intensity were found to be reversed as a result of doping. In P-E hysteresis loop studies, a higher curie temperature and an improved and more uniform figure of merit over a large region of the ferroelectric phase were observed. The improved dielectric, optical and ferroelectric/pyroelectric properties make the dye doped TGS crystals better candidate for various opto- and piezo-electronics applications.

Sinha, Nidhi; Goel, Neeti; Singh, B. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Kumar, Binay

2012-06-01

68

Development of a liquid crystal polarization control plate aligned by photoisomerization of azo dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the beam smoothing by polarization control plate (PCP) produced by liquid crystal. The liquid crystal PCP using photoisomerization of the azo-dye was developed. The PCP is constructed by 14 X 14 array of 2 mm X 2 mm square element. The damage threshold is about 12 J\\/cm2 (532 nm, 0.9 ns). The PCP suppressed the speckles produced by

Kouji Tsubakimoto; Keiichi Sueda; Noriaki Miyanaga; Takahisa Jitsuno; Masahiro Nakatsuka

1997-01-01

69

Light-induced Anchoring Evolution in Nematic Phase of Liquid Crystal Doped with Azo-dye  

E-print Network

Light-induced Anchoring Evolution in Nematic Phase of Liquid Crystal Doped with Azo-dye D of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine We report an experimental study of light-induced anchoring evolution of azo results we considered the gliding effect as a result of light-induced anisotropic adsorption

Reznikov, Yuri

70

Asymmetric resonant optical torque in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoexcitation of dichroic azo dyes creates a torque that results in a complex rotational motion of the host molecules in liquid crystal. This phenomenon has asymmetric resonant character. Efficient dynamic holograms are formed on reorientation gratings in the steady-state excitation regime. Orientational order modulation and three-dimensional molecular reorientation are detected in the transient regime of excitation. The complex coupling

Tigran V. Galstian; B. Saad; M. M. Denariez-Roberge

1998-01-01

71

Aggregation Behavior and Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Derived from Naphthalenecarboxylic Acid  

E-print Network

of the dibenzimidazole derivative of naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid. Polarizing microscopy reveals that the liquidAggregation Behavior and Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Derived from Naphthalenecarboxylic Acid Michelle R. Tomasik and Peter J. Collings* Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College

Collings, Peter

72

Enhancement of crystallization with nucleotide ligands identified by dye-ligand affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

Ligands interacting with Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant proteins were identified through use of the ability of Cibacron Blue F3GA dye to interact with nucleoside/nucleotide binding proteins, and the effects of these ligands on crystallization were examined. Co-crystallization with ligands enhanced crystallization and enabled X-ray diffraction data to be collected to a resolution of atleast 2.7 Å for 5 of 10 proteins tested. Additionally, clues about individual proteins’ functions were obtained from their interactions with each of a panel of ligands. PMID:22286688

Kim, Heungbok; Webster, Cecelia; Roberts, Justin K M; Kositsawat, Juthamas; Hung, Li-Wei; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Kim, Chang-Yub

2012-06-01

73

Enhancement in ferroelectric, pyroelectric and photoluminescence properties in dye doped TGS crystals  

SciTech Connect

Pure and dye doped (0.1 and 0.2 mol%) Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. A pyramidal coloring pattern, along with XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the dye doping. Decrease in dielectric constant and increase in Curie temperature (T{sub c}) were observed with increasing doping concentration. Low absorption cut off (231 nm) and high optical transparency (>90%) resulting in large band gap was observed in UV-VIS studies. In addition, strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed in which the relative intensity were found to be reversed as a result of doping. In P-E hysteresis loop studies, a higher curie temperature and an improved and more uniform figure of merit over a large region of the ferroelectric phase were observed. The improved dielectric, optical and ferroelectric/pyroelectric properties make the dye doped TGS crystals better candidate for various opto- and piezo-electronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Dye doping in TGS crystal resulted in hourglass morphology, increased hyper-luminescence intensity, improved T{sub c} and figure of merit. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amaranth dye doping in TGS crystals resulted in hourglass morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping resulted in enhancement of Curie temperature from 49 to 53 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cut off (230 nm) and wider transmittance window observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High and uniform figure of merit in ferroelectric phase was obtained.

Sinha, Nidhi [Department of Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Goel, Neeti; Singh, B.K.; Gupta, M.K. [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Kumar, Binay, E-mail: bkumar@physics.du.ac.in [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

2012-06-15

74

Manipulation of small objects in liquid crystals by dynamical disorganizing effect of push-pull-azobenzene-dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few research group reports formation of ordered structures of colloidal particles due to topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal. In this paper, we describe the photochemical phase transition of a nematic liquid crystal by the photoisomerization of azobenzene dyes, focusing especially on the dynamical effect of the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization cycle of a push-pull azobenzene dye. Then, we discuss the effects of light irradiation on the motion of small objects dispersed in the nematic and smectic liquid crystals contatining a push-pull azobenzene dye, and successfully manipulate those objects by pushing, trapping and dragging them.

Kuwahara, Yutaka; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Ryo; Ogata, Tomonari; Kim, Sun-Nam; Kurihara, Seiji

2014-02-01

75

Transition Metal Dithiolene Near-IR Dyes and Thier Applications in Liquid Crystal Devices  

SciTech Connect

Numerous commercial and military applications exist for guest–host liquid crystal (LC) devices operating in the near- to mid-IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near-IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near-IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. In this paper, we overview our past and present activities in the design and synthesis of transition metal dithiolene dyes, show some specific applications examples for these materials as near-IR dyes in LC electro-optical devices, and present our most recent results in the computational modeling of physical and optical properties of this interesting class of organometallic optical materials.

Marshall, K.L.; Painter, G.; Lotito, K.; Noto, A.G.; Chang, P.

2006-08-18

76

Effect of pump efficiency on lasing in dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of varying the pump efficiency of dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal lasers, through the dependence on absorption efficiency. Two dyes from the rhodamine subset of the xanthene family (rhodamine B and rhodamine 6G) with similar chemical properties but different absorption and emission spectra have been compared for a fixed pumping wavelength (532nm). Each dye was dissolved in E49 (a commercial nematic mixture from Merck NB-C) and the resulting mixtures characterised in terms of their absorption and laser induced fluorescence spectra. A high twisting power chiral dopant (BDH1281, also from Merck NB-C) was used to induce 1-D photonic band gaps with the high and low energy edges corresponding to the fluorescence maximum for each dye. Laser action was induced in the resulting four mixtures and typical laser parameters such as slope efficiency and threshold energy were examined for each one. The results indicate that the mixtures doped with rhodamine 6G had an absolute absorption ~ 57% greater than those doped with rhodamine B. Rhodamine 6G-doped mixtures therefore had the highest pump efficiency and lased more than 6 times more efficiently then those doped with rhodamine B. We believe that the performance of rhodamine 6G is also influenced by its greater degree of alignment with the liquid crystal host and a possible input energy dependence of the quantum efficiency of the dyes (indicated by the fluorescence characteristics of the achiral dye-doped mixtures). Further experimentation is needed to determine exactly which parameters are responsible for the superior performance of rhodamine 6G in chiral nematic lasers.

Gillespie, Carrie; Morris, Stephen M.; Coles, Harry J.

2005-04-01

77

Orientation and Electronic Structure of Ion Exchanged Dye Molecules on Mica: An X-Ray Absorption Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye molecules are frequently used to determine the specific surface area and the ion exchange capacity of high-surface-area materials such as mica. The organic molecules are often considered to be planar and to adsorb in a flat orientation. In the present study we have investigated the orientation and electronic structure of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) on muscovite

Dorothee Fischer; Walter R. Caseri; Georg Hähner

1998-01-01

78

Polarization holographic grating based on azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polarization grating (PG) written in an azo-dye-doped film of polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals was investigated. The writing beams were two mutually orthogonal (s - and p -polarized) polarized beams. The PG resulted from molecular reorientation of the liquid crystals as a result of their interaction with the dye molecules adsorbed on the surface of the polymer balls. Polarization characteristics

Andy Ying-Guey Fuh; Chia-Rong Lee; Ting-Shan Mo

2002-01-01

79

Suitability of dye–clay complexes for removal of non-ionic organic compounds from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous sorption of phenol, atrazine and naphthalene was measured on complexes formed from Na-montmorillonite (Fischer bentonite) and the organic cationic dyes crystal violet and rhodamine-B. Sorption isotherms were found to be non-linear. This agrees well with the rigid nature of the dye–clay organic coverage, which provides a finite surface for adsorption. High values of organic carbon-normalized distribution coefficients reached 20,000–25,000

Mikhail Borisover; Ellen R. Graber; Fernando Bercovich; Zev Gerstl

2001-01-01

80

Anisotropic photonic structures induced by three-dimensional vector holography in dye-doped liquid crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic anisotropic structures were induced by means of a three-dimensional vector holographic technique in an azo-dye-doped liquid crystal composite with uniaxial alignment. The three-dimensional vector hologram was fabricated by both the polarization interference and the polarization propagation in the anisotropic recording medium. In order to obtain clear insight into the optical properties of three-dimensional vector holograms, various types of structures

Tomoyuki Sasaki; Hiroshi Ono; Nobuhiro Kawatsuki

2008-01-01

81

A surface-enhanced Raman scattering method for detection of trace glutathione on the basis of immobilized silver nanoparticles and crystal violet probe.  

PubMed

Unsatisfactory sensitivity and stability for molecules with low polarizability is still a problem limiting the practical applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique. By preparing immobilized silver nanoparticles (Fe3O4/Ag) through depositing silver on the surface of magnetite particles, a highly sensitive and selective SERS method for the detection of trace glutathione (GSH) was proposed on the basis of a system of Fe3O4/Ag nanoparticles and crystal violet (CV), in which the target GSH competed with the CV probe for the adsorption on the Fe3O4/Ag nanoparticles. Raman insensitive GSH replaced the highly Raman sensitive CV adsorbed on the surface of Fe3O4/Ag particles. This replacement led to a strong decrease of the CV SERS signal, which was used to determine the concentration of GSH. Under optimal conditions, a linear response was established between the intensity decrease of the CV SERS signal and the GSH concentration in the range of 50-700 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 40 nmol L(-1). The use of a Fe3O4/Ag substrate provided not only a great SERS enhancement but also a good stability, which guarantees the reproducibility of the proposed method. Its use for the determination of GSH in practical blood samples and cell extract yielded satisfactory results. PMID:24580853

Ouyang, Lei; Zhu, Lihua; Jiang, Jizhou; Tang, Heqing

2014-03-13

82

Controlled hydrothermal synthesis of BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites exhibiting visible-light photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet.  

PubMed

A series of BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites were prepared using autoclave hydrothermal methods. The composition and morphologies of the BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites were controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions: the reaction pH value, temperature, and KCl/KI molar ratio. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface areas, cathodoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic efficiencies of composite powder suspensions were evaluated by monitoring the crystal violet (CV) concentrations. In addition, the quenching effects of various scavengers indicated that the reactive O2(-) played a major role, and OH or h(+) played a minor role in CV degradation. The intermediates formed during the decomposition process were isolated, identified, and characterized using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to elucidate the CV decomposition mechanism. PMID:25464322

Jiang, Yu-Rou; Lin, Ho-Pan; Chung, Wen-Hsin; Dai, Yong-Ming; Lin, Wan-Yu; Chen, Chiing-Chang

2015-02-11

83

Transition Metal Dithiolene Complexes as Near-IR Dyes for Liquid Crystal Device Applications  

SciTech Connect

(B204)Both commercial and military applications (e.g., free-space IR communications and sensor protection) exist for guest-host liquid crystal (LC) devices operating in the near- to mid-IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near-IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near-IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. These new dye complexes are extraordinarily stable, possess liquid crystalline phases in their own right with the proper terminal functional groups, and can have melting points below room temperature. The latter property is especially significant for producing liquid crystal/dye mixtures with both high dye concentration and good resistance to phase separation. Because they are zerovalent, they can exhibit high solubility in LC hosts (up to 10 wt%). The lmax in these materials can range from 600 nm to 1600 nm, depending on structure. With enantiomerically enriched terminal substituents, nickel dithiolenes can induce a chiral mesophase in a nonchiral nematic host. This finding opens the possibility of generating novel LC mixtures with two degrees of tunability: an electronic absorbance band tunable by synthesis, and a selective reflection band tunable by temperature or applied electric field. Such a materials system would be particularly advantageous in sensor protection for dealing with frequency-agile laser threats.

Marshall, K.L.; Schudel, B.; Lippa, I.A.

2003-12-31

84

Characterization of N3 dye adsorption on TiO2 using quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the kinetics of dye adsorption on semiconductors is crucial for designing dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with enhanced efficiency. Harms et al. recently applied the Quartz-Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (QCM-D) to study in situ dye adsorption on flat TiO2 surfaces. QCM-D measures adsorption in real time and therefore allows one to determine the kinetics of the process. In this work, we characterize the adsorption of N3, a commercial RuBipy dye, using the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor to simulate the TiO2 substrate of a DSSC. We report equilibrium constants that are in agreement with previous absorbance studies of N3 adsorption, and therefore demonstrate the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor as a valid and readily available planar TiO2 morphology to study dye adsorption.

Wayment-Steele, Hannah K.; Johnson, Lewis E.; Dixon, Matthew C.; Johal, Malkiat S.

2013-09-01

85

Polarization tunable circular Dammann grating generated from azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarization tunable circular Dammann grating (CDG) was generated from an azo-dye (Methyl Red from Aldrich) doped liquid crystal (LC, E7 from Merck) cell. A simple multi-exposure photo-aligned process, based on cell assembled with non-rubbing glass substrates, was used to fabricate the binary phase liquid crystal CDG zone plane consisted of even zone with homogenous LC structure and odd zone with TN LC structure. Different twist angle of fabricated TN structure for odd zone can be obtained by adjusting photo exposure intensity or time. CDG with equal-intensity rings was produced through a Fourier-transform and then captured by a charge-coupled-device in our experiment. The maximum 0th and 1st diffraction orders of obtained CDG can be separated achieved by rotating the analyzer's polarization direction. If the chosen analyzer's direction leads to a zero phase difference of output light from even and odd zones, the maximum 0th diffraction order will be achieved, in contrast, if the chosen analyzer's direction leads to a ? phase difference of output light from even and odd zones, the maximum 1st diffraction order will be produced. The TN structure of azo-dye doped liquid crystal cell fabricated by photo alignment technique provides a new method to generate CDG with polarization-dependent property. A broad wavelength band of lasers used to generate CDG, if far away from MR azo-dye absorption peak, expands the device's application range and shows a great advantage comparing to previously reported CDG fabricated by fixed materials, where only one fixed working wavelength is allowed.

Luo, D.; Dai, H. T.; Sun, X. W.

2011-03-01

86

Identification of optical nonlinearities of dye-doped nematic and polymer-dispersed liquid crystals using Z-scan technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the nonlinear optical properties of azo-dye-doped nematic and polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (ADDPDLC) films with nano-sized LC droplets using the Z-scan technique, which is a simple but powerful technique for measuring the optical Kerr constants of materials. The results indicate that the optical Kerr constant (n2) of the azo-dye-doped nematic LC (ADDLC) film is large because of the

Hui-Chi Lin; Chin-Hui Chen; Ting-Shan Mo; Ming-Shian Li; Chia-Rong Lee; Feng-Ming Hsieh; Jui-Hsiang Liu; Andy Ying-Guey Fuh

2010-01-01

87

Director sliding induced by a circularly polarised light in dye-doped liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first detailed experimental study of the transient effects of a circularly polarised beam on dye-doped liquid crystal cells. Experiments show that, as linearly polarized light does, light with circular polarization induces quasi-free sliding of the molecular director on the irradiated surface. The behaviour of the sliding angle vs. the incident intensity, its dependence on the exposure time and its independence on the sign of the light ellipticity, suggest that the phenomenon is connected to surface effects instead of being directly due to the transfer of intrinsic angular momentum from light to the LC molecules.

Lucchetti, L.; Tifi, L.; Simoni, F.

2008-09-01

88

Tunable WGM resonators from optically trapped dye doped liquid crystal emulsion droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a complex apparatus for optical trapping, stretching, heating and concurrent whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing excitation of liquid crystal (LC) emulsion micro-droplets doped with various fluorescent dyes. We have explored the changes of WGM lasing wavelength when the LC droplets were optically stretched or electrically heated beyond the transition to the isotropic phase. We have found that the range of lasing wavelengths was in some cases considerably higher than when we optically stretched ordinary fluorescent oil droplets in our previous experiments.

Šerý, Mojmír.; Pilát, Zden?k.; Ježek, Jan; Aas, Mehdi; Kiraz, Alper; Zemánek, Pavel

2014-09-01

89

Nanoparticles assembled by aptamers and crystal violet for arsenic(III) detection in aqueous solution based on a resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral assay.  

PubMed

Aptamer-assembled nanomaterials have captured much attention from the field of analytical chemistry in recent years. Although they have been regarded as a promising tool for heavy metal monitoring, report involving aptamer-based biosensors for arsenic detection are rare. Herein we developed a highly sensitive and selective aptamer biosensor for As(iii) detection based on a Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS) spectral assay. Prior to As(iii) detection, we firstly assembled a variety of nanoparticles with different sizes via controlling the concentration of arsenic-binding aptamers in crystal violet (CV) solutions. The results of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning probe microscope (SPM) testified that the introduction of As(iii) had indeed changed the size of nanoparticles, which caused a great variation in the RRS intensity at 310 nm. In the presence of 100 ppb As(iii), a maximum decline in the ratio of RRS intensity was achieved for large nanoparticles assembled from 200 nM of aptamers and CV molecules, where the average size of nanoparticles had decreased from 273 nm to 168 nm. In the case of small nanoparticles, the maximum increase ratio of the RRS intensity was obtained when the concentration of aptamer was over 600 nM. Combined with an RRS spectral assay, an effective biosensor has been developed for As(iii) detection, using the above large and small nanoparticles as the target recognition element. The present biosensor has a detection limit as low as 0.2 ppb, a dynamic range from 0.1 ppb to 200 ppb, and high selectivity over other metal ions. Such an efficient biosensor will play an important role in environmental detection. PMID:23034818

Wu, Yuangen; Zhan, Shenshan; Xing, Haibo; He, Lan; Xu, Lurong; Zhou, Pei

2012-11-01

90

Influence of the layer thickness and concentration of dye molecules on the emission amplification in cholesteric liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

The propagation of light through a planar layer of a cholesteric liquid crystal doped with dye molecules is considered. The features of the emission spectra of the crystal are studied both in the absence and presence of dielectric boundaries. The increase in the emission intensity is investigated for different layer thicknesses and different concentrations of dye molecules. It is shown that an anomalously strong increase in the emission intensity with the diffraction intrinsic polarisation takes place in the case of a comparatively small crystal thickness and a relatively low concentration of dye molecules. The obtained results can be used for the development of miniature lasers with the circular polarisation of the fundamental radiation mode. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Alaverdyan, R B; Gevorgyan, A A; Chilingaryan, A D; Chilingaryan, Yu S [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia)

2008-05-31

91

Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate single-mode laser operation in dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings. The gratings are fabricated in cells made from specifically chosen glass substrates to decrease the refractive index difference between the waveguide core layer and cladding layer. The phase separation degree of liquid crystal after holographic recording is further optimized to confine only the lowest propagation mode in the device. The mode selection mechanism is explained under the framework of the waveguide distributed feedback (DFB) theory. The wavelength of single-mode lasing can be tuned between 620 and 660 nm by varying the grating period. Our results show the HPDLC technique could provide single-mode organic DFB lasers in a tunable, simple, and large-area manner.

Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Quan; Xuan, Li; Chen, Linsen

2014-12-01

92

Biodecolorization and biodegradation potential of recalcitrant triphenylmethane dyes by Coriolopsis sp. isolated from compost.  

PubMed

Triphenylmethane dyes (TPM) are recalcitrant colorants brought into the environment. In this study, a lesser-known white rot fungus Coriolopsis sp. (1c3), isolated from compost of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm, was explored for its decolorization potential of TPM dyes. The isolate 1c3 demonstrated good decolorization efficiencies in the treatment of Crystal Violet (CV; 100 mg l(-1)), Methyl Violet (MV; 100 mg l(-1)) and Cotton Blue (CB; 50 mg(-1)), with 94%, 97% and 91%, within 7, 7 and 1 day(s), respectively. Malachite Green (MG; 100 mg l(-1)) was the most recalcitrant dye, with 52% decolorization after 9 days. Dye removal by 1c3 was presumably via biosorption, whereby the process was determined to be influenced by fungal biomass, initial dye concentrations and oxygen requirements. Biodegradation was also a likely mechanism responsible for dye removal by 1c3, occurred as indicated by the reduction of dye spectra peaks. Detection of laccase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities further substantiate the possible occurrence of biodegradation of TPM dyes by 1c3. PMID:25527986

Chen, Si Hui; Yien Ting, Adeline Su

2015-03-01

93

Immunomagnetic separation of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica from potato peel extracts to improve detection sensitivity on a crystal violet pectate medium or by PCR.  

PubMed

Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures for the selective separation of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica from potato peel extract were optimized for the recovery of target and removal of non-target bacteria. A streptomycin-resistant strain of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica was used in combination with a crystal violet pectate (CVP) medium supplemented with 100 micrograms ml-1 of streptomycin to determine the recovery level of the target bacterium. Recovery obtained with a polyclonal antiserum against Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica at a concentration of 6 micrograms IgG ml-1 was greater than that obtained with two monoclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica at a concentration of 10 micrograms IgG ml-1. A linear relationship was found between particle concentration ranging from 12 to 200 micrograms ml-1 and recovery level. When the Advanced Magnetics (AM) protein A and anti-rabbit IgG particles in the AM separation system and the Dynal anti-rabbit IgG particles in the Dynal separation system were examined, the highest recovery level per microgram of particles (66%) was obtained with the Advanced Magnetics protein A particles, followed by AM anti-rabbit particles (37%). Without IMS, detection of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in tuber peel extracts on a CVP-medium without streptomycin was impossible when the ratio of Erw. carotovora subsp. carotovora to Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica was greater than 100 or when large numbers of other saprophytic bacteria were present, because of overcrowding. IMS, using the AM anti-rabbit IgG particles, ensured that Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica could be enumerated in tuber peel extract consistently, to a detection level of 100 cells ml-1. Similarly, the IMS procedure lowered the detection level of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in a twofold diluted peel extract by PCR to ca 2.0 x 10(3) cells ml-1 or 50 cells per reaction tube. In contrast, positive results in PCR without IMS were obtained only when the peel extract was diluted 100 times and when the concentration of Erw. carotovora subsp. atroseptica was at least 10(5) cell ml-1. PMID:9072520

van der Wolf, J M; Hyman, L J; Jones, D A; Grevesse, C; van Beckhoven, J R; van Vuurde, J W; Pérombelon, M C

1996-05-01

94

Neither Kerr Nor Thermal Nonlinear Response of Dye Doped Liquid Crystal Characterized by the Z-Scan Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the experimental characterization of the nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped liquid crystals by the Z-scan technique with CW lasers it is rather common to assign it a Kerr or thermal nonlinear response. In this work, we demonstrate that neither of them correctly describes all features of the Z-scan obtained in planar samples of methyl red doped 5CB liquid crystal

A. A. Rodríguez-Rosales; R. Ortega-Martínez; M. L. Arroyo Carrasco; E. Reynoso Lara; C. G. Treviño Palacios; O. Baldovino-Pantaleón; R. Ramos García; M. D. Iturbe-Castillo

2008-01-01

95

Novel PAAm\\/Laponite clay nanocomposite hydrogels with improved cationic dye adsorption behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nanocomposite (NC) hydrogel was prepared by incorporating the nanoclay (Laponite (Lap) XLS) into a poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) hydrogel by the in situ polymerization method without any organic cross-linker. The parameters pertaining to the swelling (Q) and diffusion (D) of water for the PAAm\\/Lap NC hydrogels were estimated. The crystal violet (CV) dye adsorption properties of the PAAm\\/Lap NC hydrogels were

Peng Li; Siddaramaiah; Nam Hoon Kim; Seok-Bong Heo; Joong-Hee Lee

2008-01-01

96

Highly Efficient Plastic Crystal Ionic Conductors for Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cells  

PubMed Central

We have developed highly efficient, ambient temperature, solid-state ionic conductors (SSICs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by doping a molecular plastic crystal, succinonitrile (SN), with trialkyl-substituted imidazolium iodide salts. High performance SSICs with enhanced ionic conductivity (2–4?mScm?1) were obtained. High performance solid-state DSSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.8% were fabricated using our SSICs combined with unique hierarchically nanostructured TiO2 sphere (TiO2-SP) photoelectrodes; these electrodes have significant macroporosity, which assists penetration of the solid electrolyte into the electrode. The performance of our solid-state DSSCs is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported thus far for cells using plastic crystal-based SSICs, and is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art DSSCs which use ionic liquid type electrolytes. This report provides a logical strategy for the development of efficient plastic crystal-based SSICs for DSSCs and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24343425

Hwang, Daesub; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Armel, Vanessa; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Kim, Dongho; Jang, Sung-Yeon

2013-01-01

97

Directional Fluorescence Spectra of Laser Dye in Opal and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals Lydia Bechger,* Peter Lodahl, and Willem L. Vos  

E-print Network

Directional Fluorescence Spectra of Laser Dye in Opal and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals Lydia polystyrene opals and alumina inverse opals are studied, allowing us to compare direct and inverted structures emission was first reported in refs 6 and 7: titania inverse opals doped with laser dye showed a broadband

Vos, Willem L.

98

In defence of 'dye therapy'.  

PubMed

Worldwide, healthcare is facing enormous problems with the continuing rise of drug-resistant infectious diseases. In view of the scarcity of new antimicrobial agents and the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical houses from the fray, alternative approaches are required. One of these is photoantimicrobial chemotherapy, which is highly effective across the range of microbial pathogens and does not suffer from resistance. However, there is a lack of uptake of this approach by healthcare providers and the pharmaceutical industry alike. It is seldom recalled that, unlike anticancer photodynamic therapy, the development of photoantimicrobial agents has evolved from the antiseptic 'dye therapy' in common use until the widespread introduction of the penicillin class in the mid-1940s. Cationic biological dyes such as methylene blue, crystal violet and acriflavine were effective in local wound therapy and today provide a sound basis for light-activated antimicrobial therapeutics. It is proposed that such 'safe' dyes are introduced as locally administered photoantimicrobials, especially in order to conserve valuable conventional antibacterial drugs. PMID:24795083

Wainwright, Mark

2014-07-01

99

Bioprocess of triphenylmethane dyes decolorization by Pleurotus ostreatus BP under solid-state cultivation.  

PubMed

With an aim to evaluate dye decolorization by white rot fungus on natural living conditions, reproducing by solidstate fermentation, the process of triphenylmethane dyes decolorization using the white rot fungus P. ostreatus BP, cultivated on rice straw solid-state medium, has been demonstrated. Three typical dyes, including malachite green, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet, were almost completely decolorized by the fungus after 9 days of incubation. During the process of dye decolorization, the activities of enzyme secreted by the fungus, and the contents of soluble components, such as phenolic compounds, protein, and sugar, changed regularly. The fungus could produce ligninolytic, cellulolytic, and hemicellulolytic enzymes and laccase was the most dominant enzyme in solid-state medium. Laccase, laccase isoenzyme, and the laccase mediator could explain the decolorization of malachite green, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet by the fungus in solid medium, respectively. It is worth noting that the presence of the water-soluble phenolic compounds could stimulate the growth of fungus, enhance the production of laccase, and accelerate dye decolorization. PMID:19996697

Yan, Keliang; Wang, Hongxun; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongbo

2009-11-01

100

Optical tuning of extraordinary optical transmission through a metallic hole array using azobenzene dye-doped nematic liquid crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical tuning of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through a metallic hole array is achieved using an azobenzene dye-doped nematic liquid crystal. The liquid crystal is aligned homeotropically on the hole array and is sandwiched by a counter substrate placed at a distance of approximately 1 µm from the hole array. Upon UV irradiation, the azobenzene dye photo-isomerizes from the trans conformation to the cis conformation and disturbs the liquid crystalline order, causing a decrease in the effective refractive index. The tuning range achieved was 80 nm, and corresponded to a refractive index shift of 0.086. Optical tuning of EOT properties is potentially important for future all-optical processing of signals.

Kobashi, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Takayuki; Miura, Atsushi; Ikeda, Naoki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Fujikawa, Hisayoshi; Ozaki, Masanori

2014-01-01

101

Polarization holographic grating based on azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarization grating (PG) written in an azo-dye-doped film of polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals was investigated. The writing beams were two mutually orthogonal (s- and p-polarized) polarized beams. The PG resulted from molecular reorientation of the liquid crystals as a result of their interaction with the dye molecules adsorbed on the surface of the polymer balls. Polarization characteristics of the diffracted beams and the grating pattern were studied under a polarizing optical microscope with a crossed analyzer. The results indicate that the PG diffracts the linearly polarized incident light into beams with various polarizations. Accordingly, the grating can be used as an unpolarized or a polarized beam splitter, depending on the polarization of the incident light. A model based on the Jones matrix approach was developed, and it closely fits the experimental results.

Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Lee, Chia-Rong; Mo, Ting-Shan

2002-11-01

102

Removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution using a stevensite-rich clay from Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive and easily available Moroccan natural clay, called locally Ghassoul, was employed for adsorption of methyl violet, a cationic dye, in aqueous solution. The experiments were carried out in a batch system to optimize various experimental parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature and ionic strength. The experimental data can be well represented by Langmuir and

Khalid Elass; Abderrahmane Laachach; Abdellah Alaoui; Mohamed Azzi

2011-01-01

103

Characterization of the electro-optic effect in styrylpyridinium cyanine dye thin-film crystals by an ac modulation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electro-optic effect in styrylpyridinium cyanine dye (SPCD) thin-film crystals is characterized by a newly developed ac modulation method that is effective in characterizing thin-film materials of small area. SPCD thin-film crystals 3-10 ?m thick were grown from a methanol solution of SPCD. The crystal shows strong dichroism and anisotropy of refractive index, indicating that molecular dipole moments align along a definite direction (z axis). When an electric field is applied along the z axis, SPCD thin-film crystals show a large figure of merit of electro-optic phase retardation of 6.5×10-10 m/V, which is 5 times as large as in LiNbO3 crystal, 2 times that in 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) crystal, and is the largest ever reported in organic solids. The electro-optic coefficient r33 of SPCD crystals is estimated to be approximately 4.3×10-10 m/V, which is 6 times larger than that of an MNA crystal. This value is consistent with that expected from second-harmonic generation measurements.

Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

1987-09-01

104

Synthesis and analysis of nickel dithiolene dyes in a nematic liquid crystal host. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) can be employed to evaluate the Omega Laser system for optimum firing capabilities. This device utilizes a nickel dithiolene infrared absorbing liquid crystal dye dissolved in a liquid crystal host medium (Merck E7). Three nickel dithiolene dyes were characterized for both their solubility in the E7 host and their infrared spectral absorption.

Lippa, I. [Byron-Bergen High School, NY (United States)

1999-03-01

105

Dye-sensitized nanoarrays with discotic liquid crystals as interlayer for high-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells.  

PubMed

The well-aligned and highly uniform one-dimensional ZnO with organic dyes core/shell (ZNs) and ZnO with dyes and liquid crystals core/double-shells nanoarrays (ZNLs) with controllable lengths were fabricated as electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ditetrabutylammonium cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) dye (N719) was presented to reduce the surface defects of ZnO nanoarrays (NAs). In addition, the shell modification could decrease the electron injection barrier between ZnO and active layer, thereby facilitating electron injection effectively and forming a direct electron transport channel into the cathode. Due to the orientation of nanoarrays and the self-organization of 3,6,7,10,11-pentakis(hexyloxy)-2-hydroxytriphenylene liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystalline mesophase and isotropic phase transition, the components of active layer would be driven rearrange and infiltrate among the interspaces of nanoarrays more orderly. The increased interfacial contact between cathode and active layer would benefit charge generation, transportation and collection. On the basis of these advantages, it was found the N719 shell and N719/LCs double-shells modifications of ZnO NAs could boost the photovoltaic performance of PSCs with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3% and 8.0%, respectively. PMID:25269148

Shi, Yueqin; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Yiwang

2014-10-22

106

Far-Field Patterns from Dye-Doped Planar-Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystals Under nanosecond Laser Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

High-definition patterns were observed under 10-Hz-pulse-repetition-rate, nanosecond laser irradiation of azodye-doped planar-nematic liquid crystal layers at incident intensities I ~ 5-10 MW/cm^2 in a single beam configuration and without any feedback involved. An incident polarization parallel to the nematic director was used. Under periodic pulsed laser irradiation, far-field beam patterns at the output of a dye-doped liquid crystal layer changed kaleidoscopically from rings and stripes to multiple hexagons. This pattern-formation regime had a buildup time of several seconds to minutes. We explain the observed effect by diffraction of the laser beam on light-induced micrometer-size inhomogeneities inside the liquid crystal layer with absorption and refraction properties different from the surrounding area. Possible mechanisms of the formation of the inhomogeneities are discussed.

Lukishova, S.G.; Lepeshkin, N.; Boyd, R.W.; Marshall, K.L.

2006-08-18

107

Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

2015-01-01

108

Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

2013-12-01

109

21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

2011-04-01

110

21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

2010-04-01

111

21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

2012-04-01

112

27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications for Denaturants § 21.111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark...changes to brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to...

2010-04-01

113

Enhanced light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells coupled with titania nanotube photonic crystals: a theoretical study.  

PubMed

Herein we present a theoretical analysis on the optical properties and the photocurrent enhancement of nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) coupled with a TiO2 nanotube (NT) photonic crystal (PC). It is found that the introduction of a TiO2 nanotube PC produces both Bragg mirror effect and Fabry-Perot cavity behavior, leading to a significant enhancement of light harvesting for photons in the photonic bandgap and at the two band edges. In addition, an increased amount of surface-anchored dye due to the larger surface area in the NT PC layer also causes absorption enhancement in the whole visible spectrum. The effects of structural parameters of the PC, such as the thickness of the PC layer, the axial lattice constant, the diameter of the nanotube, and light incident angle, on the optical properties and photocurrent magnification are thoroughly studied. The optimum structural parameters are proposed, which not only provide guidance but also offer further opportunities in the design and applications of TiO2 nanotube photonic crystals. PMID:24313334

Guo, Min; Yong, Zehui; Xie, Keyu; Lin, Jia; Wang, Yu; Huang, Haitao

2013-12-26

114

Direct and seamless coupling of TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal to dye-sensitized solar cell: a single-step approach.  

PubMed

A TiO(2) nanotube layer with a periodic structure is used as a photonic crystal to greatly enhance light harvesting in TiO(2) nanotube-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Such a tube-on-tube structure fabricated by a single-step approach facilitates good physical contact, easy electrolyte infiltration, and efficient charge transport. An increase of over 50% in power conversion efficiency is obtained in comparison to reference cells without a photonic crystal layer (under similar total thickness and dye loading). PMID:22102221

Yip, Cho Tung; Huang, Haitao; Zhou, Limin; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Feng, Tianhua; Li, Jensen; Tam, Wing Yim

2011-12-15

115

Photoinduced reorientation of nematic liquid crystals doped with an azo dye: A dynamic and steady-state study of reorientation and loss of liquid crystal order  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare photoinduced reorientation of homeotropic and planar aligned nematic liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) doped with trace amounts of azo-dye disperse orange 3 (DO3) by studying the optical nonlinearities of the sample. Theoretical and experimental analyses confirm the proposal that the trans and cis isomers can be treated as independent contributors to the enhancement factor. Dynamic measurements indicate three contributions to photoinduced optical nonlinearities, two of which are isotropic and a third corresponding director reorientation. We also measure a large negative enhancement factor for the trans isomer and a positive enhancement factor for the cis isomer, consistent with previous measurements. The latter indicates that the mean field for the cis isomer is very small. Planar aligned samples demonstrate zenithal gliding whereas homeotropic samples do not. In addition, steady-state and dynamic measurements indicate loss of liquid crystal order associated with absorption as well as possible out-of-plane reorientation.

Statman, David; Page, Eric; Werner, Vince; Lombardi, James C.

2007-02-01

116

Simple Spacer-Free Dye-Polyelectrolyte Ionic Complex: Side-Chain Liquid Crystal Order with  

E-print Network

, 4139. (b) Ikeda, T. J. Mater. Chem. 2003, 13, 2037. (c) Yesodha, S. K.; Pillai, C. K. S.; Tsutsumi, N, Canada H3A 2K6 ReceiVed September 4, 2007 Azo-containing polymer materials are of immense interest Dyes. In Handbook of Polyelec- trolytes and Their Applications; Tripathy, S. K., Kumar, J., Nalwa, H. S

Barrett, Christopher

117

The ACDF. A new class of lasing dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser action has been observed without dispersion elements at blue-violet wavelengths in the new 2-amino-4-cyano-3,5- diarylfuran (ACDF) class of dyes. Spectral properties of some representative compounds are studied.

Gomez, M. Sanchez; Perez, J. M. Guerra

1981-12-01

118

Simultaneous exhibition of positive and negative nonlinear refractive index in dye-doped liquid crystal in a Z-scan experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye-doped nematic liquid crystal samples where the vector director is not pre-aligned exhibits simultaneously positive and negative nonlinear refractive index under cw illumination at room temperature, regardless the polarization state of the illuminating beam. However, its relative contributions are polarization dependent. Experimental Z-scan curves for 100 mum thick methyl red doped 5CB nematic liquid crystals, demonstrate that negative nonlinearity is

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo; R. Ramos-García; A. A. Rodriguez-Rosales

2006-01-01

119

Conducting glasses recovered from thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastes for dye-sensitized solar cell cathodes.  

PubMed

Transparent conductive glasses such as thin film transistor (TFT) array and colour filter glasses were recovered from the TFT-liquid crystal display panel wastes by dismantling and sonic cleaning. Noble metals (i.e. platinum (Pt)) and indium tin oxide (ITO) are generally used in the cathode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). To reduce the DSSC cost, Pt was replaced with nano nickel-encapsulated carbon-shell (Ni@C) nanoparticles, which were prepared by carbonization of Ni(2+)-?-cyclodextrin at 673?K for 2?h. The recovered conductive glasses were used in the DSSC electrodes in the substitution of relatively expensive ITO. Interestingly, the efficiency of the DSSC having the Ni@C-coated cathode is as high as 2.54%. Moreover, the cost of the DSSC using the recovered materials can be reduced by at least 24%. PMID:25399759

Chen, C-C; Chang, F-C; Peng, C Y; Wang, H Paul

2014-11-27

120

Fluorescence screening of leucomalachite green and leucogentian violet residues in catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tripheylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and gentian violet (GV) are effective fungicides, ectoparasiticides and disinfectants in aquaculture. This practice may leave toxic residues in seafood which is not allowed by FDA and many regulatory agencies worldwide. In this work, residues of their me...

121

Optimization of lasing in an inverted-opal titania photonic crystal cavity as an organic solid-state dye-doped laser.  

PubMed

Lasing performance of a dye-doped laser by encapsulating orange fluorescent dye 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) with different concentrations in a highly ordered three-dimensional (3D) inverted-opal titania (TiO2) photonic crystal (PC) microcavity was studied. The lasing threshold and laser quality were improved by optimizing the concentration of the laser dye DCM. When the concentration of DCM is optimized to 10-4??mol/l, the photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of DCM is sufficient to achieve lasing emission and meanwhile no fluorescence quantum quenching occurs. Therefore, the emission spectrum was greatly narrowed and the threshold was significantly improved, which reached 0.8??mJ?pulse-1?cm-2. Our findings are promising results toward the realization of fabricating a highly efficient low-threshold organic laser. PMID:25402981

Zhang, Dingke; Chen, Shijian; Jiang, Maohua; Ye, Lijuan

2014-11-10

122

Light-controlled electric Freedericksz threshold in dye doped liquid crystals  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of measurements of the threshold of Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal doped by Methyl-red. We show that in case of dc field the threshold voltage can decrease or increase depending on the light dose, due to the light-induced desorption and adsorption of charge complexes from and on the irradiated surface, that has been recently demonstrated. This effect has the potential to be exploited in optical devices such as liquid crystal microlenses and spatial light modulators.

Lucchetti, L.; Catani, L.; Simoni, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell'Ambiente ed Urbanistica and CNISM Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy)

2014-05-28

123

Use of dye tracing to determine ground-water movement to Mammoth Crystal Springs, Sylvan Pass area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of and in cooperation with the Geology Program at Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation of the Sylvan Pass area in June 2005 to determine the relation between surface water and ground-water flow to Mammoth Crystal Springs. Results of a dye-tracing investigation indicate that streamflow lost into talus deposits on Sylvan Pass enters the ground-water system and moves to the southeast to discharge at Mammoth Crystal Springs. Ground-water travel times to the springs from a distance of 1.45 miles and a vertical relief of 500 feet were less than 1 day, indicating apparent rates of movement of at least 8,000 feet per day, values that are similar to those in karst aquifers. Peak dye concentrations were reached about 2 days after dye injection, and transit time of most of the dye mass through the system was about 3 weeks. High permeability and rapid travel times within this aquifer also are indicated by the large variation in springflow in response to snowmelt runoff and precipitation, and by the high concentration of suspended sediment (turbidity) in the water discharging into the spring-fed lake.

Spangler, Lawrence E.; Susong, David D.

2006-01-01

124

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix.  

PubMed

A dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase from the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 119.4, c = 70.2 Å, ? = 112.0°, and diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution on the BL26B1 beamline at SPring-8. The overall R(merge) was 4.5% and the completeness was 99.8%. PMID:22102248

Shibahara, Takenori; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

2011-11-01

125

Dye adsorption on mesoporous activated carbon fiber obtained from pitch containing yttrium complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of acid dyes (Acid Blue 9, Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Orange 51), direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Yellow 11, and Direct Yellow 50), and basic dyes (Basic Brown 1 and Basic Violet 3) on a highly mesoporous activated carbon fiber (Y-ACF) obtained from pitch containing yttrium acetylacetonate was investigated in terms of size

Hisashi Tamai; Takeshi Yoshida; Masahiko Sasaki

1999-01-01

126

Ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for spectrophotometric determination of dyes.  

PubMed

For the first time, ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction (D-SPE) has been applied for determination of trace levels of dyes in aqueous and fish samples. The contaminant used as a model compound was crystal violet (CV), a cationic dye, and was preconcentrated without any derivatization or ion-pair formation. The method is based on rapid injection of ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe. The sample preparation time is decreased by the fact that the sorbent dispersed in the bulk solution and extraction can be achieved very fast. In this way, the separation of sorbent from the aqueous bulk was achieved by a magnet, and no centrifugation is required. These significant features which obtained with this method are of key interest for routine trace laboratory analysis. The influence of different variables on D-SPE was investigated. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 3.3-90 ?g L(-1), and the enrichment factor (EF) 267 was obtained. Detection limit was 1.51 ?g L(-1) (n=7), and the relative standard deviation of 5.6% at 50 ng mL(-1) was obtained (n=7). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of crystal violet in various samples. PMID:23849184

Davudabadi Farahani, Malihe; Shemirani, Farzaneh

2013-10-01

127

The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.  

PubMed

Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. PMID:21596089

Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

2011-08-01

128

Cavity polaritons in one-dimensional photonic crystals containing dye molecule-titanate nanosheet hybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the optical properties of one dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PC) microcavity with a wedge-shaped cavity layer containing fluorescent pseudoisocyanine (PIC)-gelatin and nonfluorescent PIC-H1.07Ti1.73O4•nH2O (HTO) nanohybrids. In the case of the PIC-gelatin, the formation of cavity polaritons with a Rabi splitting energy of 49.2 meV was clearly observed. Contrary to our expectations, the formation of cavity polaritons in the case of the PIC-HTO nanohybrids was also observed, even though their splitting energy of 5.8 meV was small. Although different possible explanations were considered, at present, there is insufficient information to completely explain the phenomena. The formation of cavity polaritons with nonfluorescent excitons is indeed very rare and therefore interesting.

Ishii, Kenta; Suzuki, Makoto; Chen, Changdong; Feng, Qi; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

2014-02-01

129

Distributed feedback lasing from electrically tunable dye-doped polymer–liquid crystal transmission gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we report low-threshold distributed feedback (DFB) lasing from electrically tunable holographic polymer–liquid crystal transmission gratings of POLIPHEM type doped with pyrromethene 567. Due to their uniform droplet-free micro-morphology, the POLIPHEM gratings possess high diffraction efficiency and excellent optical quality. Second-order lasing with a threshold of ~0.8?µJ/pulse and a bandwidth of ~1?nm was achieved under the excitation of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532?nm. The laser emission wavelength was tuned from 572–625?nm by varying the grating period. Application of an electric field switches off or tunes the lasing intensity. An electrically-induced blue-shift of the output laser emission was observed.

Sakhno, O. V.; Gritsai, Y.; Stumpe, J.

2014-11-01

130

Adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions on activated charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of industrially important dyes namely bromophenol blue, alizarine red-S, methyl blue, methylene blue, eriochrome black-T, malachite green, phenol red and methyl violet from aqueous media on activated charcoal has been investigated. The effect of shaking time, pH and temperature on the adsorption behaviour of these dyes has been studied. It was noted that adsorption of all the dyes on

Muhammad J. Iqbal; Muhammad N. Ashiq

2007-01-01

131

Nonlinear experimental dye-doped nematic liquid crystal optical transmission spectra estimated by neural network empirical physical formulas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two complementary objectives related to optical transmission spectra of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) were achieved. First, at room temperature, for both pure and dye (DR9) doped E7 NLCs, the 10-250 W halogen lamp transmission spectra (wavelength 400-1200 nm) were measured at various bias voltages. Second, because the measured spectra were inherently highly nonlinear, it was difficult to construct explicit empirical physical formulas (EPFs) to employ as transmittance functions. To avoid this difficulty, layered feedforward neural networks (LFNNs) were used to construct explicit EPFs for these theoretically unknown nonlinear NLC transmittance functions. As we theoretically showed in a previous work, a LFNN, as an excellent nonlinear function approximator, is highly relevant to EPF construction. The LFNN-EPFs efficiently and consistently estimated both the measured and yet-to-be-measured nonlinear transmittance response values. The experimentally obtained doping ratio dependencies and applied bias voltage responses of transmittance were also confirmed by LFFN-EPFs. This clearly indicates that physical laws embedded in the physical data can be faithfully extracted by the suitable LFNNs. The extraordinary success achieved with LFNN here suggests two potential applications. First, although not attempted here, these LFNN-EPFs, by such mathematical operations as derivation, integration, minimization etc., can be used to obtain further transmittance related functions of NLCs. Second, for a given NLC response function, whose theoretical nonlinear functional form is yet unknown, a suitable experimental data based LFNN-EPF can be constructed to predict the yet-to-be-measured values.

Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Köysal, O?uz

2010-09-01

132

Conservation Assessment for Great-spurred Violet  

E-print Network

-spurred violet, Viola selkirkii, Black Hills, boreal forest, myrmecochory. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many individuals have Martinez, Black Hills National Forest, produced the Black Hills distribution map, and Noah Barstatis, RockyConservation Assessment for Great-spurred Violet in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota

133

Toxicity of imine-iminium dyes and pigments: electron transfer, radicals, oxidative stress and other physiological effects.  

PubMed

Although conjugation is well known as an important contributor to color, there is scant recognition concerning involvement of imine and iminium functions in the physiological effects of this class of dyes and pigments. The group includes the dyes methylene blue, rhodamine, malachite green, fuchsin, crystal violet, auramine and cyanins, in addition to the pigments consisting of pyocyanine, phthalocyanine and pheophytin. The physiological effects consist of both toxicity and beneficial aspects. The unifying theme of electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress is used as the rationale in both cases. Toxicity is frequently prevented or alleviated by antioxidants. The apparent dichotomy of methylene blue action as both oxidant and antioxidant is rationalized based on similar previous cases. This mechanistic approach may have practical benefit. This review is important in conveying, for the first time, a unifying mechanism for toxicity based on electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress arising from imine-iminium. PMID:24852913

Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

2014-08-01

134

A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal.  

PubMed

Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive. PMID:25247717

Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

2014-11-01

135

Electrochemically enhanced removal of polycyclic aromatic basic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon cloth electrodes.  

PubMed

Open-circuit (OC) adsorption and electrosorption behaviors of three polycyclic aromatic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon cloth (ACC) were investigated. The selected dyes were crystal violet (BB-3), basic blue7 (BB-7), and basic blue11 (BB-11). OC adsorption and electrosorption processes were monitored by in situ UV-visible spectrophotometry. Electrosorption was carried out by polarization of an ACC electrode, galvanostatically. Considerable enhancements in removal capacity and duration of the dyes were achieved upon polarization of ACC. Kinetic data for OC adsorption and electrosorption were successfully treated according to pseudo-first-order law, and rate constants were determined. Adsorption isotherms were derived, and the data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Both the rate and extent of adsorption and electrosorption of dyes were found to increase in the order of BB-7 < BB-11 < BB-3. This order was discussed in terms of correlation between sizes of dye species and of ACC pores. Electrodesorption experiments were carried out to explore possibilities of regeneration of ACC. PMID:20704233

Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

2010-08-15

136

Temperature and orientation dependence of surface relief gratings based on dye-doped polymer film with the interface of nematic liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of surface relief grating on dye-doped polymer film with the interface of nematic liquid crystals has been investigated by means of the holographic technique. The first-order diffraction efficiency of surface relief grating depends on the temperature and the orientation of molecular director in the interface of nematic liquid crystals. The diffraction efficiency is roughly independent of thermal fluctuations of molecular director in the most part of nematic temperature range and apparently drops near the transition temperature. The morphology of surface relief grating demonstrates that the surface modulation is larger for molecular director parallel to the groove direction. The experimental result also shows that the first-order diffraction efficiency is dependent on the surface modulation of surface relief grating.

Huang, Shuan-Yu; Huang, Bing-Yau; Hung, Wen-Chi; Yu, Kai-Yu; Cheng, Wen-Shou; Kuo, Chie-Tong

2011-02-01

137

The effects of external applied voltage on the nonlinear optical properties of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal by using a single beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the experimental data of typical liquid crystals (6CHBT and w1680) in the nematic phase doped with and without Sudan dyes. We investigated the effect of an ac-applied voltage on the nonlinear behavior of dye doped liquid crystal (DDLC). The z-scan technique is used to measure the amplitude and the sign of the nonlinear refractive indices DDLC. The amplitude of negative nonlinear refractive indices was (~10-5cm2/W). The nonlinear absorption coefficient ? of DDLC was measured by using open aperture z- scan technique. Also the optical limiting (OL) response of DDLC was obtained. The novel effects on the far-field diffraction patterns of a Gaussian beam were depended on the external applied field. The measurements were performed using a CW He:Ne laser and CW Nd:Yag laser tuned at 632.8 nm and 532 nm, respectively. Also Gaussian beam propagated through a thin cell (sample thickness =11.8 ?m).

Majles Ara, M. H.; Bahramian, R.; Abolhasani, M.

2008-09-01

138

Uptake of dyes by a promising locally available agricultural solid waste: coir pith.  

PubMed

The adsorption of rhodamine-B and acid violet by coir pith carbon was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. The adsorption followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity was found to be 2.56 mg and 8.06 mg dye per g of the adsorbent for rhodamine-B and acid violet, respectively. Adsorption of dyes followed first order rate kinetics. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of acid violet and alkaline pH was favorable to rhodamine-B. Desorption studies showed that alkaline pH was favorable for the desorption of acid violet and acidic pH was favorable for the desorption of rhodamine-B. PMID:11300538

Namasivayam, C; Radhika, R; Suba, S

2001-01-01

139

Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring

Grätzel, Michael

2008-03-01

140

21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identity. The color additive manganese violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash...filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any...

2010-04-01

141

21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identity. The color additive manganese violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash...filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any...

2011-04-01

142

21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identity. The color additive manganese violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash...filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any mixture...

2014-04-01

143

21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. The color additive manganese violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash...filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any...

2013-04-01

144

21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identity. The color additive manganese violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash...filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The color additive and any...

2012-04-01

145

UltraViolet: Redefining the Movie Industry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

You may have heard of UltraViolet. No, we are not referring to the segment of the electromagnetic spectrum, a syntax highlighting engine, or the slightly off-beat sci-fi movie by Kurt Wimmer. We are referring to Hollywood's latest attempt to prevent Napsterization of the movie industry. UltraViolet is the public face of the Digital Entertainment Consortium Ecosystem (DECE), a cross-industry consortium

Ton Kalker; Rajan Samtani; Xin Wang

2012-01-01

146

Ultra violet disinfection: A 3-year history  

SciTech Connect

The Stillwater Wastewater Treatment Facility is one of nine wastewater treatment facilities operated by the Metropolitan Council Environmental Services in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The facility services the cities of Stillwater, Oak Park Heights, and Bayport. In 1993, an ultra violet disinfection facility began operation to provide the disinfection for the Facility. This presentation discusses the reasons for using ultra violet disinfection in lieu of chlorination/dechlorination facilities, the operating performance, and operating cost factors.

Tubesing, R.R.; Lindeke, D.R.

1998-07-01

147

Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-08-01

148

A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive.Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03712j

Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

2014-10-01

149

Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost banana and orange peels were prepared as adsorbents for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Dye concentration and pH were varied. The adsorption capacities for both peels decreased in the order methyl orange (MO) > methylene blue (MB) > Rhodamine B (RB) > Congo red (CR) > methyl violet (MV) > amido black 10B (AB). The isotherm data

Gurusamy Annadurai; Ruey-Shin Juang; Duu-Jong Lee

2002-01-01

150

A novel carboxyethyltin functionalized sandwich-type germanotungstate: synthesis, crystal structure, photosensitivity, and application in dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A novel sandwich-type germanotungstate [C(NH2)3]10[Mn2{Sn(CH2)2COOH}2(B-?-GeW9O34)2]·8H2O (1) represents the first single crystalline polyoxometalate (POM) functionalized by open chain carboxyethyltin, which was designed and synthesized in aqueous solution and applied to a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) for the first time. Its photosensitivity was explored through a fluorescence spectrum (FL), surface photovoltage spectrum (SPV), electrochemical method, and solid diffuse spectrum. 1 displays the primary features of sensitizers in DSSCs, and the efficiency of the solar cell is 0.22%. Delightedly, when 1 was employed to assemble a cosensitized solar cell configuration by preparing a 1-doped TiO2 electrode and additionally adsorbing N719 dyes, a considerably improved efficiency was achieved through increasing spectral absorption and accelerating electron transport, which is 19.4% higher than that of single N719 sensitization. This result opens up a new way to position different dyes on a single TiO2 film for cosensitization. PMID:24758570

Sang, Xiaojing; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Lancui; Wang, Zanjiao; Chen, Weilin; Zhu, Zaiming; Su, Zhongmin; Wang, Enbo

2014-05-28

151

Synthesis and application of TiO2 single-crystal nanorod arrays grown by multicycle hydrothermal for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 is a wide band gap semiconductor with important applications in photovoltaic cells. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) are grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a multicycle hydrothermal synthesis process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). It is found that dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled by the as-prepared TiO2 single-crystal NRs exhibit different trends under the condition of different nucleation and growth concentrations. Optimum cell performance is obtained with high nucleation concentration and low growth cycle concentration. The efficiency enhancement is mainly attributed to the improved specific surface area of the nanorod.

Zhu, Jian-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Long; Zhu, Lei; Gu, Xiu-Quan; Qiang, Ying-Huai

2014-04-01

152

Origin and evolution of a peraluminous silicic ignimbrite suite: The Violet Town Volcanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Violet Town Volcanics are a 373 Ma old, comagmatic, S-type volcanic sequence mainly comprising crystal-rich intracaldera ignimbrites. Rock types vary from rhyolites to rhyodacites, all containing magmatic cordierite and garnet phenocrysts. Variation in the suite is primarily due to fractionation of early-crystallized quartz, plagioclase and biotite (plus minor accessory phases) in a high-level magma chamber prior to eruption. Early

John D. Clemens; Victor J. Wall

1984-01-01

153

Potential use of low-cost lignocellulosic waste for the removal of direct violet 51 from aqueous solution: equilibrium and breakthrough studies.  

PubMed

An efficient biosorbent, sugarcane bagasse was used in native, HCl-treated, and Na-alginate immobilized form for the removal of Direct Violet 51 dye from aqueous solutions. Batch study was performed to optimize important process parameters, such as pH, contact time, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and temperature. Removal of Direct Violet 51 was found to be favorable at pH 2 with the biosorbent dose of 0.05 g. Biosorption process was found to be exothermic in nature. Maximum dye biosorption (39.6 mg/g) was achieved by using HCl-treated biomass. The pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models showed best fitness to the experimental data. Thermodynamic study was also performed to determine the feasibility of biosorption process. Continuous mode study was performed to optimize the important process parameters, such as bed height, flow rate, and initial dye concentration for maximum removal of Direct Violet 51 dye. The higher bed height, low flow rate, and high initial dye concentration were found to be the better conditions for maximum dye biosorption (17.28 mg/g). The linearized form of the Thomas model equation fitted well to the experimental data. The bed depth service time model was used to express the effect of bed height on breakthrough curves. Characterization of biosorbent was performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The FT-IR spectral analyses showed the involvement of hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups in biosorption process. These results indicated that sugarcane bagasse biomass could be used as a novel biosorbent for the removal of Direct Violet 51 dye from real textile and related industries. PMID:24468968

Sadaf, Sana; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Nausheen, Sana; Noreen, Saima

2014-05-01

154

Polymer composites containing photochromic dye solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photochromic polymer composites were fabricated by encapsulating dye solution in a polycarbonate membrane. The membrane contained through holes of 50 nm diameter. These nanoholes provided a sufficient free volume for the dye molecules to change their structure in the photochromic isomerization process. A polymer composite containing a toluene solution of diarylethene exhibited red color when it was irradiated with violet laser, and returned to the transparent state by green laser irradiation. Another polymer composite containing spiropyran turned to blue by ultraviolet lamp irradiation and returned to the transparent state by green laser irradiation. A nonlinear input-output characteristic and a rewritable-grating function were demonstrated by using these photochromic polymers.

Saito, Mitsunori; Sakiyama, Kohei; Mochizuki, Ryosuke; Ohashi, Kenji

2010-05-01

155

Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water. PMID:19786292

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2009-11-01

156

Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization.  

PubMed

Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0-10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0-60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by ?-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

Chanwun, Thitikorn; Muhamad, Nisaporn; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Churngchow, Nunta

2013-01-01

157

Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization  

PubMed Central

Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0–10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0–60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by ?-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

2013-01-01

158

Sensitively monitoring photodegradation process of organic dye molecules by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based on Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag particle.  

PubMed

Photodegradation of organic dye molecules has attracted extensive attention because of their high toxicity to water resources. Compared with traditional UV-visible spectroscopy, SERS technology can reflect more sensitively the catalytic degradation process occurring on the surface of the catalysts. In this paper, we report the synthesis and structure of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag composite, which integrates SERS active Ag nanostructure with catalytically active titania. The degradation of the typical dye molecule crystal violet (CV), as an example, is investigated in the presence of the as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2@Ag composite structure, which exhibits high catalytic activity and good SERS performance. At the same time, renewable photocatalytic activity was also investigated. PMID:25192200

Qin, Suhua; Cai, Wenya; Tang, Xianghu; Yang, Liangbao

2014-11-01

159

Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

1977-01-01

160

Fluorescence enhancement of dyes embedded in nanoparticles of Lu, Eu, Al, and Sc diketonates of different composition and concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the effect of central ions (Lu(III), Eu(III), Sc(III), and Al(III)), organic ligands (2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (NTA) and p-phenylbenzoyltrifluoroacetone (PhBTA)), and their concentration in a water-alcohol solution on the fluorescence of ?-diketonate complexes formed and nanoparticles (NPs) generated by the self-assembly of these complexes. The fluorescence quenching of ligands of the complexes of nanoparticles because of the introduction of molecules of dyes, such as Nile Blue (NB), Lissamine Rhodamine RB-200 (RB), and Crystal Violet (CV), in these nanoparticles is investigated, and the NP-sensitization of the fluorescence of these dyes is explored. The dependence of the intensity of the NP-sensitized fluorescence of NB on its concentration in nanoparticles consisting of complexes that differ in composition and concentration is studied. By analyzing this dependence for the nanoparticles consisting of Sc(NTA)3, the size of the studied nanoparticles is evaluated. It is shown that the nature of this dependence is determined by a competition of two processes: the migration of the excitation energy over complexes to dyes and the migration of the excitation energy of dyes to impurities or dimer of dyes. The size of nanoparticles is compared to the estimated values of the exciton diffusion length and the critical radius of energy transfer from complexes to NB. An energy transfer of close to 100% from the nanoparticles formed of 10 ?M of Sc(NTA)3 to 50 nM of NB molecules embedded therein is observed. The introduction of NB molecules into nanoparticles leads to a 200-fold increase in fluorescence intensity compared to their direct excitation in solution.

Mironov, L. Yu.; Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

2014-12-01

161

Tunable liquid crystal lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid crystal lasers are dye-doped distributed feedback lasing systems. Fabricated by coupling the periodic structure of a liquid crystal medium with a fluorescent dye, the emission from these systems is tunable by controlling the liquid crystal system---be it through electric or thermal field effects, photochemical reactions, mechanical deformations, etc. The laser action arises from an extended interaction time between the

Scott J. Woltman

2008-01-01

162

Purification and characterization of a novel laccase from Coprinus cinereus and decolorization of different chemically dyes.  

PubMed

Laccase is a blue copper oxidase with multiple copper ions and widely distributed in higher plant and fungi. To date, numerous fungal laccases have been reported by many researchers. In present work, a new laccase gene, named CcLCC5I, from Coprinus cinereus was synthesized chemically according to the yeast bias codon and integrated into Pichia pastoris GS115 genome by electroporation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant laccase has a molecular mass of approximately 56.8 kDa. Its biochemical properties was carried out using substrate 2-2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). It was showed that the optimum pH and temperature of the laccase is 3.0 and 55 °C, respectively. Except for copper ions, most metal ions inhibited the laccase activity at a high concentration about 10 mM. Sodium sulfite can also highly inhibit laccase activity whereas EDTA had no inhibitory effect on the laccase activity. The CcLCC5I have high ability to decolor not only azo but also aryl methane dyes. The recombinant laccase decolored 44.6 % orange G, 54.8 % Crystal Violet, and 87.2 % Malachite green at about 2.6 h. The novel laccase may be a good candidate for breeding engineering strains used in the treatment of industrial effluent containing azo and aryl methane dyes. PMID:23073779

Lin, Yaqiu; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Zhisheng; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

2013-02-01

163

Decolorization Screening of Synthetic Dyes by Anaerobic Methanogenic Sludge Using a Batch Decolorization Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonspecific ability of anaerobic sludge bacteria obtained from cattle dung slurry was investigated for 17 different dyes\\u000a in a batch assay system using sealed serum vials. Experiments using Reactive Violet 5 (RV 5) showed that sludge bacteria could\\u000a effectively decolorize solutions having dye concentrations up to 1000 mg l?1 with a decolorization efficiency of above 75% during 48 h

Haresh Keharia; Hardik Patel; Datta Madamwar

2004-01-01

164

The Fenton Chemistry and Its Combination with Coagulation for Treatment of Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Violet 19 were subjected to Fenton\\/Fenton?like oxidation and its combination with lime coagulation. The analysis indicated no dependence of chemical oxidation efficacy on dye concentration in the range of 0.1–1 g L. Complete or nearly complete (higher than 95%) color removal of all treated samples was observed. Dye:H2O2 weight ratio of

Niina Kulik; Yekaterina Panova; Marina Trapido

2007-01-01

165

Optimization of salting-out crystallization for an efficient in situ separation of synthetic anthraquinone- and azo-type reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solute can be deposited from solution by the addition of another soluble substance which effectively reduces the solubility of original solute. The process is referred to as ‘salting-out’ and it is one of the proper methods for effective separation of synthetic reactive dyes in industry. To develop an efficient salting-out process for recovering representative anthraquinone- and azo-type reactive dyes,

Jaehoon Cho; Jin Ku Cho; Junsuk Lee; Dohoon Lee; Sangyong Kim

2009-01-01

166

Bioremediation of Dyes in Textile Effluents by Aspergillus oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized\\u000a mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B\\u000a (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption

Carlos Renato Corso; Ana Carolina Maganha de Almeida

2009-01-01

167

75 FR 14468 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India AGENCY: United States International Trade...order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India and the antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and...

2010-03-25

168

Some Observations on Ultra-Violet Irradiated Amebas  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Observations upon irradiated amebas indicate that digestion of food is stopped by ultra-violet light and that cessation occurs with the appearance of morphological symptoms of impairment. (2) Amoeba proteus shows negative phototropism toward ultra-violet light. (3) The cell membrane of irradiated amebas is relatively inextensible.

W. A. Black

1935-01-01

169

Study of photocatalytic activity of ZnS quantum dots as efficient nanoparticles for removal of methyl violet: Effect of ferric ion doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc sulfide quantum dots (QDs), as pure and doped with Fe3+, were prepared for photodecolorization of methyl violet (MV), as a model dye, under UV light irradiation. The syntheses of QDs were carried out using a simple chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared samples were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The influences of operational parameters on the decolorization of MV such as dopant content, pH, dosage of nanophotocatalyst, UV irradiation time and initial dye concentration were studied. The results showed that the QDs presented high efficiency for MV decolorization, and doping of ZnS QDs with Fe3+ enhanced the efficiency and rate of dye removal. Finally, the reproducibility and kinetic model of the dye degradation were discussed.

Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

2014-03-01

170

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

171

Crystals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this earth science/math/art activity, learners use simple ingredients to grow crystals and examine the repeating geometric shapes and patterns. Learners compare the growth of crystals from four types of crystal-starters (table salt, Borax, sand, and Epsom salt) to see which starter grows the most crystals in 14 days. Learners report their results online and find out what other learners discovered. Afterward, learners can use the crystals they grew to create works of art.

Science, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

172

Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells  

SciTech Connect

This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

Barber, Greg D.

2009-12-21

173

Brief history of the Martian 'violet haze' problem.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief but thorough survey of the literature on the Martian 'violet haze' problem is presented. It is evident that both the normal lack of contrast of the surface features in violet light and their occasional appearance are phenomena intrinsic to Mars. Models involving simple uniform layers of scattering or absorbing materials are inadequate to account for the observations. We suggest that the role of haze has historically been misinterpreted. The blank disk of Mars in violet light occurs when the atmosphere is relatively free of haze. The formation of optically thin white hazes over the bright areas increases the contrast and produces 'blue clearing.'

Thompson, D. T.

1972-01-01

174

Mathematical modelling and optimization of synthetic textile dye removal using soil composites as highly competent liner material.  

PubMed

Soil is widely used as adsorbent for removing toxic pollutants from their aqueous solutions due to its wide availability and cost efficiency. This study investigates the potential of soil and soil composites for removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from solution on a comparative scale. Optimisation of different process parameters was carried out using a novel approach of response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) was used for determining the optimum experimental conditions, as well as the result of their interactions. Around 99.85 % removal of CV was obtained at initial pH 6.4, which further increased to 99.98 % on using soil and cement composite proving it to be the best admixture of those selected. The phenomenon was found to be represented best by the Langmuir isotherm at different temperatures. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was determined to be spontaneous chemisorption in nature. This adsorbent can hence be suggested as an appropriate liner material for the removal of CV dye. PMID:25138552

Das, Papita; Banerjee, Priya; Mondal, Sandip

2015-01-01

175

Biosorption potential of synthetic dyes by heat-inactivated and live Lentinus edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges.  

PubMed

Lentinus edodes CCB-42 was immobilized in loofa sponges and applied to the biosorption of the synthetic dyes congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet. Live immobilized microorganisms achieved average decolorations of congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet of 97.8, 99.7 and 90.6 %, respectively. The loofa sponge was the support and the coadjuvant promoting dye adsorption. The biosorption conditions were optimized for each dye, yielding 30 °C, pH 5.0 and a 12 h reaction time for congo red; 25 °C, pH 3.0 and 36 h for bordeaux red; and 25 °C, pH 8.0 and 24 h for methyl violet. Operational stability was evaluated over five consecutive cycles, with both bordeaux red and congo red exhibiting decolorations above 90 %, while the decoloration of methyl violet decreased after the third cycle. In the sixth month of storage, congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet had decolorations of 93.1, 79.4 and 73.8 %, respectively. Biosorption process best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. Maximum biosorption capacity of heat-treated L. edodes immobilized in loofa sponge was determined as 143.678, 500.00 and 381.679 mg/g for congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet, respectively. Treatment with immobilized L. edodes reduced the phytotoxicity of the medium containing dyes. FT-Raman experiments suggested the occurrence of interactions between loofa sponge fibers, L. edodes and dye. L. edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges represents a promising new mode of treatment of industrial effluents. PMID:25267474

Gimenez, Gabriela Gregolin; Ruiz, Suelen Pereira; Caetano, Wilker; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Matioli, Graciette

2014-12-01

176

Just Dyeing to Find Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

Monhardt, Becky Meyer

1996-01-01

177

Photoporation and cell transfection using a violet diode laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. This represents the simplest method of laser-assisted cell poration reported to date

L. Paterson; B. Agate; M. Comrie; R. Ferguson; T. K. Lake; J. E. Morris; A. E. Carruthers; C. T. A. Brown; W. Sibbett; P. E. Bryant; F. Gunn-Moore; A. C. Riches; K. Dholakia

2005-01-01

178

Removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution by perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of perlite for the removal of methyl violet from aqueous solutions at different concentration, pH, and temperature has been investigated. Adsorption equilibrium is reached within 1 h. The capacity of perlite samples for the adsorption of methyl violet was found to increase with increasing pH and temperature and decrease with expansion and increasing acid-activation. The adsorption isotherms are described

Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2003-01-01

179

Metallophyte status of violets of the section Melanium.  

PubMed

Violets from metal-enriched soils have controversially been described as both heavy-metal accumulators and excluders in the literature. The present study solves the issue for violets of the section Melanium (zinc violets, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria and V. lutea ssp. westfalica; hartsease or wild pansy, Viola tricolor; and mountain pansy, V. lutea). The aims were to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and in the roots and shoots of field-collected plants, to evaluate the potential impact of colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on heavy-metal concentrations in the plant tissues, and to quantitatively define the localisation of the elements in root cross-sections. When these violets grow in low-metal soils, higher concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the roots and shoots than in the soil, whereas the opposite was seen in samples from high-metal soils. Under all field conditions examined, the roots of all of these species were colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. However, V. tricolor was marginally colonised when the concentrations of Zn and P were higher in the soil. Determination of the spatial distribution of the elements in root cross-sections of these violets indicates tissue-specific deposition of elements within the vascular tissue, the cortex, and the rhizodermis. These data indicate that violets of the section Melanium are heavy-metal excluders. PMID:23859423

Hermann, Bothe; Katarina, Vogel-Mikuš; Paula, Pongrac; Matevž, Likar; Neva, Stepic; Primož, Pelicon; Primož, Vavpeti?; Luka, Jeromel; Marjana, Regvar

2013-11-01

180

Textile dye dermatitis.  

PubMed

The literature concerning textile dye dermatitis published during the last decade was reviewed. Sixty-one cases of dye-allergic contact dermatitis in which the presentation or course of the dermatitis was unusual or the dye allergen was one not previously reported have been described. The four new dye allergens discovered were Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 85, Disperse Brown 1, and Basic Red 46. The incidence of dye dermatitis varied from 1% to 15.9% depending on the country, patient sample, and number of dyes in the patch test series. The 10 new dye allergens discovered in these studies were Disperse Blue 153, Disperse Orange 13, Basic Black 1, Basic Brown 1, the acid dyes Supramine Yellow and Supramine Red, the direct dye Diazol Orange, the basic dye Brilliant Green, Turquoise Reactive, and Neutrichrome Red. Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 were shown to be the strongest clothing dye sensitizers to date. Standard screening patch test series were found to be inadequate for the detection of textile dye sensitivity; therefore textile dye patch test series should be used. It is difficult to determine whether the incidence of dye dermatitis is increasing or decreasing because controlled epidemiologic studies are lacking, but data suggest that textile dye sensitivity is more common than previously believed. PMID:7896955

Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

1995-04-01

181

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia Linn.).  

PubMed

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of the dye solution had little effect on removal of basic dyes, and efficiencies ranged from 97% to 99% over the range of pH used. Over a wide range of pH levels, all types of treated cattail powder had negative charges and probably attracted the basic dyes possessing positive charges. Efficiency of removal by the three NLC treatments ranged from 37% to 42% for direct dyes and from 22% to 54% for direct dyes at pH 7. The pH of the dye solution had substantial effects on the efficiency of removal in direct and reactive dyes. Dye removal was highest at pH 3, with 99% for a direct dye (Sirius Red Violet RL) and 96% for a reactive dye (Basilen Red M-5B). There was mutual attraction between negatively charged direct dye molecules and positively charged molecules on the surface of the FH-treated cattail. In tests of desorption of dyes from cattail in distilled water, the desorption percentage for FH-NLC after adsorbing basic, direct and reactive dyes was 6%, 10% and 35%, respectively, which indicated a chemisorption mechanism for basic and direct dyes and some physiosorption for reactive dyes. PMID:15182837

Inthorn, Duangrat; Singhtho, Siritham; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

2004-09-01

182

An experimental optimization study for concentration and laser power effects in the fullerene-C 60 and azo dye doped guest–host liquid crystal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current–voltage characteristics of a famous guest–host liquid crystal system have been investigated under dark and laser illumination conditions. Dependency of current modulation with respect to concentration and laser power gives some optimization possibilities and estimations on the reorientation mechanisms of the liquid crystals. The current–voltage character of pure E7 is almost unchanged with laser pumping, while the fullerene and

M. Okutan; O. Köysal; S. E. San; F. Yakuphanoglu

2009-01-01

183

MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DRY MATERIAL FEEDER FOR DELIVERY OF RED AND VIOLET DYE MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Uniform delivery of dry material for stable concentrations of aerosols in inhalation exposure chambers is essential in inhalation experiments. his paper characterizes an AccuRate dry material feeder with modifications, for different helix sizes, actuation rates, nozzle types and ...

184

Zeolite-dye micro lasers  

E-print Network

We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

1998-01-01

185

75 FR 26716 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit...countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results...

2010-05-12

186

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

187

Dye Like A Natural  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

Yu, Julie

2010-01-01

188

75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India to determine whether Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) is the...

2010-08-30

189

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2010-04-01

190

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2011-04-01

191

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2012-04-01

192

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2014-04-01

193

21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

194

HPLC Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Field Violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC analyses revealed 40 compounds of phenolic nature in field violet (Viola arvensis L.), which belong for the most part to the classes of flavonoids, coumarins, and phenolcarboxylic acid derivatives. Eleven compounds (luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, hyperoside, hesperidin, isoferulic acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, dicoumarin, catechol, and arbutin) have been identified in this plant for the first time.

R. A. Bubenchikov; N. F. Goncharov

2005-01-01

195

75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India. The review...parties to comment. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results...

2010-07-01

196

75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing...countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India for the period January 1...December 31, 2007. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results...

2010-06-11

197

75 FR 27815 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1060 and 1061 (Review) Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations...countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India would be likely to lead...antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and India would be...

2010-05-18

198

76 FR 24855 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India for the period...Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988...

2011-05-03

199

75 FR 29719 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing...Countervailing Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77995 (December...order to be revoked. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the...

2010-05-27

200

Effects of sodium content on the microstructures and basic dye cation exchange of titanate nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of titanate nanotubes (TNT) to remove basic dye (Basic Violet 3, BV3) from aqueous solution through a cation exchange mechanism was investigated. TNT was prepared via a hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 powders in a 10M NaOH solution at 150°C for 24h, and subsequently washed with HCl aqueous solution of different concentrations. Effects of the remnant sodium contents on

Chung-Kung Lee; Cheng-Cai Wang; Lain-Chuen Juang; Meng-Du Lyu; Shui-Hung Hung; Shin-Shou Liu

2008-01-01

201

Study of excitation transfer in laser dye mixtures by direct measurement of fluorescence lifetime  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By directly measuring the donor fluorescence lifetime as a function of acceptor concentration in the laser dye mixture Rhodamine 6G-Cresyl violet, we found that the Stern-Volmer relation is obeyed, from which the rate of excitation transfer is determined. The experimental results indicate that the dominant mechanism responsible for the efficient excitation transfer is that of resonance transfer due to long range dipole-dipole interaction.

Lin, C.; Dienes, A.

1973-01-01

202

Phenylazoindole dyes 3: Determination of azo-hydrazone tautomers of new phenylazoindole dyes in solution and solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new two series of phenylazo indole dyes was synthesized and the structures of the dyes were confirmed by UV-vis, FT-IR, HRMS and 1H/13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Five of these dyes (I, I?, II?, III and III?) were also characterized in solid state by using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies besides other spectroscopic techniques. The geometries of the azo and hydrazone tautomeric forms of the dyes were optimized by using Density Functional Theory (DFT). In addition, the effects of the donor and acceptor groups on the azo and hydrazone forms of the dyes were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the phenylazoindole dyes derived from 2-phenyl indole as coupling component exist as azo form in solution, gas phase and solid state.

Babür, Banu; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Aktan, Ebru; Hökelek, Tuncer; ?ahin, Ertan; Sefero?lu, Zeynel

2015-02-01

203

Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study  

PubMed Central

Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15?min, enzyme concentration 0.15?IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4?mM, dye concentration 30?mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32?min, enzyme concentration 0.15?IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04?mM, dye concentration 30?mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes.

Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainovi?, Nevena Ž.; Stefanovi?, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; ?i?kari?, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Kneževi?-Jugovi?, Zorica D.

2015-01-01

204

Decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes from textile effluent using horseradish peroxidase: optimization and kinetic study.  

PubMed

Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15?min, enzyme concentration 0.15?IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4?mM, dye concentration 30?mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32?min, enzyme concentration 0.15?IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04?mM, dye concentration 30?mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainovi?, Nevena Ž; Stefanovi?, Andrea B; Žuža, Milena G; ?i?kari?, Dragana Z; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Kneževi?-Jugovi?, Zorica D

2015-01-01

205

crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, and room temperature continuous-wave (CW) laser operation of monoclinic Ho:KLu(WO4)2 crystals. Macro defect-free crystals of several dopant concentrations were grown by top-seeded solution growth slow-cooling method. The evolution of unit cell parameters with holmium doping level and temperature was studied using X-ray powder diffraction. The spectroscopic properties were characterized in terms of room- and low-temperature optical absorption and photoluminescence. From low-temperature optical absorption measurements, the energy of the Stark levels was determined. Calculation of the emission and gain cross sections is presented. CW laser action was realized for 3 and 5 at. % Ho-doped KLu(WO4)2 by in-band pumping using a Tm:KLu(WO4)2 pump laser. A maximum output power of 507 mW with a slope efficiency of ~38 % with respect to the incident power was achieved at 2,080 nm with the Ho:KLu(WO4)2 laser.

Jambunathan, V.; Mateos, X.; Pujol, M. C.; Carvajal, J. J.; Zaldo, C.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

2014-08-01

206

CD133(+) Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells Are Resistant to Staining with Fluorescent Dyes Used for Analysis of ABC Transporter Activities.  

PubMed

Flow cytometry measurement of the expression of surface marker CD133 simultaneously with the analysis of fluorescent dye exclusion was performed in order to develop new methods for detection of cancer stem cell populations in tumor tissue samples from patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. No correlation was found between the count of CD133(+) cancer cells and the volume of the "population" formed from cells actively pumping off the fluorescent dye. On the other hand, the fluorescence distribution plot showed predominant location of CD133(+) cancer cells among cells stained with neither DyeCycle Violet DNA-binding dye, nor rhodamine 123 mitochondrial dye. These cells did not show the properties of the classical "side population", because they did not shift to the area of stained cell after treatment with ionic channel blocker verapamil. PMID:25403403

Gisina, A M; Lupatov, A Yu; Karalkin, P A; Mainovskaya, O A; Petrov, L O; Sidorov, D V; Frank, G A; Yarygin, K N

2014-11-01

207

Degradation of reactive, acid and basic textile dyes in the presence of ultrasound and rare earths [Lanthanum and Praseodymium].  

PubMed

Degradation of five textile dyes, namely Reactive Red 141 (RR 141), Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21), Acid Red 114 (AR 114), Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) and Basic Violet 16 (BV 16) in aqueous solution has been carried out with ultrasound (US) and in combination with rare earth ions (La(3+) and Pr(3+)). Kinetic analysis of the data showed a pseudo-first order degradation reaction for all the dyes. The rate constant (k), half life (t1/2) and the process efficiency (?) for various processes in degradation of dyes under different experimental conditions have been calculated. The influence of concentrations of dyes (16-40mg/L), pH (5, 7 and 9) and rare earth ion concentration (4, 12 and 20mg/L) on the degradation of dyes have also been studied. The degradation percentage increased with increasing rare earth amount and decreased with increasing concentration of dyes. Both horn and bath type sonicators were used at 20kHz and 250W for degradation. The sonochemical degradation rate of dyes in the presence of rare earths was related to the type of chromophoric groups in the dye molecule. Degradation sequence of dyes was further examined through LCMS and Raman spectroscopic techniques, which confirmed the sonochemical degradation of dyes to non-toxic end products. PMID:24491599

Srivastava, Pankaj; Goyal, Shikha; Patnala, Prem Kishore

2014-11-01

208

Photoporation and cell transfection using a violet diode laser.  

PubMed

The introduction and subsequent expression of foreign DNA inside living mammalian cells (transfection) is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. We direct a compact 405 nm laser diode source into an inverted optical microscope configuration and expose cells to 0.3 mW for 40 ms. The localized optical power density of ~1200 MW/m2 is six orders of magnitude lower than that used in femtosecond photoporation (~104 TW/m2). The beam perforates the cell plasma membrane to allow uptake of plasmid DNA containing an antibiotic resistant gene as well as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Successfully transfected cells then expand into clonal groups which are used to create stable cell lines. The use of the violet diode laser offers a new and simple poration technique compatible with standard microscopes and is the simplest method of laser-assisted cell poration reported to date. PMID:19488389

Paterson, L; Agate, B; Comrie, M; Ferguson, R; Lake, T; Morris, J; Carruthers, A; Brown, C T; Sibbett, W; Bryant, P; Gunn-Moore, F; Riches, A; Dholakia, Kishan

2005-01-24

209

A DNA Crystal Designed to Contain Two Molecules per Asymmetric Unit  

SciTech Connect

We describe the self-assembly of a DNA crystal that contains two tensegrity triangle molecules per asymmetric unit. We have used X-ray crystallography to determine its crystal structure. In addition, we have demonstrated control over the colors of the crystals by attaching either Cy3 dye (pink) or Cy5 dye (blue-green) to the components of the crystal, yielding crystals of corresponding colors. Attaching the pair of dyes to the pair of molecules yields a purple crystal.

T Wang; R Sha; J Birktoft; J Zheng; C Mao; N Seeman

2011-12-31

210

[Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].  

PubMed

In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

211

Violet red bile 2 agar for stressed coliforms.  

PubMed

Counts on a new, autoclave-sterilizable violet red bile (VRB-2) agar were compared with counts on freshly boiled VRB agar. Yields on VRB-2 agar averaged 217, 180, 130, and 112% of counts obtained on the control medium for samples of water, cottage cheese, frozen vegetables, and raw milk, respectively. The general principle used for the development of VRB-2 agar could be applied to many other kinds of selective plating media. PMID:1092265

Hartman, P A; Hartman, P S; Lanz, W W

1975-04-01

212

Transfection of cells using a violet diode laser for photoporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and subsequent expression of foreign DNA inside living mammalian cells (transfection) is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. We direct a compact 405 nm laser diode source into an inverted optical microscope configuration and expose cells to 0.3 mW for 40 ms. The localized optical power density of ~1200 MW\\/m2 is six orders of magnitude lower

B. Agate; L. Paterson; T. K. Lake; J. E. Morris; A. E. Carruthers; C. T. A. Brown; W. Sibbett; K. Dholakia; M. Comrie; R. Ferguson; P. E. Bryant; A. C. Riches; F. Gunn-Moore

2005-01-01

213

Photoporation and cell transfection using a violet diode laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction and subsequent expression of foreign DNA inside living mammalian cells (transfection) is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. We direct a compact 405 nm laser diode source into an inverted optical microscope configuration and expose cells to 0.3 mW for 40 ms. The localized optical power density of ~1200 MW\\/m2 is six orders of magnitude lower

L. Paterson; B. Agate; M. Comrie; R. Ferguson; T. K. Lake; J. E. Morris; A. E. Carruthers; C. T. A. Brown; W. Sibbett; P. E. Bryant; F. Gunn-Moore; A. C. Riches; Kishan Dholakia

2005-01-01

214

Tests and calibration on ultra violet imaging telescope (UVIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope on ASTROSAT Satellite mission is a suite of Far Ultra Violet (FUV; 130 - 180 nm), Near Ultra Violet (NUV; 200 - 300 nm) and Visible band (VIS; 320-550nm) imagers. ASTROSAT is a first multi wavelength mission of INDIA. UVIT will image the selected regions of the sky simultaneously in three channels & observe young stars, galaxies, bright UV Sources. FOV in each of the 3 channels is ~ 28 arc-minute. Targeted angular resolution in the resulting UV images is better than 1.8 arc-second (better than 2.0 arc-second for the visible channel). Two identical co-aligned telescopes (T1, T2) of Ritchey-Chretien configuration (Primary mirror of ~375 mm diameter) collect the celestial radiation and feed to the detector system via a selectable filter on a filter wheel mechanism; gratings are available in the filter wheels of FUV and NUV channels for slit-less low resolution spectroscopy. The detector system for each of the 3 channels is generically identical. One telescope images in the FUV channel, and other images in NUV and VIS channels. One time open-able mechanical cover on each telescope also works as Sun-shield after deployment. We will present the optical tests and calibrations done on the two telescopes. Results on vibrations test and thermo-vacuum tests on the engineering model will also be presented.

Kumar, Amit; Ghosh, S. K.; Kamath, P. U.; Postma, Joe; Kathiravan, S.; Mahesh, P. K.; Nagbhushana, S.; Navalgund, K. H.; Rajkumar, N.; Rao, M. N.; Sarma, K. S.; Sriram, S.; Stalin, C. S.; Tandon, S. N.

2012-09-01

215

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

216

Liquid-Crystal Photoalignment by Super Thin Azo Dye Layer Xihua LI, Vladimir M. KOZENKOV, Fion Sze-Yan YEUNG, Peizhi XU, Vladimir G. CHIGRINOV and Hoi-Sing KWOK  

E-print Network

of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay azo dye molecular layer is proposed. The basic idea of this method is to form a very neat textile azo dye SD-1 layer. This new method includes the formation of a very neat ``textile knitwear'' and can

217

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

218

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

219

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

220

In vitro mutagenicity of Acid Violet 7 and its degradation products by Pseudomonas putida mt-2: Correlation with chemical structures.  

PubMed

Acid Violet 7 (AV7), a very important commercial azo dye used in the textile, food, paper and cosmetic industries, was degraded by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 at a concentration up to 200mg/l. HPLC analysis of the biodegradation media revealed the presence of either 4'-aminoacetanilide (4'-AA) or 5-acetamido-2-amino-1-hydroxy-3,6-naphthalene disulfonic acid (5-ANDS) deriving from AV7 azoreduction which attests the expression of an azoreductase by this bacterium. These amines were identified only in media of static incubation, which is consistent with their biotransformation under shaken incubation (aerobic conditions). Pure azo dye, pure azoreduction products and total lyophilized biodegradation extracts were assayed for their mutagenic properties using Ames test. Mutagenicity of AV7 even with or without the S9 metabolizing system increased significantly after static biodegradation and totally disappeared after shaken incubation. In addition, mutagenicity of pure azo reduction products of AV7 was assessed and compared with that of the parent unsubstituted amines. 4'-AA exhibited a strong mutagenicity which was imputed to the presence of the acetoxy (COCH(3)) substituent on the aromatic amine; however, the presence of sulphonic groups in 5-ANDS limited its mutagenicity. PMID:21783945

Ben Mansour, Hedi; Mosrati, Ridha; Corroler, David; Ghedira, Kamel; Barillier, Daniel; Chekir, Leila

2009-03-01

221

The investigation of inclusion behavior of Solvent Violet 9 with 4-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes and its recognition to DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion behavior of Solvent Violet 9 (SV9) with 4-sulfonatocalix[n]arenes (SCXn) (n = 4, 6, 8) was investigated at various pH values by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. SV9 is able to form an inclusion complex with calixarenes. Different absorption behaviors were observed for the dye with the various host calixarenes. The molecular binding abilities were affected by the configuration of the calixarene cavities and the solution pH. Various experimental conditions, including calixarenes concentrations, were investigated and the results suggested that the three calixarene were most suitable for inclusion of the dye at pH = 3.05. The formation constant could be calculated. The inclusion behavior of the complexes was studied in detail using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Finally, the interactions of SV9 with Salmon testes DNA in SCXn supramolecular system were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption show that the interaction of SV9 with DNA depends on the concentration ratio of SV9 to DNA and the pH values. The binding constants of inclusion complexes with DNA are calculated. It was observed that SCXn can affect the interactive mode of SV9 with DNA.

Chao, Jianbin; Wang, Hong fang; Zhang, Yongbin; Huo, Fangjun; Yin, Caixia

2013-02-01

222

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

223

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

224

Influence of electromagnetic radiation on the movement of dislocations in ionic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of electromagnetic radiation of a ultra-violet range on the movement of dislocations in ionic crystals is investigated. It is supposed that the interaction of dislocations with low-energy exciton forms the basis of the effects observed.

Feodorov, Victor A.; Plushnikova, Tatjana N.; Chivanov, Andrei V.; Chemerkina, Margarita V.; Kirillov, Roman A.

2007-04-01

225

Chemical stabilization of laser dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

Koch, Tad H.

1987-05-01

226

Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment.  

PubMed

Organic wastes have been burned for reclamation. However, they have to be recycled and reused for industrial sustainable development. Carbonaceous materials were produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. There are many phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of carbonaceous materials. The base consumption of the carbonaceous materials was larger than that of the commercially activated carbon. The carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were applied to the adsorbates for the removal of basic dyes (methylene blue and gentian violet) in wastewater. This result indicated that the adsorption of dyes depended upon the surface polar groups on the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the Freundlich constants of isotherms for the adsorption of methylene blue and gentian violet onto the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than those for adsorption onto activated carbon or ceramic activated carbon. The interaction was greatest between the surface or porosity of the carbonaceous materials and methylene blue and gentian violet. The microwave treatment would be useful for the carbonization of organic wastes to save energy. PMID:12702420

Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Kazuoki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Tamura, Takamichi; Tanada, Seiki

2002-10-01

227

Colouring crystals with inorganic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A simple, one-pot method is presented whereby gold nanoparticles coated with a zwitterionic diblock copolymer are incorporated within single crystals of calcite. This may provide a versatile alternative to dyeing crystal with organic molecules and could be extended to create a series of new nanocomposite crystals with novel properties. PMID:24202647

Kulak, Alexander N; Yang, Pengcheng; Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Armes, Steven P; Meldrum, Fiona C

2014-01-01

228

Quasi-guest-host-effect liquid crystal displays: a new kind of positive contrast liquid crystal display device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kind of liquid crystal display (LCD) which positive dichroic dye disperses in LC is described in this paper. The quasi guest-host effect LCD is composed of a polarizer, twisted-nematic effect liquid crystal layer, and a guest- host effect liquid crystal layer which positive dichroic dye disperses in positive dielectric anisotropy nematic LC. Its multiplexing ability is as high

Jinggang Zhao; Zemin Yang; Zaigang Sun; Peng Sun; Junyu Sha; Jian Gao

1996-01-01

229

Tunable light source with GaN-based violet laser diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GaN based violet Laser Diode has been applying for the industrial market with unique high potential characters. It has possibility Replacing Gas lasers, Dye Lasers, SHG lasers and Solid-state Lasers and more. Diode based laser extreme small and low costs at the high volume range. In addition GaN Laser has high quality with long lifetime and has possibility to cover the wide wavelength range as between 375 to 520nm. However, in general, diode based laser could only lase with Longitudinal Multi Mode. Therefore applicable application field should be limited and it was difficult to apply for the analysis. Recently, Single Longitudinal Mode laser with GaN diode has also be accomplished with external cavity by Nichia Corporation. External cavity laser achieved at least much higher than 20dB SMSR. The feature of installing laser is that Laser on the front facet with AR coating to avoid chip mode lasing. In general, external cavity laser has been required precision of mechanical assembly and Retention Capability. Nichia has gotten rid of the issue with Intelligence Cavity and YAG Laser welding assembly technique. This laser has also been installed unique feature that the longitudinal mode could be maintained to Single Mode lasing with installing internal functional sensors in the tunable laser.*1,*2 This tunable laser source could lock a particular wavelength optionally between 390 to 465nm wavelength range. As the results, researcher will have benefit own study and it will be generated new market with the laser in the near future.

Omori, Masaki; Mori, Naoki; Dejima, Norihiro

2013-03-01

230

Preservation of cartilage matrix proteoglycans using cationic dyes chemically related to ruthenium hexaammine trichloride.  

PubMed

We tested various cationic dyes chemically related to ruthenium hexaammine trichloride (RHT) [i.e., the RHT-cyclohexanedione complex (RHT-CC), pentaamine ruthenium N-dimethylphenylenediimine trichloride (PRT), tris-(bipyridyl)ruthenium (II) chloride (TRC), tris (bipyridyl) iron (II) chloride (TIC), and cobalt hexaammine trichloride (CHT)] for their effectiveness in precipitating cartilage matrix proteoglycans in situ. Dyes were introduced into media at the onset of processing and were present throughout both aldehyde fixation and osmium tetroxide post-fixation. Contrary to expectation, most of the dye-proteoglycan complexes generated and stable under aldehyde fixation conditions were found to be unstable during post-fixation despite the continuing presence of the dye. A similar phenomenon was also found for the cationic dyes commonly used for precipitation of proteoglycans in cartilage tissue sections (such as Acridine Orange, Alcian Blue, Azure A, Methylene Blue, and Ruthenium Red). Only two dyes, i.e., RHT and the newly tested RHT-CC, formed proteoglycan precipitates sufficiently stable to resist disruption and extraction during osmium tetroxide post-fixation. The latter may be particularly useful in semiquantitative analyses of proteoglycan content in unstained tissue sections owing to its intense brown-black color. For applications in which the osmium tetroxide post-fixation step may be omitted, TRC and PRT may also be valuable for semiquantitative histochemistry by virtue of their stable fluorescence and intense violet color signals, respectively. PMID:1376743

Hunziker, E B; Ludi, A; Herrmann, W

1992-07-01

231

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

232

21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug...

2010-04-01

233

21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug...

2011-04-01

234

75 FR 977 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India for the period January 1, 2007, through...production and export of CVP-23 from India. See ``Preliminary Results of...

2010-01-07

235

75 FR 25209 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration A-533-838 Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Administrative...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India for the period...initiated the review with respect to Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) based on its request...

2010-05-07

236

75 FR 34699 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing...countervailing duty order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23(CVP-23) from India. See Antidumping...we received a request from Meghmani Pigments requesting an administrative review...

2010-06-18

237

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2011-04-01

238

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2010-04-01

239

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2013-04-01

240

21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

2014-04-01

241

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.  

PubMed

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

2001-04-01

242

75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India with respect to Meghmani Pigments. EFFECTIVE DATE: March 9, 2010. FOR...

2010-03-09

243

Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic ("acid") and cationic ("basic") dyes.  

PubMed

In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into "acid" and "basic" dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions between acids and bases result in formation of new acid-base pairs. Lewis acids and bases do not depend on a particular element, but are characterized by their electronic configurations. Lewis bases are electron donors; Lewis acids are electron acceptors. This classification is also unrelated to the electric charge. Lewis acids and bases interact by formation of coordinate covalent bonds. In histochemistry and histology, dyes containing -SO3-, -COO- and/or -O- groups are classified as "acid" dyes. However, such compounds are electron pair donors and hence Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis anionic bases. Dyes carrying a positive charge are termed "basic" dyes. Chemically, many cationic dyes are Lewis acids because they can add a base, e.g. OH-, acetate, halides. The hypothesis that transformation of -NH2 into ammonium groups imparts "basic" properties to dyes is untenable; ammonium groups are proton donors and hence acids. Furthermore, conversion of an amino into an ammonium group blocks a lone electron pair and the color of the dye changes drastically, e.g. from violet to green and yellow. It appears therefore highly unlikely that ammonium groups are responsible for binding of cationic ("basic") dyes. In histochemistry, it is usually not of critical importance whether anionic or cationic dyes are chemically acids or bases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2409057

Puchtler, H; Meloan, S N; Spencer, M

1985-01-01

244

Ultra-violet indoor tanning addiction: A reinforcer pathology interpretation.  

PubMed

Ultra-violet indoor tanning (UVIT) is a pervasive issue that is increasing at record rates, despite obvious and well-publicized links to skin cancer. Recent studies on UVIT have found that frequent users face difficulty quitting and report symptomatology similar to substance-related disorders, causing the medical field to begin classifying excessive UVIT use as an addicting behavior. Despite calls for research, relatively little behavioral research has been aimed at determining the psychology of UVIT. This mini-review reinterprets the existing dermatology literature in light of the reinforcer pathology model of addiction. The relevancy of this model, in conjunction with the similarities between UVIT addiction and other substance-related addiction, suggests that behavioral economic research on UVIT is overdue. This mini-review concludes with directions for future research in this area. PMID:25452072

Reed, Derek D

2014-11-01

245

Transient transfection of mammalian cells using a violet diode laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the first use of the violet diode laser for transient mammalian cell transfection. In contrast to previous studies, which showed the generation of stable cell lines over a few weeks, we develop a methodology to transiently transfect cells with an efficiency of up to ~40%. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells are exposed to a tightly focused 405-nm laser in the presence of plasmid DNA encoding for a mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein. We report transfection efficiencies as a function of laser power and exposure time for our system. We also show, for the first time, that a continuous wave laser source can be successfully applied to selective gene silencing experiments using small interfering RNA. This work is a major step towards an inexpensive and portable phototransfection system.

Torres-Mapa, Maria Leilani; Angus, Liselotte; Ploschner, Martin; Dholakia, Kishan; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.

2010-07-01

246

Vacuum ultra violet absorption spectroscopy of 193 nm photoresists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

193 nm photoresists which are methacrylate-based polymers are very sensitive to vacuum ultra violet (VUV) light (100 nm< ?<200 nm) generated by plasmas used for pattern transfer technologies. Upon plasma treatment the physical properties of the polymers can be deeply modified. To better understand the chemical changes involved, the absorption coefficient of a commercial 193 nm photoresist has been measured in the 120-280 nm wavelength range using a home built experimental set-up. The different contributions to the absorption were identified by also measuring the spectra of model polymers and simpler polymer chains. This knowledge was then used to identify the chemical changes in the photoresist upon heating up to 240°C.

Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Azarnouche, L.; Menguelti, K.; Joubert, O.; Cardolaccia, T.; Bae, Y. C.

2011-11-01

247

Solid hosts for dye laser rods: Part 1, Criteria for choosing a host material  

SciTech Connect

This paper will attempt to provide selection criteria for polymers as hosts for flashlamp-pumped dye laser rods. The properties of transparent polymer materials are compared with typical inorganic crystal and glass hosts. 2 figs., 1 tab.

Erickson, G.F.

1987-01-01

248

75 FR 25840 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from the People's Republic...November 30, 2008. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of...

2010-05-10

249

76 FR 55003 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from the People's Republic...Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of...

2011-09-06

250

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

251

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye ingredients is available from the National Toxicology Program (NTP), an interagency program of the U.S. ... permanent hair dyes: new insights. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2007; 37(6):521–536. [PubMed Abstract] de ...

252

Dye filled security seal  

DOEpatents

A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

1982-04-27

253

Radio-fluorogenic dosimetry with violet diode laser-induced fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of experiments is described with radio-fluorogenic detectors and violet diode lasers. Radio-fluorogenic dosimetry is the measurement of absorbed dose by quantification of fluorescent products formed in response to ionizing radiation. Relative dosimetry was accomplished with 405nm violet diode laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and digital imaging. Aqueous and gelatin-based solutions of radio-fluorogenic detectors were fabricated, irradiated with medical radiation devices, and pixel intensity values of digital images analyzed. The potential to use RFD to characterize spatial dose distributions with violet diode LIF is demonstrated.

Sandwall, Peter; Spitz, Henry; Elson, Howard; Lamba, Michael; Connick, William; Fenichel, Henry

2014-03-01

254

Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

255

[Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal tissues during chromovitrectomy. This review suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research. The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue. Patent blue, bromophenol blue and trypan blue arose as outstanding biostains for visualization of epiretinal membranes. Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation. PMID:20098913

Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod; Farah, Michel Eid

2009-01-01

256

A method for evaluating the use of fluorescent dyes to track proliferation in cell lines by dye dilution.  

PubMed

Labeling nonquiescent cells with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-like dyes gives rise to a population width exceeding the threshold for resolving division peaks by flow cytometry. Width is a function of biological heterogeneity plus extrinsic and intrinsic error sources associated with the measurement process. Optimal cytometer performance minimizes extrinsic error, but reducing intrinsic error to the point of facilitating peak resolution requires careful fluorochrome selection and fluorescent cell sorting. In this study, we labeled the Jurkat and A549 cell lines with CFSE, CellTraceViolet (CTV), and eFluor 670 proliferation dye (EPD) to test if we could resolve division peaks in culture after reducing the labeled input widths by cell sorting. Reanalysis of the sorted populations to ascertain the level of reduction achieved always led to widths exceeding the gated limits due to the contribution of errors. Measuring detector-specific extrinsic error by sorting uniform fluorescent particles with similar spectral properties to the tracking dyes allowed us to determine the intrinsic error for each dye and cell type using a simple mathematical approach. We found that cell intrinsic error ultimately dictated whether we could resolve division peaks, and that as this increased, the required sort gate width to resolve any division peaks decreased to the point whereby issues with yield made A549 unsuitable for this approach. Finally, attempts to improve yields by setting two concurrent sort gates on the fluorescence distribution enriched for cells in different stages of the cell cycle that had nonequivalent proliferative properties in culture and thus should be practiced with caution. PMID:24166880

Begum, Julfa; Day, William; Henderson, Carl; Purewal, Sukhveer; Cerveira, Joana; Summers, Huw; Rees, Paul; Davies, Derek; Filby, Andrew

2013-12-01

257

Avian Ultraviolet/Violet Cones Identified as Probable Magnetoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Background The Radical-Pair-Model postulates that the reception of magnetic compass directions in birds is based on spin-chemical reactions in specialized photopigments in the eye, with cryptochromes discussed as candidate molecules. But so far, the exact subcellular characterization of these molecules in the retina remained unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We here describe the localization of cryptochrome 1a (Cry1a) in the retina of European robins, Erithacus rubecula, and domestic chickens, Gallus gallus, two species that have been shown to use the magnetic field for compass orientation. In both species, Cry1a is present exclusively in the ultraviolet/violet (UV/V) cones that are distributed across the entire retina. Electron microscopy shows Cry1a in ordered bands along the membrane discs of the outer segment, and cell fractionation reveals Cry1a in the membrane fraction, suggesting the possibility that Cry1a is anchored along membranes. Conclusions/Significance We provide first structural evidence that Cry1a occurs within a sensory structure arranged in a way that fulfils essential requirements of the Radical-Pair-Model. Our findings, identifying the UV/V-cones as probable magnetoreceptors, support the assumption that Cry1a is indeed the receptor molecule mediating information on magnetic directions, and thus provide the Radical-Pair-Model with a profound histological background. PMID:21647441

Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Gross, Julia Christina; Peichl, Leo; Bischof, Hans-Joachim; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha

2011-01-01

258

Males on guard: paternity defences in violet-green swallows and tree swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity-defence behaviour in two congeners, violet-green swallows,Tachycineta thalassina, and tree swallows,T. bicolor, was compared to identify ecological factors that influence how males avoid being cuckolded. Measurements of the proportion of time that mates spent together, their following behaviour and the rate of within-pair copulations revealed that male violet-green swallows allocated more time to guarding mates than nests and copulated with

BARBARA A. BEASLEY

1996-01-01

259

Propagation and chimeral characterization of two reverse pinwheel flowering African violet clones  

E-print Network

Horticultural Society (Great Britain), 1986). There is a stable reversion of this flower color in which the light violet color (R. H. S. color 84C) This thesis follows the style and format of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. A... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Horticulture PROPAGATION AND CHIMERAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO REVERSE PINWHEEL FLOWERING AFRICAN VIOLET CLONES A Thesis by SHARON KATRINA SANDALL Submitted to Texas A&M University...

Sandall, Sharon Katrina

2012-06-07

260

Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 ?m inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 ?m inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

2013-03-01

261

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

262

Cell-cycle synchronisation of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using Vybrant DyeCycle Violet-based sorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the cell-cycle of Trypanosoma brucei have revealed several unusual characteristics that differ from the model eukaryotic organisms. However, the inability to isolate homogenous populations of parasites in distinct cell-cycle stages has limited the analysis of trypanosome cell division and complicated the understanding of mutant phenotypes with possible impact on cell-cycle related events. Although hydroxyurea-induced cell-cycle arrest in procyclic

Sarah Kabani; Martin Waterfall; Keith R. Matthews

2010-01-01

263

Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy of oxazine dyes.  

PubMed

The structure and energetic properties of four common oxazine dyes, Nile red, Nile blue A, Cresyl violet, and Brilliant cresyl blue, have been probed using a combination of infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. IRMPD spectra of the protonated dyes, as generated from an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, were collected in the range of 900-1800 cm(-1). Vibrational band assignments related to carbonyl and substituted-amine stretches were established from a comparison of the experimental spectra of these related systems as well as from a comparison with spectra generated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For Nile red, the thermochemical landscape for protonation at different basic sites was probed using DFT; comparison of IRMPD and calculated IR spectra reveals the site of protonation to be at the carbonyl oxygen. The structural information obtained here in the gas phase pertaining to these important fluorophores is anticipated to provide further insight into their associated intrinsic fluorescent properties in solution. PMID:23450155

Nieckarz, Robert J; Oomens, Jos; Berden, Giel; Sagulenko, Pavel; Zenobi, Renato

2013-04-14

264

A pilot plant study of the degradation of Brilliant Green dye using ozone microbubbles: mechanism and kinetics of reaction.  

PubMed

Oxidation of Brilliant Green dye was performed using ozone microbubbles in a pilot plant scale. Decolourisation was very effective at both acidic and alkaline pH. The colour of the aqueous solution was below detectable limit after 30?min at 1.7?mg/s ozone generation rate. The reaction between the dye and ozone was first-order in nature with respect to both ozone and the dye. The enhancement factor increased with increasing dye concentration. The samples were analysed by the ultra-violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. From the GC-MS analysis, 13 intermediates were detected as oxidation products of this dye at various stages of oxidation. The changes in the FTIR spectra showed the destruction of the dye and the formation of new compounds. The oxidation mechanism was divided into two reaction pathways. The mineralisation of Brilliant Green was up to 80% in 60?min, as determined by total organic carbon analysis. PMID:25514135

Khuntia, Snigdha; Majumder, Subrata Kumar; Ghosh, Pallab

2015-02-01

265

Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •FAK signaling cascade in cancer cells is profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B. •Methyl violet 2B identified by virtual screening is a novel allosteric FAK inhibitor. •Methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity. •Methyl violet 2B suppresses strongly the proliferation of cancer cells. •Methyl violet 2B inhibits focal adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells. -- Abstract: The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1 nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion/migration/invasion of tumor cells.

Kim, Hwan [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Doo [Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 2387 Dalgubeol-daero, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-010 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 2387 Dalgubeol-daero, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-010 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyeon [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyoonhee [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)] [Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control (TRCP), Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences (WCU Program), Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Taebo, E-mail: tbsim@kist.re.kr [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-26

266

Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

2011-05-15

267

Prospects for Organic Dye Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  A review of organic nanoparticles consisting of small functional dye molecules is presented in this chapter. The study of\\u000a organic dye nanoparticles does not have a lengthy history, but there is growing scientific and technological interest owing\\u000a to their special characteristics: physicochemical properties of organic dye nanoparticles considerably differ not only from\\u000a those of individual molecules due to the presence

Hiroshi Yao

268

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

269

Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

270

A DNA crystal designed to contain two molecules per asymmetric unit.  

PubMed

We describe the self-assembly of a DNA crystal that contains two tensegrity triangle molecules per asymmetric unit. We have used X-ray crystallography to determine its crystal structure. In addition, we have demonstrated control over the colors of the crystals by attaching either Cy3 dye (pink) or Cy5 dye (blue-green) to the components of the crystal, yielding crystals of corresponding colors. Attaching the pair of dyes to the pair of molecules yields a purple crystal. PMID:20958065

Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Birktoft, Jens; Zheng, Jianping; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C

2010-11-10

271

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.

1968-01-01

272

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

1984-01-01

273

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

1986-01-01

274

Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.  

PubMed

Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. PMID:20456377

Davari, P; Maibach, H I

2011-01-01

275

Microwave induced catalytic degradation of crystal violet in nano-nickel dioxide suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel oxide catalyst was obtained by precipitation–oxidation method with the assistance of microwave irradiation. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface area and porosity analyzer. On the basis of the results, the as-prepared product was nano-NiO2 with OH group and active oxygen. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared product might

Huan He; Shaogui Yang; Kai Yu; Yongming Ju; Cheng Sun; Lianhong Wang

2010-01-01

276

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

Skotheim, T.A.

1980-03-04

277

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

1980-03-04

278

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe. PMID:22476459

2012-01-01

279

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes  

E-print Network

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes Brian E. Hardin1 efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate on the basis of light harvesting using a sensitizing dye (SD) attached to a wide- bandgap semiconductor1

McGehee, Michael

280

75 FR 12497 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China...carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India and the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty orders on CVP 23 from India and the PRC\\1\\ pursuant to section...

2010-03-16

281

75 FR 29718 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India and the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India and the People's Republic of China...carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India and the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty orders on CVP-23 from India and the PRC \\1\\ pursuant to section...

2010-05-27

282

75 FR 23239 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...antidumping duty order on CVP 23 from India. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

2010-05-03

283

Soybean peroxidase-mediated degradation of an azo dye– a detailed mechanistic study  

PubMed Central

Background Peroxidases are emerging as an important class of enzymes that can be used for the efficient degradation of organic pollutants. However, detailed studies identifying the various intermediates produced and the mechanisms involved in the enzyme-mediated pollutant degradation are not widely published. Results In the present study, the enzymatic degradation of an azo dye (Crystal Ponceau 6R, CP6R) was studied using commercially available soybean peroxidase (SBP) enzyme. Several operational parameters affecting the enzymatic degradation of dye were evaluated and optimized, such as initial dye concentration, H2O2 dosage, mediator amount and pH of the solution. Under optimized conditions, 40 ppm dye solution could be completely degraded in under one minute by SBP in the presence of H2O2 and a redox mediator. Dye degradation was also confirmed using HPLC and TOC analyses, which showed that most of the dye was being mineralized to CO2 in the process. Conclusions Detailed analysis of metabolites, based on LC/MS results, showed that the enzyme-based degradation of the CP6R dye proceeded in two different reaction pathways- via symmetric azo bond cleavage as well as asymmetric azo bond breakage in the dye molecule. In addition, various critical transformative and oxidative steps such as deamination, desulfonation, keto-oxidation are explained on an electronic level. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses confirmed that the end products in both pathways were small chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:24308857

2013-01-01

284

2nd International Symposium on Instrumentation Science and Technology Aug. 18~22, 2002, Jinan. China Stimulation of Violet Lasers to Traditional Chinese Medicine  

E-print Network

. China Stimulation of Violet Lasers to Traditional Chinese Medicine Photosensitizer for Diagnosis emission spectrum of the traditional Chinese medicine photosensitizer are measured, and two violet light exactly matches the absorption peak of the traditional Chinese medicine photosensitizer. Keywords: gastric

Bowers, John

285

nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO3) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency ( ?) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively.

Rashad, M. M.; Shalan, A. E.

2014-08-01

286

Dielectric and thermal effects on the optical properties of natural dyes: a case study on solvated cyanin.  

PubMed

The optical properties of the flavylium state of the cyanin dye are simulated numerically by combining Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and linear-response time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The spectrum of the dye calculated in the gas phase is characterized by two peaks in the yellow and in the blue (green and violet), using a GGA-PBE (hybrid-B3LYP) DFT functional, which would bring about a greenish (bright orange) color incompatible with the dark purple hue observed in nature. Describing the effect of the water solvent through a polarizable continuum model does not modify qualitatively the resulting picture. An explicit simulation of both solvent and thermal effects using ab initio molecular dynamics results instead in a spectrum that is compatible with the observed coloration. This result is analyzed in terms of the spectroscopic effects of the molecular distortions induced by thermal fluctuations. PMID:21905678

Malc?o?lu, Osman Bari?; Calzolari, Arrigo; Gebauer, Ralph; Varsano, Daniele; Baroni, Stefano

2011-10-01

287

SELECTION ON FLORAL MORPHOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS OF FECUNDITY IN A HAWK MOTH-POLLINATED VIOLET  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a 5-yr field study on the determinants of individual variation in maternal fecundity (seed production) in the narrowly endemic violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae), at a southeastern Spanish locality. Flowers of this species are characterized by a very long, thin spur and broad morphological variability, and are pol- linated by a single species of day-flying

CARLOS M. HERRERA

1993-01-01

288

Children's School December 2013 Education Exchange in South Korea (Violet McGillen)  

E-print Network

Children's School December 2013 Education Exchange in South Korea (Violet McGillen) Mrs. Tomer and I spent a busy but enjoyable 9 days in Seoul, South Korea last month visiting Duksung Women divide between North and South Korea), the Korean Folk Village, which depicts Korea long ago, and we went

289

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2011-04-01

290

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2010-04-01

291

21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 ? Food and Drugs ? 1 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? D&C Violet No. 2. ? 82.1602 ? Section 82.1602 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ? GENERAL ? LISTING OF CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS ? Drugs and Cosmetics...

2010-04-01

292

Genetic structure among and within peripheral and central populations of three endangered floodplain violets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the partitioning of genetic variance in peripheral and central populations may shed more light on the effects of genetic drift and gene flow on population genetic structure and, thereby, improve attempts to conserve genetic diversity. We analysed genetic structure of peripheral and central populations of three insect-pollinated violets ( Viola elatior , Viola pumila , Viola stagnina ) to

R. L. E CKSTEIN; R. A. O' NEILL; J. DANIHELKA; A. OTTE; W. KÖHLER

2006-01-01

293

Effects on soft tissue produced by a visible violet diode laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A violet laser with an oscillating wavelength of 405 nm has recently been developed in industry. Laser irradiation at this wavelength penetrates tissue less aggressively than Nd:YAG and diode laser irradiation at wavelengths of 810 nm, and more aggressively than irradiation by carbon dioxide laser. Further, protein is reported to absorb this 405 nm wavelength at high rates. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the violet laser on soft tissue in vitro. A prototype violet diode laser produced by Sumitomo Electric Industries was used. This laser irradiates with a continuous wave at a wavelength of 405 nm. Soft tissue samples were irradiated by the device at output powers in a range from 850 mW to 2400 mW as the irradiated samples were conveyed at a scanning speed of 1 mm/sec. The beam diameter was about 270 ?m. The irradiated samples were observed by a stereoscopic microscope, fixed with a 10% neutral formalin aqueous solution, and histologically examined. Irradiation by the device vaporized a U-shaped section of tissue to a depth of about 350 to 900 ?m. A denatured layer measuring 300 to 450 ?m in width was observed under the carbonization layer. The depth of vaporization increased in proportion to the power. These results indicate that a violet laser has good potential to become an effective laser for the cutting and coagulation of soft tissue.

Akashi, G.; Kato, J.; Hatayama, H.; Inoue, A.; Hirai, Y.

2006-02-01

294

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2012-04-01

295

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2014-04-01

296

21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

2013-04-01

297

Diploma, 1974 Cancellation of ultra-violet infinities in one loop gravity  

E-print Network

Diploma, 1974 Cancellation of ultra-violet infinities in one loop gravity V. E. Korepin C.N. Yang is a translation of the Diploma. The diploma was in Russian, it was never published. Recently Faddeev found xxxvii of the book). The scan of original diploma can be found in the first line of the webpage [2

Korepin, Vladimir

298

Colouring mechanism of dyed KDP crystal by quantum chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye adsorption mechanism, in particular, colouring mechanism of KDP (KH2PO4) crystal was investigated by quantum chemistry in this study. Phenomena, such as different preferentially coloured faces of KDP when co-crystallised with different dyes, are explained by the minimum and maximum values of electrostatic potential (ESP). Furthermore, it is found that the ESP distribution of a dye molecule may not necessarily

Yusuke Asakuma; Motosuke Nishimura; Qin Li; H. Ming Ang; Moses Tade; Kouji Maeda; Keisuke Fukui

2007-01-01

299

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-01-01

300

Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z. [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia) and NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-05-25

301

Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by using a new strong cation-exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(glycidylmethacrylate) was grafted via surface-initiated-atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on a cross-linked acrylate based resin. Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonic groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The adsorption of Crystal Violet and Basic Fuchsine on the strong cation-exchange resin was studied under different experimental conditions. The adsorption process for both

Gulay Bayramoglu; Begum Altintas; M. Yakup Arica

2009-01-01

302

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

303

Identification and measurement of food and cosmetic dyes in a municipal wastewater treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

Acid Blue 9, Acid Violet 17, Quinoline Yellow, Acid Red 51, Acid Red 87, and Acid Red 92 along with N-benzyl-N-ethylaniline sulfonic acid (BEASA), a synthetic precursor, were identified and measured in colored wastewater samples from a municipal treatment plant. Continuous-flow fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry was used to analyze BEASA. Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was used to analyze the other dyes, but its lack of selectivity required prior isolation of the analytes from interfering compounds by solid-phase extraction onto C[sub 18] extraction disks and onto cartridges packed with strong anion-exchange resins. The xanthene dyes (Acid Red 51, 87, and 92) were found in low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations in the plant influent and were rapidly removed by adsorption to sludge. Acid Red 92 was found to be over 35 times more concentrated on secondary sludge than in the corresponding liquid samples, indicating high levels of accumulation. The other dyes and BEASA were found in hundred ppb concentrations in both the influent and the effluent of the plant, indicating a resistance to both degradation and removal by sorption. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Borgerding, A.J.; Hites, R.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1994-07-01

304

Nanoporous membranes with cellulose nanocrystals as functional entity in chitosan: removal of dyes from water.  

PubMed

Fully biobased composite membranes for water purification were fabricated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as functional entities in chitosan matrix via freeze-drying process followed by compacting. The chitosan (10 wt%) bound the CNCs in a stable and nanoporous membrane structure with thickness of 250-270 ?m, which was further stabilized by cross-linking with gluteraldehyde vapors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed well-individualized CNCs embedded in a matrix of chitosan. Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) measurements showed that the membranes were nanoporous with pores in the range of 13-10nm. In spite of the low water flux (64 Lm(-2) h(-1)), the membranes successfully removed 98%, 84% and 70% respectively of positively charged dyes like Victoria Blue 2B, Methyl Violet 2B and Rhodamine 6G, after a contact time of 24h. The removal of dyes was expected to be driven by the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged CNCs and the positively charged dyes. PMID:25129796

Karim, Zoheb; Mathew, Aji P; Grahn, Mattias; Mouzon, Johanne; Oksman, Kristiina

2014-11-01

305

Albanian violets of the section Melanium, their morphological variability, genetic similarity and their adaptations to serpentine or chalk soils.  

PubMed

Violets of the section Melanium from Albanian serpentine and chalk soils were examined for their taxonomic affiliations, their ability to accumulate heavy metals and their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region showed that all the sampled six Albanian violets grouped between Viola lutea and Viola arvensis, but not with Viola tricolor. The fine resolution of the ITS sequences was not sufficient for a further delimitation of the Albanian violets within the V. lutea-V. arvensis clade. Therefore, the Albanian violets were classified by a set of morphological characters. Viola albanica, Viola dukadjinica and Viola raunsiensis from serpentine soils as well as Viola aetolica from a chalk meadow were unambiguously identified, whereas the samples of Viola macedonica showed high morphological variability. All the violets, in both roots and shoots contained less than or similar levels of heavy metals as their harboring soils, indicating that they were heavy metal excluders. All the violets were strongly colonized by AMF with the remarkable exception of V. albanica. This violet lived as a scree creeper in shallow serpentine soil where the concentration of heavy metals was high but those of P, K and N were scarce. PMID:25462973

S?omka, Aneta; Godzik, Barbara; Szarek-?ukaszewska, Gra?yna; Shuka, Lulëzim; Hoef-Emden, Kerstin; Bothe, Hermann

2015-02-01

306

Synthesis and spectral studies of 2-aminopyridinium para-nitrobenzoate: A novel optoelectronic crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new crystal 2-aminopyridinium para-nitro benzoate (C5H7N2+·C7H4NO4?) has been synthesized by the reaction of 2-aminopyridine with para-nitro benzoic acid by slow evaporation method. As synthesized crystals have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and Ultra violet (UV) spectral studies. The XRD and FTIR results indicated that the synthesized compound has the crystal structure of monoclinic with

Bhuvana K. Periyasamy; Robinson S. Jebas; Balasubramanian Thailampillai

2007-01-01

307

Development of distributed feedback dye lasers for generation of high-power 193 nm excimer laser short pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of picosecond dye lasers, nonlinear mixing in crystals, and excimer amplifiers offers an attractive way to generate intense diffraction-limited pulses throughout the ultraviolet region. However, it is difficult to generate 193 nm seed pulses because this wavelength cannot be obtained by second harmonic generation method in any known crystals. The thesis will describe a laser system which efficiently

Yifeng Cui

1993-01-01

308

Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic structure enables the systematic design of new dyes using less expensive materials.

Johnson, Phillip S.

309

Fluidic fibre dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the demonstration of compact fluidic fibre lasers based on capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibres, featuring single channel and multiple laterally integrated fluidic lasers respectively. Their preparation was based on capillary action and lasing occurred without the need for external mirrors or lithographically defined microstructures. The fibre lasers were found to be tunable by varying the chromophore density in the liquid core and a functional wavelength selectivity mechanism inherent in both types of lasers provided a long free spectral range that does not correspond to the length of the fibres. The enhanced mode spacing is attributed to a Vernier resonant effect.

Vasdekis, A. E.; Town, G. E.; Turnbull, G. A.; Samuel, I. D. W.

2007-04-01

310

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

Hackel, R.P.

1992-11-24

311

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

312

Trend towards low cost, low power, ultra-violet (UV) based biological agent detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-violet fluorescence remains a corner stone technique for the detection of biological agent aerosols. Historically, these UV based detectors have employed relatively costly and power demanding lasers that have influenced the exploitation of the technology to wider use. Recent advancements from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Solid-state Ultra Violet Optical Sources (SUVOS) program has changed this. The UV light emitting diode (LED) devices based on Gallium Nitride offer a unique opportunity to produce small, low power, and inexpensive detectors. It may, in fact, be possible to extend the SUVOS technology into detectors that are potentially disposable. This report will present ongoing efforts to explore this possibility. It will present candidate UV fluorescence based detector designs along with the biological aerosol responses obtained from these designs.

Sickenberger, David

2005-11-01

313

Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

1987-01-01

314

75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...sunset review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23...conducted an expedited sunset review of the CVD order pursuant to section 751(c)(3...Department finds that revocation of the CVD order would likely lead to...

2010-03-19

315

Dielectric functions of DNA base films from near-infrared to ultra-violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is reporting the dielectric functions of DNA base films, i.e. guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine in the energy range from near-infrared to ultra-violet. Spectroscopic ellipsometry using synchrotron radiation was employed in situ on DNA base films grown on hydrogen terminated Si(111) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The optical response of adenine and guanine films is described by a

S. D. Silaghi; M. Friedrich; C. Cobet; N. Esser; W. Braun; D. R. T. Zahn

2005-01-01

316

LA CANOPEE FORESTIERE VUE PAR UN LIDAR ULTRA-VIOLET AEROPORTE DE NOUVELLE GENERATION  

E-print Network

principaux puits du CO2 atmosphérique, et c'est également l'un des éléments majeurs de régulation du cycle de of energetic laser pulses (16 mJ at 20 Hz). During this experience, the vegetation vertical structure (canopy. Keywords : Vegetation remote sensing, laser, airborne lidar, ultra-violet, ultra-light airplane 1

317

Doppler cooling a single Ca + ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a scheme for employing a violet extended-cavity diode laser in experiments with single, trapped ions. For this the grating-stabilised laser is spatially and spectrally filtered and referenced to a Fabry–Pérot cavity. We measure an upper limit to the line width by observing a 305-kHz FWHM beat note with the second harmonic of a titanium sapphire laser. The laser

G. P. T. Lancaster; H. Häffner; M. A. Wilson; C. Becher; J. Eschner; F. Schmidt-Kaler; R. Blatt

2003-01-01

318

Mask fabrication and its applications to extreme ultra-violet diffractive optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-wavelength radiation around 13nm of wavelength (Extreme Ultra-Violet, EUV) is being considered for patterning microcircuits, and other electronic chips with dimensions in the nanometer range. Interferometric Lithography (IL) uses two beams of radiation to form high-resolution interference fringes, as small as half the wavelength of the radiation used. As a preliminary step toward manufacturing technology, IL can be used to

Yang-Chun Cheng

2009-01-01

319

Rewritable Dual-Layer PhaseChange Optical Disk Utilizing a Blue-Violet Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a rewritable dual-layer phase-change optical disk utilizing a blue-violet laser. For the first medium, we adopted a very thin recording layer with a new phase-change material Ge-Sn-Sb-Te, and a 10-nm-thick silver-alloy reflective layer to obtain a large transmittance and high-quality signals. For the second medium, we optimized the thickness

Tetsuya Akiyama; Mayumi Uno; Hideki Kitaura; Kenji Narumi; Rie Kojima; Kenichi Nishiuchi; Noboru Yamada

2001-01-01

320

Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride, as compared to alum and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is a less commonly used coagulant in the field of wastewater treatment, with a cost in between alum and PAC. It has been used in this study as a coagulant to investigate the effectiveness in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of colouring matters. The colour concentration of dye

Boon Hai Tan; Tjoon Tow Teng; A. K. Mohd Omar

2000-01-01

321

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

322

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

323

Environmentally Friendly Natural Dyeing of Organic Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, organic cotton fabrics were dyed with different natural dye sources (madder root, walnut shell, henna, horse chestnut, pomegranate peel, berberis vulgaris root, thyme, and sage tea). The dyeing was carried out with different mordants (copper sulphate, potassium aluminum sulphate, potassium tartrate, and citric acid), using pre-mordanting dyeing methods. The color of the fabrics was investigated in terms

Mustafa Tutak; N. Ebru Korkmaz

2012-01-01

324

In the Bag: Contact Natural Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact dyeing is a practical alternative to the more common immersion method of natural dyeing. Contact dyeing is a very low liquor ratio method where the actual natural dyestuff is placed around and between the goods to be dyed. The dyestuff and goods are compressed into a bundle that is placed in a plastic bag and heated by using steam,

Sara J. Kadolph; Karen Diadick Casselman

2004-01-01

325

Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

1991-01-01

326

PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

327

A violet emission in ZnS:Mn,Eu: Luminescence and applications for radiation detection  

SciTech Connect

We prepared manganese and europium co-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Mn,Eu) phosphors and used them for radiation detection. In addition to the red fluorescence at 583?nm due to the d-d transition of Mn ions, an intense violet emission at 420?nm is newly observed in ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. The emission is related to Eu{sup 2+} doping but only appears at certain Eu{sup 2+} concentrations. It is found that the intensity of the 420?nm violet fluorescence is X-ray does-dependent, while the red fluorescence of 583?nm is not. The ratio of fluorescence intensities at 420?nm and 583?nm has been monitored as a function of X-ray doses that exposed upon the ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. Empirical formulas are provided to estimate the doses of applied X-ray irradiation. Finally, possible mechanisms of X-ray irradiation induced fluorescence quenching are discussed. The intense 420?nm emission not only provides a violet light for solid state lighting but also offers a very sensitive method for radiation detection.

Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei, E-mail: weichen@uta.edu [Department of Physics and the SAVANT Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019-0059 (United States); Jiang, Ke [Center for Biofrontiers Institute, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy., Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Liu, Xiao-tang [Department of Physics and the SAVANT Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019-0059 (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

2014-03-14

328

Short-laser-pulse-induced photoelectric phenomena and reorientation in nematics activated with ionic dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photoelectric phenomena and orientational nonlinearity induced by nanosecond laser pulses in planar layers of liquid crystals\\u000a oriented by silicon oxide (SiO) and activated with polymethine dyes were investigated. These phenomena are due to the photogeneration\\u000a of surface and bulk charges in the liquid crystal cell, their spatial distribution between the grating vector and the beam\\u000a propagation directions, and the

S. V. Serak; A. A. Kovalev; A. V. Agashkov

2000-01-01

329

Dye laser for lidar ozonometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thus results have been published in Ref. 2 of observations of ozone in the lower layers of the atmosphere with the help of lidar, but the necessary measurement accuracy was not obtained due to insufficient energy of the laser pulses. A detailed analysis of the possibility of such measurements [3] has shown the need to use a dye laser with

P. A. Baranov; V. I. Kozintsev; V. N. Makarov; V. G. Nikiforov; A. N. Novoselov

1982-01-01

330

Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.  

PubMed

The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water. PMID:16406295

Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

2006-07-31

331

Lasing from fluorescent protein crystals.  

PubMed

We investigated fluorescent protein crystals for potential photonic applications, for the first time to our knowledge. Rod-shaped crystals of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were synthesized, with diameters of 0.5-2 ?m and lengths of 100-200 ?m. The crystals exhibit minimal light scattering due to their ordered structure and generate substantially higher fluorescence intensity than EGFP or dye molecules in solutions. The magnitude of concentration quenching in EGFP crystals was measured to be about 7-10 dB. Upon optical pumping at 485 nm, individual EGFP crystals located between dichroic mirrors generated laser emission with a single-mode spectral line at 513 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of protein crystals as novel optical elements for self-assembled, micro- or nano-lasers and amplifiers in aqueous environment. PMID:25607090

Oh, Heon Jeong; Gather, Malte C; Song, Ji-Joon; Yun, Seok Hyun

2014-12-15

332

Metachromasy in clay mineral systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of the metachromic (colour depends on concentration) cationic dyes crystal violet (CV) and ethyl violet (EV) by Na-kaolinite and Na-montmorillonite has been studied by visible spectroscopy and titration calorimetry. In the kaolinite system, metachromasy stems from association of the dye cations on the external surface of the clay. Enthalpies of adsorption at small dye\\/clay ratios are ?3.5 and ?3.8

C. Dobrogowska; L. G. Hepler; D. K. Ghosh; Sh. Yariv

1991-01-01

333

Anaphylaxis to annatto dye: a case report.  

PubMed

Annatto dye is an orange-yellow food coloring extracted from the seeds of the tree Bixa orellana. It is commonly used in cheeses, snack foods, beverages, and cereals. Previously reported adverse reactions associated with annatto dye have included urticaria and angioedema. We present a patient who developed urticaria, angioedema, and severe hypotension within 20 minutes following ingestion of milk and Fiber One cereal, which contained annatto dye. Subsequent skin tests to milk, wheat, and corn were negative. The patient had a strong positive skin test to annatto dye, while controls had no response. The nondialyzable fraction of annatto dye on SDS-PAGE demonstrated two protein staining bands in the range of 50 kD. Immunoblotting demonstrated patient IgE-specific for one of these bands, while controls showed no binding. Annatto dye may contain contaminating or residual seed proteins to which our patient developed IgE hypersensitivity. Annatto dye is a potential rare cause of anaphylaxis. PMID:1994783

Nish, W A; Whisman, B A; Goetz, D W; Ramirez, D A

1991-02-01

334

Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

2012-08-01

335

Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

336

Growth of zinc cadmium thiocyanate single crystal for laser diode frequency-doubling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc cadmium thiocyanate (ZnCd(SCN) 4, ZCTC) crystal is a promising nonlinear optical material as the source of blue-violet light by laser diode frequency-doubling. A series of experiments on the growth of ZCTC crystal are reported in this paper. A larger single crystal, with size 7×7×13 mm 3, was successfully obtained from the NH 4Cl-NH 4SCN-H 2O mixed solvent by using the solvent-evaporation method. The problems in the growth of ZCTC single crystal are discussed and the key to growing large and transparent single ZCTC crystals is proposed.

Jiang, Xue-Ning; Xu, Dong; Yuan, Duorong; Lu, Mengkai; Guo, Shiyi; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xinqiang; Fang, Qi

2001-02-01

337

Crystal growth and physical properties of UV nonlinear optical crystal zinc cadmium thiocyanate, ZnCd(SCN) 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc cadmium thiocyanate, ZnCd(SCN) 4 (ZCTC) single crystals of optical quality have been grown from aqueous solution by controlled evaporation at 40 °C. The morphology of the crystal was indexed. Raman spectroscopy, refractive indices, optical transmission and optical damage threshold of the ZCTC crystal were all performed at room temperature. Violet and ultraviolet (UV) light output by frequency doubling of a 808 nm GaAlAs laser diode and a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser at 760 nm were achieved. The dielectric constants, piezoelectric strain constants, electroptic coefficients, and direct current resistivities have also been measured.

Wang, Xin-Qiang; Xu, Dong; Lü, Meng-Kai; Yuan, Duo-Rong; Yin, Xin; Zhang, Guang-Hui; Xu, Shou-Xi; Lu, Gui-Wu; Song, Chun-Feng; Guo, Shi-Yi; Liu, Jiu-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Ying; Wang, Dong; Yang, Zhao-He; Zhao, Xian; Ren, Quan; Zhao, Jun-Qing; Liu, Wei-Liang

2001-10-01

338

Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15min), and amounts of salt (10g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

2015-05-01

339

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from The Lawrence Hall of Science was taught in spring 2012 and teaches students about nano and environmental technologies. Students will create "dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using nano-crystalline titanium dioxide." This page includes links to the Source Articles for the Hands-on Module and Project Staff Write-ups of the Hands-on Module. Additionally, five documents provide lecture and lab materials for instructor use.

2014-06-03

340

NIR Dyes for Bioimaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Fluorescent dyes based on small organic molecules that function in the near infra red (NIR) region are of great current interest in chemical biology. They allow for imaging with minimal autofluorescence from biological samples, reduced light scattering and high tissue penetration. Herein, examples of ongoing NIR fluorophore design strategies as well as their properties and anticipated applications relevant to the bioimaging are presented. PMID:19926332

Escobedo, Jorge O.; Rusin, Oleksandr; Lim, Soojin

2009-01-01

341

Enzymatic decolorization of sulfonphthalein dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus (WRF) Pleurotus ostreatus produced manganese peroxidase (MnP) and manganese-independent peroxidase (MIP) activities during solid state fermentation of wheat straw, a natural lignocellulosic substrate. Most of the sulfonphthalein (SP) dyes were decolorized by MnP at pH 4.0. The higher Km for meta-cresol purple (40?M) and lower Km for ortho-cresol red (26?M) for MnP activities explained the preference

R. Shrivastava; V. Christian; B. R. M. Vyas

2005-01-01

342

Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection with Intra-Gastric Violet Light Phototherapy – a Pilot Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective Helicobacter pylori infects the mucus layer of the human stomach and causes peptic ulcers and adenocarcinoma. We have previously shown that H. pylori accumulates photoactive porphyrins making the organism susceptible to inactivation by light, and that small spot endoscopic illumination with violet light reduced bacterial load in human stomachs. This study assessed the feasibility and safety of whole-stomach intra-gastric violet phototherapy for the treatment of H. pylori infection. Study Design/Materials and Methods A controlled, prospective pilot trial was conducted using a novel light source consisting of laser diodes and diffusing fibers to deliver 408-nm illumination at escalating total fluences to the whole stomach. Eighteen adults (10 female) with H. pylori infection were treated at 3 U.S. academic endoscopy centers. Quantitative bacterial counts were obtained from biopsies taken from the antrum, body and fundus, and serial urea breath tests. Results The largest reduction in bacterial load was in the antrum (>97%), followed by body (>95%) and fundus (>86%). There was a correlation between log reduction and initial bacterial load in the antrum. There was no dose-response seen with increasing illumination times. The urea breath test results indicated that the bacteria repopulated in days following illumination. Conclusion Intragastric violet light phototherapy is feasible and safe and may represent a novel approach to eradication of H. pylori, particularly in patients who have failed standard antibiotic treatment. This was a pilot study involving a small number of patients. Further research is needed to determine if phototherapy can be effective for eradicating H. pylori. PMID:19533762

Lembo, Anthony J; Ganz, Robert A; Sheth, Sunil; Cave, David; Kelly, Ciaran; Levin, Philip; Kazlas, Peter T; Baldwin, Paul C; Lindmark, William R; McGrath, Jonathan R; Hamblin, Michael R

2009-01-01

343

The use of phenothiazine dyes to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus in goat colostrum  

PubMed Central

Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal concentration of phenothiazine dye required to inactivate bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in goat colostrum following 60 min of illumination and determine if immunoglobulin concentration is affected by this technique. In addition, the potential of continuous agitation of colostrum during illumination to affect viral kill was investigated. This experiment was designed to more closely approximate on-farm use than a previous pilot study performed by the same investigators. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was used as a model for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Goat colostrum containing BVDV was illuminated for 60 min following the addition of either methylene blue (MB) or methylene violet (MV). Four different concentrations of each dye were evaluated. Illumination was performed in a small, portable chesttype freezer equipped on the inside with white fluorescent lights. Some samples were continuously rocked during illumination, while others remained stationary. Virus levels were determined before and after illumination. Immunoglobulin concentrations were determined for time 0 and 60 min. One ?M MB reduced virus to undetectable levels following 60 min of illumination. A concentration of 20 ?M MV was required to reduce virus levels to zero. Agitation of colostrum samples had no effect with either MB or MV on whether virus levels were reduced. High concentrations of MB and MV had no important effect on immunoglobulin concentrations. PMID:15188954

2004-01-01

344

Dye laser traveling wave amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Injection locking was applied to a cavity-dumped coaxial flashlamp pumped dye laser in an effort to obtain nanosecond duration pulses which have both high energy and narrow-linewidth. In the absence of an injected laser pulse, the cavity-dumped dye laser was capable of generating high energy (approx. 60mJ) nanosecond duration output pulses. These pulses, however, had a fixed center wavelength and were extremely broadband (approx. 6nm FWHM). Experimental investigations were performed to determine if the spectral properties of these outputs could be improved through the use of injection-locking techniques. A parametric study to determine the specific conditions under which the laser could be injection-locked was also carried out. Significant linewidth reduction to 0.0015nm) of the outputs was obtained through injection-locking but only at wavelengths near the peak lasing wavelength of the dye. It was found, however; that by inserting weakly dispersive tuning elements in the laser cavity, these narrow-linewidth outputs could be obtained over a wide (24nm) tuning range. Since the tuning elements had low insertion losses, the tunability of the output was obtained without sacrificing output pulse energy.

Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

1985-01-01

345

Ultrafast distributed feedback dye lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A distributed feedback dye laser (DFDL) was experimentally studied to determine the utmost lower limit on ultrafast pulse generation. The ultimate aim was to determine its suitability as a cheaper high peak power laser source. The dye cell was excited by the second harmonic of a laboratory built cavity dumped passively q switched and modelocked Nd:YAG Laser to induce temperature phase grating in dye solution. Different features studied include threshold conditions, pulse shortening, by reducing cavity length, polymerization limitations, simultaneous induction of multiple superimposed gratings, line narrowing, polarization, temporal and spectral characteristics. The pump polarization affect on dynamic gratings and threshold conditions indicated the number of lasing lines (maximum nine) or intensity of a single line depends upon the state of pump polarization (SOP). Various types of tuning methods such as Bragg index, refractive index, half angle and state of pump polarization were tested for improved divergence, bandwidth, line-width and wider spectral ranges. The combined effect of coherence length and SOP of excitation laser on emission of multiple lines was studied without using external gratings. The results of this critical and contemporary work on DFDL is in agreement with most of the published results and opens a new era for their potential suitability in optical communication, sensing and photonic devices.

Khan, Nasrullah

2000-04-01

346

High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

David, Aurelien; Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R.

2014-12-01

347

Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2013-12-15

348

Violet Polymer Light Emitting Devices (pled's) Based on Pyrrolopyridazine Triester - N-Vinyl Carbazole) (pvk)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violet spun-coated PLED's based on PPZ-doped PVK (PPZ:PVK) are described. The photoluminescence (PL) of the PPZ-oil derivative and the electroluminescence (EL) of the devices, with either an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode or an ITO\\/poly(3,4-ethylene dioxy-2,4-thiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS) anode, peak at 428 nm. Although absolute PL quantum yield eta_PL measurements on the PPZ-oil yielded eta_PL ≈ 40fabricate devices by vacuum

Moon Ky Lee; Chang-Hwan Kim; Akshay Naik; Joseph Shinar; Yang Cheng; Fred Wudl

2002-01-01

349

Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 106 frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M.

2013-12-01

350

Nonradiative relaxation of rare-earth ions in YPO 4 crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy gap dependence of nonradiative relaxation rate is constructed for the YPO4 crystal based on the measurement of fluorescence decay time of rare-earth ions. Parameters A and ? in the expression of WNR=Ae???E (energy gap law) are found to be A=4.5×108s-1 and ?=1.45×10-3cm. Violet fluorescence from Nd3+:YPO4 crystal are also studied experimentally, and the corresponding radiative decay rates are

Hairong Zheng; Richard S. Meltzer

2007-01-01

351

Additive-free controllable fabrication of bismuth vanadates and their photocatalytic activity toward dye degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth vanadates (BiVO 4) with various crystal structures (tetragonal scheelite, monoclinic scheelite, and tetragonal zircon) and morphologies (sphere-, nanosheet-, dendrite-, and flower-like) were controllably fabricated by using a mild additive-free hydrothermal treatment process under the different preparation conditions. The crystal structures, morphologies, and photophysical properties of the products were well-characterized. Subsequently, their UV- as well as visible-light photocatalytic performance was evaluated via dyes rhodamine B (RB) and methylene blue (MB) degradation. Special attention was paid to evaluate the correlation of the reactivity with crystal structure, morphology, and electronic structure of as-prepared BiVO 4 samples.

Guo, Yingna; Yang, Xia; Ma, Fengyan; Li, Kexin; Xu, Lei; Yuan, Xing; Guo, Yihang

2010-01-01

352

[Novelty of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to present recent developments in the area of novelty of vital dyes in intraocular surgery. The authors present the advantages and disadvantages of several vital dyes currently used in ophthalmic surgery. Vital dyes are used to allow better intraoperative visualization of both the anterior and posterior segments. Indocyanine green and trypan blue are the most frequently used and the most efficacious dyes for staining the important anatomic areas but often are associated with significant side effects. These dyes are used in cataract and vitreo-retinal surgery. Other dyes including rhodamine 6G, E68, bromophenol blue, light green and Chicago blue are still under preclinical assessment. PMID:20825072

Rejdak, Robert; Oleszczuk, Agnieszka; Ma?kowska, Anna; Kiczy?ska, Magdalena; Zagórski, Zbigniew; Zarnowski, Tomasz

2010-01-01

353

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional dye-sensitized solar cells have excellent charge collection efficiencies, high open-circuit voltages and good fill factors. However, dye-sensitized solar cells do not completely absorb all of the photons from the visible and near-infrared domain and consequently have lower short-circuit photocurrent densities than inorganic photovoltaic devices. Here, we present a new design where high-energy photons are absorbed by highly photoluminescent chromophores unattached to the titania and undergo Förster resonant energy transfer to the sensitizing dye. This novel architecture allows for broader spectral absorption, an increase in dye loading, and relaxes the design requirements for the sensitizing dye. We demonstrate a 26% increase in power conversion efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate the average excitation transfer efficiency in this system to be at least 47%. This system offers a viable pathway to develop more efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

Hardin, Brian E.; Hoke, Eric T.; Armstrong, Paul B.; Yum, Jun-Ho; Comte, Pascal; Torres, Tomás; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D.

2009-07-01

354

Probing the regeneration process of triphenylamine-based organic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regeneration processes of triphenylamine (TPA)-based dyes with cobalt redox mediator in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been investigated using density functional theory combined with the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Our results show that with the extension or rigidification of the oligothiophene conjugation linker the absorption spectra of TPA dyes exhibit observable red-shift in the maximum absorbance that favors light-harvesting, while the electron transfer rates for dye regeneration decrease in some degrees due to the increased activation free energies and the reduced electronic coupling energies which hampers the dye regeneration. Importantly, the undesirable influences on dye regeneration by extending the linker moiety are more significant than that by the way of rigidification. Thus, the rigidification is a better choice than the extension of the conjugated moiety for the design of D-?-A type dyes based on the properties of light-harvesting and the kinetics of dye regeneration.

Sun, Zhu-Zhu; Li, Quan-Song; Sun, Ping-Ping; Li, Ze-Sheng

2015-02-01

355

Accurate simulation of optical properties in dyes.  

PubMed

Since Antiquity, humans have produced and commercialized dyes. To this day, extraction of natural dyes often requires lengthy and costly procedures. In the 19th century, global markets and new industrial products drove a significant effort to synthesize artificial dyes, characterized by low production costs, huge quantities, and new optical properties (colors). Dyes that encompass classes of molecules absorbing in the UV-visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum now have a wider range of applications, including coloring (textiles, food, paintings), energy production (photovoltaic cells, OLEDs), or pharmaceuticals (diagnostics, drugs). Parallel to the growth in dye applications, researchers have increased their efforts to design and synthesize new dyes to customize absorption and emission properties. In particular, dyes containing one or more metallic centers allow for the construction of fairly sophisticated systems capable of selectively reacting to light of a given wavelength and behaving as molecular devices (photochemical molecular devices, PMDs).Theoretical tools able to predict and interpret the excited-state properties of organic and inorganic dyes allow for an efficient screening of photochemical centers. In this Account, we report recent developments defining a quantitative ab initio protocol (based on time-dependent density functional theory) for modeling dye spectral properties. In particular, we discuss the importance of several parameters, such as the methods used for electronic structure calculations, solvent effects, and statistical treatments. In addition, we illustrate the performance of such simulation tools through case studies. We also comment on current weak points of these methods and ways to improve them. PMID:19113946

Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A; Ciofini, Ilaria; Adamo, Carlo

2009-02-17

356

Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs. PMID:23832227

Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

2013-11-01

357

Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

2013-11-01

358

Tailoring of UV/violet plasmonic properties in Ag, and Cu coated Al concaves arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV plasmonics is of particular interest because of large variety of applications, where the higher energy plasmon resonances would advance scientific achievements, including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with UV excitation, ultrasensitive label-free detection of important biomolecules absorbing light in the UV, or the possibility for exerting control over photochemical reactions. Despite its potential, UV plasmonics is still in its infancy, mostly due to difficulties in fabrication of reproducible nanostructured materials operating in this high energy range. Here, we present a simple electrochemical method to fabricate regular arrays of aluminum concaves demonstrating plasmonic properties in UV/violet region. The method enables the preparation of concaves with well-controlled geometrical parameters such as interpore distance (Dc), and therefore, well controllable plasmon resonances. Moreover, the patterning is suitable for large scale production. The UV/violet properties of Al concaves can be further fine-tuned by Ag and Cu metals. The refractive index sensitivity (RIS) increases after the metals deposition as compared to RIS of pure Al nanohole arrays. The highest RIS of 404 nm/RIU was obtained for Cu coated Al nanoconcaves with the Dc = 460.8 nm, which is similar or better than the RIS values previously reported for other nanohole arrays, operating in visible/near IR range.

Norek, Ma?gorzata; W?odarski, Maksymilian; St?pniowski, Wojciech J.

2014-09-01

359

Mechanism of nonphotochemical hole burning: Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl alcohol films  

SciTech Connect

Polarized nonphotochemical hole-burned spectra of Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl alcohol films are presented for various burn temperatures (T{sub B}). For T{sub B}=15 K, but not for T{sub B}=2.2 K, a significant rotation of Cresyl Violet is indicated. The broad, tailing antihole is observed to depend on T{sub B}. The quantum efficiency distributions for the zero-phonon hole and pseudo-phonon sideband are quite similar, proving that the phonons created by excitation of the phonon sideband are not important for hole burning. The quantum efficiency is independent of T{sub B} over the range studied, 1.6--15 K. Over this range essentially 100% of the zero-phonon lines can be burned. The results show that the standard two-level-system (extrinsic) model for nonphotochemical hole burning is inadequate. The results are discussed in terms of an outside--in hierarchy of configurational relaxation events model (Chem. Phys. {bold 141}, 447 (1990)) as well as other models.

Shu, L.; Small, G.J. (Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States))

1992-05-01

360

40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section... § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance...generically as a substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN P-95-514) is subject to...

2010-07-01

361

40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection...Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant...polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to...

2010-07-01

362

Fluorene-based sensitizers with a phenothiazine donor: effect of mode of donor tethering on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Two types of fluorene-based organic dyes featuring T-shape/rod-shape molecular configuration with phenothiazine donor and cyanoacrylic acid acceptor have been synthesized and characterized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Phenothiazine is functionalized at either nitrogen (N10) or carbon (C3) to obtain T-shape and rod-like organic dyes, respectively. The effect of structural alternation on the optical, electrochemical, and the photovoltaic properties is investigated. The crystal structure determination of the dye containing phenyl linker revealed cofacial slip-stack columnar packing of the molecules. The trends in the optical properties of the dyes are interpreted using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) computations. The rod-shaped dyes exhibited longer wavelength absorption and low oxidation potentials when compared to the corresponding T-shaped dyes attributable to the favorable electronic overlap between the phenothiazine unit and the rest of the molecule in the former dyes. However, the T-shaped dyes showed better photovoltaic properties due to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level favorable for electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 and appropriate orientation of the phenothiazine unit rendering effective surface blocking to suppress the recombination of electrons between the electrolyte I3(-) and TiO2. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigations provide further support for the variations in the electron injection and transfer kinetics due to the structural modifications. PMID:25557120

Baheti, Abhishek; Justin Thomas, K R; Li, Chun-Ting; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

2015-02-01

363

Bright, efficient, and color-stable violet ZnSe-based quantum dot light-emitting diodes.  

PubMed

In this paper, highly stable violet-blue emitting ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs have been synthesized by a novel "low temperature injection and high temperature growth" method. The resulting nearly monodisperse ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs exhibit excellent characteristics such as a high color saturation (typical spectral full width at half-maximum between 12 and 20 nm), good emission tunability in the violet-blue range of wavelengths from 400 to 455 nm, a high absolute PL quantum yield (up to 83%), and superior chemical and photochemical stability. By employing ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) as emitters with a fully solution processable method, bright, efficient, and color-stable violet Cd-free quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) with maximum luminance up to 2632 cd m(-2) and a peak EQE of 7.83% have been demonstrated successfully. Considering the factors of the photopic luminosity function, the brightness and efficiency results of such violet QD-LEDs not only represent a 12-fold increase in device efficiency and an extraordinary 100 times increase in luminance compared with previous Cd-free QD-LEDs but also can be much superior to the best performance (1.7%) of their Cd-based violet counterparts. These results demonstrate significant progress in short-wavelength QD-LEDs and shed light on the acceleration of commercial application of environmentally-friendly violet QD-based displays and lighting. PMID:25588101

Wang, Aqiang; Shen, Huaibin; Zang, Shuaipu; Lin, Qingli; Wang, Hongzhe; Qian, Lei; Niu, Jinzhong; Song Li, Lin

2015-02-01

364

Conformation and chirality in liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High helical twisting powerchiral additives are required for an expanding variety of liquid crystal displays and devices. Molecular conformation plays a critical role in determining the helical twisting power, HTP, of chiral additives. We studied additives based on an isosorbide benzoate ester core. Molecular modeling revealed two low energy states with very different conformations for this core The ultra-violet absorption and NMR spectra show two stable isosorbide conformers These spectra reveal how the relative populations of these two conformations change with temperature and how this is related to the helical twisting power. Conformation changes can explain many of the observed anomalous responses of HPT to temperature.

West, John L.; Zhao, Lei

2013-09-01

365

Theoretical evidence of multiple dye regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), with N3 (Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2) as dye and I-/I3- as redox shuttle, have been studied by DFT methods. Our results show that different reaction pathways are possible within the same dye and the actual mechanism is controlled by the initial geometry of the dyeI complex. By considering the rapid interconversion between different N3I geometries, the reaction mechanism where N3I dissociates into neutral dye and Irad radical is preferred to the mechanism where N3I reacts with a second iodide.

Liu, Tao; Troisi, Alessandro

2013-05-01

366

38.2 / V. Chigrinov 38.2: Azodye Aligning Layers for Liquid Crystal Cells  

E-print Network

The photo-induced alignment of liquid crystal onto a photochemical stable azo dye film is studied earlier by one of the authors [2], the photochemical mechanisms, such as cross-linking, photo-degradation statistically as a diffusion motion of the dye molecules in the potential field of the polarized light [4

367

Effects of pH of Dyes on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dyes and synthesized dyes in which rear metal was not contained. Effects of pH of dyes on the characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were also examined. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 2.5 was 0.10 point larger than that of the solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 4.0. It was also found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using red-perilla dye with a pH of 3.1 was 0.10 point larger than that of the solar cell fabricated using red-perilla dye with a pH of 5.8. The results are discussed on the bases of the molecular structure of mainly contained dye and the optical absorption spectra.

Furukawa, Shoji; Iino, Hiroshi; Kukita, Koudai; Kaminosono, Kaoru

368

Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

2011-07-01

369

Predicting with confidence the efficiency of new dyes in dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

We ask whether it is possible to predict the efficiency of a new dye in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) on the basis of the known performance of existing dyes in the same type of device. We evaluate a number of computable predictors of the efficiency for a large set of dyes whose experimental efficiency is known. We have then used statistical regression methods to establish the relation between the predictors and the efficiency. Our predictions are associated with a rigorously determined confidence level. For a new dye of the same family we are able to predict the probability that its efficiency in a DSSC is larger than a certain threshold. This method is useful for accelerating the discovery of new dyes and establishing more rigorously the existence of specific correlations between structure and properties. Within the properties considered we find that the dye efficiency correlates more strongly with its oxidation potential and reorganization energy. PMID:25097038

Ip, Chung Man; Eleuteri, Antonio; Troisi, Alessandro

2014-09-28

370

ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

371

INHALATION TOXICOLOGY OF RED AND VIOLET MIXTURES - CHAMBER CONCENTRATION AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

An inhalation exposure facility was developed at the U.S. EPA, RTP, NC to conduct inhalation exposures of rodents and guinea pigs to dye mixtures used by the U.S. Army in the manufacture of smoke munitions. nitially, an evaluation of the prototype chamber aerosol homogeneity was ...

372

In-situ investigation of adsorption of dye and coadsorbates on TiO2 films using QCM-D, fluorescence and AFM techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous adsorption of dye molecules and coadsorbates is important for the fabrication of high-efficiency dyesensitized solar cells, but its mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we use a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) to study dynamically and quantitatively the sensitization of TiO2 in situ. We investigate dye loading for a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex (Z907), of a triphenylamine-based D-?-A dye (Y123), and of a ullazine sensitizer (JD21), as well as the simultaneous adsorption of the latter two with the coadsorbate chenodeoxycholic acid. By combining the QCM-D technique with fluorescence measurements, we quantify molar ratios between the dye and coadsorbate. Furthermore, we will present first studies using liquid-phase AFM on the adsorbed dye monolayer, thus obtaining complementary microscopic information that may lead to understanding of the adsorption mechanism on the molecular scale.

Harms, Hauke A.; Tétreault, Nicolas; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Stellacci, Francesco; Grätzel, Michael

2013-09-01

373

Optimization of nanoparticle structure for improved conversion efficiency of dye solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy dye loading and the ability to contain the light within the thin layer (typically ˜12 ?m) are the requirement needed for the photoelectrode material in order to enhance the harvesting efficiency of dye solar cell. This can be realized by optimizing the particle size with desirable crystal structure. The paper reports the investigation on the dependency of the dye loading and light scattering on the properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials by comparing 4 different samples of TiO2 in the form of nanoparticles and micron-sized TiO2 aggregates which composed of nanocrystallites. Their properties were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UVVis spectroscopy while the performance of the fabricated test cells were measured using universal photovoltaic test system (UPTS) under 1000 W/cm2 intensity of radiation. Nano sized particles provide large surface area which allow for greater dye adsorption but have no ability to retain the incident light in the TiO2 film. In contrast, micron-sized particles in the form of aggregates can generate light scattering allowing the travelling distance of the light to be extended and increasing the interaction between the photons and dye molecules adsorb on TiO2nanocrystallites. This resulted in an improvement in the conversion efficiency of the aggregates that demonstrates the close relation between light scattering effect and the structure of the photolectrode film.

Mohamed, Norani Muti; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella

2014-10-01

374

Dye removal by surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalates.  

PubMed

A novel surfactant encapsulated polyoxometalate (SEP) has been synthesized by using a simple ion-exchange reaction. The prepared SEP complex was found to self-assemble into nanospherical particles whose morphology and component were characterized by TEM and XPS. The SEP was further incorporated into polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) to fabricate SEP incorporated composite membrane (SEP-M). Both the SEP and SEP-M exhibited excellent dye removal activities, which is for the first time reported as an intriguing property of the SEP. A regeneration scheme for SEP-M was successfully proposed without any loss of dye removal efficiency. Detailed mechanism studies were carried out to elucidate the nature of dye decolorization. Ion exchange was revealed to play a dominant role in the dye removal process. The current research not only renders a new example for the simple and direct synthesis of SEP but more importantly provides an efficient dye removal methodology. PMID:25194560

Yao, Lei; Lua, Shun Kuang; Zhang, Lizhi; Wang, Rong; Dong, ZhiLi

2014-09-15

375

Photophysics of xanthene dyes in surfactant solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral (both absorption and fluorescence) and photoelectrochemical studies of some anionic xanthene dyes namely erythrosin B, rose bengal and eosin have been carried out in micellar solution of cationic cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and neutral triton X-100 (TX-100). The results show that all these dyes form 1:1 electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) or charge-transfer (CT) complexes with TX-100, which acts as an electron donor. There is no interaction of these dyes with SDS, whereas the interaction with CTAB is mainly electrostatic in nature. In presence of TX-100, these dyes show enhancement of fluorescence intensity with a red shift and develop photovoltage in a photoelectrochemical cell. A good correlation has been found among the photovoltage generation in the systems consisting of these dyes and TX-100, spectral shift due to complex formation and thermodynamic properties of these complexes.

Bhowmik, Benoy B.; Ganguly, Papia

2005-07-01

376

Photolysis of smoke dyes on soils  

SciTech Connect

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. Initially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemically protected. The average mean depths of photolysis ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 mm for outdoor studies and from 0.42 to 0.73 mm for lab studies. The magnitude of the mean depths of photolysis suggests that photo-degradation of the dyes occurs through indirect photochemical processes. Photolysis products for only two of the dyes could be identified. Photolysis of Disperse Red 9 resulted in the formation of 1-aminoanthraquinone, whereas Solvent Yellow 33 photo-degraded to give 2-carboxyquinoline and phthalic anhydride. Reaction mechanisms involving sensitized photo-oxidation by singlet oxygen are consistent with the formation of these reaction products.

Adams, R.L. (Technology Applications Inc., Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Weber, E.J.; Baughman, G.L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.)

1994-06-01

377

Field response of some asparagus varieties to rust, Fusarium crown root rot, and violet root rot.  

PubMed

Research was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some asparagus genotypes against three most important fungal diseases: 1) asparagus rust caused by Puccinia asparagi D.C.; 2) Fusarium crown and root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) f.sp. asparagi (Cohen & Heald) and Fusarium proliferatum (Matstush.) Nirenberg; 3) violet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia violacea Tul. The object of this research was also to found an eventual correlation between the plant susceptibility to asparagus rust and the sensibility to Fusarium crown root rot and violet root rot attacks. Resistant genotypes to rust should be less susceptible to attacks from F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi, F. proliferatum and R. violacea, a fungal complex causing the plant decline. Asparagus genotypes were compared in a randomized complete block experiment design, replicated four times, in order to search that ones showing the best behaviour to escape the diseases. Phytopathological observations were carried out on November when the control plots showed 100% infected plants. The pathogens were isolated and identified. The diseased plants were registered. According to symptom evaluation scales, all the plants were grouped into infection classes, calculating frequency and McKinney index. Wishing to learn something about the infection trend of F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi or R. violacea in relation to P. asparagi attack, the relative curvilinear regressions were calculated. The Italian cultivars "Marte" and "Grande" showed significantly the best behaviour in terms of resistance to asparagus rust, exhibiting 37% and 42% of diseased plants. The McKinney index was 9.1% and 15.6%, respectively. The susceptible plots showed 100% of infected plants and different McKinney index: 46% for "Eros", about 60% for "H 519", "Atlas" and "Golia", over 70% for the remainder. "Marte" and "Grande" showed good tolerance to F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and to R. violacea exhibiting up to 100% of healthy plants. The regression between plants affected by asparagus rust and those diseased by Fusarium crown root rot showed a linear equation with a regression coefficient b = 1.186 and a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.98. The regression between infection caused by rust and that caused by violet root rot exhibited a regression coefficient b = 1.03 and a coefficient of correlation R2 = 0.9. "Marte" and "Grande" exhibited the best behaviour against the rust attacks. Plants without rust were tolerant to pathogens causing plant decline. PMID:15151301

Fiume, F; Fiume, G

2003-01-01

378

Hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

In this work we demonstrate hyperbranched nanostructures, grown by pulsed laser deposition, composed of one-dimensional anatase single crystals assembled in arrays of high aspect ratio hierarchical mesostructures. The proposed growth mechanism relies on a two-step process: self-assembly from the gas phase of amorphous TiO2 clusters in a forest of tree-shaped hierarchical mesostructures with high aspect ratio; oriented crystallization of the branches upon thermal treatment. Structural and morphological characteristics can be optimized to achieve both high specific surface area for optimal dye uptake and broadband light scattering thanks to the microscopic feature size. Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells fabricated with arrays of hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures on FTO-glass sensitized with D102 dye showed a significant 66% increase in efficiency with respect to a reference mesoporous photoanode and reached a maximum efficiency of 3.96% (among the highest reported for this system). This result was achieved mainly thanks to an increase in photogenerated current directly resulting from improved light harvesting efficiency of the hierarchical photoanode. The proposed photoanode overcomes typical limitations of 1D TiO2 nanostructures applied to ss-DSC and emerges as a promising foundation for next-generation high-efficiency solid-state devices comprosed of dyes, polymers, or quantum dots as sensitizers. PMID:24180577

Passoni, Luca; Ghods, Farbod; Docampo, Pablo; Abrusci, Agnese; Martí-Rujas, Javier; Ghidelli, Matteo; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Binda, Maddalena; Guarnera, Simone; Li Bassi, Andrea; Casari, Carlo Spartaco; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

2013-11-26

379

Molecular engineering of simple phenothiazine-based dyes to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration in highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

A series of simple phenothiazine-based dyes, namely, TP, EP, TTP, ETP, and EEP have been developed, in which the thiophene (T), ethylenedioxythiophene (E), their dimers, and mixtures are present to modulate dye aggregation, charge recombination, and dye regeneration for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. Devices sensitized by the dyes TP and TTP display high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.07 (Jsc = 15.2?mA?cm(-2), Voc =0.783?V, fill factor (FF) = 0.679) and 7.87?% (Jsc = 16.1?mA?cm(-2), Voc = 0.717?V, FF = 0.681), respectively; these were measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight in conjunction with the I(-)/I3(-) redox couple. By replacing the T group with the E unit, EP-based DSSCs had a slightly lower PCE of 7.98?% with a higher short-circuit photocurrent (Jsc) of 16.7?mA?cm(-2). The dye ETP, with a mixture of E and T, had an even lower PCE of 5.62?%. Specifically, the cell based on the dye EEP, with a dimer of E, had inferior Jsc and Voc values and corresponded to the lowest PCE of 2.24?%. The results indicate that the photovoltaic performance can be finely modulated through structural engineering of the dyes. The selection of T analogues as donors can not only modulate light absorption and energy levels, but also have an impact on dye aggregation and interfacial charge recombination of electrons at the interface of titania, electrolytes, and/or oxidized dye molecules; this was demonstrated through DFT calculations, electrochemical impedance analysis, and transient photovoltage studies. PMID:24715494

Hua, Yong; Chang, Shuai; He, Jian; Zhang, Caishun; Zhao, Jianzhang; Chen, Tao; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Zhu, Xunjin

2014-05-19

380

Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of 2-{(E)-[(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)imino]methyl}-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol as a novel azo-azomethine dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel dye, 2-{(E)-[(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)imino]methyl}-4-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]phenol dye was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]benzaldehyde with 2-amino-4-methylphenol in methanol. The title dye was characterized by its melting point, elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. Molecular structure of the title dye was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. X-ray data showed that the dye crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with cell parameters a = 18.541(2) Å, b = 4.7091(5) Å, c = 20.586(2) Å, V = 1761.5(3) Å3 and Z = 4. The title dye adopts azo-enamine tautomer in the solid state. The molecules crystallises as dimers assembled by two molecules of methanol via intermolecular hydrogen bonding resulting in R64(18) hydrogen bonding motif. Additionally, there is an intramolecular keto-amine hydrogen bond (NH⋯O) with a distance of 2.6172(17) Å. Optimized structures of the three possible tautomers of the compound were obtained using B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G and 3-21G basis sets in the gas phase. Thermal properties of the prepared dye were examined by thermogravimetric analysis and results indicated that the framework of the dye is stable up to 172 °C. Furthermore, the pathogenic activities of the synthesized dye were tested in vitro against the sensitive organisms, Bacillus cereous (ATCC 33019) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) as gram positive bacteria, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883) as gram negative bacteria and the results are discussed. The results indicated that the prepared dye had antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and Bacillus cereuss), but it exhibited no activity against gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and K. pneumoniae).

Köse, Muhammet; Kurtoglu, Nurcan; Gümü?su, Özkan; Tutak, Mustafa; McKee, Vickie; Karaka?, Duran; Kurtoglu, Mukerrem

2013-12-01

381

75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping...as amended (the Act), that Meghmani Pigments is the successor-in-interest to Alpanil...we preliminarily found that Meghmani Pigments is the successor-in-interest to...

2010-10-13

382

Croissance du trfle violet (Trifolium pratense L.) en association avec du ray-grass d'Italie  

E-print Network

Croissance du trèfle violet (Trifolium pratense L.) en association avec du ray-grass d additionnels : Cultures associées, concurrence, feuilles. SUMMARY Associated growth of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) with Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. ssp. italicum) : 11 Demography of organs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Mechanical grinding of a single-crystalline metal-organic framework triggered emission with tunable violet-to-orange luminescence.  

PubMed

A metal-organic framework (MOF) featuring intriguing Borromean entanglement exhibits a unique mechanochromic luminescence with on-off switching. The concomitant excitation wavelength-dependent emission behavior can be utilized to tune the emission color from violet to orange. PMID:25384242

Sun, Jian-Ke; Chen, Cheng; Cai, Li-Xuan; Ren, Cai-Xia; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Jie

2014-12-28

384

Gold nanoparticles functionalized with cresyl violet and porphyrin via hyaluronic acid for targeted cell imaging and phototherapy.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles are functionalized as a nanoprobe with cresyl violet and porphyrin via hyaluronic acid. The nanoprobe becomes highly fluorescent in the presence of hyaluronidase or under ultraviolet irradiation, and can be used to target cancer cells via the overexpressed CD44 receptor for fluorescence imaging and phototherapy. PMID:25361440

Song, Yanchao; Wang, Zhe; Li, Lihong; Shi, Wen; Li, Xiaohua; Ma, Huimin

2014-12-25

385

Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

386

Bias Selectable Dual Band AlGaN Ultra-violet Detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bias selectable dual band AlGaN ultra-violet (UV) detectors, which can separate UV-A and UV-B using one detector in the same pixel by bias switching, have been designed, fabricated and characterized. A two-terminal n-p-n photo-transistor-like structure was used. When a forward bias is applied between the top electrode and the bottom electrode, the detectors can successfully detect W-A and reject UV-B. Under reverse bias, they can detect UV-B and reject UV-A. The proof of concept design shows that it is feasible to fabricate high performance dual-band UV detectors based on the current AlGaN material growth and fabrication technologies.

Yan, Feng; Miko, Laddawan; Franz, David; Guan, Bing; Stahle, Carl M.

2007-01-01

387

A novel vacuum ultra violet lamp for metastable rare gas experiments.  

PubMed

We report on a new design of a vacuum ultra violet (VUV) lamp for direct optical excitation of high laying atomic states, e.g., for excitation of metastable rare gas atoms. The lamp can be directly mounted to ultra-high vacuum vessels (p ? 10(-10)mbar). It is driven by a 2.45 GHz microwave source. For optimum operation, it requires powers of ~20 W. The VUV light is transmitted through a magnesium fluoride window, which is known to have a decreasing transmittance for VUV photons with time. In our special setup, after a run-time of the VUV lamp of 550 h the detected signal continuously decreased to 25% of its initial value. This corresponds to a lifetime increase of two orders of magnitude compared to previous setups or commercial lamps. PMID:21806171

Daerr, Heiner; Kohler, Markus; Sahling, Peter; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Arabi-Hashemi, Ariyan; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus; Kalinowski, Martin B

2011-07-01

388

True covariance simulation of the EUVE (extreme ultra violet explorer) update filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a covariance analysis of the performance and sensitivity of the attitude determination Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) used by the onboard computer (OBC) of the Extreme Ultra Violet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft. The linearized dynamics and measurement equations of the error states are used in formulating the 'truth model' describing the order of the systems involved. The 'design model' used by the OBC EKF is then obtained by reducing the order of the truth model. The covariance matrix of the EKF which uses the reduced order model is not the correct covariance of the EKF estimation error. A 'true covariance analysis' has to be carried out in order to evaluate the correct accuracy of the OBC generated estimates. The results of such analysis are presented which indicate both the performance and the sensitivity of the OBC EKF.

Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, R. R.

1990-01-01

389

Photo-alignment of liquid crystals in micro capillaries with point-by-point irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A photo-alignment method for micro capillaries based on the SD-1 azo-dye is demonstrated. In this work a liquid-crystal molecules aligning layer is created by point-by-point irradiation of the azo-dye film by using an UV laser light. The method opens up new possibilities for an improved molecules' orientation control in both glass- and polymer-based photonic liquid crystal fibres.

Siarkowska, A.; Jó?wik, M.; Ertman, S.; Woli?ski, T. R.; Chigrinov, V. G.

2014-09-01

390

Fabrications of liquid-crystal polarization converters and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a simple but accurate method for measuring the helical twisting power of chiral doped liquid crystals using axially symmetrical photo-alignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystal films. As reported in our previous paper1, the discontinuous twisting effect produces a disclination line in photo-aligned axially symmetrical liquid crystal films, which can be applied for use as a polarization converter.

Shih-Wei Ko; Shu-Hao Huang; Andy Y.-G. Fuh; Tsung-Hsien Lin

2009-01-01

391

Spectroscopic Investigation of Ce(3+) Doped Fluoride Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doping of the trivalent rare-earth cerium ion into fluoride crystals is of interest in producing turnable ultra-violet solid state lasers. These lasers are desirable for many applications in medicine, industry, and scientific research, including remote sensing. High absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of the dipole allowed 4f-5d transitions show promise in cerium as a laser ion in crystals. Several research groups have already reported the observation of stimulated emission of cerium in LiYF4, LiSrAlF6, and LiCaAlF6. However, the color center formation in the crystals due to the excited state absorption of ultra-violet pump light adds difficulty to achieving laser action. We have investigated the spectroscopic properties of cerium such as absorption and emission spectra, and lifetimes in four different fluoride crystals, including LiCaAlF6, LiSrAlF6, KyF4 and LiYF4. We have derived the polarized absorption and stimulated emission cross sections from transmission and fluorescence emission measurements for each of the host crystals. we have measured the lifetime of the lowest 5d level; moreover, investigated the temperature dependence of this lifetime and color center formation. Our results on absorption and stimulated emission cross sections for LiCaAlF6 and LiSrAlF6 are similar to the results already published.

Reinhart, Donald H.; Armagan, Guzin; Marsh, Waverly; Barnes, James; Chai, B. H. T.

1995-01-01

392

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

393

Photostability of dye molecules trapped in solid matrices  

E-print Network

, chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. Effi- cient solid-state dye lasers were recently obtained of the absence of dye reservoirs and circulation systems in solid-state dye lasers, photostability is a critical organic laser dyes improves when molecules are trapped in solid matrices.6­9 Nevertheless, be- cause

Boyer, Edmond

394

Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.  

PubMed

This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. PMID:25017677

Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

2014-08-01

395

Novel aminobenzanthrone dyes for amyloid fibril detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of novel fluorescent aminobenzanthrone dyes have been tested for their ability to identify and characterize the oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates of lysozyme. The parameters of the dye binding to native, oligomeric and fibrillar protein have been calculated from the results of fluorimetric titration. Furthermore, several additional quantities reflecting the preference of the probe to either pre-fibrillar or fibrillar protein aggregates, have been evaluated. Based on the comparative analysis of the recovered parameters, AM4 was recommended for selective detection of protein pre-fibrillar assemblies, while the dyes AM1, AM2, AM3 were selected as the most prospective amyloid tracers.

Vus, Kateryna; Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Kirilova, Elena; Kirilov, Georgiy; Kalnina, Inta; Kinnunen, Paavo

2012-04-01

396

Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Various Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the development of organic dyes as an attempt to reduce material costs of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Indonesia, a country with variety and considerable number of botanical resources, is suitable to perform the research. Indonesian black rice, curcuma, papaya leaf, and the combination were chosen as organic dyes source. Dyes were extracted using organic solvent and adsorbed

Brian Yuliarto; Fahiem Fanani; M. Kasyful Fuadi; Nugraha

2010-01-01

397

Twisted Cyanines: A Non-Planar Fluorogenic Dye with Superior Photostability and its Use in a Protein-Based Fluoromodule  

PubMed Central

The cyanine dye thiazole orange (TO) is a well-known fluorogenic stain for DNA and RNA, but this property precludes its use as an intracellular fluorescent probe for non-nucleic acid biomolecules. Further, as is the case with many cyanines, the dye suffers from low photostability. Here we report the synthesis of a bridge-substituted version of TO named ?-CN-TO, where the central methine hydrogen of TO is replaced by an electron withdrawing cyano group, which was expected to decrease the susceptibility of the dye toward singlet oxygen-mediated degradation. An X-ray crystal structure shows that ?-CN-TO is twisted drastically out of plane, in contrast to TO, which crystallizes in the planar conformation. ?-CN-TO retains the fluorogenic behavior of the parent dye TO in viscous glycerol/water solvent, but direct irradiation and indirect bleaching studies showed that ?-CN-TO is essentially inert to visible light and singlet oxygen. In addition, the twisted conformation of ?-CN-TO mitigates non-specific binding and fluorescence activation by DNA and a previously selected TO-binding protein and exhibits low background fluorescence in HeLa cell culture. ?-CN-TO was then used to select a new protein that binds and activates fluorescence from the dye. The new ?-CN-TO/protein fluoromodule exhibits superior photostability to an analogous TO/protein fluoromodule. These properties indicate that ?-CN-TO will be a useful fluorogenic dye in combination with specific RNA and protein binding partners for both in vitro and cell-based applications. More broadly, structural features that promote nonplanar conformations can provide an effective method for reducing nonspecific binding of cationic dyes to nucleic acids and other biomolecules. PMID:23252842

Shank, Nathaniel I.; Pham, Ha; Waggoner, Alan S.; Armitage, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

398

Multicolor fluorescence enhancement from a photonics crystal surface  

PubMed Central

A photonic crystal substrate exhibiting resonant enhancement of multiple fluorophores has been demonstrated. The device, fabricated uniformly from plastic materials over a ?3×5 in.2 surface area by nanoreplica molding, utilizes two distinct resonant modes to enhance electric field stimulation of a dye excited by a ?=632.8 nm laser (cyanine-5) and a dye excited by a ?=532 nm laser (cyanine-3). Resonant coupling of the laser excitation to the photonic crystal surface is obtained for each wavelength at a distinct incident angle. Compared to detection of a dye-labeled protein on an ordinary glass surface, the photonic crystal surface exhibited a 32× increase in fluorescent signal intensity for cyanine-5 conjugated streptavidin labeling, while a 25× increase was obtained for cyanine-3 conjugated streptavidin labeling. The photonic crystal is capable of amplifying the output of any fluorescent dye with an excitation wavelength in the 532 nmdyes within a single imaged area, such as gene expression microarrays. PMID:20957067

Pokhriyal, A.; Lu, M.; Huang, C. S.; Schulz, S.; Cunningham, B. T.

2010-01-01

399

Tested Demonstrations: Dyeing of Anodized Aluminum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a list of needed materials, required preparations, and instructions for demonstrating the dyeing of anodized aluminum. Discusses the chemistry involved and gives equations for reactions occurring at the anode and cathode. (JM)

Gilbert, George L., Ed.

1983-01-01

400

Polymerization of novel methacrylated anthraquinone dyes  

PubMed Central

Summary A new series of polymerizable methacrylated anthraquinone dyes has been synthesized by nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions and subsequent methacrylation. Thereby, green 5,8-bis(4-(2-methacryloxyethyl)phenylamino)-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (2), blue 1,4-bis(4-((2-methacryloxyethyl)oxy)phenylamino)anthraquinone (6) and red 1-((2-methacryloxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)amino)anthraquinone (12), as well as 1-((1,3-dimethacryloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)amino)anthraquinone (15) were obtained. By mixing of these brilliant dyes in different ratios and concentrations, a broad color spectrum can be generated. After methacrylation, the monomeric dyes can be covalently emplaced into several copolymers. Due to two polymerizable functionalities, they can act as cross-linking agents. Thus, diffusion out of the polymer can be avoided, which increases the physiological compatibility and makes the dyes promising compounds for medical applications, such as iris implants. PMID:23503994

Dollendorf, Christian; Kreth, Susanne Katharina; Choi, Soo Whan

2013-01-01

401

Synthesis of azoimidazolium dyes with nitrous oxide.  

PubMed

A new method for the synthesis of industrially important azoimidazolium dyes is presented. The procedure is based on a reagent which is rarely used in the context of synthetic organic chemistry: nitrous oxide ("laughing gas"). N2 O is first coupled to N-heterocyclic carbenes. Subsequent reaction with aromatic compounds through an AlCl3 -induced C?H activation process provides azoimidazolium dyes in good yields. PMID:25420599

Tskhovrebov, Alexander G; Naested, Lara C E; Solari, Euro; Scopelliti, Rosario; Severin, Kay

2015-01-19

402

Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

2003-01-01

403

Light-emitting biological photonic crystals: the bioengineering of metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms can be regarded as self-reproducing photonic crystal slab waveguides due to their silica cell walls that exhibit periodic pore patterns. The algae thus offer possibilities for biotechnological production of photonic crystals. Two techniques for incorporating organic laser dyes into the structures are demonstrated. First, Rhodamine B was covalently attached to the silica by an aminoalkylsilane linker. Second, highly fluorescent Rhodamine derivatives added to the culture medium were successfully taken up by the diatoms and deposited into the shell. By this techniques, it is possible to cultivate dye functionalized diatoms with emission behaviour adapted to photonic resonances.

Kucki, Melanie; Landwehr, Stefan; Rühling, Harald; Maniak, Markus; Fuhrmann-Lieker, Thomas

2006-04-01

404

Decolourization and mineralization of commercial reactive dyes by using homogeneous and heterogeneous Fenton and UV/Fenton processes.  

PubMed

The oxidative decolourization and mineralization of three reactive dyes in separately prepared aqueous solutions C.I. Reactive Yellow 3 (RY3), C.I. Reactive Blue 2 (RB2) and C.I. Reactive Violet 2 (RV2) by using homogeneous and heterogeneous Fenton and UV/Fenton processes have been investigated. The effects of H(2)O(2), Fe(2+) and Fe(0) concentrations, Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) and Fe(0)/H(2)O(2) molar ratios at pH 3 and T=23+/-1 degrees C have been studied. Optimal operational conditions for the efficient degradation of all three dye solutions (100 mg L(-1)) were found to be Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)=0.5mM/20mM and Fe(0)/H(2)O(2)=2mM/1mM. The experimental results showed that the homogeneous Fenton process employing UV irradiation was the most effective. By using this process, the high levels of mineralization (78-84%) and decolourization (95-100%) were achieved. Pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants were obtained from the batch experimental data. PMID:18926634

Papi?, Sanja; Vujevi?, Dinko; Koprivanac, Natalija; Sinko, Danijel

2009-05-30

405

Measuring Solvent Content of Macromolecular Crystals Using Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We work out a novel protocol for measuring the solvent content (the fraction of crystal volume occupied by solvent) in biological crystals by the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Crystals of proteins with widely varying known solvent content (lysozyme, thaumatin, catalase, and ferritin) were grown in their native solution doped with sodium fluorescein dye and hydroxylamine (to prevent dye from binding to amine groups of the proteins.) The crystals were irradiated by a broadband, high intensity light through knife slits, leaving a rectangular area of bleached dye within the crystals. Measuring the flow of dye out of the bleached area allowed us to construct a curve relating the diffusion coefficient of dye to the channel size within the crystals, by solving the diffusion equation analytically. This curve may be used to measure the solvent content of any biological crystal in its native solution and help determine the number of proteins in the crystallographic asymmetric unit cell in x-ray structure solving procedures.

Siewny, Matthew; Kmetko, Jan

2010-10-01

406

Crystal Creations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a many-faceted learning approach to the study of crystals. Provides instructions for performing activities including crystal growth and patterns, creating miniature simulations of crystal-containing rock formations, charcoal and sponge gardens, and snowflakes. (RT)

Whipple, Nona; Whitmore, Sherry

1989-01-01

407

Dye laser amplifier including a specifically designed diffuser assembly  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replened supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a relatively high flow rate and a specifically designed diffuser assembly for slowing down the flow of dye while, at the same time, assuring that as the dye stream flows through the diffuser assembly it does so in a stable manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA); Johnston, James P. (Stanford, CA)

1992-01-01

408

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 6. METHINE AND POLYMETHINE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of methine and polymethine dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts prod...

409

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 3. STILBENE DYES AND FLUORESCENT BRIGHTENING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of Stilbene dyes and fluorescent brightening agents was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amoun...

410

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 9. SULFUR DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of sulfur dyes was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced, and the known U.S. produ...

411

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 4. ANTHRAQUINONE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of Anthraquinone dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced and t...

412

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 5. DIPHENYLMETHANE AND TRIARYLMETHANE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of diphenylmethane and triarylmethane dyes was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produc...

413

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 8. PHTHALOCYANINE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of phthalocyanine dyes and pigments was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced, and...

414

WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 7. XANTHENE DYES AND PIGMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A preliminary study of the manufacture of Xanthene dyes was conducted to determine if process waste streams might contain hazardous material. The study first identifies the dyes and pigments that belong to this segment of the industry, the amounts produced and the known U.S. prod...

415

Microwave-assisted synthesis of platinum nanoparticles and their catalytic degradation of methyl violet in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A green synthesis of polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilized platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) has been done by microwave irradiation in the presence of glucose. The formation process of the PtNPs is pursued by UV-visible spectroscopy. The morphology of the PtNPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Catalytic activity of the above PtNPs has been substantiated through photodecolorization of aqueous methyl violet solution.

Pal, Jolly; Deb, Manas Kanti; Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar; Sen, Bhupendra Kumar

2014-01-01

416

A Promising Evaluation Method for Dead Leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) in the Adsorption of Methyl Violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile is an endemic species in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, dead leaves of P. oceanica (L.) which are accumulated on the beach seasonally were used as an alternative low cost biosorbent to remove methyl violet\\u000a (MV) from aqueous solution. In order to explain the adsorption kinetics, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic\\u000a models were

Sevilay Cengiz; Levent Cavas

2010-01-01

417

Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible violet photoluminescence (PL) has been achieved at room temperature (RT) from ZnO films grown on sapphire (001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Substrate temperatures of 200, 300, and 400°C have been used in an oxygen pressure of 1 mTorr during the PLD. As the oxygen pressure for the thin film deposition increases over 20 mTorr at a substrate

B. J Jin; S Im; S. Y Lee

2000-01-01

418

Red/violet contrast reversal on Mars - Significance for eolian sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking Orbiter images of Mars are analyzed to define relationships between the observed contrast reversals (CR) and specific surface features. The link between CR phenomena and surface composition was first detected in contrast comparisons between UV and visible wavelength Mariner 9 data. Viking data, taken through red and violet filters, showed that the CRs occurred only with crater splotches and splotch-related streaks and in bright depositional and dark erosional streaks, both being low-albedo markings presumably caused by eolian forces. The splotch phenomena is confined mainly to the Oxia Palus region, although there are other regions where splotches and streaks commingle. Laboratory tests to mimic the CR characteristics showed that CRs are a common phenomena of different size fractions of iron oxides, e.g., goethite, where particles under 5 microns have been removed. The splotches, including dune formations, are therefore believed to indicate the presence of particles in the 100-800 microns diam range. Finer particles ride on the tops of the dust storms, and are continually removed from the surface by saltation.

Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

1986-01-01

419

Effects of ultra violet radiation on the soluble proteins of human hair.  

PubMed

Exposure of hair fibers from healthy volunteers to Ultra Violet Radiation (UVR) under laboratory conditions enhanced protein elution from the hair tresses into a buffer solution (pH 10.5). At the same time the UVR decreased the intensity of tryptophan fluorescence in the eluted proteins. After mechanical homogenization of these hair samples, the increase of soluble protein was registered for UVR treated hair as well as the rise in sulfhydryl group content of these proteins. Analysis of soluble proteins from hair samples homogenized before and after protein elution has shown that mainly proteins rich in sulfhydryl groups were eluted and as a result sulfhydryl content of proteins in hair shaft decreased. The hypothesis concerning the effects of environmental factors on the properties of hair shaft proteins was examined, the proximal and distal parts of normal hair (0-5cm and 15-20cm from hair root) were compared. In the distal parts there was a higher quantity of soluble proteins registered after homogenization, with decreased sulfhydryl group content and tryptophan fluorescence. It could be supposed that this difference results from the steady rupture of cystine in sulfur bridges and tryptophan under exposure to environmental factors (mainly, UVR), followed by elution of the resulting peptides. PMID:25282715

Fedorkova, M V; Smolina, N V; Mikhalchik, E V; Balabushevich, N G; Ibragimova, G A; Gadzhigoroeva, A G; Dmitrieva, E I; Dobretsov, G E

2014-11-01

420

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius (Crustacea, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae).  

PubMed

Abstract The violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius Holthuis, 1983 (Decapoda, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) is found in the tropical reef areas of the Indo-Pacific region, and is a highly prized and very popular species in the aquarium trade industry. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. debelius has 15,641 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 746?bp. The base composition of E. debelius is 36.4% A, 35.3% T, 18.1% C, 10.3% G, and the species has an AT content of 71.7%. The E. debelius mitogenome was found to have a gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the Homarus americanus mitogenome, a representative of the arthropod ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of E. debelius, which is the first in the superfamily Enoplometopoidea. These data will provide a useful molecular resource for the phylogenetic study of the infraorder Astacidea/order Decapoda. PMID:25264838

Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

2014-09-29

421

Major prospects of exoplanet astronomy with the World Space Observatory-UltraViolet mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) first and then of the STIS and COS spectrographs on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) demonstrate the impact that observations at UV wavelengths had and are having on modern astronomy. Several discoveries in the exoplanet field have been done at UV wavelengths. Nevertheless, the amount of data collected in this band is still limited both in terms of observed targets and time spent on each of them. For the next decade, the post-HST era, the only large (2-m class) space telescope capable of UV observations will be the World Space Observatory-UltraViolet (WSO-UV). In its characteristics, the WSO-UV mission is similar to that of HST, but all observing time will be dedicated to UV astronomy. In this work, we briefly outline the major prospects of the WSO-UV mission in terms of exoplanet studies. To the limits of the data and tools currently available, here we also compare the quality of key exoplanet data obtained in the far-UV and near-UV with HST (STIS and COS) to that expected to obtain with WSO-UV.

Fossati, L.; Bisikalo, D.; Lammer, H.; Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.

2014-11-01

422

Rewritable Dual-Layer Phase-Change Optical Disk Utilizing a Blue-Violet Laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of using a rewritable dual-layer phase-change optical disk utilizing a blue-violet laser. For the first medium, we adopted a very thin recording layer with a new phase-change material Ge-Sn-Sb-Te, and a 10-nm-thick silver-alloy reflective layer to obtain a large transmittance and high-quality signals. For the second medium, we optimized the thickness of each layer to obtain both a large optical absorption of the recording layer and a small heat capacity. Carrier-to-noise ratios of more than 50 dB, erasability of more than 30 dB and recording powers of 8 mW for the first medium and 11 mW for the second medium were obtained under typical recording conditions corresponding to a capacity of 27 GB per one side of a 120 mm disk and a user data transfer rate of 33 Mbps.

Akiyama, Tetsuya; Uno, Mayumi; Kitaura, Hideki; Narumi, Kenji; Kojima, Rie; Nishiuchi, Kenichi; Yamada, Noboru

2001-03-01

423

Theoretical study of the dissociation energy and the red and violet band systems of CN  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dissociation energy (D sub O) of CN is determined to be 7.65 + or - 0.06 eV. This corresponds to delta H sub f (CN) = 105.3 + or - 1.5 kcal/mole, in excellent agreement with Engleman and Rouse (1975), but considerably larger than the recent value deduced from shock-tube studies by Colket (1984). The result is obtained not only from extensive ab initio MRCI calculations using a very large Gaussian basis set, but also from extrapolation of the directly computed value by comparison of computed and experimental results fo NO, C2, and N2. As an additional calibration of the methods, the D sub O value for CN was computed from the corresponding value for CN(-) using the experimental electron affinity data. The lifetime of the nu prime = 0 level of the violet (B 2 sigma + yields X 2 sigma +) system was computed to be 62.4 ns, in good agreement with both experiment and previous calculations. Lifetimes for the red (A 2 pi yields X 2 sigma +) system decrease with increasing nu prime, which is consistent both with the recent experiment and calculations. While the computed lifetimes are significantly longer that those obtained from the experiment, they are shorter than those deduced from an analysis of the solar spectrum. However the D sub O and f (sub OO) are consistent with Lambert's model for the solar spectrum.

Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

1987-01-01

424

A model for multilayer analysis in a coated extreme ultra-violet lithography projection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflection-enhancing multilayer coating is one of the key technologies in Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography (EUVL). The typical thickness of the Mo/Si multilayer coatings generally adopted in EUVL is about 300 nm, which is much greater than the operating wavelength of 13.5 nm. The EUV is reflected completely back to the vacuum before punching the substrate. This changes the actual reflective surface by dozens of waves and creates extra aberrations. In this study, an equivalent working surface model for multilayer analysis based on the energy conservation principle was developed. Under the premise of the same energy modulation function for real and model film systems, each multilayer film coated optical element with complex energy propagation is transformed into a single surface. Optical design software can be used to assess these virtual surface in terms of estimation and optimization. Finally, the model was applied to a same Schwarzschild system but with different coating solutions. And the best solution was confirmed in which the coating-induced aberrations could be compensated for by image defocus.

Wang, Jun; Jin, Chun-shui; Wang, Li-ping; Xie, Yao

2014-12-01

425

Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths.  

PubMed

Planar optical lenses are fundamental elements of miniaturized photonic devices. However, conventional planar optical lenses are constrained by the diffraction limit in the optical far-field due to the band-limited wavevectors supported by free-space and loss of high-spatial-frequency evanescent components. As inspired by Einstein's radiation 'needle stick', electromagnetic energy can be delivered into an arbitrarily small solid angle. Such sub-diffraction optical needles have been numerically investigated using diffractive optical elements (DOEs) together with specially polarized optical beams, but experimental demonstration is extremely difficult due to the bulky size of DOEs and the required alignment precision. Planar super-oscillatory lenses (SOLs) were proposed to overcome these constraints and demonstrated that sub-diffraction focal spots can actually be formed without any evanescent waves, making far-field, label-free super-resolution imaging possible. Here we extend the super-oscillation concept into the vectorial-field regime to work with circularly polarized light, and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a circularly polarized optical needle with sub-diffraction transverse spot size (0.45?) and axial long depth of focus (DOF) of 15? using a planar SOL at a violet wavelength of 405?nm. This sub-diffraction circularly polarized optical needle has potential applications in circular dichroism spectroscopy, super-resolution imaging, high-density optical storage, heat-assisted magnetic recording, nano-manufacturing and nano-metrology. PMID:25208611

Yuan, Guanghui; Rogers, Edward T F; Roy, Tapashree; Adamo, Giorgio; Shen, Zexiang; Zheludev, Nikolay I

2014-01-01

426

Dispersive kinetics of nonphotochemical hole burning and spontaneous hole filling: Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl films  

SciTech Connect

The dispersive kinetics of nonphotochemical burning and spontaneous filling of the zero-phonon hole of Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl alcohol at 1.6 K are analyzed in terms of the standard external two-level system (TLS{sub {ital ezt}}) model for probe--glass systems and a distribution function for the tunnel frequency derived from a normal distribution function for the tunnel parameter {lambda}. Average values for the relaxation rates for burning and filling are determined. It is shown that the dominant mechanism for filling is not global spectral diffusion but rather antihole reversion. A high degree of positive correlation between the rates of burning and filling associated with the TLS{sub {ital ext}} is found. A new methodology that permits a more physically reasonable interpretation of spontaneous hole-filling kinetics is described. It is based on the hypothesis that only a fraction of burned sites, on reversion to the ground state, yield sites with resonance frequencies that lie within the hole profile.

Shu, L.; Small, G.J. (Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States))

1992-05-01

427

Combinatorial fabrication and studies of intense efficient ultraviolet--violet organic light-emitting device arrays  

SciTech Connect

Arrays of ultraviolet--violet (indium tin oxide)/[copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)]/[4,4'-bis(9-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP)]/[2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4oxadiazole (Bu-PBD)]/CsF/Al organic light-emitting devices, fabricated combinatorially using a sliding shutter technique, are described. Comparison of the OLED electroluminescence and CBP photoluminescence spectra indicates that the emission originates from the bulk of that layer. In arrays of devices in which the thickness of the CuPc and Bu--PBD were varied, but that of CBP was fixed at 50 nm, the optimal radiance R was obtained at CuPc and Bu--PBD thicknesses of 15 and 18 nm, respectively. At 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, R was 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, i.e., the external quantum efficiency was 1.25%; R increased to {approx}1.2 mW/cm{sup 2} at 100 mA/cm{sup 2}.

Zou, L.; Savvate'ev, V.; Booher, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Shinar, J.

2001-10-01

428

Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths  

PubMed Central

Planar optical lenses are fundamental elements of miniaturized photonic devices. However, conventional planar optical lenses are constrained by the diffraction limit in the optical far-field due to the band-limited wavevectors supported by free-space and loss of high-spatial-frequency evanescent components. As inspired by Einstein's radiation ‘needle stick', electromagnetic energy can be delivered into an arbitrarily small solid angle. Such sub-diffraction optical needles have been numerically investigated using diffractive optical elements (DOEs) together with specially polarized optical beams, but experimental demonstration is extremely difficult due to the bulky size of DOEs and the required alignment precision. Planar super-oscillatory lenses (SOLs) were proposed to overcome these constraints and demonstrated that sub-diffraction focal spots can actually be formed without any evanescent waves, making far-field, label-free super-resolution imaging possible. Here we extend the super-oscillation concept into the vectorial-field regime to work with circularly polarized light, and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a circularly polarized optical needle with sub-diffraction transverse spot size (0.45?) and axial long depth of focus (DOF) of 15? using a planar SOL at a violet wavelength of 405?nm. This sub-diffraction circularly polarized optical needle has potential applications in circular dichroism spectroscopy, super-resolution imaging, high-density optical storage, heat-assisted magnetic recording, nano-manufacturing and nano-metrology. PMID:25208611

Yuan, Guanghui; Rogers, Edward T. F.; Roy, Tapashree; Adamo, Giorgio; Shen, Zexiang; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

2014-01-01

429

Compact Ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Transmitter Using Solid-State Dye Polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new potential DIAL laser transmitter is described that uses solid-state dye laser materials to make a simpler, more compact, lower mass laser system. Two solid-state dye laser materials were tested to evaluate their performance in a laser oscillator cavity end pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The polymer host polymethyl-methacrylate was injected with a pyrromethene laser dye, PM 580, or PM 597. A narrowband laser oscillator cavity was constructed to produce visible wavelengths of 578 and 600 nm which were frequency doubled into the UV region (299 or 300 nm) by using a BBO crystal, resulting in a maximum energy of 11 mJ at a wavelength of 578 nm when pumped by the Nd:YAG laser at an energy of 100 mJ (532 nm). A maximum output energy of 378 microJ was achieved in the UV region at a wavelength of 289 nm but lasted only 2000 laser shots at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The results are promising and show that a solid-state dye laser based ozone DIAL system is possible with improvements in the design of the laser transmitter.

Jones, Alton L., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Elsayid-Ele, Hani

2001-01-01

430

Modulating dye aggregation by incorporation into 1D-MgAPO nanochannels.  

PubMed

The fluorescing dye Pyronine?Y has been incorporated by crystallization inclusion into three different one-dimensional microporous aluminophosphate host materials. A computer-aided rational choice of the framework of the host material made it possible to modulate the aggregation state of the guest dye molecules. Undesirable H-type dimers of Pyronine?Y are included within the large channels of the AFI structure, which allow the inclusion of any of the aggregated species of the dye. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that H-type aggregate formation is suppressed within the ATS framework. Experimental results indicate that red-emissive J-type aggregates are formed instead, offering a one-directional, organized, multicolour emission system that is interesting for energy transport. Complete suppression of aggregation is achieved by the inclusion of Pyronine?Y within the AEL-type structure, due to its particular topology and channel dimensions This results in a highly fluorescent hybrid system with extraordinarily preferential alignment of the chromophores. Here, we report experimental evidence and modelling insights for how the "cage effect" of the nanochannels can tune the optical properties of the hybrid composite material by influencing the aggregation state of the dye. PMID:23780893

Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; García, Raquel; Gómez-Hortigüela, Luis; Pérez-Pariente, Joaquín; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo

2013-07-22

431

Organic dyes containing fluorene decorated with imidazole units for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

New organic dyes containing fluorene functionalized with two imidazole chromophores as donors and cyanoacrylic acid acceptors have been synthesized and successfully demonstrated as sensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The monoimidazole analogues were also synthesized for comparison. The Sommelet reaction of bromomethylated 2-bromo-9,9-diethyl-9H-fluorene produced the key precursor 7-bromo-9,9-diethyl-9H-fluorene-2,4-dicarbaldehyde required for the preparation of imidazole-functionalized fluorenes. Since the dyes possess weak donor segment, the electron-richness of the conjugation pathway dictated the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties of the dyes. The dyes served as sensitizers in DSSC and exhibited moderate efficiency up to 3.44%. The additional imidazole present on the fluorene has been found to retard the electron recombination due to the bulkier hydrophobic environment and led to high open-circuit voltage in the devices. PMID:24628443

Kumar, Dhirendra; Thomas, K R Justin; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

2014-04-01

432

High-Efficiency, Low Turn-on Voltage Blue-Violet Quantum-Dot-Based Light-Emitting Diodes.  

PubMed

We report high-efficiency blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) by using high quantum yield ZnCdS/ZnS graded core-shell QDs with proper surface ligands. Replacing the oleic acid ligands on the as-synthesized QDs with shorter 1-octanethiol ligands is found to cause a 2-fold increase in the electron mobility within the QD film. Such a ligand exchange also results in an even greater increase in hole injection into the QD layer, thus improving the overall charge balance in the LEDs and yielding a 70% increase in quantum efficiency. Using 1-octanethiol capped QDs, we have obtained a maximum luminance (L) of 7600 cd/m(2) and a maximum external quantum efficiency (?EQE) of (10.3 ± 0.9)% (with the highest at 12.2%) for QD-LEDs devices with an electroluminescence peak at 443 nm. Similar quantum efficiencies are also obtained for other blue/violet QD-LEDs with peak emission at 455 and 433 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of blue QD-LEDs with ?EQE > 10%. Combined with the low turn-on voltage of ?2.6 V, these blue-violet ZnCdS/ZnS QD-LEDs show great promise for use in next-generation full-color displays. PMID:25580801

Shen, Huaibin; Cao, Weiran; Shewmon, Nathan T; Yang, Chenchen; Li, Lin Song; Xue, Jiangeng

2015-02-11

433

Titanium dioxide/calcium fluoride nanocrystallite for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell. A strategy of enhancing light harvest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancement of light harvest for dye excitation is a persistent objective in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We present here the fabrication of titanium dioxide/calcium fluoride (TiO2/CaF2) photoanodes for efficient DSSC applications. Owing to the interference effect of incident light beams reflected from TiO2/CaF2 and CaF2/electrolyte interfaces, the light intensity and therefore dye excitation have been markedly enhanced. The crystal structure and therefore photovoltaic performance are optimized by adjusting CaF2 dosage. A maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.66% is measured from the DSSC employing TiO2/0.5 wt% CaF2 nanocrystallite in comparison with 6.02% for the solar cell with pristine TiO2 anode.

Wang, Zubin; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Chen, Xiaoxu; Chen, Haiyan; Yu, Liangmin

2015-02-01

434

Monitoring N3 dye adsorption and desorption on TiO2 surfaces: a combined QCM-D and XPS study.  

PubMed

Understanding the kinetics of dye adsorption and desorption on semiconductors is crucial for optimizing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measures adsorbed mass in real time, allowing determination of binding kinetics. In this work, we characterize adsorption of the common RuBipy dye N3 to the native oxide layer of a planar, sputter-coated titanium surface, simulating the TiO2 substrate of a DSSC. We report adsorption equilibrium constants consistent with prior optical measurements of N3 adsorption. Dye binding and surface integrity were also verified by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We further study desorption of the dye from the native oxide layer on the QCM sensors using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH), a commonly used industrial desorbant. We find that using TBAOH as a desorbant does not fully regenerate the surface, though little ruthenium or nitrogen is observed by XPS after desorption, suggesting that carboxyl moieties of N3 remain bound. We demonstrate the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor as a valid and readily available planar TiO2 morphology to study dye adsorption and desorption and begin to investigate the mechanism of dye desorption in DSSCs, a system that requires further study. PMID:24848580

Wayment-Steele, Hannah K; Johnson, Lewis E; Tian, Fangyuan; Dixon, Matthew C; Benz, Lauren; Johal, Malkiat S

2014-06-25

435

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

436

Nonlinear and quantum optics with liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermotropic liquid crystals' usual application is display technology. This paper describes experiments on light interaction with pure and doped liquid crystals under for these materials unconventional incident light powers: (1) under high-power laser irradiation, and (2) at the single-photon level. In (1), I will outline several nonlinear optical effects under high-power, nanosecond laser irradiation which should be taken into account in the design of lasers with liquid crystal components and in fabrication of optical power limiters based on liquid crystals: (1.1) athermal helical pitch dilation and unwinding of cholesteric mirrors (both in free space and inside laser resonators); (1.2) some pitfalls in measurements of refractive nonlinearity using z-scan technique under two-photon or linear absorption of liquids; (1.3) the first observation of thermal lens effects in liquid crystals under several-nanosecond, low-pulse-repetition rate (2-10 Hz) laser irradiation in the presence of two-photon absorption; (1.4) feedback-free kaleidoscope of patterns (hexagons, stripes, etc.) in dye-doped liquid crystals. In (2), at the single-photon level, it will be shown that with a proper selection of liquid crystals and a single-emitter dopant spectral range, liquid crystal structures can be used to control emitted single photons (both polarization and count rate). The application of the latter research is absolutely secure quantum communication with polarization coding of information. In particular, in (2.1), definite handedness, circular polarized cholesteric microcavity resonance in quantum dot fluorescence is reported. In (2.2), definite linear polarization of single (antibunched) photons from single-dye-molecules in planar-aligned nematic host is discussed. In (2.3), some results on photon antibunching from NV-color center in nanodiamond in liquid crystal host and circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness from nanocrystals doped with trivalent ions of rare-earths dispersed in liquid crystal host are presented.

Lukishova, Svetlana G.

2014-04-01

437

Synthesis and characterization of Mg-based amorphous alloys and their use for decolorization of Azo dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg-based alloys are light weight and have wide range of applications in the automotive industry. These alloys are widely used because of their very attractive physical and mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The properties and applications can be further improved by changing the nature of materials from crystalline to amorphous. In this study, melt spun ribbons (MSRs) of Mg70Zn25Ca5 Mg68Zn27Ca5 alloys were prepared by melt spinning technique by using 3-4N pure metals. Characterization of the samples was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDAX). Microstructural investigations were conducted by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as optical and stereo scan microscopy techniques. DSC results showed multistage crystallization. Activation energy was found to be 225 kJ/mol by Kissinger method indicating good thermal stability against crystallization. XRD, DSC, SEM and EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) results are agreed very well. In order to study decolorization, the MSRs of Mg70Zn25Ca5 Mg68Zn27Ca5 alloys were treated repeatedly with various azo dyes at room temperature. In order to compare the results, MSRs of amorphous Zr- and Ni-based metallic glasses were also treated. Reaction of MSRs with azo dyes results in their decolorization in a few hours. Decolorization of azo dyes takes place by introducing amorphous MSRs which results in breaking the -N=N- bonds that exist in dye contents. It is concluded that Mg-based alloys are useful for paint and dye industries and will be beneficial to control water pollution. Comparison of results showed that Mg-based alloys are more efficient than Zr- and Ni-based amorphous alloys for decolorization of azo dyes.

Iqbal, M.; Wang, W. H.

2014-06-01

438

Test strips detect different CO2 concentrations in closed compartments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four different test strips, using crystal violet for one pair of strips and basic fuchsin as a dye for the second pair, give unambiguous colorimetric indications of four different concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of a closed compartment. Tetraethylene pentamine is used as a dye decoloring agent.

1965-01-01

439

The Use of Post-Column Dynamic Ion-Pair Extraction for the Hplc Detection of Anionic Additives in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of post-column ion-pair extraction with absorbance detection to the determination of anionic food additives are discussed. The compounds studied include sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate, artificial sweeteners and free fatty acids. Dyes such as methylene blue and crystal violet provide different extraction and detector wavelength selectivities when used as counter ions. Mobile phase composition, dye concentration; phase ratios and extraction system design

James F. Lawrence

1990-01-01

440

Interactions of Monovalent Organic Cations with Pillared Clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between an acid-activated pillared clay and several organic cations including dyes (methylene blue, MB; crystal violet, CV; acriflavin, AF) and benzyl derivatives (benzyltrimethylammonium, BTMA; benzyltriethylammonium, BTEA) were studied by adsorption measurements and X-ray diffraction. When the dyes were adsorbed from low ionic strength solutions, adsorption was irreversible but saturated at levels below the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the

Yael Golda Mishael; Giora Rytwo; Shlomo Nir; Michel Crespin; Faiza Annabi-Bergaya; Henri Van Damme

1999-01-01

441

Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

2014-07-01

442

Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC. PMID:24682058

Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

2014-07-15

443

Design and Syntheses of Dyes for Biological Applications  

E-print Network

The challenges in modern biological imaging applications are two-fold: (i) to develop better methods of imaging, and (ii) develop dyes that are suitable for these methods. This dissertation deals with the design and synthesis of dyes mainly...

Thivierge, Cliferson

2012-07-16

444

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2011-04-01

445

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2012-04-01

446

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2013-04-01

447

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2014-04-01

448

Sorption of some textile dyes by beech wood sawdust.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to establish the experimental conditions for removal of several textile dyes from aqueous solutions by sorption on beech wood sawdust, an industrial waste lignocellulosic product. From the six dyes tested, the sorbent shows preference for three dyes: Direct Brown, Direct Brown 2 and Basic Blue 86. Sorption of dyes on the beech wood sawdust is dependent on the nature of dye, pH, dyes concentration, contact time, and amount of sorbent. By comparative kinetic studies, the rate of sorption was found to conform with good correlation to pseudo-second-order kinetics. The parameters that characterize the sorption were determined on the basis of Langmuir isotherms. The preference of beech sawdust for dyes increases as follows: Basic Blue 86dye (of approximately 60% purity) was found to be 526.3 mg g(-1) for Direct Brown. PMID:18656305

Dulman, Viorica; Cucu-Man, Simona Maria

2009-03-15

449

Continuous-wave organic dye lasers and methods  

DOEpatents

An organic dye laser produces a continuous-wave (cw) output without any moving parts (e.g., without using flowing dye streams or spinning discs of solid-state dye media to prevent photobleaching) and with a pump beam that is stationary with respect to the organic dye medium. The laser's resonant cavity, organic dye medium, and pump beam are configured to excite a lasing transition over a time scale longer than the associated decay lifetimes in the organic dye medium without photobleaching the organic dye medium. Because the organic dye medium does not photobleach when operating in this manner, it may be pumped continuously so as to emit a cw output beam. In some examples, operation in this manner lowers the lasing threshold (e.g., to only a few Watts per square centimeter), thereby facilitating electrical pumping for cw operation.

Shapira, Ofer; Chua, Song-Liang; Zhen, Bo; Lee, Jeongwon; Soljacic, Marin

2014-09-16

450

Water-soluble benzophenoxazine dyes: syntheses, derivatization and photophysical studies  

E-print Network

quantum yields in aqueous media as compared to other reported dyes. Improved quantum yield makes these dyes attractive candidates for biological studies in aqueous media. We have also prepared alkynes and iodo derivatives of benzophenoxazines, which can...

Jose, Jiney

2007-04-25

451

THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION AND TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY OF DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

Sixteen commercial dye samples and three liquid wastes from organic pigment and dye manufacture have been characterized without prior chromatography by thermospray ionization and low energy collision-activated dissociation of protonated molecules using a triple quadrupole mass sp...

452

Third row metal complexes as an alternative dye in dye sensitized solar cell system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper(II), Cobalt (II) and Iron (II) complexes as photosensitizer on Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) had been investigated. The aim of this research is to find out the respond addition of those dyes on FTO/TiO2 (FTO = fluorine Tin Oxide) thin film to visible light and the effect of various third row complexes to DSSC performance. Slip casting method was used to fabricate FTO/TiO2 and FTO/carbon thin film. The result from FTO/TiO2 UV-Vis spectra show no absorption on visible light. Dye solution was synthesized from free metal ions of Cu(II), Co(II), and Fe(II) in methanol with diphenylamine (dpa), 2,2,bypiridine (bpy), 1,10, phenathroline (phen), 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine (dcbq), and anthocyanin (ant) ligands, respectively. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to identify FTO/TiO2/dye with various sensitizer dyes. The performance of DSSC was determined by I (current) - V (voltage) curve using Keithley 2602 A System Source. In this research, DSSCs are able to convert photon energy become electrical energy. Dye used in DSSC is greatly effect in photon to current efficiency (IPCE). The greater absorption in visible region of alternative dye used gains higher IPCE spectra. TiO2 character can help spread the absorption in whole visible region. The nanosize mesoporous TiO2 of TiO2/SiPA/CoII-PAR (SiPA = silylpropilamine) have greater value than P25 TiO2/SiPA-CoII-PAR. The SiPA/FeII-PAR and SiPA/CoII-PAR dyes are better dye than tpa.

Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Badriyah, I.; Kristy, I. O.; Dewi, N. S.; Rahardjo, S. B.

2013-10-01

453

Blue-Violet Laser Modification of Titania Treated Titanium: Antibacterial and Osteo-Inductive Effects  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies on surface modifications of titanium have been performed in an attempt to accelerate osseointegration. Recently, anatase titanium dioxide has been found to act as a photocatalyst that expresses antibiotic properties and exhibits hydrophilicity after ultraviolet exposure. A blue-violet semiconductor laser (BV-LD) has been developed as near-ultraviolet light. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to this BV-LD on surface modifications of titanium with the goal of enhancing osteoconductive and antibacterial properties. Methods The surfaces of pure commercial titanium were polished with #800 waterproof polishing papers and were treated with anatase titania solution. Specimens were exposed using BV-LD (? = 405 nm) or an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED, ? = 365 nm) at 6 mW/cm2 for 3 h. The surface modification was evaluated physically and biologically using the following parameters or tests: surface roughness, surface temperature during exposure, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, contact angle, methylene blue degradation tests, adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation, and histological examination after implantation in rats. Results No significant changes were found in the surface roughness or XRD profiles after exposure. BV-LD exposure did not raise the surface temperature of titanium. The contact angle was significantly decreased, and methylene blue was significantly degraded. The number of attached P. gingivalis organisms was significantly reduced after BV-LD exposure compared to that in the no exposure group. New bone was observed around exposed specimens in the histological evaluation, and both the bone-to-specimen contact ratio and the new bone area increased significantly in exposed groups. Conclusions This study suggested that exposure of titanium to BV-LD can enhance the osteoconductivity of the titanium surface and induce antibacterial properties, similar to the properties observed following exposure to UV-LED. PMID:24358355

Kawano, Takanori; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Ishida, Yuichi; Goto, Takaharu; Naito, Yoshihito; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

454

Mask fabrication and its applications to extreme ultra-violet diffractive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-wavelength radiation around 13nm of wavelength (Extreme Ultra-Violet, EUV) is being considered for patterning microcircuits, and other electronic chips with dimensions in the nanometer range. Interferometric Lithography (IL) uses two beams of radiation to form high-resolution interference fringes, as small as half the wavelength of the radiation used. As a preliminary step toward manufacturing technology, IL can be used to study the imaging properties of materials in a wide spectral range and at nanoscale dimensions. A simple implementation of IL uses two transmission diffraction gratings to form the interference pattern. More complex interference patterns can be created by using different types of transmission gratings. In this thesis, I describe the development of a EUV lithography system that uses diffractive optical elements (DOEs), from simple gratings to holographic structures. The exposure system is setup on a EUV undulator beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, in the Center for NanoTechnology clean room. The setup of the EUV exposure system is relatively simple, while the design and fabrication of the DOE "mask" is complex, and relies on advanced nanofabrication techniques. The EUV interferometric lithography provides reliable EUV exposures of line/space patterns and is ideal for the development of EUV resist technology. In this thesis I explore the fabrication of these DOE for the EUV range, and discuss the processes I have developed for the fabrication of ultra-thin membranes. In addition, I discuss EUV holographic lithography and generalized Talbot imaging techniques to extend the capability of our EUV-IL system to pattern arbitrary shapes, using more coherent sources than the undulator. In a series of experiments, we have demonstrated the use of a soft X-ray (EUV) laser as effective source for EUV lithography. EUV-IL, as implemented at CNTech, is being used by several companies and research organizations to characterize photoresist materials.

Cheng, Yang-Chun

455

Indirect differential pulse voltammetric determination of aluminum by a pyrocatechol violet-modified electrode  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum is one of the abundant elements in the earth`s crust. It has been considered to be a causative agent for various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer Senile, presenile dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is also very harmful to plants and aquatic organisms. Therefore, the determination of Al is very important. A Pyrocatechol Violet (PCV) modified electrode for the voltammetric determination of aluminum is reported. The modified electrode is simply prepared by dip-coating a pyrolytic graphite electrode in a NaAc-HAc buffer solution of PCV. Optimum experimental conditions for aluminum determination include a 0.2 mol/L NaAc-HAc buffer solution of pH 4.8, a PCV concentration of 0.02 mol/L used to modify the electrode and the use of differential-pulse mode for measurement. The peak currents of differential pulse voltammograms (DPV) decrease with the addition of Al into the buffer solution while the peak potentials remain the same. The decreasing value of peak current {Delta}i{sub p} is linear with Al concentration in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}8} to 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} mol/L and 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} mol/L. The detection limit is 5{times}10{sup {minus}9} mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 4{times}10{sup {minus}8} mol/L Al is 2.9% (n=8). The stability of this electrode is satisfactory. No serious interference is found. This method has been applied to determine Al in drinking water samples.

Chen, G.; Bi, S.; Dai, L.; Cao, M.; Chen, Y. Wang, X. [Nanjing Univ. (China)

1999-03-01

456

Comparison of two laccases from Trametes versicolor for application in the decolorization of dyes.  

PubMed

It has been previously demonstrated that laccases exhibit great potential for use in several industrial and environmental applications. In this paper, two laccase isoenzyme genes, lccB and lccC, were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The sequence analysis indicated that the lccB and lccC genes consisted of 1,563 and 1,584 bp, and their open reading frames encoded 520 and 527 amino acids, respectively. They had 72.7% degree of identity in nucleotides and 86.7% in amino acids. The expression levels of LccB and LccC were up to 32,479 and 34,231 U/l, respectively. The recombinant laccases were purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for LccB were 2.0 and 55°C with 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, whereas LccC exhibited optimal pH and temperature at 3.0 and 60°C. The apparent kinetic parameters of LccB were 0.43 mM for ABTS with a Vmax value of 51.28 U/mg, and the Km and Vmax values for LccC were 0.29 mM and 62.89 U/mg. The recombinant laccases were able to decolorize five types of dyes. Acid Violet 43 (100 g/ml) was completely decolorized by LccB or LccC (2 U/ml), and the decolorization of Reactive Blue KN-R (100 g/ml) was 91.6% by LccC (2 U/ml). Thus, the study characterizes useful laccase isoenzymes from T. versicolor that have the capability of being incorporated into the treatment of similar azo and anthraquinone dyes from dyeing industries. PMID:24448164

Li, Qi; Ge, Lin; Cai, Junli; Pei, Jianjun; Xie, Jingcong; Zhao, Linguo

2014-04-01

457

Nanocarbon counterelectrode for dye sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Nanosize carbon powders were deposited on conducting glass substrate for counterelectrode application in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Electrochemical impedance measurement shows that charge transfer resistance of carbon electrode in liquid electrolyte is 0.74 {omega} cm{sup -2}, which is two times less than that of screen printed platinum. Using such counterelectrode and dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode, DSSC was fabricated. Under one sun illumination (AM1.5, P{sub in} of 100 mW cm{sup -2}), carbon counterelectrode DSSC shows 6.73% overall energy conversion efficiency with good stability.

Ramasamy, Easwaramoorthi; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Dong Yoon; Song, Jae Sung [Electric and Magnetic Devices Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-04-23

458

Suitability of Polymeric Media In Solid State Dye Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid hosts doped with organic dyes are suitable for tunable solid state lasers because of large band width in visible region. Moreover they also overcome the problems of toxicity and limited tunability due to liquid solutions of the dyes. We report fluorescence spectra of different rhodamine dyes in different solid hosts which can be quite helpful in choosing the proper solid host for solid state dye lasers.

Sharma, Amit; Saini, G. S. S.

2011-12-01

459

Determination of Dyeing Properties of Spearmint (Mentha spicata var. spicata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reports determination of dyeing characteristics of spearmint in vegetable dyeing. Totally, 25 dyeings were performed for each of the four dyeing methods used i.e. no mordanting, pre mordanting, mordanting and post mordanting with alum of aluminium, copper-sulphate, zinc-chloride, potassium-bichromate, sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, sodium sulphite and iron-sulphate as mordant. Light fastness of colours varied between 2 and 8,

SÜLEYMAN KIZIL

460

Investigating fluorescent dyes in fluorescence-assisted screenings.  

PubMed

Screening of bead-based peptide libraries against fluorescent dye-labeled target proteins was found to be significantly influenced by the dye characteristics. Commercially available red fluorescent dyes with net negative charges adversely showed strong interactions with library beads. The introduction of zwitterionic dyes significantly reduced the unwanted interactions, which sheds light upon using the right fluorescent probe for acquisition of reliable results in various fluorescence-assisted applications. PMID:25340456

Jee, Joo-Eun; Lim, Jaehong; Hyun, Hoon; Oon, Jessica; Ong, Yong Siang; Massif, Cedrik; Chang, Young-Tae; Choi, Hak Soo; Lee, Su Seong

2014-12-14

461

The renaissance of dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent major advances in the design of dyes and electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells have led to record power-conversion efficiencies. Donor–pi–acceptor dyes absorb much more strongly than commonly employed ruthenium-based dyes, thereby allowing most of the visible spectrum to be absorbed in thinner films. Light-trapping strategies are also improving photon absorption in thin films. New cobalt-based redox couples are

Brian E. Hardin; Henry J. Snaith; Michael D. McGehee

2012-01-01

462

Confinement of pyridinium hemicyanine dye within an anionic metal-organic framework for two-photon-pumped lasing  

PubMed Central

Two-photon-pumped dye lasers are very important because of their applications in wavelength up-conversion, optical data storage, biological imaging and photodynamic therapy. Such lasers are very difficult to realize in the solid state because of the aggregation-caused quenching. Here we demonstrate a new two-photon-pumped micro-laser by encapsulating the cationic pyridinium hemicyanine dye into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF). The resultant MOF?dye composite exhibits significant two-photon fluorescence because of the large absorption cross-section and the encapsulation-enhanced luminescent efficiency of the dye. Furthermore, the well-faceted MOF crystal serves as a natural Fabry–Perot resonance cavity, leading to lasing around 640?nm when pumped with a 1064-nm pulse laser. This strategy not only combines the crystalline benefit of MOFs and luminescent behaviour of organic dyes but also creates a new synergistic two-photon-pumped lasing functionality, opening a new avenue for the future creation of solid-state photonic materials and devices. PMID:24173352

Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Xu, Hui; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

2013-01-01

463

Confinement of pyridinium hemicyanine dye within an anionic metal-organic framework for two-photon-pumped lasing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-photon-pumped dye lasers are very important because of their applications in wavelength up-conversion, optical data storage, biological imaging and photodynamic therapy. Such lasers are very difficult to realize in the solid state because of the aggregation-caused quenching. Here we demonstrate a new two-photon-pumped micro-laser by encapsulating the cationic pyridinium hemicyanine dye into an anionic metal-organic framework (MOF). The resultant MOF?dye composite exhibits significant two-photon fluorescence because of the large absorption cross-section and the encapsulation-enhanced luminescent efficiency of the dye. Furthermore, the well-faceted MOF crystal serves as a natural Fabry-Perot resonance cavity, leading to lasing around 640?nm when pumped with a 1064-nm pulse laser. This strategy not only combines the crystalline benefit of MOFs and luminescent behaviour of organic dyes but also creates a new synergistic two-photon-pumped lasing functionality, opening a new avenue for the future creation of solid-state photonic materials and devices.

Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Xu, Hui; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong

2013-10-01

464

SOLUBILITY OF DISPERSE DYES IN WATER: MEASUREMENT AND IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods that have been used for measuring solubility of disperse dyes are critically examined along with a dynamic method heretofore unused for dyes. vailable data are analyzed regarding heats of solution and entropies of fusion. olubilities of disperse dyes are examined with reg...

465

Evaluation of some fluorescent dyes for water tracing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight fluorescent dyes were compared in the laboratory and in field experiments to assess their utility in quantitative tracing work. The properties considered included sensitivity and minimum detectability, the effect of water chemistry on dye fluorescence, photochemical and biological decay rates, adsorption losses on equipment and sediments, toxicity to man and aquatic organisms, and cost. Orange dyes are more useful

P. L. Smart; I. M. S. Laidlaw

1977-01-01

466

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2010-07-01

467

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2013-07-01

468

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2012-07-01

469

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2014-07-01

470

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2011-07-01

471

40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject to...

2010-07-01

472

40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721.4594 Protection...721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is subject to...

2010-07-01

473

40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). 721.988 Section 721...Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine dye (PMN P-98-91) is subject to...

2010-07-01

474

How the dye industry is benefiting from membrane technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane filtration is routinely used by a wide variety of process industries to concentrate, purify and improve final product quality. Its popularity within the dye industry is growing as dye manufacturers discover that this technique is a reliable and cost effective means of improving yield and product quality. Cliff Crossley, PCI-Memtech, UK, discusses how membrane filtration is benefiting the dye

Cliff Crossley

2002-01-01

475

Organic Dyes, Conjugation, and the Chemistry of Vision  

E-print Network

Organic Dyes, Conjugation, and the Chemistry of Vision François G. Amar Department of Chemistry blue light on a yellow solution and no light gets through: #12;Organic dyes are conjugated molecules) = 165 217 286 345 #12;Some other organic dyes O OH OH HO OH OH N+ N CH NH2 H3C N CH3 H Mauve: the first

Amar, François G.

476

Photosensitization of diazo disperse dye in aqueous acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most disperse dyes that are usually used by the textile dyeing industry are resistant to UV degradation. The photodegradation of dyeing wastewater in the presence of acetone, which performs as a solvent and\\/or a photo-sensitizer, was investigated in this study. The results demonstrated that photochemical reaction in the presence of acetone could rapidly and effectively enhance color removal at a

Wei Chu; Sui-Mei Tsui

1999-01-01

477

Degradation of azo dye with horse radish peroxidase (HRP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dyes are recalcitrant carcinogenic compounds and have dermal and immunological effect on human beings. Conventional methods are not effective in the treatment of azo dyes. The oxidation capability of horse radish per- oxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on direct yellow 12 dye was investigated and was found to be very effective treatment methodology. HRP was extracted from horse

VASANTHA LAXMI MADDHINNI; HIMA BINDU VURIMINDI; ANJANEYULU YERRAMILLI; Trent Lott

2006-01-01

478

Dye Marked Antibiotics for Lactating Cow Mastitis Therapy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye markings of intramammary anti- biotic infusions could give a dairy farmer immediate visual warning that milk contains antibiotic residue. Six dye and antibiotic preparations for lactating cows were studied for rates of dye and anti- biotic milk-out. Albacillin® containing 1 x 10 s IU of penicillin plus 150 mg of novobiocin combined with 25, 125, or 250 mg of

N. F. Novak; T. M. Gilmore; J. G. Parsons

1984-01-01

479

Single-mode and tunable microfluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technology for miniaturized, chip-based liquid dye lasers, which may be integrated with microfluidic networks and planar waveguides without addition of further process steps. The microfluidic dye lasers consist of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The lasers are operated with Rhodamine 6G laser dye dissolved in a suitable solvent, such as ethanol or ethylene glycol,

A. Kristensen; S. Balslev; M. Gersborg-Hansen; B. Bilenberg; T. Rasmussen; D. Nilsson

2006-01-01

480

Controlled diffraction elements based on liquid crystal composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methods developed to create volume diffraction structures based on nematic liquid crystals (LCs) doped by a polymethine dye and also thin phase gratings formed in LC using the aligning photopolymer. The efficiency of the electric control method for diffraction LC structures is demonstrated and the characteristics of these structures are studied.

A. A. Kazak; A. A. Melnikova; A. L. Tolstik

2008-01-01