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Sample records for crystal violet dye

  1. Characterization of a PDLC mixed with crystal violet dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Manríquez, José Fabián; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Pérez-Cortés, Mario; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Ordoñez-Padilla, Manuel Jorge

    2012-03-01

    We show the optical characterization of a Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal which was made mixing Norland Optical Adhesive No. 65®, nematic liquid crystal and crystal violet dye, deposited between two glass substrates with indium tin oxide (ITO) as electrodes. In this device, we recorded low frequency (104 lines/mm) holographic gratings made with the interference of two beams from an Ar laser at 515 nm in emission line. We measured the diffraction efficiency of the gratings obtaining 2% when the grating was read with a beam from a He-Ne laser at 612 nm.

  2. Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye using a Light Emitting Diode Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; O'Neal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple method to estimate the photocatalytic reactivity performance of spray-on titanium dioxide coatings for transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This novel technique provides a standardized method to evaluate the efficiency of photocatalytic material systems over a variety of illumination levels. To date, photocatalysis assessments have generally been conducted using mercury black light lamps. Illumination levels for these types of lamps are difficult to vary, consequently limiting their use for assessing material performance under a diverse range of simulated environmental conditions. This new technique uses an ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light emitting diode (LED) array instead of a traditional black light to initiate and sustain photocatalytic breakdown. This method was tested with a UV-resistant dye (crystal violet) applied to a titanium dioxide coated glass slide. Experimental control is accomplished by applying crystal violet to both titanium dioxide coated slides and uncoated control slides. A slide is illuminated by the UV LED array, at various light levels representative of outdoor and indoor conditions, from the dye side of the slide. To monitor degradation of the dye over time, a temperature-stabilized white light LED, whose emission spectrum overlaps with the dye absorption spectrum, is used to illuminate the opposite side of the slide. Using a spectrometer, the amount of light from the white light LED transmitted through the slide as the dye degrades is monitored as a function of wavelength and time and is subsequently analyzed. In this way, the rate of degradation for photocatalytically coated versus uncoated slide surfaces can be compared. Results demonstrate that the dye absorption decreased much more rapidly on the photocatalytically coated slides than on the control uncoated slides, and that dye degradation is dependent on illumination level. For photocatalytic activity assessment purposes, this experimental configuration and methodology minimizes many external variable effects and enables small changes in absorption to be measured. This research also compares the advantages of this innovative LED light source design over traditional mercury black light systems and non- LED lamp approaches. This novel technology begins to address the growing need for a standard method that can assess the performance of photocatalytic materials before deployment for large scale, real world use.

  3. Photocatalytic studies of crystal violet dye using mn doped and PVP capped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manish; Sharma, Manoj; Pandey, O P

    2014-04-01

    Mn (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) doped and undoped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) capped with PVP (1.0%) were successfully synthesized via co-precipitation approach using zinc acetate, sodium hydroxide and manganese acetate as precursors. Structural analysis was performed by XRD confirming phase purity and crystalline wurtzite structure. TEM results show average particle size 15-20 nm and 22-25 nm for Mn (1%) and Mn (2%) doped ZnO NPs respectively. Manganese (Mn) doping has led to reduction in band gap which facilitate the absorption of radiation in visible region. The Photocatalytic activity of undoped and Mn (0.5%,1%,1.5% and 2%) doped NPs was analyzed via degradation of crystal violet (CV) dye. The crystal violet decomposition rate of undoped and Mn doped NPs were studied under UV-visible region. It is observed from degradation studies that the doping has a pronounced effect on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NPs. Kinetic studies shows that photo degradation of CV follow a pseudo first-order kinetic law. Experiments for reusability of Mn (1%) doped with PVP (1%) capped ZnO were also performed to determine the stability of as prepared sample. It shows an increase in catalytic activity of NPs by small amount when exposed to UV irradiation for 3 h. Photoluminescence and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy studies were also performed for studying the effect of UV irradiation on the surface of ZnO NPs. PMID:24734685

  4. An LED Approach for Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; ONeal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple technique to assess the reactivity of photocatalytic coatings sprayed onto transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This new method uses ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to drive a photocatalytic reaction (the photocatalytic breakdown of a UV-resistant dye applied to a surface coated with the semiconductor titanium dioxide); and then a combination of a stabilized white light LED and a spectrometer to track the dye degradation as a function of time. Simple, standardized evaluation techniques that assess photocatalytic materials over a variety of environmental conditions, including illumination level, are not generally available and are greatly needed prior to in situ application of photocatalytic technologies. To date, much research pertaining to this aspect of photocatalysis has been limited and has focused primarily on laboratory experiments using mercury lamps. Mercury lamp illumination levels are difficult to control over large ranges and are temporally modulated by line power, limiting their use in helping to understand and predict how photocatalytic materials will behave in natural environmental settings and conditions. The methodology described here, using steady-state LEDs and time series spectroradiometric techniques, is a novel approach to explore the effect of UV light on the photocatalytic degradation of a UV resistant dye (crystal violet). GaN UV LED arrays, centered around 365 nm with an adjustable DC power supply, are used to create a small, spatially uniform light field where the steady state light level can be varied over three to four orders of magnitude. For this study, a set of glass microscope slides was custom coated with a thinly sprayed layer of photocatalytic titanium dioxide. Crystal violet was then applied to these titanium-dioxide coated slides and to uncoated control slides. The slides were then illuminated at various light levels from the dye side of the slide by the UV LED array. To monitor dye degradation on the slides over time, a temperature-stabilized white light LED was used to illuminate the opposite side of the slides. As the dye degraded, the amount of light from the white light LED transmitted through the slide was monitored with a spectrometer and subsequently analyzed to determine and compare the rate of dye degradation for photocatalytically coated versus uncoated slide surfaces. The long-term stability of the spectrometer/white light LED combination, which required only a single reference spectra to be taken for a time series sequence of several hours, enabled accurate measurements of transmitted light over time. Time series transmission curves were generated and results demonstrated that over time the transmission increased much more rapidly on the coated slides than on the control slides. This experimental configuration and methodology for photocatalytic activity measurement minimizes many external variable effects and allows low light level studies to be performed. This study also compares the advantages of this novel LED light source design to traditional mercury lamp systems and non-LED lamp approaches that have conventionally been used. The methodology and experimental design research summarized in this abstract is partly funded by the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate, and by the NASA Stennis Space Center Innovative Partnerships Program.

  5. Radiochromic leuco dye micelle hydrogels: II. Low diffusion rate leuco crystal violet gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Steven; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Radiation-sensitive hydrogels offer the capability of verifying intricate dose distributions in three-dimensional (3D) space conveniently in a single measurement with sub-millimetre spatial resolution. In this study, a new radiochromic hydrogel called leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel is introduced. Upon irradiation, LCV converts to crystal violet (CV+). Triton X-100 micelles are used to provide the required hybrid-interfacing environment to dissolve LCV. The diffusion coefficient of the LCV gel has been measured to be 0.036 ± 0.001 mm2 h-1, which is a factor of 25 times less than the standard radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) gel; LCV gels without Triton X-100 micelles have a diffusion coefficient of 0.33 ± 0.02 mm2 h-1. The LCV gel formulation contains: 1 mM LCV, 25 mM trichloroacetic acid, 4 mM Triton X-100 and 4% w/w gelatin. The primary innovative feature of this 3D hydrogel is that the radiation-induced CV+ dye is more soluble in the Triton X-100 micelles than in the surrounding water which consequently leads to more stable post-irradiation dose distributions. A dosimetric characterization revealed that the dose response is reproducible to within 1% over three separate batches, independent of energy, dose rate and dose fractionation but is affected by the temperature (~4% per °C) during irradiation. LCV micelle gels scanned optically with a yellow light source are a promising system for 3D dose verification. They may prove to be, especially, useful for scanning large volume dosimeters (i.e. 20 cm) since they are easily manufactured, transparent and near colourless prior to irradiation.

  6. Study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Alizarin and Crystal Violet Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Ram; Swarnkar, Raj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plays a vital role in analytical chemistry to characterize ultra trace quantity of organic compounds and biological samples. Two mechanisms have been considered to explain the SERS effect. The main contribution arises from a huge enhancement of the local electromagnetic field close to surface roughness of the metal structures, due to the excitation of a localized surface plasmon, while a further enhancement can be observed for molecules adsorbed onto specific sites when resonant charge transfer occurs. SERS signals have been observed from adsorbates on many metallic surfaces like Ag, Au, Ni, Cu etc. Additionally, metal oxide nanoparticles also show SERS signals It has now been established that SERS of analyte material is highly dependent on the type of substrate involved. Many types of nanostructures like nanofilms, nanorods, nanospheres etc. show highly efficient SERS signals. In particular, there are two routes available for the synthesis of these nanomaterials: the chemical route and the physical route. Chemical route involves many types of reducing agents and capping agents which can interfere in origin and measurement of these signals. The physical route avoids these anomalies and therefore it is suitable for the study of SERS phenomenon. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is an excellent top down technique to produce colloidal solution of nanoparticles with desired shape and size having surface free from chemical contamination, which is essential requirement for surface application of nanoparticles. The present work deals with the study of SERS of Crystal violet dye and Alizarin group dye on Cu@ Cu_2O and Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation. M. Fleishchmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillian Chem. Phys. Lett., 26, 163, 1974. U. Wenning, B. Pettinger, and H. Wetzel Chem. Phys. Lett., 70, 49, 1980. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, P. Ankit, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc., 1075, 67, 2008. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, and R. Gopal J. Nanosci.. Nanotech., 9, 5367, 2009. R. K. Swarnkar, S. C. Singh, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc., 1147, 205, 2009.

  7. Investigations on the growth, optical, thermal, dielectric, and laser damage threshold properties of crystal violet dye-doped potassium acid phthalate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Babu; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-03-01

    Influence of crystal violet dye with different concentration on potassium acid phthalate single crystal grown by conventional method has been studied. No change has been observed in the structure, whereas changes have been observed in the external morphology of the crystal when the dyes are incorporated in the crystal lattice. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses show the onset decomposition temperatures to be at 302, 285, 284, and 285 °C for pure, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mol% crystal violet-doped potassium acid phthalate crystals, respectively. The dielectric measurement was carried out on the grown crystals as a function of frequency at various temperatures. In addition, strong luminescent emission bands at 638, 648, and 640 nm were observed in which the relative intensity was found to be reversed as a result of doping concentration. The laser damage threshold value significantly increased for dye-doped crystal in comparison with pure crystal which may make it suitable for the solid-state dye laser applications.

  8. Multiresidue method for the triphenylmethane dyes in fish: Malachite green, crystal (gentian) violet, and brilliant green.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Karbiwnyk, Christine M; Lee, Rebecca H; Clark, Susan B; Rowe, W Douglas; Madson, Mark R; Miller, Keith E

    2009-04-01

    Liquid chromatographic methods are presented for the quantitative and confirmatory determination of crystal violet (CV; also known as gentian violet), leucocrystal violet (LCV), brilliant green (BG), and leucobrilliant green (LBG) in catfish. LCV and LBG were oxidized to the chromic CV and BG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and residues were measured as the combined CV+/-LCV and BG+/-LBG. These methods are extensions of published methods for malachite green (MG) analysis to allow simultaneous determination of MG, CV, and BG. Residues were extracted from muscle with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile, and extracts cleaned up using dichloromethane partitioning and solid-phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography with visible detection (LC-VIS). The method was validated for catfish fortified with LCV over the range 0.25-10 ngg(-1) and CV at 2 ngg(-1). Average recoveries were 90.6% (+/-8.1% R.S.D., n=45) for LCV and 84.4% (+/-4.2% R.S.D., n=6) for CV. The average recovery for samples fortified with BG or LBG over the range 0.5-10 ngg(-1) was 67.2% (+/-14.8% R.S.D., n=31). CV and BG were confirmed in fish extracts by ion trap LC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) with no discharge-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. Average LC-MS(n) recoveries were 96.5, 96.6, and 70.2% for samples fortified with CV, LCV, and BG or LBG. The limits of detection for CV, BG, and MG were in the range of 0.07-0.24 ngg(-1) (ppb) for the two different instrumental methods. This methodology was applied to the analysis of catfish treated with CV and BG. PMID:19286041

  9. Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism modeling and simulation of basic and acid dyes sorption onto jute fiber carbon: Eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet single component systems.

    PubMed

    Porkodi, K; Vasanth Kumar, K

    2007-05-01

    Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto jute fiber carbon (JFC). The operating variables studied are the initial dye concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm by non-linear regression method. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the optimum isotherm for eosin yellow/JFC system and Freundlich isotherm was found to be the optimum isotherm for malachite green/JFC and crystal violet/JFC system at equilibrium conditions. The sorption capacities of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto JFC according to Langmuir isotherm were found to 31.49 mg/g, 136.58 mg/g, 27.99 mg/g, respectively. A single stage batch adsorber was designed for the adsorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto JFC based on the optimum isotherm. A pseudo second order kinetic model well represented the kinetic uptake of dyes studied onto JFC. The pseudo second order kinetic model successfully simulated the kinetics of dye uptake process. The dye sorption process involves both surface and pore diffusion with predominance of surface diffusion at earlier stages. A Boyd plot confirms the external mass transfer as the rate limiting step in the dye sorption process. The influence of initial dye concentration on the dye sorption process was represented in the form of dimensionless mass transfer numbers (Sh/Sc(0.33)) and was found to be agreeing with the expression: PMID:17069970

  10. Energy transfer in solid-state dye lasers based on methyl methacrylate co-doped with sulforhodamine B and crystal violet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geethu Mani, R. G.; Basheer, Ahamed M.

    2013-11-01

    Laser action in methyl methacrylate (MMA) co-doped with sulforhodamine B and crystal violet dyes was investigated. The dye mixture was incorporated into a solid polymeric matrix and was pumped by a 532-nm Nd:YAG laser. Distributed feedback dye laser (DFDL) action was induced in the dye mixture using a prism arrangement both in the donor and acceptor regions by an energy transfer mechanism. Theoretically, the characteristics of acceptor and donor DFDLs, and the dependence of their pulse widths and output powers on acceptor—donor concentrations and pump power, were studied. Experimentally, the output energy of DFDL was measured at the emission peaks of donor and acceptor dyes for different pump powers and different acceptor—donor concentrations. Tuning of the output wavelength was achieved by varying the period of the gain modulation of the laser medium. The laser wavelength showed continuous tunability from 563 nm to 648 nm.

  11. Crystal violet: Study of the photo-fading of an early synthetic dye in aqueous solution and on paper with HPLC-PDA, LC-MS and FORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confortin, Daria; Neevel, Han; Brustolon, Marina; Franco, Lorenzo; Kettelarij, Albert J.; Williams, Renè M.; van Bommel, Maarten R.

    2010-06-01

    The photo-fading of crystal violet (CV), one of the earliest synthetic dyes and an ink component, is examined both in solution and on paper. Aqueous solutions of CV were exposed to UV light (365nm) and samples were taken at constant time intervals and analysed with a High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array (HPLC-PDA) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS). Demethylation products were positively identified. Also, deamination probably occurred. The oxidation at the central carbon likely generates Michler's ketone (MK) or its derivatives, but still needs confirmation. To study CV on paper, Whatman paper was immersed in CV and exposed to UV light. Before and after different irradiation periods, reflectance spectra were recorded with Fibre Optic Reflectance Spectrophotometry (FORS). A decrease in CV concentration and a change in aggregation type for CV molecules upon irradiation was observed. Colorimetric L*a*b* values before and during irradiation were also measured. Also, CV was extracted from paper before and after different irradiation periods and analysed with HPLC-PDA. Photo-fading of CV on paper produced the same products as in solution, at least within the first 100 hours of irradiation. Finally, a photo-fading of CV in the presence of MK on Whatman paper was performed. It was demonstrated that MK both accelerates CV degradation and is consumed during the reaction. The degradation pathway identified in this work is suitable for explaining the photo/fading of other dyes belonging to the triarylmethane group.

  12. IncP-1β plasmids of Comamonas sp. and Delftia sp. strains isolated from a wastewater treatment plant mediate resistance to and decolorization of the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Stolze, Yvonne; Eikmeyer, Felix; Wibberg, Daniel; Brandis, Gerrit; Karsten, Christina; Krahn, Irene; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Viehöver, Prisca; Barsch, Aiko; Keck, Matthias; Top, Eva M; Niehaus, Karsten; Schlüter, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The application of toxic triphenylmethane dyes such as crystal violet (CV) in various industrial processes leads to large amounts of dye-contaminated sludges that need to be detoxified. Specific bacteria residing in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are able to degrade triphenylmethane dyes. The objective of this work was to gain insights into the genetic background of bacterial strains capable of CV degradation. Three bacterial strains isolated from a municipal WWTP harboured IncP-1β plasmids mediating resistance to and decolorization of CV. These isolates were assigned to the genera Comamonas and Delftia. The CV-resistance plasmid pKV29 from Delftia sp. KV29 was completely sequenced. In addition, nucleotide sequences of the accessory regions involved in conferring CV resistance were determined for plasmids pKV11 and pKV36 from the other two isolates. Plasmid pKV29 contains typical IncP-1β backbone modules that are highly similar to those of previously sequenced IncP-1β plasmids that confer antibiotic resistance, degradative capabilities or mercury resistance. The accessory regions located between the conjugative transfer (tra) and mating pair formation modules (trb) of all three plasmids analysed share common modules and include a triphenylmethane reductase gene, tmr, that is responsible for decolorization of CV. Moreover, these accessory regions encode other enzymes that are dispensable for CV degradation and hence are involved in so-far-unknown metabolic pathways. Analysis of plasmid-mediated degradation of CV in Escherichia coli by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS revealed that leuco crystal violet was the first degradation product. Michler's ketone and 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde appeared as secondary degradation metabolites. Enzymes encoded in the E. coli chromosome seem to be responsible for cleavage of leuco crystal violet. Plasmid-mediated degradation of triphenylmethane dyes such as CV is an option for the biotechnological treatment of sludges contaminated with these dyes. PMID:22653947

  13. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

  14. Simultaneous removal of binary mixture of Brilliant Green and Crystal Violet using derivative spectrophotometric determination, multivariate optimization and adsorption characterization of dyes on surfactant modified nano-γ-alumina.

    PubMed

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Bagtash, Maryam; Shariatmanesh, Tahere

    2015-02-25

    The present study deals with the simultaneous removal of Brilliant Green (BG) and Crystal Violet (CV) by surfactant-modified alumina. The utilization of alumina nanoparticles with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) as a novel and efficient adsorbent is successfully carried out to remove two cationic dyes from aqueous solutions in binary batch systems. A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV in binary solutions. The linear concentration range and limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV were found to be: 1-20, 1-15 mg/L, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The influence of various parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration of dyes and sorbent mass on the dye adsorption is investigated. A response surface methodology achieved through performing the Box-Behnken design is utilized to optimize the removal of dyes by surfactant-modified nanoparticle alumina through a batch adsorption process. The proposed quadratic model resulting from the Box-Behnken design approach fitted very well with the experimental data. The optimal conditions for dye removal were contact time t=50 min, sorbent dose=0.036 g, CBG (Initial BG concentration)=215 mg/L and CCV (Initial CV concentration)=170 mg/L. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis, the isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were also explored. PMID:25286114

  15. Simultaneous removal of binary mixture of Brilliant Green and Crystal Violet using derivative spectrophotometric determination, multivariate optimization and adsorption characterization of dyes on surfactant modified nano-γ-alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Bagtash, Maryam; Shariatmanesh, Tahere

    2015-02-01

    The present study deals with the simultaneous removal of Brilliant Green (BG) and Crystal Violet (CV) by surfactant-modified alumina. The utilization of alumina nanoparticles with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) as a novel and efficient adsorbent is successfully carried out to remove two cationic dyes from aqueous solutions in binary batch systems. A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV in binary solutions. The linear concentration range and limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV were found to be: 1-20, 1-15 mg/L, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The influence of various parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration of dyes and sorbent mass on the dye adsorption is investigated. A response surface methodology achieved through performing the Box-Behnken design is utilized to optimize the removal of dyes by surfactant-modified nanoparticle alumina through a batch adsorption process. The proposed quadratic model resulting from the Box-Behnken design approach fitted very well with the experimental data. The optimal conditions for dye removal were contact time t = 50 min, sorbent dose = 0.036 g, CBG (Initial BG concentration) = 215 mg/L and CCV (Initial CV concentration) = 170 mg/L. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis, the isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were also explored.

  16. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

  17. SERS and DFT study of crystal violet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Hu, Fang; Zhang, Ling-Yan; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Lu-De; Wang, Xin

    2013-03-01

    Six silver colloids were prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate with different amounts of sodium citrate. The obtained silver colloids were characterised by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of these silver colloids were investigated using crystal violet (CV) as a SERS probe. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the level of B3LYP, the Raman spectra and the optimised geometry of CV were analysed. The results show that the sodium citrate content strongly influences the sizes, zeta potentials and SERS activities of the silver colloids. As the sodium citrate content increases in the preparation of silver colloids, the mean diameters of the silver nanoparticles decrease. The most intense SERS of CV on the silver colloids is obtained when 3 mL of 1% sodium citrate is used. CV has D3 point group symmetry, and the Raman vibrational modes belong to A1 or E irreducible representations. The non-totally symmetric vibrational modes E are selectively enhanced in the SERS of CV through a Herzberg-Teller vibronic coupling mechanism, indicating a considerable charge transfer between CV and the silver nanoparticles.

  18. Detection of low concentrations of malachite green and crystal violet in water.

    PubMed

    Safarík, I; Safariková, M

    2002-01-01

    A simple procedure for the detection of low concentrations of malachite green and crystal violet in water is presented. The dyes were preconcentrated from 1,000 ml of water samples with magnetic solid phase extraction using magnetic affinity adsorbent (magnetite with immobilized copper phthalocyanine dye). Due to the magnetic properties of the adsorbent the preconcentration process can also be performed in water samples containing suspended solids. After elution of the captured dyes, their presence in eluates was detected spectrophotometrically. Concentrations of both dyes in the range 0.5-1.0 microgl(-1) of water could be reproducibly detected. The dyes can be detected not only in potable water, but also in river ones. PMID:11766795

  19. Photochemistry of sensitizing dyes. Spectroscopic and redox properties of cresyl violet

    SciTech Connect

    Kreller, D.I.; Kamat, P.V. )

    1991-05-30

    The photosensitizing properties of cresyl violet have been investigated by characterizing singlet and triplet excited states and the reduced and oxidized forms of the dye by picosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. The dye readily forms a charge-transfer complex with amines with complexation constants in the range of 49-3,350 M{sup {minus}1} in methanol. The dye in its singlet and triplet excited states has lifetimes of 2.46 ns and 68 {mu}s, respectively, in acetonitrile. The excited triplet is quenched by ground-state dye molecules with a bimolecular rate constant of 1.45 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The semioxidized radical of the dye has been generated by oxidation of CV{sup +} with pulse radiolytically generated azide radicals (k = 1.6 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) in aqueous medium. The semireduced dye has been generated by quenching of triplet dye with triphenylamine (k = 1.4 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}) in methanol. Photoelectrochemical reduction of cresyl violet in colloidal TiO{sub 2} suspension has also been carried out, with a quantum yield of 0.013.

  20. Adsorption of Crystal violet on raw and acid-treated montmorillonite, K10, in aqueous suspension.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Gautam Kumar; Sen Gupta, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2016-04-15

    Crystal violet is used as a dye in cotton and silk textiles, paints and printing ink. The dye is hazardous and exposure to it may cause permanent injury to the cornea and conjunctiva including permanent blindness, and in severe cases, may lead to respiratory and kidney failure. The present work describes removal of Crystal violet from aqueous solution by adsorption on raw and acid-treated montmorillonite, K10. The clay mineral was treated with 0.25 and 0.50 M sulfuric acid and the resulting materials were characterized by XRD, zeta potential, SEM, FTIR, cation exchange capacity, BET surface area and pore volume measurements. The influences of pH, interaction time, adsorbent amount, and temperature on adsorption were monitored and explained on the basis of physico-chemical characteristics of the materials. Basic pH generally favors adsorption but considerable removal was possible even under neutral conditions. Adsorption was very rapid and equilibrium could be attained in 180 min. The kinetics conformed to second order model. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of raw montmorillonite K10 was 370.37 mg g(-1) whereas 0.25 M and 0.50 M acid treated montmorillonite K10 had capacities of 384.62 and 400.0 mg g(-1) respectively at 303 K. Adsorption was exothermic and decreased in the temperature range of 293-323 K. Thermodynamically, the process was spontaneous with Gibbs energy decreasing with rise in temperature. The results suggest that montmorillonite K10 and its acid treated forms would be suitable for removing Crystal violet from aqueous solution. PMID:26866669

  1. Insight into biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal violet onto Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2012-06-01

    Biosorption performance of pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for removal of crystal violet (CV) from its aqueous solutions was investigated. To this end, the influence of operational parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied employing a batch experimental setup. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high correlation coefficients ( R 2 > 0.99) at different temperatures. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 78.22 mg g-1 at 293 K. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 58.96 kJ mol- 1 , indicating chemisorption nature of the ongoing biosorption process. A thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and exothermic nature of the biosorption process. Owing to its low cost and high dye uptake capacity, PLP has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  2. Fast analysis of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in fish tissue based on a modified QuEChERS procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengyun; Wei, Jie; Dong, Xuefang; Guo, Zhimou; Liu, Mingyang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) have been used as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antiseptic agents in aquaculture. However, MG and CV, as well as their metabolites leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) are potential mutagens and carcinogens. Thus, the efficient determination of dye residues is of great concern. Considering the complexity of the aquatic products, the sample pretreatment is significant for decreasing matrix interference and improving detection sensitivity. In this study, a simple and rapid QuEChERS procedure was developed and combined with HPLC analysis for the simultaneous determination of the four dyes in fish tissue. An XCharge C18 column was applied in HPLC analysis to achieve good peak shape and selectivity. The pretreatment method involved the extraction of dyes from fish tissue and further clean-up with dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) material. The extraction volume, extraction time as well as d-SPE materials were systematically optimized. The results indicated that reversed-phase/strong anion exchange (C18SAX) adsorbent in the d-SPE procedure could effectively improve the recovery compared with conventional C18 or C18 incorporated with primary secondary amine (PSA) material. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 0.5-100 mg/L with R2 greater than 0. 998. The recoveries were 73%-91% and the precisions were 0.66%-5.41%. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of QuEChERS procedure incorporated with HPLC for dye monitoring. PMID:25069333

  3. Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

  4. BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

  5. Adsorption of ethyl violet dye in aqueous solution by regenerated spent bleaching earth.

    PubMed

    Tsai, W T; Chang, Y M; Lai, C W; Lo, C C

    2005-09-15

    The adsorption of basic dye (i.e., ethyl violet or basic violet 4) from aqueous solution onto the regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was carried out by varying the process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, and temperature. As analytical comparisons, activated bleaching earth (ABE) was also used as adsorbent for the adsorption of the basic dye at various initial concentrations. The experimental results showed that the adsorption process can be well described with the pseudo-second-order reaction model and less fitted by the intra-particle diffusion model. The kinetic parameters of both models obtained in the present work are in line with pore properties of the two adsorbents. According to the equilibrium adsorption capacity from the fitting of pseudo-second-order reaction model, it was further found that the both models of Langmuir and Freundlich appeared to fit well the isotherm data. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters were evaluated based on the pseudo-second-order rate constants, showing that the adsorption of ethyl violet onto the RSBE is endothermic in nature. PMID:15922353

  6. Bordetella bronchiseptica phase variation induced by crystal violet.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, H; Isayama, Y

    1986-01-01

    A method for effective induction of phase variation in Bordetella bronchiseptica by treatment with crystal violet (CV) is presented. When grown in CV-broth, phase I cells dissociated into three serial phases. Appearance of variant cells was observed simultaneously with the beginning of cell multiplication. The maximum effect of CV was obtained at a concentration of 8 micrograms/ml, when the proportion of variants in the population reached 100%. The main factors which affected phase variation were concentration of CV, culture age, and temperature of treatment. The phase variants obtained were phenotypically stable upon serial passages on Bordet-Gengou agar plates. By this treatment, no reversion of phase descendants to former phases was observed. Images PMID:3700613

  7. Adsorption of crystal violet with diatomite earth&carbon by a modification of hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Li, Jun; Chen, Guanghui; Bian, Wei; Lu, Yun; Li, Wenjing; Zheng, Zhaoming; Cheng, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    The high colority and difficulty of decolorization are the most important tasks on printing and dyeing wastewater. This study investigates the ability of diatomite earth&carbon (DE&C) as an adsorbent to removal crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate the importance of functional groups during the adsorption of CV. The obtained N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm values accord with well IUPAC type II. Our calculations determined a surface area of 73.15 m(2) g(-1) for DE&C and an average pore diameter of 10.56 nm. Equilibrium data of the adsorption process fitted very well to the Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.99). The results of kinetics study showed that the pseudo-second-order model fitted to the experimental data well. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. ΔH° <0, ΔS° > 0 and ΔG° < 0 demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic for dye. Furthermore the positive value of ΔS° reflected good affinity of the CV dye. PMID:27003089

  8. Exposure to Crystal Violet, Its Toxic, Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Effects on Environment and Its Degradation and Detoxification for Environmental Safety.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sujata; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal Violet (CV), a triphenylmethane dye, has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine as a biological stain, as a textile dye in textile processing industries and also used to provide a deep violet color to paints and printing ink. CV is also used as a mutagenic and bacteriostatic agent in medical solutions and antimicrobial agent to prevent the fungal growth in poultry feed. Inspite of its many uses, CV has been reported as a recalcitrant dye molecule that persists in environment for a long period and pose toxic effects in environment. It acts as a mitotic poison, potent carcinogen and a potent clastogene promoting tumor growth in some species of fish. Thus, CV is regarded as a biohazard substance. Although, there are several physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation and ion-pair extraction reported for the removal of CV, but these methods are insufficient for the complete removal of CV from industrial wastewaters and also produce large quantity of sludge containing secondary pollutants. However, biological methods are regarded as cost-effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, but these methods also have certain limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop such eco-friendly and cost-effective biological treatment methods, which can effectively remove the dye from industrial wastewaters for the safety of environment, as well as human and animal health. PMID:26613989

  9. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-09-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning.

  10. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning. PMID:26412101

  11. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning. PMID:26412101

  12. Simultaneous sorption of crystal violet and 2-naphthol to bentonite with different CECs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingming; Zhu, Runliang; Zhu, Jianxi; Ge, Fei; Yuan, Peng; He, Hongping; Ming, Chen

    2009-07-15

    This work was to examine the feasibility and efficiency to use bentonite for simultaneous removal of cationic dyes and hydrophobic organic carbons (HOCs) from water. The sorption capacities of crystal violet (CV) on two bentonites and one activated carbon were compared. Simultaneous sorption of CV and 2-naphthol on the two bentonites were tested, and the removal efficiencies of 2-naphthol by the simultaneous sorption method and by CV modified bentonite was also compared. The experimental results in this study showed that the bentonite is more effective in sorption of CV than the activated carbon. With the sorption of CV, bentonite surfaces were altered from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity, and thus 2-naphthol could be simultaneously removed. The aromatic effect between CV and 2-naphthol was supposed to be the primary driving force for the sorption of 2-naphthol. The simultaneous sorption method was shown to be more effective in the sorption of 2-naphthol than the CV modified bentonite. Results of this work could provide novel information for the treatment of wastewater containing both cationic dyes and HOCs. PMID:19095351

  13. Photonic crystal reflectance switching by dye electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, Joshua D.; Brett, Michael J.

    2010-07-01

    Reflectivity of a photonic crystal device fabricated by glancing angle deposition may be reversibly altered by infiltration with an absorbing dye solution. An electric field controls the dye ion motion through the photonic crystal. Rapid reflectance changes up to 0.4 in the crystal's optical band gap are demonstrated. The time evolution of the dye movement process is examined and its operation described. This work may have applications for a passive optical display.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Paracoccus sp. GSM2 Capable of Degrading Textile Azo Dye Reactive Violet 5

    PubMed Central

    Bheemaraddi, Mallikarjun C.; Shivannavar, Channappa T.; Gaddad, Subhashchandra M.

    2014-01-01

    A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100 mg/L) within 16 h, while maximally it could decolorize 800 mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0–9.0 and 25–40°C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v). UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2. PMID:24883397

  15. Removal of crystal violet from water by magnetically modified activated carbon and nanomagnetic iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Hamidzadeh, Soheila; Torabbeigi, Marzieh; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically modified activated carbon, which synthesized by nanomagnetic iron oxide, was used for fast and effective removal of Crystal Violet from aqueous solutions. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nano-adsorbent showed that the average sizes of adsorbent are less than 100 nm. The various parameters, affecting on adsorption process, were examined including pH and temperature of dye solution, dose of adsorbent, and contact time. Then, thermodynamic parameters of sorption were calculated. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to fit the resulting data. Adsorption kinetics was consistent with a pseudo second order equation. Thermodynamic parameters of adsorption, ∆H(0), and ∆S(0) were calculated. Also, for further investigations, nano magnetic iron oxides was synthesized and used as adsorbent. Sorption capacities were depending on the temperature varied from 44.7 to 67.1 mg/g and from 12.7 to 16.5 mg/g for magnetically modified activated carbon and nanomagnetic iron oxide, respectively. PMID:25699186

  16. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biofilm as a novel biosorbent for the removal of crystal violet from solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Wang, Sheng; Wan, Li; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biofilm shows promise for use in the control of soil-borne pathogens; however, it has never been used to treat dye-polluted wastewaters. Here, we propose the novel idea of using B. amyloliquefaciens biofilm for the adsorption of crystal violet (CV) from liquids. The relative contents of three main elements (C1s, O1s, and N1s) in the biofilm were 65.55%, 21.21%, and 13.24%, respectively. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the biofilm contained β-type heteropolysaccharide and proteins. The ruggedness of the biofilm surface due to embedded bacterial cells suggested potential adsorption sites for CV molecules. The maximum capacity for CV adsorption was 582.41mg/g, which is the largest value reported to date for any CV adsorbent. Blueshift occurred in the FTIR spectrum of CV-loaded biofilm as compared to that of virgin biofilm, confirming a physical adsorption process. We found that CV adsorption by biofilm was complex and resulted from intraparticle diffusion as well as surface adsorption. Our data also suggested that the process is exothermal and spontaneous, with micropore diffusion as the rate-limiting step. These findings provide a basis for using B. amyloliquefaciens biofilm as an efficient adsorbent for treating CV-polluted wastewaters. PMID:26707697

  17. Spectroscopic investigation of alloyed quantum dot-based FRET to cresyl violet dye.

    PubMed

    Kotresh, M G; Adarsh, K S; Shivkumar, M A; Mulimani, B G; Savadatti, M I; Inamdar, S R

    2016-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), bright luminescent semiconductor nanoparticles, have found numerous applications ranging from optoelectronics to bioimaging. Here, we present a systematic investigation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from hydrophilic ternary alloyed quantum dots (CdSeS/ZnS) to cresyl violet dye with a view to explore the effect of composition of QD donors on FRET efficiency. Fluorescence emission of QD is controlled by varying the composition of QD without altering the particle size. The results show that quantum yield of the QDs increases with increase in the emission wavelength. The FRET parameters such as spectral overlap J(λ), Förster distance R0 , intermolecular distance (r) , rate of energy transfer kT (r), and transfer efficiency (E) are determined by employing both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, dynamic quenching is noticed to occur in the present FRET system. Stern-Volmer (KD ) and bimolecular quenching constants (kq ) are determined from the Stern-Volmer plot. It is observed that the transfer efficiency follows a linear dependence on the spectral overlap and the quantum yield of the donor as predicted by the Förster theory upon changing the composition of the QD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26333828

  18. [Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased. PMID:24066559

  19. Quantitative super-resolution localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe

    PubMed Central

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika; Szczurek, Aleksander T.; Prakash, Kirti; Best, Gerrit; Mohana, Giriram K.; Lee, Hyun-Keun; Roignant, Jean-Yves; Dobrucki, Jurek W.; Cremer, Christoph; Birk, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) is a recently emerged optical imaging method that was shown to achieve a resolution in the order of tens of nanometers in intact cells. Novel high resolution imaging methods might be crucial for understanding of how the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, is arranged in the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Such an approach utilizing switching of a fluorescent, DNA-binding dye Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet has been previously demonstrated by us (Żurek-Biesiada et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide quantitative information on the influence of the chemical environment on the behavior of the dye, discuss the variability in the DNA-associated signal density, and demonstrate direct proof of enhanced structural resolution. Furthermore, we compare different visualization approaches. Finally, we describe various opportunities of multicolor DNA/SMLM imaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei. PMID:27054149

  20. Quantitative super-resolution localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika; Szczurek, Aleksander T; Prakash, Kirti; Best, Gerrit; Mohana, Giriram K; Lee, Hyun-Keun; Roignant, Jean-Yves; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Cremer, Christoph; Birk, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) is a recently emerged optical imaging method that was shown to achieve a resolution in the order of tens of nanometers in intact cells. Novel high resolution imaging methods might be crucial for understanding of how the chromatin, a complex of DNA and proteins, is arranged in the eukaryotic cell nucleus. Such an approach utilizing switching of a fluorescent, DNA-binding dye Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet has been previously demonstrated by us (Żurek-Biesiada et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide quantitative information on the influence of the chemical environment on the behavior of the dye, discuss the variability in the DNA-associated signal density, and demonstrate direct proof of enhanced structural resolution. Furthermore, we compare different visualization approaches. Finally, we describe various opportunities of multicolor DNA/SMLM imaging in eukaryotic cell nuclei. PMID:27054149

  1. Low-cost nanoparticles sorbent from modified rice husk and a copolymer for efficient removal of Pb(II) and crystal violet from water.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Arameh; Hemmati, Khadijeh; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2016-03-01

    In this work, preparation of adsorbent nanoparticles based on treated low-value agricultural by-product rice husk (TARH), and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-maleic anhydride), poly(MMA-co-MA), is reported for the removal of Pb(II) ion and Crystal violet dye from water. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, AFM, DLS, BET and Zeta potential. The metal ion adsorption capability was determined for rice husk (RH), TARH, crosslinked poly(MMA-co-MA) (CNR), and CNR@TARH nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the adsorption of Pb(II) such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and also temperature were studied to investigate adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics. For the four tested adsorption isotherm models, the equilibrium sorption data for CNR@TARH nanoparticles obeyed the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum sorption capacity of 93.45 mg g(-1). The kinetic adsorption data fitted best the Lagergren pseudo-second order model. Regeneration of adsorbent was easily performed by adsorption/desorption experiments followed for 4 cycles. Finally, the ability of the nanoparticles to remove Crystal violet dye from aqueous solution was also investigated by varying the initial dye concentration, pH and immersion time and the adsorption mechanism followed the second-order kinetic model. PMID:26735725

  2. Fish erythrocytes as biomarkers for the toxicity of sublethal doses of an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Arvinder

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate poikilocytosis in Labeo rohita (an important food fish) as an early indicator of stress due to an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535). This dye was observed to be very toxic to test fish (96 h LC50 as0.45 mg/L dye). Fish were given short-term (96 h) and subchronic (150 days) exposures to the dye, and poikilocytosis was recorded under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light microscopy helped in identification of micronuclei along with irregularities, notches, blebs, lobes, crenation, clumps, chains, spherocytes, vacuolation, and necrosis in erythrocytes. However, SEM indicated shrinkage, oozing of cytoplasm, and several new abnormal shapes including marginal foldings, discocytes, keratocytes, dacrocytes, degmacytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, protuberances, stomatocytes, drepanocytes, holes in the membrane, stippling/spicules, crescent-shaped cells, triangular cells, and pentagonal cells. Earlier studies speculated changes in the membrane to be responsible for clumping and chaining of erythrocytes, whereas the present SEM study clearly indicates that oozing out of cytoplasm is also responsible for the formation of chains and clumps. This study also shows that erythrocytes exhibit pathological symptoms before the appearance of other external symptoms such as abnormal behavior or mortality of fish. There was a dose- and duration-dependent increase; therefore, poikilocytosis, especially echinocytes, spherocytes, and clumps, can act as a biomarker for the stress caused by azo dyes. PMID:25434363

  3. Modification of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by β-Cyclodextrin in decoloration of ethyl violet dye

    PubMed Central

    Velusamy, Ponnusamy; Pitchaimuthu, Sakthivel; Rajalakshmi, Subramanian; Kannan, Nagarathinam

    2012-01-01

    The photocatalytic decoloration of an organic dye, ethyl violet (EV), has been studied in the presence of TiO2 and the addition of β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) with TiO2 (TiO2-β-CD) under UV-A light irradiation. The different operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, illumination time, pH and amount of catalyst used have also been investigated. The photocatalytic decoloration efficiency is more in the TiO2-β-CD/UV-A light system than TiO2/UV-A light system. The mineralization of EV has been confirmed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measurements. The complexation patterns have been confirmed with UV–Visible and FT-IR spectral data and the interaction between TiO2 and β-CD have been characterized by powder XRD analysis and UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PMID:25685468

  4. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532nm laser and a 635nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9×10(-10)M (2.5×10(-19)mol) for crystal violet and 8.3×10(-11)M (3.0×10(-20)mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. PMID:26998858

  5. Electrochemical degradation of crystal violet with BDD electrodes: effect of electrochemical parameters and identification of organic by-products.

    PubMed

    Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E; Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L; Peñuela, Gustavo; González, Ignacio; Nava, Jose L; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the applicability of electrochemical oxidation on a triphenylmethane dye compound model, hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (or crystal violet, CV), using BDD anodes. The effect of the important electrochemical parameters: current density (2.5-15 m A cm(-2)), dye concentration (33-600 mg L(-1)), sodium sulphate concentration (7.1-50.0 g L(-1)) and initial pH (3-11) on the efficiency of the electrochemical process was evaluated. The results indicated that while the current density was lower than the limiting current density, no side products (hydrogen peroxide, peroxodisulphate, ozone and chlorinated oxidizing compounds) were generated and the degradation, through OH radical attack, occurred with high efficiency. Analysis of intermediates using GC-MS investigation identified several products: N-methylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-methyl-N-methylaniline, 4-dimethylaminophenol, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) diphenylmethane, 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino) benzophenone. The presence of these aromatic structures showed that the main CV degradation pathway is related to the reaction of CV with the OH radical. Under optimal conditions, practically 100% of the initial substrate and COD were eliminated in approximately 35 min of electrolysis; indicating that the early CV by-products were completely degraded by the electrochemical system. PMID:20709357

  6. Dye sensitization of single crystal semiconductor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Spitler, Mark T; Parkinson, B A

    2009-12-21

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades, single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than 40 years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. This Account analyzes the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical, and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy, and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS(2) and TiO(2) electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye-sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS(2) electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO(2) that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band. In recent experiments with ruthenium complexes at TiO(2) and with carboxylated cyanine dyes, we demonstrate the promise of this simple model for understanding dye-sensitized solar cells. In each of these systems, we can observe and analyze the complex photochemistry in a quantitative manner. Molecules of the well-known N3 ruthenium complex attach to four different crystallographic faces of anatase and rutile TiO(2) at different rates and to a different extent. With carboxylated cyanine dye sensitizers on these surfaces, molecular aggregation on the surface is a function of molecular structure and crystallographic face. In contrast with the N3 sensitizer these organic dyes undergo a photoinduced dimerization and desorption reaction when hydroquinone regenerators are present. With both classes of sensitizers, we demonstrate a new photochronocoulometric technique that quantifies the amount of attached dye on the electrode surface. We have completed initial experiments examining quantum dot sensitization of TiO(2) crystals, which could eventually lead to sensitizers with higher stability and absorption coefficients. Although these single crystal electrode models show promise for providing insights and predictive value in understanding the sensitization process, more sophisticated models will be needed to fully understand the charge transfer from the localized electronic states of the sensitizer to the extended states of the semiconductor. PMID:19924998

  7. Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) dye from aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) by ultraviolet radiation (UV), ultrasonic irradiation (US), UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz) plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%), US (<6%) and US/H2O2(<15%) processes were negligible for this kind of dye. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dyestuffs concentrations was found to fit all the experimental data. PMID:23369268

  8. Aqueous photofate of crystal violet under simulated and natural solar irradiation: Kinetics, products, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Lianhong; Wang, Qingeng

    2016-01-01

    In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of an illegal veterinary drug, crystal violet, were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in the aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process under simulated sunlight were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe(2+), Ca(2+), [Formula: see text] , and [Formula: see text] , of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design. The degradation processes of crystal violet conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics, with different rate constants under different conditions. Reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and superoxide anion participated in the indirect photolysis process, leading to much higher decolorization efficiencies than those of direct photolysis and hydrolysis. Contrasting to simulated irradiation, solar irradiation led to complete decolorization. Sixty-four products were identified by high resolution liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, elucidating relatively complete mineralization through photolysis. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculations of the frontier electron density, transformation pathways were proposed as singlet oxygen addition, N-demethylation, hydroxyl addition, decomposition of conjugated structure, the removal of benzene ring and the ring-opening reaction. As a result, small products generated as carboxylic acids, alcohols and amines, which were not likely to cause severe hazards to the environment. This study provided both a reference for photodegradation of crystal violet and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane veterinary drug under environmental conditions. PMID:26497275

  9. Visible absorption spectra of crystal violet in supercritical ethane - methanol solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Takahashi, K.; Jonah, C. D.; Chemistry

    2002-11-01

    The effects of concentration and mole fraction of methanol in supercritical ethane on the absorption spectra of crystal violet (CV) were examined. Keeping the concentration of CV in the cell constant at 50 {mu}mol l{sup -1}, both the methanol concentration (from 0.4 to 1.2 mol l{sup -1}) and pressure of ethane (from 60 to 150 bar) were varied. The degree of solvation of CV depends both on the mole fraction and concentration of cosolvent. The dimerization of CV was found to decrease with pressure, and with the ratio between methanol and CV concentrations.

  10. Microwave treated Salvadora oleoides as an eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of toxic methyl violet dye from aqueous solution-A green approach.

    PubMed

    Din, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Zaib; Munir, Hifza; Naz, Amber; Intisar, Azeem; Makshoof, M Nouman; Mirza, M Latif

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, microwave treated Salvadora oleoides (MW-SO) has been investigated as a potential biosorbent for the removal of toxic methyl violet dye. A batch adsorption method was experimented for biosorptive removal of toxic methyl violet dye from the aqueous solution. The effect of various operating variables, viz., adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied and it was found that nearly 99% removal of the dye was possible under optimum conditions. Kinetic study revealed that a pseudo-second-order mechanism was predominant and the overall process of the dye adsorption involved more than one step. Hence, in order to investigate the rate determining step, intra-particle diffusion model was applied. Adsorption equilibrium study was made by analyzing Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherm models and the biosorption data was found to be best represented by the Langmuir model. The biosorption efficiency of MW-SO was also compared with unmodified material, Salvadora oleoides (SO). It was found that the sorption capacity (qmax) increased from 58.5 mg/g to 219.7 mg/g on MW treatment. Determination of thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) confirmed the spontaneous, endothermic and feasible nature of the adsorption process. The preparation of MW-SO did not require any additional chemical treatment and a high percentage removal of methyl violet dye was obtained in much lesser time. Thus, it is in agreement with the principles of green chemistry. The results of the present research work suggest that MW-SO can be used as an environmentally friendly and economical alternative biosorbent for the removal of methyl violet dye from aqueous solutions. PMID:26588059

  11. A facile surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of rhodamine 6G and crystal violet using Au nanoparticle substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuibao; Zeng, Tixian; Tan, Xiulan; Wu, Weidong; Tang, Yongjian; Zhang, Haibin

    2015-08-01

    In this study, Au nanoparticle (5 nm) colloid was employed for a facile preparation of SERS substrates from three approaches: (1) original Au nanoparticles, (b) Au colloid coated 200 nm polystyrene (PS) beads, and (3) Au colloid annealed at 200-500 °C. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and crystal violet were employed as the Raman active probes. The Au colloid deposited PS beads (PS@Au) exhibit intensive SERS signal for R6G detection, which is promising for crystal violet detection after being annealed at 400 °C. The 200 °C annealed Au nanoparticles demonstrate excellent combined SERS sensitivity for both R6G and crystal violet. For the original Au colloid, elevated annealing temperature from 200 °C to 500 °C decreases the SERS intensity as Au particles were coarsened gradually.

  12. Application of Micro-cloud point extraction for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet and Rhodamine B in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Elham; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    A novel, green, simple and fast method was developed for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B in water samples based on Micro-cloud Point extraction (MCPE) at room temperature. This is the first report on the application of MCPE on dyes. In this method, to reach the cloud point at room temperature, the MCPE procedure was carried out in brine using Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized condition, calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.06-0.60mg/L, 0.10-0.80mg/L, and 0.03-0.30mg/L with the enrichment factors of 29.26, 85.47 and 28.36, respectively for Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B. Limit of detections were between 2.2 and 5.1μg/L. PMID:27085294

  13. Decolorization and degradation of azo dye--Reactive Violet 5R by an acclimatized indigenous bacterial mixed cultures-SB4 isolated from anthropogenic dye contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kunal; Shah, Varun; Chapla, Digantkumar; Madamwar, Datta

    2012-04-30

    Azo dyes an important group of synthetic compounds are recalcitrant xenobiotics. Conventional technologies are unsuccessful to efficiently remove these compounds from contaminated environment. However, consorted metabolic functioning of innate microbial communities is a promising approach for bioremediation of polluted environment. Bacterial mixed cultures SB4 proficient in complete decolorization of azo dye - Reactive Violet 5R was developed through culture enrichment technique. Bacterial community composition based on 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that mixed cultures SB4 composed of six bacterial strains namely Bacillus sp. V1DMK, Lysinibacillus sp. V3DMK, Bacillus sp. V5DMK, Bacillus sp. V7DMK, Ochrobacterium sp. V10DMK, Bacillus sp. V12DMK. SB4 grew well in minimal medium containing low amount of glucose and yeast extract (YE) (1 g/L) and decolorized 200mg/L of RV5 within 18 h under static condition. Mixed cultures SB4 decolorized wide range of azo dyes and maximum rate of decolorization was observed at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Decolorization efficiency was found to be unaltered under high RV5 and salt concentration where 1500 mg/L of RV5 was decolorized in presence of 20 g/L NaCl. We propose the asymmetric cleavage of RV5 and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the formation of four intermediatory compounds 1-diazo-2-naphthol, 4-hydroxybenzenesulphonic acid, 2-naphthol and benzenesulphonic acid. PMID:22370200

  14. Nanoimprinted polymer photonic crystal dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Mads B.; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Buss, Thomas; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels A.; Kristensen, Anders

    2010-05-01

    Optically pumped polymer photonic crystal band-edge dye lasers are presented. The photonic crystal is a rectangular lattice providing laser feedback as well as an optical resonance for the pump light. The lasers are defined in a thin film of photodefinable Ormocore hybrid polymer, doped with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. A compact frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (352 nm, 5 ns pulses) is used to pump the lasers from above the chip. The laser devices are 450 nm thick slab waveguides with a rectangular lattice of 100 nm deep air holes imprinted into the surface. The 2-dimensional rectangular lattice is described by two orthogonal unit vectors of length a and b, defining the ΓP and ΓX directions. The frequency of the laser can be tuned via the lattice constant a (187 nm - 215 nm) while pump light is resonantly coupled into the laser from an angle (θ) depending on the lattice constant b (355 nm). The lasers are fabricated in parallel on a 10 cm diameter wafer by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). CNP relies on a UV transparent quartz nanoimprint stamp with an integrated metal shadow mask. In the CNP process the photonic crystal is formed by mechanical deformation (imprinting) while the larger features are defined by UV exposure through the combined mask/mold.

  15. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes. PMID:26599130

  16. Confirmatory analysis of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in salmon by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Geraldine; Mulder, Patrick P J; Duffy, Conor; Regan, Liam; Smyth, Malcolm R

    2007-03-14

    A method has been developed to analyse for malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in salmon. Salmon samples were extracted with acetonitrile:McIIIvain pH 3 buffer (90:10 v/v), sample extracts were purified on a Bakerbond strong cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Aliquots of the extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated in salmon, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CCalpha) was 0.17, 0.15, 0.35 and 0.17 microg kg(-1), respectively, for MG, LMG, CV and LCV and for the detection capability (CCbeta) values of 0.30, 0.35, 0.80 and 0.32 microg kg(-1), respectively, were obtained. Fortifying salmon samples (n=6) in three separate assays, show the accuracy to be between 77 and 113% for MG, LMG, LCV and CV. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD values for the within-laboratory reproducibility, for MG, LMG and LCV at the three levels of fortification (1, 1.5 and 2.0 microg kg(-1)), was less than 13%. For CV a more variable precision was obtained, with RSD values ranging between 20 and 25%. PMID:17386742

  17. SERS active Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanorods in electromagnetic wave absorption and crystal violet detection.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Shiv Brat; Kulkarni, Ajit R

    2014-11-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of Fe nanorods by the chemical reduction of FeCl3 (aq) using NaBH4 in the presence of glycerol as template followed by annealing of the product at 500°C in the presence of H2 gas flow. Subsequently, its surface has been modified by silica followed by silver nanoparticles to form silica coated Fe (Fe@SiO2) and Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure employing the Stöber method and silver mirror reaction respectively. XRD pattern of the products confirmed the formation of bcc phase of iron and fcc phase of silver, though silica remained amorphous. FESEM images established the growth of iron nanorods from the annealed product and also formation of silica and silver coating on its surface. The appearance of the characteristics bands in FTIR confirmed the presence of SiO2 on the Fe surface. Magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated the ferromagnetic behavior of as prepared iron nanorods, Fe@SiO2 and silver encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructures. All the samples exhibited strong microwave absorption property in the high frequency range (10GHz), though it is superior for Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 (-14.7dB) compared with Fe@SiO2 (-9.7dB) nanostructures of the same thickness. The synthesized Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure also exhibited the SERS phenomena, which is useful in the detection of the carcinogenic dye crystal violet (CV) upto the concentration of 10(-10)M. All these findings clearly demonstrate that the Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure could efficiently be used in the environmental remediation. PMID:25262081

  18. Optical properties of organic dyes in nanoporous zeolite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Irene L.; Tang, Z. K.; Xiao, X. D.; Yang, C. L.; Ge, W. K.

    2003-09-01

    Organic dye molecules of styryl 7 were introduced into the channels of AlPO4-5 single crystals. Polarized absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the dye molecules were investigated. The polarization angle dependence of the absorption and photoluminescence intensity indicates that the dye molecules are highly oriented in the channels. The hexagonal-shaped AlPO4-5 single crystal serves as a natural microcavity for lasing action of the dye molecules. The microcavity modes of the lasing action were also demonstrated.

  19. Use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet agar plates for selective recovery of bacteriophages from natural environments

    SciTech Connect

    Asghari, A.; Farrah, S.R.; Bitton, G. )

    1992-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide inactivated bacteriophages and bacteria at different rates. A concentration of 0.1% hydrogen peroxide reduced the numbers of several bacteria by an average of 94% but caused an average of 25% inactivation in the numbers of bacteriophages tested. Treating natural samples with hydrogen peroxide selectively reduced the indigenous bacterial flora and permitted better visualization of plaques of lawns of Escherichia coli C-3000. In some cases indigenous gram-positive bacteria were relatively resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but their growth could be limited by incorporation of crystal violet into the bottom agar used for plaque assays. The use of hydrogen peroxide treatment and crystal violet-containing plates permitted recovery of more phages from natural samples than did other procedures, such as chloroform pretreatment or the use of selective plating agar such as EC medium.

  20. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method for malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Ascari, Jociani; Dracz, Sérgio; Santos, Flávio A; Lima, J A; Diniz, Maria Helena G; Vargas, Eugênia A

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analyses of malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV) and its major metabolites, leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in fish and shrimp samples has been validated. Fish and shrimp samples were extracted with citrate buffer/acetonitrile, and the extracts were purified on strong cation-exchange (SCX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. After conversion of LMG into MG using a post column oxidation reactor containing lead (IV) oxide (PbO(2)), the effluents were analysed. Residues were analysed using positive-ion electrospray ionisation (ESI). Identification and quantification of analytes were based on the ion transitions monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Validation of the method was carried out in accordance with the Decision 2002/657/EC, which establishes criteria and procedures for the validation of methods. The following parameters were determined: decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, specificity and matrix effect. The decision limits (CCα) for MG, LMG, CV and LCV were 0.164, 0.161, 0.248 and 0.860 µg kg(-1). The respective detection capabilities (CCβ) were 0.222, 0.218, 0.355 and 1.162 µg kg(-1). Typical recoveries (intermediate precision) in shrimp, for MG, CV, LMG and LCV for 2.0 µg kg(-1) level fortified samples using the optimised procedure were in the range 69%, 97%, 80.3% and 71.8%, respectively. The findings demonstrate the suitability of the method to detect simultaneously MG, CV and its metabolite (LMG and LCV) in fish and shrimp. PMID:22325002

  1. Colorimetric growth assay for epidermal cell cultures by their crystal violet binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Jugert, F; Merk, H; Mahrle, G

    1989-01-01

    The application of a simple, rapid, and inexpensive colorimetric growth assay was tested for human epidermal cells subcultured in uncoated plastic dishes. Cell layers were incubated with a crystal violet (CV) solution (0.2% with ethanol 2% in 0.5 M Tris-Cl buffer, pH 7.8) for 10 min at room temperature. After rinsing with 0.5 M Tris-Cl (pH 7.8) the cell layer was dried and decolorized with a sodium-dodecylsulfate solution (0.5% with ethanol 50% in 0.5 M Tris-Cl, pH 7.8) for 60 min at 37 degrees C. The extinction of the supernatant was read at the absorption maximum of 586 nm. The protein content of attached cells as classical parameter for quantifying cell growth was strongly related to CV extinction with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.98. Furthermore, the subcellular protein binding qualities of CV were analyzed. The water-soluble protein fraction of cultured epidermal cells was separated by sodium-dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with CV. We found a staining pattern which was qualitatively very similar to that of Coomassie blue, however less intense. Keratin electrophoresis revealed an affinity of CV to the 48, 50, and 56 kD cytokeratins. In conclusion, this CV assay is a reliable and simple method for the monitoring of epidermal cell growth in cultures. PMID:2482013

  2. Determination of malachite green and crystal violet in processed fish products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Bae; Kim, Hee Yun; Jang, Young Mi; Song, Ji Young; Woo, Sung Min; Park, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Soon Kyu; Kim, Meehye

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents analysis of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) residues in processed fish products. Samples were homogenized and extracted with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile. The extracted residues were partitioned into dichloromethane, in situ oxidized to chromic forms with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and cleaned up on neutral alumina and propylsulfonic acid cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. MG and CV were determined at 618 and 588 nm using HPLC with a visible detector (LC-VIS) and confirmed by LC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were as follows: MG (74.8-83.8%), LMG (80.0-88.4%), CV (68.6-73.9%), and LCV (85.5-90.0%). The method modified in this study has been evaluated by application in-house to a survey of 253 processed fish products. As a result of monitoring, MG and CV were positive in one shrimp and one eel sample, respectively. Our results showed that regular monitoring of these antibiotic residues is recommended for protection of public health. PMID:20544455

  3. Leuco-crystal-violet micelle gel dosimeters: II. Recipe optimization and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, A. T.; Alexander, K. M.; Olding, T.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, recipe optimization of Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) micelle gels made with the surfactant Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) and the chemical sensitizer 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) was aided by a two-level three-factor designed experiment. The optimized recipe contains 0.75 mM LCV, 17.0 mM CTAB, 120 mM TCE, 25.0 mM tri-chloro acetic acid (TCAA), 4 wt% gelatin and ~96 wt% water. Dose sensitivity of the optimized gel is 1.5 times higher than that of Jordan’s standard LCV micelle gel. Spatial integrity of the 3D dose distribution information in 1L phantoms filled with this recipe is maintained for  >120 d. Unfortunately, phantoms made using the optimized recipe showed dose-rate dependence (14% difference in optical attenuation at the peak dose using electron beam irradiations at 100 and 400 MU min-1). Further testing suggests that the surfactant CTAB is the cause of this dose rate behaviour.

  4. Leuco-crystal-violet micelle gel dosimeters: II. Recipe optimization and testing.

    PubMed

    Nasr, A T; Alexander, K M; Olding, T; Schreiner, L J; McAuley, K B

    2015-06-21

    In this study, recipe optimization of Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) micelle gels made with the surfactant Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) and the chemical sensitizer 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) was aided by a two-level three-factor designed experiment. The optimized recipe contains 0.75 mM LCV, 17.0 mM CTAB, 120 mM TCE, 25.0 mM tri-chloro acetic acid (TCAA), 4 wt% gelatin and ~96 wt% water. Dose sensitivity of the optimized gel is 1.5 times higher than that of Jordan's standard LCV micelle gel. Spatial integrity of the 3D dose distribution information in 1L phantoms filled with this recipe is maintained for >120 d. Unfortunately, phantoms made using the optimized recipe showed dose-rate dependence (14% difference in optical attenuation at the peak dose using electron beam irradiations at 100 and 400 MU min(-1)). Further testing suggests that the surfactant CTAB is the cause of this dose rate behaviour. PMID:26020119

  5. Synthesis and Characterisation of Silica-Modified Titania for Photocatalytic Decolouration of Crystal Violet.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohammad; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Tijing, Leonard D; McDonagh, Andrew; Park, Se Min; Lee, Kwang Young; Shon, Ho Kyong; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-07-01

    In the past few years, silica-modified titania has drawn increasing attention due to their special properties making them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications. In this study, we report a novel method for the synthesis of silica-modified titania by a sol-gel method using sodium silicate solution (1 M). The hydrolysis and condensation reactions of titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa Aeroxide P25) in sodium silicate solution proceeded with citric acid (3 M) as a catalyst. The orbital shaking method was followed for the removal of sodium salt formed during the sol-gel process. Solvent exchange was carried out using methanol and hexane. Finally, chemical modification of the gel was conducted using trimethylchlorosilane followed by ambient pressure drying. The obtained silica-modified titania was characterised for nanostructural analysis using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements were employed to investigate the BET surface area, pore structure and pore volume of specimens. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed exothermic peaks at temperature range of 90-190 C representing the oxidation of organic groups from--Si-R network. The silica-modified titania showed high photocatalytic activity and an easy recovery using crystal violet as model water pollutant. PMID:26373134

  6. A coupled biological and photocatalysis pretreatment system for the removal of crystal violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Kuo, Jong-Tar; Yang, Hui-An; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2013-07-01

    The efficiency of a coupled photocatalytic-biological system for removing crystal violet (CV) from an aqueous solution was assessed. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor were a 1.5-h reaction time, pH 7.0, and a 2.0-min retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction reduced the toxicity of the CV solution by 94%. Subsequent evaluation of the performance and characteristics of the coupled photocatalytic-biological system in terms of CV removal revealed that the coupled system successfully removed and efficiently mineralized CV in a semi-continuous mode when the CV concentration was <150mgL(-1). Based on our analysis of the degradation products, CV degradation in this coupled system involved stepwise demethylation and aromatic ring opening. Phylogenetic analysis of the bioreactor effluent showed that the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, suggesting that this coupled system is conducive for such processes as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, and nitrification. These results were verified in a GC-MS analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on CV removal using a coupled system. PMID:23664476

  7. Leuco-crystal-violet micelle gel dosimeters: I. Influence of recipe components and potential sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, A. T.; Alexander, K.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2015-06-01

    Radiochromic leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel dosimeters are promising three-dimensional radiation dosimeters because of their spatial stability and suitability for optical readout. The effects of surfactant type and surfactant concentration on dose sensitivity of LCV micelle gels are tested, demonstrating that dose sensitivity and initial colour of the gel increases with increasing Triton x-100 (Tx100) concentration. Using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) in place of Tx100 produces gels that are nearly colourless prior to irradiation, but reduces the dose sensitivity. The separate effects of Tri-chloro acetic acid concentration and pH are investigated, revealing that controlling the pH near 3.6 is crucial for achieving high dose sensitivity. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated species on dose sensitivity is tested using 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE), chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol hemihydrate. TCE gives the largest improvement in dose sensitivity and is recommended for use in micelle gel dosimeters because it is less volatile and safer to use than chloroform. Preliminary experiments on a new gel containing CTAB as the surfactant and TCE show that this new gel gives a dose sensitivity that is 24% higher than that of previous LCV micelle gels and is nearly colourless prior to irradiation.

  8. Quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet and its use to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, S.; Lim, Y. C.; Kishen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Phagocytosis is a complex process involving attachment, ingestion and intracellular processing of bacteria by phagocytes. A great difficulty in the evaluation of this process is to differentiate between attachment of the particles to the cell surface and internalization of the particles by the cells. Various techniques have been used to differentiate internalized and surface-attached bacteria in cultured cells, but only a few permit differentiations between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. In this study the quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet on acridine orange stained bacterial biofilm and planktonic bacterial cells is used to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria within macrophages. Method: One week old Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was grown on perspex and glass substrates in All-Culture medium (nutrient-rich condition) and phosphate buffered saline (nutrient-deprived condition). As model systems, human monocytic (THP-1) and histiocytic (U937) cell lines were used. These cell lines were incubated with the biofilm bacteria for 4 hrs in CO II incubator at 37 °C. The cells and bacteria were stained with acridine orange and quenched with crystal violet to distinguish between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. Results: The presence of green-fluorescing internalized bacteria was detected within the macrophages under the planktonic, nutrient-rich and nutrient-deprived biofilm conditions. All infecting bacteria take up acridine orange and fluoresced green, crystal violet quenched the fluorescence of extra-cellular adhering bacteria so that only fluorescent intracellular bacteria would be visible under fluorescent light microscopy.

  9. Investigation of the effect of magnetic particles on the Crystal Violet adsorption onto a novel nanocomposite based on κ-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mostafa; Vardini, Mohammad Taghi; Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-20

    A novel nanocomposite hydrogel prepared by incorporating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into the κ-carrageenan-g-poly (methacrylic acid) with in situ polymerization and was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and VSM. Synthesized nanocomposite was used to adsorb Crystal Violet (CV) (cationic dye) in aqueous solution in a batch system. The research studies showed that the adsorption of CV can be impressed as a function of contact time, initial concentration of CV, pH and molar ratio of κ-carrageenan to poly(methacrylic acid). CV adsorption tests disclosed that it only takes 15 min to reach the equilibrium and adsorption capacity for this dye was 28.24 mg g(-1). Langmuir isotherm for equilibrium adsorption data was fitted well and the pseudo-second-order model can describe the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters of ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed the endothermic nature of adsorption and a spontaneous process. PMID:26572412

  10. Effects of sonochemical parameters and inorganic ions during the sonochemical degradation of crystal violet in water.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Duque, Fernando; Pétrier, Christian; Pulgarin, Cesar; Peñuela, Gustavo; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the ultrasonic degradation (800 kHz) of crystal violet (CV) under different experimental conditions. The effects of saturating gas (argon, carbon dioxide and air), CV concentration (2.45-1225 μmol L(-1)), pH (3-9) and power (20-80 W) were evaluated. The best performances were obtained at 80 W with argon as a saturating gas. The pH had no significant effect. The influence of several water matrices containing anions (chloride, sulphate and bicarbonate) and cations (Fe(2+)) on the sonolytic degradation of CV was also investigated. Significant differences were not observed with the presence of chloride and sulphate. However, at relatively low pollutant concentration (2.45 μmol L(-1)) bicarbonate showed a particular effect: a high bicarbonate concentration (350 mmol L(-1)) produced a detrimental effect, while a low bicarbonate concentration (3 mmol L(-1)) increased the efficiency of the process. The presence of Fe(2+) (1 mmol L(-1)) also increased the CV (49 μmol L(-1)) degradation by 32% after 180 min. Analyses of intermediates by GC-MS led to the identification of several sonochemical by-products: N,N-dimethylaminobenzene, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino)benzophenone, and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane. The presence of these aromatic structures showed that the main ultrasonic CV degradation pathway is linked to the reaction with *OH radicals. At the end of the treatment, these early products were converted into biodegradable organic by-products which could be easily treated in a subsequent biological treatment. PMID:20797896

  11. Simultaneous determination of malachite green, brilliant green and crystal violet in grass carp tissues by a broad-specificity indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Dong; Deng, Xing-Fei; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Wang, Yu; Lei, Hong-Tao; Wang, Hong; Yang, Jin-Yi; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2011-11-30

    An immunizing hapten (4-(carboxymethoxy)phenyl)bis(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)methylium for brilliant green (BG), a triphenylmethane dye with a potential illegal use in fish feeding, was synthesized and used to produce polyclonal antibody (PcAb) against BG. Unexpectedly, the obtained PcAb showed high cross-reactivity (CR) to malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA). After screening against three heterologous coating antigens, the icELISA exhibited good sensitivity and uniform response to BG (IC(50) of 1.98 ng mL(-1) and CR of 100%), MG (IC(50) of 1.61 ng mL(-1) and CR of 105%) and CV (IC(50) of 1.34 ng mL(-1) and CR of 142%) when using (4-(carboxymethoxy)phenyl)bis(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)methylium as the coating hapten. Therefore, a broad-specificity icELISA for simultaneous determination of BG, MG and CV was developed. The recoveries of single analyte and mixture of three analytes from spiked grass carp tissues were estimated ranging from 74.94% to 110.39%. A statistically significant correlation of results was obtained between the developed icELISA and previously established HPLC approaches with the food-relevant three triphenylmethane dyes concentration range 1.83-200 ng mL(-1) (R(2)=0.9224), indicating good accuracy of the icELISA and suitability for the broad-specific detection of the three triphenylmethane dyes in grass carp tissues. PMID:22027132

  12. Synthesis, characterisation of polyaniline-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite and its application for removal of an acid violet 19 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Manohar R.; Khairnar, Subhash D.; Shrivastava, V. S.

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with the development of a new method for the removal of dyes from an aqueous solution using polyaniline (PANI)-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite. It is synthesised in situ through self-polymerisation of monomer aniline. Photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out for cationic acid violet 19 (acid fuchsine) dye using PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite in aqueous solution. Different parameters like catalyst dose, contact time and pH have been studied to optimise reaction condition. The optimum conditions for the removal of the dye are initial concentration 20 mg/l, adsorbent dose 6 gm/l, pH 7. The EDS technique gives elemental composition of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. The SEM and XRD studies were carried for morphological feature characteristics of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer) gives magnetic property of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite; also FT-IR analysis gives characteristics frequency of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. Besides the above studies kinetic study has also been carried out.

  13. Synthesis, characterisation of polyaniline-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite and its application for removal of an acid violet 19 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Manohar R.; Khairnar, Subhash D.; Shrivastava, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The present work deals with the development of a new method for the removal of dyes from an aqueous solution using polyaniline (PANI)-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite. It is synthesised in situ through self-polymerisation of monomer aniline. Photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out for cationic acid violet 19 (acid fuchsine) dye using PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite in aqueous solution. Different parameters like catalyst dose, contact time and pH have been studied to optimise reaction condition. The optimum conditions for the removal of the dye are initial concentration 20 mg/l, adsorbent dose 6 gm/l, pH 7. The EDS technique gives elemental composition of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. The SEM and XRD studies were carried for morphological feature characteristics of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer) gives magnetic property of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite; also FT-IR analysis gives characteristics frequency of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. Besides the above studies kinetic study has also been carried out.

  14. Localization microscopy of DNA in situ using Vybrant(®) DyeCycle™ Violet fluorescent probe: A new approach to study nuclear nanostructure at single molecule resolution.

    PubMed

    Żurek-Biesiada, Dominika; Szczurek, Aleksander T; Prakash, Kirti; Mohana, Giriram K; Lee, Hyun-Keun; Roignant, Jean-Yves; Birk, Udo J; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Cremer, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Higher order chromatin structure is not only required to compact and spatially arrange long chromatids within a nucleus, but have also important functional roles, including control of gene expression and DNA processing. However, studies of chromatin nanostructures cannot be performed using conventional widefield and confocal microscopy because of the limited optical resolution. Various methods of superresolution microscopy have been described to overcome this difficulty, like structured illumination and single molecule localization microscopy. We report here that the standard DNA dye Vybrant(®) DyeCycle™ Violet can be used to provide single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) images of DNA in nuclei of fixed mammalian cells. This SMLM method enabled optical isolation and localization of large numbers of DNA-bound molecules, usually in excess of 10(6) signals in one cell nucleus. The technique yielded high-quality images of nuclear DNA density, revealing subdiffraction chromatin structures of the size in the order of 100nm; the interchromatin compartment was visualized at unprecedented optical resolution. The approach offers several advantages over previously described high resolution DNA imaging methods, including high specificity, an ability to record images using a single wavelength excitation, and a higher density of single molecule signals than reported in previous SMLM studies. The method is compatible with DNA/multicolor SMLM imaging which employs simple staining methods suited also for conventional optical microscopy. PMID:26341267

  15. Random lasers from dye-doped chiral photonic crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuhua; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2007-02-01

    We have obtained a dye-doped chiral photonic crystal (PC) film with reflection band gap much wider than its original band gap without dye dopants by using multiple-step fabrication processes. Moreover, the dye-doped chiral PC films using our multiple-step fabrication processes exhibit many oscillations within the broadened reflection band gap. The abrupt change of the optical density of state (DOS) around the oscillations provides the possibility of generating laser emission when the dye-doped chiral PC film is pumped by a pulsed laser with wavelength in the absorption region of the laser dye. Based on this property, we demonstrated random lasers which exhibit different multiple-mode laser wavelength at different spatial positions. Different from the random lasers induced by the scattering mechanism, the random lasers from the dye-doped cholesteric polymer film exhibit Gaussian-like beam shape and specific propagation orientation which is normal to the cholesteric planar surface. It is foreseeable that a high efficiency and high power broadband laser can be generated using cholesteric polymer films.

  16. Photonic crystal switching by the electrophoretic movement of dye ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, Joshua D.; Brett, Michael J.

    2010-02-01

    Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) facilitates the fabrication of nanostructured thin films with varying density, using a motion control algorithm governing substrate movements during film growth, which engineerings the film structure. Film architectures for specific optical applications including photonic crystals are easily produced with GLAD. A challenge in the photonic crystal field has been the realization of in-situ control of optical characteristics. We have demonstrated partial control of stopband optical characteristics using an electric field in a GLAD 1D photonic crystal by the electrophoretic movement of absorbing dye ions.

  17. Coloring and habit modification of dyed KDP crystals as functions of supersaturation and dye concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Shouji; Miki, Hideo; Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji

    2002-02-01

    Azo-organic dyes as additives were examined to make colored KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals. The dyes used here were amaranth and sunset-yellow FCF. Influences of supersaturation and dye concentration in the solution were observed on the color and crystal habit of KDP. Amaranth colored the pyramidal section (1 0 1) of the crystals in the solution at low supersaturation and high dye concentration. The highly supersaturated solutions produced entirely colored crystals. The crystal habit did not significantly change in the amaranth solution. Sunset-yellow FCF had a significant effect on the crystal habit and color of KDP, and the prismatic section of the crystals was decreased. Sunset-yellow FCF colored the whole KDP crystals in the solution at high dye concentration. The habit index of KDP crystal, which is the ratio of the pyramidal size to prismatic size, was discussed as a function of dye concentration and supersaturation.

  18. Dye-Doped Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films for Flexible Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Chul; Choi, Byeong-Dae

    2010-05-01

    Red, green, and blue dyes were doped to polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films for flexible display applications. Dichroic dye-doped liquid crystal droplets had a bipolar configuration. The E7-DG6071-dye composition showed better chromaticity data than other compositions. The small-particle-size red-dye-doped PDLC film showed good color differences. To improve the color difference, the dye particle size has to be small, and the bead milling process can make dye particles small. In this system, the bigger the liquid crystal droplet size, the higher the PDLC film driving voltage (Von), except in the LC-DG6071-red dye composition. This is the reason that the splay deformation increase is greater than the droplet size increase. In the electro-optic characteristics of dye-doped PDLC film, the TL205-DG6071-red dye composition had the lowest Von and the TL205-DG7052-red dye had the highest contrast ratio.

  19. Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nonoporous crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöckel, Jens U.; Laeri, Franco

    2000-03-01

    Zeolites such as nanoporous AlPO_4-5 are molecular sieves which can host a wide variety of laser active dyes that fit into the channel pores. The low losses and regular matrix arrangement of the host material make optical applications feasible in which a microscopic order is imposed on the active guest molecules. The morphology of the resulting zeolite crystals is that of a hexagonal microcylinder, provided the size and concentration of the organic dyes (pyridine 2, and a new rhodamine-B derivative) can be accomodated. Lasing at optical wavelengths has been achieved in such crystals of diameters down to 4.5 μm, with the crystal facets forming a self-assembled resonator for whispering-gallery modes. In terms of pump needed to reach lasing threshold, molecular sieve microlasers are comparable to VCSELs. Wave simulations agree with the experimental characterization of the lasing properties. Whereas the spectral structure furthermore agrees with a ray picture, strong diffractive corrections to ray expectations are revealed for the emission directionality. The corners between adjacent facets of the crystal are sharp on the scale of the wavelength, and the resulting deviations from ray optics are discussed.

  20. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks. PMID:26894843

  1. Photoluminescence analysis of self induced planer alignment in azo dye dispersed nematic liquid crystal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rishi Sood, Srishti Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    We have developed azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal complex for advanced photonic liquid crystal display technology aspects. Disperse orange azo dye self introduced planer alignment in the nematic liquid crystal without any surface anchoring treatment. Planer alignment was characterized by optical polarizing microscopy. The electro-optical switching response of dye disperse planer aligned nematic cell was investigated as a function of applied voltage with the help of photoluminescence spectrophotometer for the tuning of photoluminescence contrast.

  2. Kinetics of the reaction of crystal violet with hydroxide ion in the critical solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhongyu; Mao, Shiyan; Chen, Zhiyun; Shen, Weiguo

    2013-01-17

    The kinetics of alkaline fading of crystal violet (CV) has been studied by UV spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry in the critical binary solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water at the initial reaction stage and various temperatures. It was found that the first-order rate constants obtained from these two methods are well accorded with each other, and the temperature dependence of the rate constant obeyed the Arrhenius equation in a temperature region far from the critical point. The critical slowing down was detected by both methods near the critical point. A simple empirical crossover model was proposed and used to analyze the experimental data to obtain the critical exponents, which were 0.158 ± 0.013 and 0.133 ± 0.012 from UV spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry, respectively, and the former was in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 0.151. The slight lower value derived from microcalorimetry was attributed to the stirring in the microcalorimeter, which weakened the critical reduction of the diffusion coefficient. PMID:23276229

  3. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol sorbed onto crystal violet-modified organoclay by Arthrobacter sp. 4H?.

    PubMed

    Masaphy, Segula; Zohar, Shay; Jander-Shagug, Gurinaz

    2014-02-01

    Organoclays are effective sorbents for removal of organic contaminants from water, but their regeneration capacity limits their practical use as a biotechnological process for bioremediation. Here, the sorption of p-nitrophenol (PNP) to crystal violet (CV)-modified montmorillonite and its biodegradation by the bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 4H? were studied in a batch aqueous system. The degree of PNP sorption was dependent on the degree of CV modification (loaded at 80 % or 100 % of the clay's cation-exchange capacity-CVM80 and CVM100, respectively). CV sorption to the clay reduced its toxicity to bacteria. PNP at an initial concentration of 0.72 mM was degraded at rates of 65 % and 42 % in CVM80 and CVM100 suspensions, respectively. Both free and CV-clay-adsorbed PNP concentrations were reduced by the bacteria at rates proportional to the degree of CV modification. Three successive cycles of PNP reloading-degradation in the organoclay suspension demonstrated the potential of this matrix's regeneration and reuse toward maximal removal efficiency of organic pollutants. PMID:23715856

  4. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes. PMID:22623907

  5. Synthesis, linear optical, non-linear optical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of dye-doped semi-organic NLO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesha Bamini, N.; Vidyalakshmy, Y.; Choedak, Tenzin; Kejalakshmy, N.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Ancy, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Organic laser dyes Coumarin 485, Coumarin 540 and Rhodamine 590 Chloride were used to dope potassium acid phthalate crystals (KAP). Dye-doped KAP crystals with different dye concentrations such as 0.01 mM, 0.03 mM, 0.05 mM, 0.07 mM and 0.09 mM (in the KAP growth solution) were grown. The linear optical, non-linear optical, mechanical and thermal characterizations of dye-doped KAP crystals were studied and compared to understand the effect of dye and dye concentration on the KAP crystal. Absorption and emission studies of KAP and dye-doped KAP single crystals indicated the inclusion of the dye into the KAP crystal lattice. The effect of dye and its concentration on the SHG efficiency of the KAP crystal was studied using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. It was observed that the absorption maximum wavelength and concentration of the dye used for doping the KAP single crystal decided the SHG efficiency of the dye-doped KAP single crystals. The mechanical hardness of the dye-doped and undoped (pure) KAP single crystals were studied using the Vickner’s microhardness test. It was observed that doping the KAP crystals with the laser dyes changed them from softer material to harder material. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with laser dyes.

  6. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows. PMID:26192469

  7. Crystallization of fused silica surfaces by ultra-violet laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the increased use of high power lasers has created problems in optical elements due to laser damage. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes in a publication ISO 11254 a laser-power resilience (LPR) test which we used to verify that by flattening the glass substrate of an optical element, we could improve the resistance to laser damage. We report on an evaluation of two types of samples of fused silica substrate whose surface roughness differed (Ra = 0.20 nm and Ra = 0.13 nm) using customized on-line laser damage testing. To induce laser damage to samples, we used the fifth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG pulse laser (wavelength: 213 nm, pulse width: 4 ns, repetition frequency: 20 Hz). Results show that flattening reduced the progression of laser damage in the meta-phase laser damage phase by 1/3 of that without flattening. However, pro-phase laser damage which started at fluence 2.39 J/cm2 was unrelated to surface roughness. To analyze the pro-phase laser damage, we used x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and variable pressure-type scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). From XRD data, we observed XRD patterns of cristobalite (111), cristobalite (102), α-quartz (111), and β-quartz (102). Raman spectrum data showed an increase in the three-membered ring vibration (600 cm-1), four-membered ring vibration (490 cm-1), and many-membered ring vibration (450 cm-1, 390 cm-1, and 300 cm-1). We observed patchy crystallized areas on the sample surfaces in the VP-SEM images. Based on these experimental results, we believe that the dominant factors in pro-phase laser damage are their physical properties. Substrate and thin film material must be appropriately selected in producing an optical element with a high level of resilience to laser exposure.

  8. Use of dye to distinguish salt and protein crystals under microcrystallization conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosenza, Larry (Inventor); Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Gester, Thomas E. (Inventor); Hamrick, David T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An improved method of screening crystal growth conditions is provided wherein molecules are crystallized from solutions containing dyes. These dyes are selectively incorporated or associated with crystals of particular character thereby rendering crystals of particular character colored and improving detection of the dyed crystals. A preferred method involves use of dyes in protein solutions overlayed by oil. Use of oil allows the use of small volumes of solution and facilitates the screening of large numbers of crystallization conditions in arrays using automated devices that dispense appropriate solutions to generate crystallization trials, overlay crystallization trials with an oil, provide appropriate conditions conducive to crystallization and enhance detection of dyed (colored) or undyed (uncolored) crystals that result.

  9. Crystallization of fused silica surfaces by ultra-violet laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Kazuya; Haraguchi, Koshi

    2012-07-15

    In recent years, the increased use of high power lasers has created problems in optical elements due to laser damage. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes in a publication ISO 11254 a laser-power resilience (LPR) test which we used to verify that by flattening the glass substrate of an optical element, we could improve the resistance to laser damage. We report on an evaluation of two types of samples of fused silica substrate whose surface roughness differed (R{sub a} = 0.20 nm and R{sub a} = 0.13 nm) using customized on-line laser damage testing. To induce laser damage to samples, we used the fifth harmonic generation from a Nd:YAG pulse laser (wavelength: 213 nm, pulse width: 4 ns, repetition frequency: 20 Hz). Results show that flattening reduced the progression of laser damage in the meta-phase laser damage phase by 1/3 of that without flattening. However, pro-phase laser damage which started at fluence 2.39 J/cm{sup 2} was unrelated to surface roughness. To analyze the pro-phase laser damage, we used x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and variable pressure-type scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). From XRD data, we observed XRD patterns of cristobalite (111), cristobalite (102), {alpha}-quartz (111), and {beta}-quartz (102). Raman spectrum data showed an increase in the three-membered ring vibration (600 cm{sup -1}), four-membered ring vibration (490 cm{sup -1}), and many-membered ring vibration (450 cm{sup -1}, 390 cm{sup -1}, and 300 cm{sup -1}). We observed patchy crystallized areas on the sample surfaces in the VP-SEM images. Based on these experimental results, we believe that the dominant factors in pro-phase laser damage are their physical properties. Substrate and thin film material must be appropriately selected in producing an optical element with a high level of resilience to laser exposure.

  10. Simultaneous determination of malachite green, crystal violet, methylene blue and the metabolite residues in aquatic products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-Jiang; Tian, Xiu-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Gong, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Huan-Jun; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Min

    2012-08-01

    This work describes solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry for determination of malachite green and metabolite leucomalachite green, crystal violet and metabolite leucocrystal violet, methylene blue and metabolites including azure A, azure B and azure C in aquatic products. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer and purified by liquid extraction with dichloromethane, and then on MCAX solid-phase extraction cartridges. Then the extract was evaporated at 45°C by nitrogen blow. The residue was dissolved and separated by an Acquity BEH C18 column. The mobile phase was acetonitrile (A) and 5 mmol/L of ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid (B). Analytes were confirmed and quantified using a tandem mass spectrometry system in multiple reaction mode with triple quadrupole analyzer using positive polarity mode. The limits of detection of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet were 0.15 µg/kg, the limits of quantification were 0.50 µg/kg, and the average recoveries were more than 75% with spiked residues from 0.5 to 10 µg/kg. The relative standard deviations were less than 13%. The limits of detection of methylene blue, azure A, azure B and azure C were 0.3 µg/kg, the limits of quantification were 1.0 µg/kg, the average recoveries were more than 70% with spiked residues from 1.0 to 10 µg/kg and the relative standard deviations were less than 15%. The method has the merits of simplicity, sensitivity and rapidity, and can be used for simultaneous determination of the analytes in aquatic products. PMID:22542891

  11. Expansion of the scope of AOAC first action method 2012.25 - single-laboratory validation of triphenylmethane dye and leuco metabolite analysis in shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and salmon by LC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to conducting a collaborative study of AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood, a...

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of dye-doped KDP crystals: Effect of thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritula, I.; Gayvoronsky, V.; Gromov, Yu.; Kopylovsky, M.; Kolybaeva, M.; Puzikov, V.; Kosinova, A.; Savvin, Yu.; Velikhov, Yu.; Levchenko, A.

    2009-03-01

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals (KDP, KH 2PO 4) doped with the organic xylenol orange (XO) dye are grown, the XO concentration in the crystal matrix is about 10 ppm. The spectral and luminescent properties of nominally pure, dye-doped and dye-doped/annealed at 150 °C crystals (KDP, KDP:XO and KDP:XO an) were measured. The annealing temperature effect on the degree of dye protonation in the crystal matrix is established. Analysis of the IR-absorption spectra reveals a strong interaction between the incorporated dye molecules and the hydrogen subsystem of the matrix. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of KDP, KDP:XO and KDP:XO an crystals are studied within the self-action effect of picosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The mechanism of photoinduced bleaching and the effects of laser beam self-focusing (in KDP) and self-defocusing (in KDP:XO and KDP:XO an) are supposed to be due to resonance excitation of the subsystems of intrinsic defects and dye molecules, correspondingly. For KDP:XO an it is shown that thermal annealing of intrinsic crystal defects leads to domination of more effective NLO response of the subsystem of dye molecules that is correlated with photoluminescence data.

  13. Imposed Orientation of Dye Molecules by Liquid Crystals and an Electric Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadlej-Sosnowska, Nina

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments using dye solutions in liquid crystals in which polar molecules are oriented in an electrical field and devices are constructed to change their color in response to an electric signal. (CS)

  14. Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, Bruce

    2010-06-04

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

  15. Intramolecular charge transfer with crystal violet lactone in acetonitrile as a function of temperature: reaction is not solvent-controlled.

    PubMed

    Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Zachariasse, Klaas A

    2013-08-22

    Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) with crystal violet lactone (CVL) in the excited singlet state takes place in solvents more polar than n-hexane, such as ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile (MeCN). In these solvents, the fluorescence spectrum of CVL consists of two emission bands, from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state. The dominant deactivation channel of the lowest excited singlet state is internal conversion, as the quantum yields of fluorescence (0.007) and intersystem crossing (0.015) in MeCN at 25 °C are very small. CVL is a weakly coupled electron donor/acceptor (D/A) molecule, similar to an exciplex (1)(A(-)D(+)). A solvatochromic treatment of the LE and ICT emission maxima results in the dipole moments μe(LE) = 17 D and μe(ICT) = 33 D, much larger than those previously reported. This discrepancy is attributed to different Onsager radii and spectral fluorimeter calibration. The LE and ICT fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN are double exponential. As determined by global analysis, the LE and ICT decays at 25 °C have the times τ2 = 9.2 ps and τ1 = 1180 ps, with an amplitude ratio of 35.3 for LE. From these parameters, the rate constants ka = 106 × 10(9) s(-1) and kd = 3.0 × 10(9) s(-1) of the forward and backward reaction in the LE ⇄ ICT equilibrium are calculated, resulting in a free enthalpy difference ΔG of -8.9 kJ/mol. The amplitude ratio of the ICT fluorescence decay equals -1.0, which signifies that the ICT state is not prepared by light absorption in the S0 ground state, but originates exclusively from the directly excited LE precursor. From the temperature dependence of the fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN (-45 to 75 °C), activation energies E(a) = 3.9 kJ/mol (LE → ICT) and E(d) = 23.6 kJ/mol (ICT → LE) are obtained, giving an enthalpy difference ΔH (= E(a) - E(d)) of -19.7 kJ/mol, and an entropy difference ΔS = -35.5 J mol(-1) K(-1). These data show that the ICT reaction of CVL in MeCN is not barrierless. The ICT reaction time of 9.2 ps is much longer than the mean solvent relaxation time of MeCN (0.26 ps), indicating, in contrast with earlier reports in the literature, that the reaction is not solvent controlled. This conclusion is supported by the observation of double exponential LE and ICT fluorescence with the same decay times. PMID:23865629

  16. Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. J.; Sun, X. W.; Elim, H. I.; Ji, W.

    2006-07-01

    Dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals have been studied for random lasing. The dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film was fabricated by photoinitiated polymerization with a collimated 514.5nm Ar+ laser beam. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that most liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix ranged from 20to80nm. Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals were observed under the excitation of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser operating at a wavelength of 532nm. The possible mechanism was proposed to explain the random lasing. The threshold of the random lasing was about 25μJ/pulse. The linewidth of the lasing peaks was about 1nm. With the film thickness of 6.5μm, the lasing mode was nearly transverse electric polarized.

  17. Random lasers in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, LongWu; Deng, LuoGen

    2012-12-01

    We report on the observation of random lasers for the first time in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) containing nano-sized liquid crystal droplets and silver nanoparticles. The dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal containing silver nanoparticles film is exposed by a collimated 532 nm Nd: YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser beam, so that it is quickly cured. Under the excitation of a frequency-doubled Nd: YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm, random lasing from dye-doped PDLCs containing Ag nanoparticles is observed as a result of cooperative effect due to light scattering of nano-sized liquid crystal droplets and the local field enhancement capabilities around silver nanoparticles. We show that the threshold of the random lasing is about 0.95 μJ/pulse which is lower than the lasing threshold of dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing nano-sized liquid crystal droplets. The linewidth of the lasing peaks is shown to be 0.2 nm. We also propose a possible mechanism to explain the random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing silver nanoparticles.

  18. Determination of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuco-metabolites in fish by HPLC-VIS detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Chen, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Guo-Min; Wang, Xiong; Guo, Qi; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Dan; Deng, Jian

    2013-01-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with visible detection (HPLC-VIS) for the determination of malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), leucomalachite green (LMG), and leucocrystal violet (LCV) in fish has been developed after clean-up through an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Residues were simultaneously extracted from fish muscle with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer. The leuco-forms, LMG and LCV, were oxidized quantitatively to the chromic CV and MG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone. Extracts were then purified on an IAC which prepared by immobilizing the anti-MG-CV antibodies by the sol-gel method. Finally, the eluents were analyzed by HPLC-VIS. The limits of detection were 0.15, 0.1, 0.18 and 0.14ng/g for MG, CV, LMG and LCV, respectively. The average recoveries in samples fortified with MG, CV, LMG and LCV over the range 0.5-10ng/g were from 71.6% to 96.8% with RSDs of 5.1-12.3% (n=6). This novel method was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring. PMID:23286983

  19. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms capable of decolorizing various triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Saini, Harvinder Singh; Singh, Manjinder; Chimni, Swapandeep Singh; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh

    2004-01-01

    Various soil and sludge samples collected from the vicinity of textile dyeing industries and waste disposal sites were used for enrichment of microbial population in the presence of triphenylmethane (TPM) dye Acid Violet-17 (AV-17). Twenty-five (25) isolates were screened for their ability to decolorize AV-17 dye added at a rate of 10 mgl(-1) in mineral salts medium (MSM) agar plates. Five bacterial isolates belonging to Bacillus sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Aeromonas sp. were selected on the basis of their higher decolorization ability and were used to develop a bacterial consortium. The consortium was able to efficiently decolorize various TPM dyes viz. Acid Violet-17 (86%), Acid Blue-15 (85%), Crystal Violet (82%), Malachite Green (82%) and Brilliant Green (85%). The consortium will be further used for designing efficient and cost effective treatment system for effluents of textile processing industries (TPI). PMID:14768029

  20. Heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled biomineralizaiton proteins in calcite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-12-01

    Biominerals are highly ordered crystals mediated by organic matters especially proteins in organisms. However, how specific proteins are distributed inside biominerals are not well understood. In the present study, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to label extracted proteins from the shells of bivalve Pinctada fucata. By confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observe a heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled proteins inside synthetic calcite at the microscale. Proteins from the prismatic calcite layers accumulate at the edge of crystals while proteins from the nacreous aragonite layers accumulate at the center of crystals. Raman and X-ray powder diffraction show that both the proteins cannot alter the crystal phase. Scanning electron microscope demonstrates both proteins are able to affect the crystal morphology. This study may provide a direct approach for the visualization of protein distributions in crystals by small-molecule dye-labelled proteins as the additives in the crystallization process and improve our understanding of intracrystalline proteins distribution in biogenic calcites.

  1. Dichroic dye-dependent studies in guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Praveen; Raina, K. K.

    2010-01-01

    Guest-host polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (GHPDLC) films were prepared using a nematic liquid crystal, photo-curable polymer and dichroic dye (anthraquinone blue) by polymerization-induced phase separation (PIPS) technique. Non-ionic dichroic dye (1%, 2% and 4% wt./wt. ratio) was taken as guest in PDLC host. Polarizing microscopy shows that in the absence of electric field, liquid crystal (LC) droplets in polymer matrix mainly exhibit bipolar configuration, however, relatively at higher field, maltese-type crosses were observed. Our results show that ∼1% dye-doped PDLC film shows better transmission and faster response times over pure polymer-dispersed nematic liquid crystal (PDNLC) and higher concentrated (2% and 4%) GHPDLC films.

  2. Expression, purification and crystallization of a dye-decolourizing peroxidase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Amrita; Fedorov, Roman; Manstein, Dietmar J.

    2014-01-01

    Dye-decolourizing peroxidases are haem-containing peroxidases with broad substrate specificity. Using H2O2 as an electron acceptor, they efficiently decolourize various dyes that are of industrial and environmental relevance, such as anthraquninone- and azo-based dyes. In this study, the dye-decolourizing peroxidase DdDyP from Dictyostelium discoideum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta(DE3)pLysS, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A native crystal diffracted to 1.65? resolution and belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 141.03, c=95.56?, ? = ? = ? = 90. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules. PMID:24637768

  3. Expression, purification and crystallization of a dye-decolourizing peroxidase from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rai, Amrita; Fedorov, Roman; Manstein, Dietmar J

    2014-02-01

    Dye-decolourizing peroxidases are haem-containing peroxidases with broad substrate specificity. Using H2O2 as an electron acceptor, they efficiently decolourize various dyes that are of industrial and environmental relevance, such as anthraquninone- and azo-based dyes. In this study, the dye-decolourizing peroxidase DdDyP from Dictyostelium discoideum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta(DE3)pLysS, purified and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A native crystal diffracted to 1.65 resolution and belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 141.03, c = 95.56 , ? = ? = ? = 90. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules. PMID:24637768

  4. Phenylazoindole dyes - Part I: The syntheses, characterizations, crystal structures, quantum chemical calculations and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seferoğlu, Zeynel; Yalçın, Ergin; Babür, Banu; Seferoğlu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Yılmaz, Ebru; Şahin, Ertan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the synthesis of four new phenylazo indole dyes (dye 1-4) were carried out by diazotization of 4-aminoacetophenone and coupling with various 2- and 1,2-disubstituted indole derivatives. The dyes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, HRMS and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Azo-hydrazone tautomeric bahavior of the dyes in different solvents (DMSO, methanol, acetic acid and chloroform) was investigated by using 1H NMR and UV-vis results. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding calculated values. The results of experimental data and theoretical calculations showed that the azo tautomer is more stable than hydrazone tautomer. In addition to this, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was also evaluated.

  5. ARTICLES: Orientation in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped with Orange Dyes and Effect of Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicilar, Ahmet; Akkurt, Fatih; Kaya, Nihan

    2010-06-01

    Some properties of nematic liquid crystal E7 doped with two disperse orange dyes used together and effect of addition of carbon nanoparticles (single walled carbon nanotube or fullerene C60) on them were studied. Two dyes (disperse orange 11 and 13) having high solubility and order parameter were used as co-dopants. A notable increase in order parameter was obtained comparing to that of liquid crystal doped with single dye. When carbon nanoparticles were used as dopant, a decrease in order parameter was observed at low temperatures while it increased at high temperatures. When applied voltage changed, the order parameter abruptly increased in its threshold value and saturated in higher voltages as expected. An appreciable change in textures was not observed with addition of dopants. This addition gave rise to an increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperatures compared with that of pure liquid crystal.

  6. Z-Scan Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities of Dye-Doped Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui-Chi; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey

    Nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is a material that features a large nonlinear optical response. The nonlinearity can be enhanced by doping a dye agent into a NLC host. In this paper, we review the nonlinear phenomena recently observed for dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) films measured using the Z-scan technique, which is a simple, yet powerful method for measuring nonlinear refractive indices (optical Kerr constant) n2 and nonlinear absorption coefficients β. The nonlinear effects of liquid crystals (LCs) include the electronic polarization effect, electrostriction effect, thermal effect and reorientation effect. When LCs are doped with dye agents, the dye-induced orientational effect, photoisomerization effect, and light-induced thermal effect come about to enhance LC nonlinearity. The dominant effect depends strongly upon the spatial, temporal and polarization properties of the excitation laser beam. Generally speaking, the nonlinear effects resulted from the electronic polarization and photoisomerization effects arise from a laser pulse on picosecond duration scale, while electrostriction, thermal and reorientation effects occur on nanosecond ~ microsecond, nanosecond ~ millisecond and millisecond ~ second duration scales, respectively. In this paper, the causation of nonlinear refractive index n2 into various different experimental conditions is summarized, including the changes of the external electric field, external optical field, polarization of pump beam, temperature and the use of deuterated materials. The mechanisms, which influence the nonlinear effect in dye-doped liquid crystal films, are also discussed.

  7. Hydrogen bonding intermolecular effect on electro-optical response of doped 6PCH nematic liquid crystal with some azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, S.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Tajalli, H.

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies on the electro-optical responses of dye-doped liquid crystal have shown that dopant material have a considerable effect on their electro-optical responses. Despite the studies carried out on electro-optical properties of dye-doped liquid crystal, no attention has been paid to study of the interaction and structural effects in this procedure. In this paper, linear dyes and with similar structure were selected as dopants. The only difference in used dyes is the functional groups in their tails. So, doping of these dyes into liquid crystals determines the influence of interaction type on electro-optical behaviours of the doped systems. Therefore, in this work, two aminoazobenzene ("A-dye": hydrogen bond donor) and dimethyl-aminoazobenzene ("B-dye") dyes with different compositional percentages in liquid crystal host were used. Electro-optical Kerr behaviour, the pre-transition temperature and third order nonlinear susceptibility were investigated. The obtained results effectively revealed that type of interactions between the dye and liquid crystal is determinative of behavioral difference of doped system, compared to pure liquid crystal. Also, pre-transitional behaviour and thereupon Kerr electro-optical responses were affected by formed interactions into doped systems. In other words, it will be shown that addition of any dopants in liquid crystal, regardless of the nature of interactions, cannot cause appropriate electro-optical responses. In fact, type of dye, nature of interactions between dopant and liquid crystalline host as well as concentration of dye are the key factors in selecting the appropriate liquid crystal and dopant dye.

  8. Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid-crystal films.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-R; Fu, T-L; Cheng, K-T; Mo, T-S; Fuh, A Y-G

    2004-03-01

    This study examines the surface-assisted photoalignment effect of dye-doped liquid-crystal films having a homogeneous alignment. Observations made using a polarizing optical microscope, a scanning electronic microscope, and an atomic force microscope confirm that the morphology of laser-induced surface-adsorbed dyes at the command surface strongly affects the orientation of liquid crystals (LC's) in a manner that depends significantly on the intensity and duration of the pumping. In weak-intensity regime, a homogeneous and fine layer of adsorbed dyes competes with a layer of ripple structure in reorienting LC's. These two effects dominantly cause LC's to reorient perpendicular and parallel to the polarization direction of the pump beam in the early and late stages, respectively. In the high-intensity regime, rough and inhomogeneous ribbonlike adsorbents produced by rapid and random aggregation and adsorption form on the top of the preformed microgrooves, reorienting LC's irregularly. This surface morphology does not enable photoalignment. PMID:15089307

  9. Effect of irradiation of swift heavy ions on dyes-doped KDP crystals for laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaresan, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Anbarasan, P. M.

    2008-04-01

    The organic dyes (amaranth, rhodamine and methyl orange) are doped in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. Influences of super saturation and dye concentration in the solution, on the color and crystal habit of KDP, were observed. Amaranth in the solution at low super saturation and high dye concentration colored the pyramidal section (1 0 1) of the crystals. The highly super saturated solutions produce entirely colored crystals. The concentration of dopants in the mother solution was varied from 0.1 to 10 mol%. The studies on pure and doped KDP crystals clearly indicate the effect of dopants on the crystal structure, in the absorption of IR frequencies and the non-linear optical property. Dye doping improves the NLO properties of the grown crystals. The frequencies with their relative intensities are obtained in FT-IR of pure and doped KDP. The very weak bands for dopants indicate its presence in low concentration. In view of the ever-growing importance of ion beams in optical material processing, this letter reports room temperature MeV Li + ion irradiation-induced depletion of hydrogen from single crystalline KDP which has wide applications as a non-linear optical material in optoelectronics technology. Irradiations have been performed using 50 MeV Li + ions up to a maximum dose of 2.4×10 15 ions cm -2. Simultaneously, detecting the elastically recoiled Li atoms has done hydrogen profiling. Bare KDP crystals show hydrogen loss of 72% at the maximum dose whereas Au-coated samples show that 60 Au layer acts as a barrier to considerably reduce hydrogen depletion from KDP. A possible explanation of these phenomena is suggested.

  10. Optically recorded tunable microlenses based on dye-doped liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, Liana; Tasseva, Jordanka

    2012-04-01

    We report on optically recorded microlenses in conventional liquid crystal cells doped with the azo-dye methyl-red. The focal length can be tuned electrically and changed in a wide range with just a small variation of the applied dc voltage. No patterned electrodes, built-in polymeric lens, or patterned molecular reorientation are required.

  11. Efficient removal of crystal violet using Fe3O4-coated biochar: the role of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modeling study their adsorption behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Azim Khan, Rashid; Du, Jingting; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biochar shows great promise for use in adsorbing pollutants. However, a process for enhancing its adsorption capacity and re-collection efficiency is yet to be further developed. Hence, in this study, we developed a type of biochar coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (i.e., magnetic biochar (MBC)) and assessed its use for crystal violet (CV) adsorption as well as its recycling potential. The coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which was not only on the surface, but also in the interior of biochar, performed two functions. Firstly, it produced a saturation magnetization of 61.48 emu/g, which enabled the biochar being efficiently re-collected using a magnet. Secondly, it significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity of the biochar (from 80.36 to 99.19 mg/g). The adsorption capacity of the MBC was determined to be the largest by so far (349.40 mg/g) for an initial CV concentration of 400 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and temperature of 40 °C, and the adsorption capacity of re-collected MBC was 73.31 mg/g. The adsorption of CV by the MBC was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic physical process in which the intraparticle diffusion was the limiting step. These findings inspire us to use other similar materials to tackle the menace of pollutions. PMID:26220603

  12. Efficient removal of crystal violet using Fe3O4-coated biochar: the role of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modeling study their adsorption behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Azim Khan, Rashid; Du, Jingting; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Biochar shows great promise for use in adsorbing pollutants. However, a process for enhancing its adsorption capacity and re-collection efficiency is yet to be further developed. Hence, in this study, we developed a type of biochar coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (i.e., magnetic biochar (MBC)) and assessed its use for crystal violet (CV) adsorption as well as its recycling potential. The coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which was not only on the surface, but also in the interior of biochar, performed two functions. Firstly, it produced a saturation magnetization of 61.48 emu/g, which enabled the biochar being efficiently re-collected using a magnet. Secondly, it significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity of the biochar (from 80.36 to 99.19 mg/g). The adsorption capacity of the MBC was determined to be the largest by so far (349.40 mg/g) for an initial CV concentration of 400 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and temperature of 40 °C, and the adsorption capacity of re-collected MBC was 73.31 mg/g. The adsorption of CV by the MBC was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic physical process in which the intraparticle diffusion was the limiting step. These findings inspire us to use other similar materials to tackle the menace of pollutions.

  13. Controlled hydrothermal synthesis of BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites exhibiting visible-light photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Rou; Lin, Ho-Pan; Chung, Wen-Hsin; Dai, Yong-Ming; Lin, Wan-Yu; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2015-01-01

    A series of BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites were prepared using autoclave hydrothermal methods. The composition and morphologies of the BiOxCly/BiOmIn composites were controlled by adjusting the experimental conditions: the reaction pH value, temperature, and KCl/KI molar ratio. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface areas, cathodoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic efficiencies of composite powder suspensions were evaluated by monitoring the crystal violet (CV) concentrations. In addition, the quenching effects of various scavengers indicated that the reactive O2(-) played a major role, and OH or h(+) played a minor role in CV degradation. The intermediates formed during the decomposition process were isolated, identified, and characterized using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to elucidate the CV decomposition mechanism. PMID:25464322

  14. Synthesis of core-shell SiO₂@MgO with flower like morphology for removal of crystal violet in water.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanyan; Wang, Man; Tian, Di; Xu, Xuefeng; Yuan, Liangjie

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report a facile and effective route to synthesize core-shell SiO2@MgO with flower like morphology, which the shell is assembled by magnesium oxide nanosheets. The SiO2@MgO composite (SMC) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The sample showed excellent performance for the removal of crystal violet due to its high specific surface area and porous structures. Adsorption data fitted better with Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity was 2244.85 mg g(-1). The kinetic data was better described by pseudo-second order model and thermodynamic studies showed that adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The adsorbent also showed very good reproducibility and reusability for the successive five cycles, indicating a promising potential material for environmental remediation. PMID:25985423

  15. Efficient removal of crystal violet using Fe3O4-coated biochar: the role of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modeling study their adsorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Azim Khan, Rashid; Du, Jingting; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biochar shows great promise for use in adsorbing pollutants. However, a process for enhancing its adsorption capacity and re-collection efficiency is yet to be further developed. Hence, in this study, we developed a type of biochar coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (i.e., magnetic biochar (MBC)) and assessed its use for crystal violet (CV) adsorption as well as its recycling potential. The coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which was not only on the surface, but also in the interior of biochar, performed two functions. Firstly, it produced a saturation magnetization of 61.48 emu/g, which enabled the biochar being efficiently re-collected using a magnet. Secondly, it significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity of the biochar (from 80.36 to 99.19 mg/g). The adsorption capacity of the MBC was determined to be the largest by so far (349.40 mg/g) for an initial CV concentration of 400 mg/L, pH of 6.0, and temperature of 40 °C, and the adsorption capacity of re-collected MBC was 73.31 mg/g. The adsorption of CV by the MBC was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic physical process in which the intraparticle diffusion was the limiting step. These findings inspire us to use other similar materials to tackle the menace of pollutions. PMID:26220603

  16. Temperature tuning of lasing emission from dye-doped liquid crystal at intermediate twisted phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Ja-Hon; Jian, Li-Hao; Chen, Yao-Hui; Wu, Jin-Jei

    2015-07-01

    Temperature tuning of lasing emission from dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) at intermediate twisted phase has been demonstrated in this work. With heavily doping of 42.5% chiral molecules into the nematic liquid crystals, the shifts of photonic bandgap versus temperature is obviously as thermal controlling of the sample below the certain value. By the differential scanning calorimetr measuremet, we demonstrate the phase transition from the CLC to the smectic phase when the temperature is lowered to be about 15°C. Between CLC and smectic phase, the liquid crystal mixtures are operated at intermediate twisted phase that can be used the temperature related refractive mirror. After pump by the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, the lasing emission from this dye doped LC mixtures has been demonstrated whose emission wavelength can be tuned from 566 to 637 nm with 1.4°C variation.

  17. Photoswitchable and dye-doped bubble domain texture of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Varanytsia, Andrii; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate control of the transmittance of the naturally formed bubble domain (BD) texture of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) with negative dielectric anisotropy confined into a cell with homeotropic surface anchoring. By using a photosensitive chiral dopant with variable helical twisting power under light irradiation, control of packing density of bubbles, spatial patterning, and all optical switching between bistable states with different optical densities is achieved. By introducing dichroic dye into the CLC mixture, a bistable and switchable by applied electric field guest-host system is obtained. The light dimming properties of dye-doped BD CLC systems may lead to development of a wide range of applications. PMID:26421539

  18. Heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled biomineralizaiton proteins in calcite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Biominerals are highly ordered crystals mediated by organic matters especially proteins in organisms. However, how specific proteins are distributed inside biominerals are not well understood. In the present study, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to label extracted proteins from the shells of bivalve Pinctada fucata. By confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observe a heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled proteins inside synthetic calcite at the microscale. Proteins from the prismatic calcite layers accumulate at the edge of crystals while proteins from the nacreous aragonite layers accumulate at the center of crystals. Raman and X-ray powder diffraction show that both the proteins cannot alter the crystal phase. Scanning electron microscope demonstrates both proteins are able to affect the crystal morphology. This study may provide a direct approach for the visualization of protein distributions in crystals by small-molecule dye-labelled proteins as the additives in the crystallization process and improve our understanding of intracrystalline proteins distribution in biogenic calcites. PMID:26675363

  19. Heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled biomineralizaiton proteins in calcite crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Biominerals are highly ordered crystals mediated by organic matters especially proteins in organisms. However, how specific proteins are distributed inside biominerals are not well understood. In the present study, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to label extracted proteins from the shells of bivalve Pinctada fucata. By confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observe a heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled proteins inside synthetic calcite at the microscale. Proteins from the prismatic calcite layers accumulate at the edge of crystals while proteins from the nacreous aragonite layers accumulate at the center of crystals. Raman and X-ray powder diffraction show that both the proteins cannot alter the crystal phase. Scanning electron microscope demonstrates both proteins are able to affect the crystal morphology. This study may provide a direct approach for the visualization of protein distributions in crystals by small-molecule dye-labelled proteins as the additives in the crystallization process and improve our understanding of intracrystalline proteins distribution in biogenic calcites. PMID:26675363

  20. Light-induced anchoring and reorientation effects in dye-doped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francescangeli, Oriano; Lucchetti, Liana; Simoni, Francesco F.; Slussarenko, Sergei; Ouskova, E.; Reznikov, Yuri A.; Shiyanovskii, S.; West, John L.

    2002-12-01

    A review of the recent results of our group in the field of light-induced anchoring and reorientation effects in dye-doped liquid crystals (LCs) is presented. In particular, the phenomena of photoinduced anchoring and permanent reorientation over a polymeric boundary surface of a dye-doped LC cell is reported, both in the isotropic phase and in the orientationally ordered nematic phase. The results have been interpreted microscopically in terms of adsorption and desorption of the dichroic azo-dye (methyl-red) molecules onto the illuminated surface during light irradiation. The model proposed is in agreement with recent results on the dynamic and stable grating formation in methyl-red doped LCs .

  1. A method for the general identification of protein crystals in crystallization experiments using a noncovalent fluorescent dye.

    PubMed

    Groves, Matthew R; Müller, Ingrid B; Kreplin, Xandra; Müller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2007-04-01

    A technique is described whereby the addition of low concentrations (millimolar to micromolar) of the fluorescent dye 1,8-ANS to the protein solution prior to crystallization results in crystallization experiments in which protein crystals are strongly contrasted above background artifacts when exposed to low-intensity UV radiation. As 1,8-ANS does not covalently modify the protein sample, no further handling or purification steps are necessary. The system has been tested on a wide variety of protein samples and it has been shown that the addition of 1,8-ANS has no discernible effect on the crystallization frequencies or crystallization conditions of these proteins. As 1,8-ANS interacts with a wide variety of proteins, this is proposed to be a general solution for the automated classification of protein crystallization images and the detection of protein crystals. The results also demonstrate the expected discrimination between salt and protein crystals, as well as allowing the straightforward identification of small crystals that grow in precipitate or under a protein skin. PMID:17372358

  2. Nanoparticles assembled by aptamers and crystal violet for arsenic(iii) detection in aqueous solution based on a resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuangen; Zhan, Shenshan; Xing, Haibo; He, Lan; Xu, Lurong; Zhou, Pei

    2012-10-01

    Aptamer-assembled nanomaterials have captured much attention from the field of analytical chemistry in recent years. Although they have been regarded as a promising tool for heavy metal monitoring, report involving aptamer-based biosensors for arsenic detection are rare. Herein we developed a highly sensitive and selective aptamer biosensor for As(iii) detection based on a Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS) spectral assay. Prior to As(iii) detection, we firstly assembled a variety of nanoparticles with different sizes via controlling the concentration of arsenic-binding aptamers in crystal violet (CV) solutions. The results of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning probe microscope (SPM) testified that the introduction of As(iii) had indeed changed the size of nanoparticles, which caused a great variation in the RRS intensity at 310 nm. In the presence of 100 ppb As(iii), a maximum decline in the ratio of RRS intensity was achieved for large nanoparticles assembled from 200 nM of aptamers and CV molecules, where the average size of nanoparticles had decreased from 273 nm to 168 nm. In the case of small nanoparticles, the maximum increase ratio of the RRS intensity was obtained when the concentration of aptamer was over 600 nM. Combined with an RRS spectral assay, an effective biosensor has been developed for As(iii) detection, using the above large and small nanoparticles as the target recognition element. The present biosensor has a detection limit as low as 0.2 ppb, a dynamic range from 0.1 ppb to 200 ppb, and high selectivity over other metal ions. Such an efficient biosensor will play an important role in environmental detection.

  3. Enhancement of the fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes caused by their interaction with nanoparticles from β-diketonate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet in aqueous and alcoholic-aqueous solutions in which nanoparticles from Ln(III) and Sc(III) diketonates are formed at concentrations of complexes in a solution of 5-30 μM. We have shown that, if the concentrations of the dyes in the solution are lower than 0.5 μM, dye molecules are incorporated completely into nanoparticles or are precipitated onto their surface. The fluorescence intensity of these incorporated and adsorbed Malachite Green and Crystal Violet molecules increases by several orders of magnitude compared to the solution, which takes place because of a sharp increase in the fluorescence quantum yields of these dyes and at the expense of the sensitization of their fluorescence upon energy transfer from β-diketonate complexes entering into the composition of nanoparticles. We have shown that, if there is no concentration quenching, the values of the fluorescence quantum yield of the Crystal Violet dye incorporated into nanoparticles and adsorbed on their surface vary from 0.06 to 0.13, i.e., are close to the fluorescence quantum yield of this dye in solid solutions of sucrose acetate at room temperature. The independence of the fluorescence quantum yield of Crystal Violet on the morphology of nanoparticles testifies to a high binding constant of complexes and the dye. The considerable fluorescence quantum yields of triphenylmethane dyes in nanoparticles and sensitization of their fluorescence by nanoparticle-forming complexes make it possible to determine the concentration of these dyes in aqueous solutions by the luminescent method in the range of up to 1 nM.

  4. Pigment violet 19 - a test case to define a simple method to simulate the vibronic structure of absorption spectra of organic pigments and dyes in solution.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Benoît; Liégeois, Vincent; Zutterman, Freddy

    2015-02-01

    A typical quinacridone pigment, PV19, has been used to analyze the impact of several computational parameters on the UV/vis absorption band shape in solution, simulated using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory levels of approximation. These encompass, (i) the choice of exchange-correlation functional, (ii) the basis set, (iii) the method for non-equilibrium optimization of the excited state geometry, (iv) the approach for evaluating the vibronic band structure, (v) the peak broadening, and (vi) the scaling of the harmonic vibrational frequencies. Among these, the choice of exchange-correlation functional is certainly of the most importance because it can drastically modify the spectral shape. In the case of PV19, the M05-2X and to a lesser extent CAM-B3LYP XC functionals are the most efficient to reproduce the vibronic structure, confirming the important role of exact Hartree-Fock exchange. Still, these functionals are not the most reliable to predict the excitation energies and oscillator strengths, for which M05, a functional with less HF exchange, performs better. For evaluating the vibronic structure, the simple gradient method, where only one step of geometry optimization of the excited state is carried out and the gradients are used to evaluate the Huang-Rhys factors as well as to determine the excited state geometries produces a spectrum that is very similar to the ones obtained with the more involved Duschinsky and geometry methods, opening the way to a fast simulation of the UV/vis absorption spectra of pigments and dyes. Then, the effect of scaling the calculated vibrational frequencies to account for anharmonicity effects as well as for limitation of the method also impacts the shape of the vibronic spectrum and this effect depends on the method used to determine the Huang-Rhys factors. Indeed, scaling the vibrational frequencies by a factor which is typically smaller than 1.0 results in a relative decrease of the 0-1 peak intensity with respect to the 0-0 band when optimizing the geometry of the excited state whereas the effect is opposite and magnified if using the gradient method. PMID:25501947

  5. Immobilization of Laccase in Alginate-Gelatin Mixed Gel and Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Mogharabi, Mehdi; Nassiri-Koopaei, Nasser; Bozorgi-Koushalshahi, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Bagherzadeh, Ghodsieh; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Alginate-gelatin mixed gel was applied to immobilized laccase for decolorization of some synthetic dyes including crystal violet. The immobilization procedure was accomplished by adding alginate to a gelatin solution containing the enzyme and the subsequent dropwise addition of the mixture into a stirred CaCl2 solution. The obtained data showed that both immobilized and free enzymes acted optimally at 50°C for removal of crystal violet, but the entrapped enzyme showed higher thermal stability compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme represented optimum decolorization at pH 8. Reusability of the entrapped laccase was also studied and the results showed that ca. 85% activity was retained after five successive cycles. The best removal condition was applied for decolorization of seven other synthetic dyes. Results showed that the maximum and minimum dye removal was related to amido black 10B and eosin, respectively. PMID:22899898

  6. Solvatochromic and Single Crystal Studies of Two Neutral Triarylmethane Dyes with a Quinone Methide Structure.

    PubMed

    Chulvi, Katherine; Costero, Ana M; Ochando, Luis E; Gil, Salvador; Vivancos, José-Luis; Gaviña, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of two neutral triarylmethane dyes with a p-quinone methide core was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The spectroscopic characteristics of both compounds in 23 solvents with different polarities or hydrogen-bonding donor (HBD) abilities has been studied as a function of three solvatochromic parameters (ET(30), π* and α). Both compounds 1 and 2 showed a pronounced bathochromic shift of the main absorption band on increasing solvent polarity and HBD ability. The correlation is better for compound 2 than for compound 1. The stronger effect and better correlation was observed for compound 2 with the increment of the solvent HBD ability (α parameter). PMID:26610444

  7. Transflective spatial filter based on azo-dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.-H.; Fuh, Andy Y.-G.

    2005-07-04

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of exploiting the photoisomerization effect in azo-dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) films with a concomitant decline of the phase transition temperature from the cholesteric to an isotropic phase (T{sub Ch-I}) as a spatial filter. The fabrication depends on the fact that the various intensities of the diffracted orders are responsible for the various degrees of transparency associated with the photoisomerized DDCLC film. High- and low-pass images in the Fourier optical signal process can be simultaneously observed via reflected and transmitted signals, respectively. A simulation is also performed, and the results are consistent closely with experimental data.

  8. All-optical switchable holographic Fresnel lens based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Hosain Nataj, Nahid; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir

    2011-08-01

    Fabrication of an all-optical switchable holographic liquid crystal (LC) Fresnel lens based on azo-dye-doped polymer-dispersed LCs is reported using a Michelson interferometer. It is found that, upon circularly polarized photoirradiation, the diffraction efficiency of the fabricated Fresnel lens was increased significantly in a reversible manner. We believe this is due to the anisotropy induced by reorientation of the LC molecules coupled with azo-dye molecule orientation due to trans--cis--trans photoisomerization, which modulates the refractive index of the LC-rich regions. We also studied the effect of azo dye on the polarization dependency of the fabricated lens.

  9. Effect of dichroic dye on phase separation kinetics and electro-optical characteristics of polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, R. R.; Malik, M. K.

    2013-02-01

    Dichroic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared using a nematic liquid crystal, photo-curable polymer and dichroic azo dye by polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) method. Dynamics of PIPS and morphology development in the mixtures containing dye have been investigated by means of UV-VIS spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The phase separation and segregation of LC droplets was found to be dependent on the amount of dye used. LC droplets predominantly exhibited bipolar configuration that changed to maltese type crosses under the influence of an applied electric field. The extent of interaction and anchoring energy between the LC and polymer were examined by measuring contact angle in consequence of dye addition. Due to less interfacial interaction, PDLC with low dye content (≤0.06 wt%) gave a good contrast ratio, relatively low threshold voltage and a value of high transmittance in the ON-state. UV-VIS spectroscopy results show that the molecular orientation of dye in LC droplets can be controlled with an applied field to induce nonlinearity in these materials. In particular, the dye concentration can be optimized to obtain promising electronic materials with minimum threshold and high contrast for display applications.

  10. Aggregation Properties and Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Based on Naphthalenetetracarboxylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasik, Michelle; Collings, Peter

    2007-03-01

    R003 is a dye produced for thin film optical components by Optiva, Inc.^1 made from the sulfonation of the dibenzimidazole derivative of naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid. Its molecular structure is very different from the aggregating food dye previously investigated in our laboratory^2 and R003 forms a liquid crystal phase at significantly lower concentrations. We have performed polarizing microscopy, absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction experiments in order to determine the phase diagram and aggregate structure. In addition, we have included both translational and orientational entropy in the theoretical analysis of the aggregation process, and have used a more realistic lineshape in analyzing the absorption data. Our results indicate that the ``bond energy'' for molecules in an aggregate is even larger than for the previously studied dye and that the aggregate structure has a cross-sectional area equal to two or three molecular areas rather than one.^1Lazarev, P., N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, SID Int. Symp. Digest of Tech. Papers, San Jose, California, June XXXII, 571 (2001).^2V. R. Horowitz, L. A. Janowitz, A. L. Modic, P. A. Heiney, and P. J. Collings, Phys. Rev. E 72, 041710 (2005).

  11. Influence of the layer thickness and concentration of dye molecules on the emission amplification in cholesteric liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alaverdyan, R B; Gevorgyan, A A; Chilingaryan, A D; Chilingaryan, Yu S

    2008-05-31

    The propagation of light through a planar layer of a cholesteric liquid crystal doped with dye molecules is considered. The features of the emission spectra of the crystal are studied both in the absence and presence of dielectric boundaries. The increase in the emission intensity is investigated for different layer thicknesses and different concentrations of dye molecules. It is shown that an anomalously strong increase in the emission intensity with the diffraction intrinsic polarisation takes place in the case of a comparatively small crystal thickness and a relatively low concentration of dye molecules. The obtained results can be used for the development of miniature lasers with the circular polarisation of the fundamental radiation mode. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Optical phase conjugation in azo-dye doped chiral liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinski, Pawel; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-10-15

    We report on optical phase conjugation phenomenon observed in chiral nematic liquid crystal showing band gap type Bragg reflection. The phase conjugate to the signal beam is observable only in the small temperature interval when the Bragg condition is fulfilled and only for circularly polarized light. The optical phase conjugation signals were observed at low cw laser light intensities (<100 mW/cm{sup 2}, {lambda} = 532 nm). Estimated value of third order optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2} is attributed to enhancement due to photoisomerisation of azo-dye (disperse red 1) inducing molecular reorientation process of liquid crystal molecules.

  13. Growth of potassium sulfate crystals in the presence of organic dyes: in situ characterization by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Andrea; Moret, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to observe potassium sulfate crystals growing in the presence of acid fuchsin and pyranine. These polysulfonated dyes are well known for their ability to adsorb onto the {1 1 0} and {0 1 0} (pyranine only) crystal faces. Using AFM, we analyzed the changes in surface micromorphology induced by the additives on advancing steps for the {1 1 0} and {0 1 0} surfaces. In situ AFM showed that layers grow by step flow at pre-existing steps by the addition of growth units at the step edges. It has been found that dye concentrations as low as ˜2×10 -6 M for pyranine and ˜4×10 -4 M for acid fuchsin produce significant changes in the step morphology and growth rates. The additive molecules attach to the terraces and pin the growing front. As a consequence, the edges of the growing steps become jagged as the dye molecules are adsorbed onto the crystal surface. At critical dye concentrations crystal growth is heavily hampered or even stopped along certain crystallographic directions producing, on a macroscopic scale, strong habit modifications. The formation of dye inclusions by means of macrosteps overgrowing the poisoned surface was also imaged. Interestingly, comparison of the in situ AFM experiments with previous habit modification studies showed acid fuchsin is also able to enter the {0 1 0} surfaces, a previously unnoticed phenomenon.

  14. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  15. Biodecolorization and biodegradation potential of recalcitrant triphenylmethane dyes by Coriolopsis sp. isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Hui; Yien Ting, Adeline Su

    2015-03-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes (TPM) are recalcitrant colorants brought into the environment. In this study, a lesser-known white rot fungus Coriolopsis sp. (1c3), isolated from compost of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm, was explored for its decolorization potential of TPM dyes. The isolate 1c3 demonstrated good decolorization efficiencies in the treatment of Crystal Violet (CV; 100 mg l(-1)), Methyl Violet (MV; 100 mg l(-1)) and Cotton Blue (CB; 50 mg(-1)), with 94%, 97% and 91%, within 7, 7 and 1 day(s), respectively. Malachite Green (MG; 100 mg l(-1)) was the most recalcitrant dye, with 52% decolorization after 9 days. Dye removal by 1c3 was presumably via biosorption, whereby the process was determined to be influenced by fungal biomass, initial dye concentrations and oxygen requirements. Biodegradation was also a likely mechanism responsible for dye removal by 1c3, occurred as indicated by the reduction of dye spectra peaks. Detection of laccase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities further substantiate the possible occurrence of biodegradation of TPM dyes by 1c3. PMID:25527986

  16. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth. PMID:20034947

  17. Modeling and characterization of dye-doped guest-host liquid crystal eyewear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutino, Pedro Coutino

    This thesis explores the use of dye-doped guest-host liquid crystals in variable transmission eyewear devices that protect against rapid and abrupt changes in lighting conditions. Some of their unique characteristics such as millisecond time response, low power consumption, fail-safe operation, and wide color palette make them the only available technology that meets the basic requirements for fast, adaptative eyewear applications. Despite these unique features, there are limitations in the technology which have hindered its use for more advanced eyewear applications. It is the aim of this dissertation to explore these limitations and provide experimental and numerical characterization tools necessary to surpass them. First, several techniques are described to evaluate materials and devices performance in terms of their photopic transmission, haze, birefringence, and distortion. The results are used to demonstrate that by choosing and combining the right materials, it is possible to improve the optical quality of the eyewear. Then, a simulation instrument which combines and integrates all the necessary elements to model the electro-optical response of dye-doped guest-host liquid crystal eyewear was constructed. This program is capable of reproducing with high accuracy experimental results, to predict the performance of devices, and to mimic the spectral curve of a target color. Numerical experiments were performed to study some of the most common limitations of the e-Tint mode or single cell technology including photopic transmission window, and polarization dependence and demonstrate that optimizing parameters such as birefringence, d/p, and concentration of dyes helps to overcome these limitations and enhance system performance. A guest-host double cell system is proposed as a new alternative mode for most advanced eyewear applications. Particular attention was placed on a switchable crossed polarizers configuration which offered superior optical characteristics such as extremely low polarization dependence and increased transmission window. Simulations showed that the same effect can be obtained for other non-zero d/p values, by proper choice of chirality and configuration. Furthermore, a unique four-color eyewear was designed by combining the absorption properties of individual cells. Finally, several state-of-the-art military and commercial dye-doped guest-host eyewear applications which make use of all the results obtained during this dissertation are presented.

  18. SORPTION AND TOXICITY OF AZO AND TRIPHENYLMETHANE DYES TO AQUATIC MICROBIAL POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity and sorption of five azo and triphenylmethane dyes to freshwater microbiota were determined to assessment, in part, the risks that these dyes may pose to the aquatic environment. The toxicities of Basic Violet 1, Basic Violet 2, Basic Violet 3, Basic Green 4 and Tropaeol...

  19. Compositional changes in red and violet smoke mixes after combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, M.V.; Rubin, I.B.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Anthraquinone-derived dyes are commonly used in colored dye mixes prepared for signal smoke grenades. Biological studies have shown, however, that a number of these dyes exhibit bacterial mutagenicity. In addition, these dyes are similar in structure to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are well-known carcinogens. The grenades contain not only anthraquinone-derived dyes, but also a pyrotechnic fuel and cooling and starting mixes consisting primarily of potassium chlorate and nitrate, sodium bicarbonate, and sulfur. These dyes are volatilized at temperatures up to 550/sup 0/C during the detonation of the grenade, which could subject the dyes to oxidative and pyrolytic reactions that could result in a variety of reaction by-products. As part of a program to investigate possible environmental and occupational risks of the colored smoke dyes and in signal grenades, two colored smoke mixes, red and violet, have been studied both before and after detonation to evaluate any differences in composition due to the combustion process. This report focuses primarily on the separation and identification of the components of the original and combusted red and violet smoke mixes. The conditions for the detonation of the smoke grenades and sampling of the combusted smoke mixes are also discussed.

  20. A comparative study on growth, structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of undoped and dye doped bis glycine cadmium chloride single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, B.; Saritha, A.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Hussain, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    Dye inclusion crystals have attracted researchers in the context of crystal growth for applications in solid state lasers. Attempt to grow tris glycine cadmium chloride (TGCC) crystals yielded bis glycine cadmium chloride crystals. Single crystals of bis glycine cadmium chloride (BGCC) and organic dye, namely xylenol orange tetra sodium salt (XO) doped BGCC crystals, were grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique from the mixture of an aqueous solution of glycine and cadmium chloride in 3:1 molar ratio at a constant temperature of 35 °C. The grown crystals are up to the dimension of 20×20×5 mm 3. Characterization of the crystals was made using a single crystal X-ray diffractometer for obtaining the structure. The crystal is monoclinic with P2 1/ n space group. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to evaluate crystalline perfection. Perfection of the undoped crystals is higher than those of the dye doped crystals. Thermal stability of the crystals is tested from differential scanning calorimetry. There is only one endothermic peak, indicating melting point. The optical transparency range of the crystals was identified from the UV-vis spectrum. Functional groups present in the crystals were studied by FT-IR spectral analysis. The mechanical strength of the crystals, measured by Vickers microhardness, and it has increased due to the presence of dye in the crystals.

  1. Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film.

    PubMed

    Ko, Shih-Wei; Huang, Shu-Hao; Fuh, Andy Y-G; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2009-08-31

    This investigation demonstrates a simple but accurate method for measuring the helical twisting power of chiral doped liquid crystals using axially symmetrical photo-alignment in azo dye-doped liquid crystal films. As reported in our previous paper, a reversed twist effect produces a disclination line in photo-aligned axially symmetrical liquid crystal films. The pitch and helical twisting power can be obtained by measuring the rotation angle of the disclination line in chrial doped liquid crystal. This method is independent of cell gap and provide an error below 0.5%. PMID:19724591

  2. Highly Efficient Plastic Crystal Ionic Conductors for Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Daesub; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Armel, Vanessa; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Kim, Dongho; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    We have developed highly efficient, ambient temperature, solid-state ionic conductors (SSICs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by doping a molecular plastic crystal, succinonitrile (SN), with trialkyl-substituted imidazolium iodide salts. High performance SSICs with enhanced ionic conductivity (2–4 mScm−1) were obtained. High performance solid-state DSSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.8% were fabricated using our SSICs combined with unique hierarchically nanostructured TiO2 sphere (TiO2-SP) photoelectrodes; these electrodes have significant macroporosity, which assists penetration of the solid electrolyte into the electrode. The performance of our solid-state DSSCs is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported thus far for cells using plastic crystal-based SSICs, and is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art DSSCs which use ionic liquid type electrolytes. This report provides a logical strategy for the development of efficient plastic crystal-based SSICs for DSSCs and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24343425

  3. A random laser made of nematic liquid crystal doped with a laser dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sznitko, L.; Kaliciak, K.; Adamow, A.; Mysliwiec, J.

    2016-06-01

    We report on random laser emission obtained in 5CB and E7 nematic liquid crystal (LC) mixtures doped with 1% weight to weight ratio of DCM laser dye. The LC cell was used as asymmetric planar waveguide were emission was collected from the edge of the sample. Variable stripe length method was utilized to estimate the gain and the losses coefficients. Both systems have shown the threshold energy fluence in order of several mJ/cm2. In both cases above Fredericks potential, significant increase of emission intensity was observed due to the increase of light scattering on liquid crystalline domains. Moreover the use of fifth order of diffraction grating covered with thin alumina film resulted in strong multimode and directional laser emission.

  4. Toxic textile dyes accumulate in wild European eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Belpaire, Claude; Reyns, Tim; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-11-01

    Dyes are used to stain inks, paints, textile, paper, leather and household products. They are omnipresent, some are toxic and may threaten our environment, especially aquatic ecosystems. The presence of residues of sixteen dyes (triarylmethanes, xanthenes, phenothiazines and phenoxazines) and their metabolites was analyzed in muscle tissue samples of individual yellow-phased European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from 91 locations in Belgian rivers, canals and lakes sampled between 2000 and 2009 using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eel was contaminated by dyes in 77% of the sites. Malachite Green, Crystal Violet and Brilliant Green were present in 25-58% of the samples. Dye occurrence was related to the distribution of textile and dye production industries. This field study is the first large-scale survey to document the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife. Considering the annual amounts of dyes produced worldwide and the unintentional spillage during their use, our observations warrant additional research in other parts of the world. The presence of these highly toxic dyes in the European eel may form an additional threat to this critically endangered species. The contaminated eels should be considered as not suitable for consumption. PMID:26291760

  5. All-optical switching of continuous wave, microsecond lasers with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, I. C.; Park, Jae-Hong; Liou, Justin

    2007-04-01

    The authors present a theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration of optically self-activated polarization switching process in a 90° twist alignment dye-doped nematic liquid crystal. The underlying mechanisms are laser induced dye-assisted director axis reorientation and order parameter modifications. Experimental observations are in good agreement with the theoretical expectations derived from a modified Jones matrix calculation, and demonstrate the feasibility of designing efficient low threshold polarization and fast switching and optical limiting devices for cw and microsecond lasers.

  6. Hierarchical Organization of Organic Dyes and Protein Cages into Photoactive Crystals.

    PubMed

    Mikkilä, Joona; Anaya-Plaza, Eduardo; Liljeström, Ville; Caston, Jose R; Torres, Tomas; Escosura, Andrés de la; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2016-01-26

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are non-natural organic dyes with wide and deep impact in materials science, based on their intense absorption at the near-infrared (NIR), long-lived fluorescence and high singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yields. However, Pcs tend to stack in buffer solutions, losing their ability to generate singlet oxygen, which limits their scope of application. Furthermore, Pcs are challenging to organize in crystalline structures. Protein cages, on the other hand, are very promising biological building blocks that can be used to organize different materials into crystalline nanostructures. Here, we combine both kinds of components into photoactive biohybrid crystals. Toward this end, a hierarchical organization process has been designed in which (a) a supramolecular complex is formed between octacationic zinc Pc (1) and a tetraanionic pyrene (2) derivatives, driven by electrostatic and π-π interactions, and (b) the resulting tetracationic complex acts as a molecular glue that binds to the outer surface anionic patches of the apoferritin (aFt) protein cage, inducing cocrystallization. The obtained ternary face-centered cubic (fcc) packed cocrystals, with diameters up to 100 μm, retain the optical properties of the pristine dye molecules, such as fluorescence at 695 nm and efficient light-induced (1)O2 production. Considering that (1)O2 is utilized in important technologies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), water treatments, diagnostic arrays and as an oxidant in organic synthesis, our results demonstrate a powerful methodology to create functional biohybrid systems with unprecedented long-range order. This approach should greatly aid the development of nanotechnology and biomedicine. PMID:26691783

  7. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark.... (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the following method: Transfer...

  8. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark.... (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the following method: Transfer...

  9. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark.... (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the following method: Transfer...

  10. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark.... (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the following method: Transfer...

  11. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark.... (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the following method: Transfer...

  12. Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Interaction of Dye and Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Fellowes, O. N.

    1966-01-01

    The inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus was studied by means of the interaction of neutral red, Toluidine Blue, and methylene blue with visible light. The virus, Type A, strain 1, CANEFA of Argentine origin, was grown in tissue culture and tested in the crude and clarified state. Virus and dye were mixed and incubated together at 4 C for 45 min in the dark, or were mixed and immediately exposed to the visible light source without prior incubation together. Mixtures of crude virus and dye, under any of the experimental conditions used, did not inactivate more than 1 to 2 logs of viral infectivity when held in the dark or when exposed to light during a period of 45 min. Complete inactivation of virus was achieved when clarified virus and dye were mixed and immediately exposed to the visible light source for 15 min. Prior incubation of clarified virus and dye permitted inactivation by methylene blue only, whereas no incubation prior to exposure resulted in three of the dyes contributing to inactivation. A concentration of 6 μg of neutral red, Toluidine Blue, methylene blue, and crystal violet was used per milliliter of virus suspension. Crystal violet was not a good viral inactivator under the conditions of the experimentation. Inactive virus induced the formation of neutralizing antibodies in adult chickens and mice. The antibody titer stimulated by the antigen treated with methylene blue and visible light was probably significant. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4288063

  13. Spectral plasmonic effect in the nano-cavity of dye-doped nanosphere-based photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ashish; Danesh, Mohammad; Zhong, Liubiao; Cheng, Gary J; Jiang, Lin; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-04-22

    We demonstrated three-dimensional PMMA-based photonic crystal (3D-PC) nanostructures attached to Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which undergo self-organization into super lattice planes and enhance the fluorescence properties. This new structure exhibited interesting tunable spectral, peak broadening plasmonic behavior because of strong plasmonic interaction at high laser powers. The presented work provides an important tool to improve the efficiency of dye laser applications. PMID:26954366

  14. Spectral plasmonic effect in the nano-cavity of dye-doped nanosphere-based photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ashish; Danesh, Mohammad; Zhong, Liubiao; Cheng, Gary J.; Jiang, Lin; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated three-dimensional PMMA-based photonic crystal (3D-PC) nanostructures attached to Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which undergo self-organization into super lattice planes and enhance the fluorescence properties. This new structure exhibited interesting tunable spectral, peak broadening plasmonic behavior because of strong plasmonic interaction at high laser powers. The presented work provides an important tool to improve the efficiency of dye laser applications.

  15. A New Organic Dye-Based Staining for The Detection of Plant DNA in Agarose Gels.

    PubMed

    Sönmezoğlu, Özlem Ateş; Özkay, Kerime

    2015-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated N-719, which is a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye, and five fluorescent alternatives for staining plant DNA. For prestaining and poststaining, N-719, GelRed, and SYBR Safe stained both DNA and PCR product bands as clearly as EtBr. SYBR Green I, methylene blue, and crystal violet were effective for poststaining only. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. Consequently, organic dyes can be used as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies. PMID:26158569

  16. Final report on the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43.

    PubMed

    Fiume, M Z

    2001-01-01

    Acid Violet 43 is an anthraquinone color that may be used as a colorant in cosmetic formulations that are hair dyes, colors, and coloring rinses. Batches of Acid Violet 43 that are certified to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) specifications are termed Ext. D & C Violet No. 2. Hair dyes and colors containing Acid Violet 43 are considered coal tar ingredients and, as such, routinely bear a caution statement regarding potential skin irritation and instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation in any given individual. Expected concentrations of use are less than or equal to 1%. Impurities include anthracenedione derivatives, p-toluidine, and p-toluidine sulfonic acid, as well as heavy metals. Based on extensive safety test data, the U.S. FDA has established specifications (including limits on impurities) for Ext. D & C Violet No. 2 that allow its use in any cosmetic. It is the certified color (Ext. D & C Violet No. 2) that has been evaluated in the following safety tests. Oral toxicity tests do not demonstrate significant acute toxicity. In a short-term dermal toxicity study using guinea pigs and a subchronic dermal toxicity study using rabbits, no signs of systemic toxicity and no significant local skin reactions were noted. This ingredient was not genotoxic in bacterial assays, nor was it carcinogenic when applied to mouse skin at a 1% concentration. Accordingly, Acid Violet 43 was determined to be safe for use in hair dye formulations, when impurities are limited as follows: < or = 18% volatile matter (at 135 degrees C) and chlorides and sulfates (calculated as sodium salts); < or = 0.4% water-insoluble matter; < or = 0.2% 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.2% 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.1% p-toluidine; < or = 0.2% p-toluidine sulfonic acids, sodium salts; < or = 1% subsidiary colors; < or = 20 ppm lead (as Pb); < or = 3 ppm arsenic (as As); < or = 1 ppm mercury (as Hg); and with > or = 80% total color. PMID:11766130

  17. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food...

  1. Self-Assembly and Formation of Chromonic Liquid Crystals from the Dyes Quinaldine Red Acetate and Pyronin Y.

    PubMed

    Magana, J R; Homs, M; Solans, C; Obiols-Rabasa, M; Salonen, L M; Rodríguez-Abreu, C

    2016-01-14

    The aqueous self-assembly behavior of the dyes Quinaldine red acetate and Pyronin Y in a wide range of concentrations is reported here for the first time. (1)H NMR spectroscopy, polarized-light optical microscopy, and small and wide X-ray scattering were used to get insight into molecular interactions, phase boundaries and aggregate structure. Quinaldine red acetate and Pyronin Y self-organize into unimolecular stacks driven by attractive aromatic interactions. At high concentrations, spatial correlation among the molecular stacks gives rise to nematic liquid crystals in both systems. Quinaldine red acetate additionally produces a rare chromonic O phase built of columnar aggregates with anisotropic cross-section ordered in a rectangular lattice. The O phase changes into a columnar lamellar structure as a result of a temperature-induced phase transition. Results open the possibility of finding chromonic liquid crystals in other commercially available dyes with a similar molecular structure. This would eventually expand the availability of these unique soft materials and thus introduce new applications for marketed dyes. PMID:26700729

  2. A chemometric-assisted method for the simultaneous determination of malachite green and crystal violet in water based on absorbance-pH data generated by a homemade pH gradient apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Yuan, Xuejie; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao; Shi, Jiahua; Wang, Yali; Chen, Yuewen; Gao, Shufang

    2015-11-01

    An attractive method of generating second-order data was developed by a dropping technique to generate pH gradient simultaneously coupled with diode-array spectrophotometer scanning. A homemade apparatus designed for the pH gradient. The method and the homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in water samples. The absorbance-pH second-order data of MG or CV were obtained from the spectra of MG or CV in a series of pH values of HCl-KCl solution. The second-order data of mixtures containing MG and CV that coexisted with interferents were analyzed using multidimensional partial least-squares with residual bilinearization. The method and homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine MG and CV in fish farming water samples and in river ones with satisfactory results. The presented method and the homemade apparatus could serve as an alternative tool to handle some analysis problems. PMID:26057094

  3. Synthesis and analysis of nickel dithiolene dyes in a nematic liquid crystal host. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Lippa, I.

    1999-03-01

    The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) can be employed to evaluate the Omega Laser system for optimum firing capabilities. This device utilizes a nickel dithiolene infrared absorbing liquid crystal dye dissolved in a liquid crystal host medium (Merck E7). Three nickel dithiolene dyes were characterized for both their solubility in the E7 host and their infrared spectral absorption.

  4. Crystal Structure of Novel Dye-linked l-Proline Dehydrogenase from Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix*

    PubMed Central

    Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Kim, Kwang; Hara, Yusuke; Yoneda, Kazunari; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Two types of dye-linked l-proline dehydrogenase (PDH1, α4β4-type hetero-octamer, and PDH2, αβγδ-type heterotetramer) have been identified so far in hyperthermophilic archaea. Here, we report the crystal structure of a third type of l-proline dehydrogenase, found in the aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix, whose structure (homodimer) is much simpler than those of previously studied l-proline dehydrogenases. The structure was determined at a resolution of 1.92 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one subunit, and a crystallographic 2-fold axis generated the functional dimer. The overall fold of the subunit showed similarity to that of the PDH1 β-subunit, which is responsible for catalyzing l-proline dehydrogenation. However, the situation at the subunit-subunit interface of the A. pernix enzyme was totally different from that in PDH1. The presence of additional surface elements in the A. pernix enzyme contributes to a unique dimer association. Moreover, the C-terminal Leu428, which is provided by a tail extending from the FAD-binding domain, shielded the active site, and an l-proline molecule was entrapped within the active site cavity. The Km value of a Leu428 deletion mutant for l-proline was about 800 times larger than the Km value of the wild-type enzyme, although the kcat values did not differ much between the two enzymes. This suggests the C-terminal Leu428 is not directly involved in catalysis, but it is essential for maintaining a high affinity for the substrate. This is the first description of an LPDH structure with l-proline bound, and it provides new insight into the substrate binding of LPDH. PMID:22511758

  5. Dynamical studies of the mechanisms for optical nonlinearities of methyl-red dye doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-08-24

    Dynamical grating diffraction experiments and reflection/transmission polarization spectroscopy have been conducted on azo-dye doped Blue-Phase Liquid Crystal (BPLC) to investigate the mechanisms responsible for laser induced refractive index changes. The underlying mechanisms for the transient grating diffraction components are attributed to thermal indexing and lattice distortion, whereas the persistent component is due to lattice distortion/expansion caused by laser excited dye molecule isomerization. These mechanisms were distinguishable by their response dynamics and gave rise to the observed reflection spectra and photonic bandgap shift, polarization dependency and optical activity. Some preliminary studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using these mechanisms for coherent holographic and direct image writing operations. PMID:26368144

  6. Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

  7. Photoalignment control: self-focusing effect in hybrid- and homeotropic-aligned dye-doped polymer-stabilized liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Shishido, A.

    2015-09-01

    Nonlinear optics has drawn much attention for its great potential in applications, such as frequency conversion, multiple-photon absorption, self-focusing, and so on. However, such optical nonlinearities are generally observed at very high light intensities. In this study, we designed hybrid-aligned dye-doped polymer-stabilized liquid crystals (PSLC), in which the molecular director orientation gradually changes from homeotropic at one surface to homogeneous at the other. In such film, the threshold intensity required to form self-focusing effect was markedly reduced by a factor of 8.5 compared to that in a conventional homeotropic cell, which enabled the generation of the self-focusing effect using a handheld 1-mW laser pointer. In addition, we investigated the structural effect of dye molecules: azo-dye methyl red (MR, photoisomerizable)-doped PSLC was prepared and its NLO response was evaluated. It turned out that such MR-based LC system was not effective for self-focusing effect compared to oligothiophene-doped systems.

  8. Polyamide as an efficient sorbent for simultaneous interface-free determination of three Sudan dyes in saffron and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Iman; Barfi, Behruz; Payrovi, Moazameh; Feizy, Javid; Sheibani, Hojat A; Miri, Mina; Ghollasi Moud, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    With polyamide (PA) as an efficient sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of Sudan dyes II, III and Red 7B from saffron and urine, their determination by HPLC was performed. The optimum conditions for SPE were achieved using 7 mL methanol/water (1:9, v/v, pH 7) as the washing solvent and 3 mL tetrahydrofuran for elution. Good clean-up and high (above 90%) recoveries were observed for all the analytes. The optimized mobile phase composition for HPLC analysis of these compounds was methanol-water (70:30, v/v). The SPE parameters, such as the maximum loading capacity and breakthrough volume, were also determined for each analyte. The limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), linear ranges and recoveries for the analytes were 4.6-6.6 microg/L, 13.0-19.8 microg/L, 13.0-5000 microg/L (r2>0.99) and 92.5%-113.4%, respectively. The precisions (RSDs) of the overall analytical procedure, estimated by five replicate measurements for Sudan II, III and Red 7B in saffron and urine samples were 2.3%, 1.8% and 3.6%, respectively. The developed method is simple and successful in the application to the determination of Sudan dyes in saffron and urine samples with HPLC coupled with UV detection. PMID:25958664

  9. Specific features of the crystal packing that enable styryl dyes of the pyridine series to undergo the solid-phase [2 + 2] photocycloaddition including the process with single crystal retention

    SciTech Connect

    Kuz'mina, L. G.; Vedernikov, A. I.; Sazonov, S. K.; Lobova, N. A.; Loginov, P. S.; Howard, J. A. K.; Alfimov, M. V.; Gromov, S. P.

    2008-05-15

    The crystal packing of a number of styryl dyes of the pyridine series is analyzed. The structures of three dyes and three [2 + 2] photocycloaddition (PCA) products, 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted cyclobutanes, obtained in single crystals are determined by X-ray diffraction. Stacks of planar organic cations are characteristic of styryl dye packings. The proceeding of the PCA reaction as a single crystal-to-single crystal transformation in the syn head-to-head stacks is in principle impossible. The syn head-to-tail stacking packings are favorable for the PCA reactions resulting in the centrosymmetric rctt isomers of cyclobutane. The stacking packings, in which molecules are related by the twofold axes (the anti arrangement of molecules), are also favorable for PCA in single crystals. In this case, the products are the rtct isomers of cyclobutane. The presence of the I{sup -} counterions in a packing is a factor impeding the PCA reaction, because the secondary I-H-C bonds increase the rigidity of the crystal lattice. The conditions necessary for proceeding the PCA reactions in styryl dyes as single crystal-to-single crystal processes are as follows: (1) the stacks split into pairs of organic cations (dimers) with the d distances within 4.2 A in a dimer and d exceeding 4.2 A between the dimers; and (2) the dimers are surrounded by flexible shells consisting of anions, solvate molecules, or flexible moieties of the organic cations themselves.

  10. Phase shifting phase contrast interferometer using a dye-doped liquid-crystal self-aligning phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadono, Hirofumi; Ohno, Kazunori; Toyooka, Satoru

    2005-09-01

    A new phase contrast imaging system that permits a quantitative observation of phase distribution of a general object is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This is realized by implementing the phase shifting technique in the phase contrast imaging system. A dye-doped nematic liquid-crystal (NLC) is newly employed for this purpose as a variable phase filter in contrast to the constant phase plate employed in the conventional phase contrast microscope (PCM). The dye-doped NLC provides a practical advantage to the system that realizes an alignment-free optical system for the phase plate. The self-alignment property of the phase filter is realized by utilizing the local phase transition from the liquid-crystal to liquid, which is induced by the relatively strong incident light of the specular component of the object. In the experiment, the fundamental phase modulation property and the response of phase modulation ability were measured as a function of incident power of light. Next, the phase measurements were performed with several phase gratings and composite objects having different phase amplitudes and absorption. As an experimental result, the usefulness of the proposed method was confirmed, and the accuracy of the phase measurement was estimated to be λ/40. In addition, it was also demonstrated that the phase information could be obtained independently from the absorption component of the object.

  11. Production and delivery of violet solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The expansion of conventional violet cells from laboratory numbers to pilot line numbers is described. The basic properties of a violet cell are discussed. The close interaction of all the process steps is emphasized.

  12. Feulgen type staining with Hoffmann's violet-SO2 under exposure to UV rays.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1979-07-01

    The paper contains an account of the use of Hoffmann's violet-SO2 under exposure to UV rays during staining acid-hydrolysed DNA of mammalian tissue nuclei. Preparations stained with Hoffmann's violet-SO2 without exposure to UV rays reveal extremely pale violet nuclei but when stained under the influence of UV rays show a considerably faster reaction resulting in a very much deeper staining of the nuclei. Sections after staining with this dye-reagent require n-butanol as differentiating reagent. Possible interpretation for the increase in staining ability of this dye-reagent under exposure to UV rays has been elucidated and the reason for considering the reaction as Feulgen type has been discussed. PMID:91084

  13. Fluorescence screening of leucomalachite green and leucogentian violet residues in catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tripheylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and gentian violet (GV) are effective fungicides, ectoparasiticides and disinfectants in aquaculture. This practice may leave toxic residues in seafood which is not allowed by FDA and many regulatory agencies worldwide. In this work, residues of their me...

  14. Effective removal of cationic dyes using carboxylate-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Han; Zhou, Yanmei; Yu, Fang; Wang, Enze; Min, Yinghao; Huang, Qi; Pang, Lanfang; Ma, Tongsen

    2015-12-01

    A novel carboxylate-functionalized adsorbent (CNM) based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was prepared and adsorptive removal of multiple cationic dyes (crystal violet, methylene blue, malachite green and basic fuchsin) were investigated. The maximum cationic dyes uptakes ranged from 30.0 to 348.9mgg(-1) following the order of: CNM>CNCs>raw cellulose. Furthermore, the removal of crystal violet by CNM was investigated representatively where kinetics, thermodynamics and isotherm analysis were employed to explain in-depth information associated with the adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model and thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Meanwhile, isothermal study demonstrated a monolayer adsorption behavior following the Langmuir model with a calculated maximum absorption capacity of 243.9mgg(-1), which is higher than those of many other reported adsorbents. These findings prefigure the promising potentials of CNM as a versatile adsorbent for the efficient removal of cationic dyes from wastewater. PMID:26298027

  15. Enhanced optical, dielectric and piezoelectric behavior in dye doped zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Sonia; Sinha, Nidhi; Ray, Geeta; Kumar, Binay

    2014-01-01

    Pure and 0.1 mol% amaranth dye doped zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. Orthorhombic structures with changed morphology were observed. Various functional groups present were identified by FTIR and Raman analysis. UV-Vis spectra shows wide transmittance and increased optical band gap from 4.54 to 4.59 eV, with lower extinction coefficient in doped case. In photoluminescence measurement, an intense peak at 416 nm was observed for doped ZTS. Dielectric constant value increases from 3.28 to 9.40 at 1 kHz with doping. Piezoelectric coefficient d33 is also enhanced from 0.24 to 3 pC/N.

  16. Quasi-photonic crystal effect of TiCl₃/electrolyte matrix in unipolar dye-absorber devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Won; Jeong, Yonkil; PremKumar, Thangapandi; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-08-27

    Effectiveness of TiCl3 pre- and post-treatments on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and interfacial charge-transfer properties were investigated. It was confirmed that a yield of current collection was strongly dependent on the position of the TiCl3/electrolyte matrix in the DSC configuration. The interfacial charge-transfer properties were studied using thermionic emission-diffusion process and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. The TiCl3/electrolyte matrix was considered to be a three-dimensional quasi-photonic crystal with a photonic band gap, which reinforces electric field and facilitates current collection from the TiCl3/electrolyte matrix to the FTO by accelerating electron motion, whereas the potential barrier blocks current collection from the TiO2 bulk region to the FTO and decreases current. PMID:25073121

  17. Threshold optimization of polymeric opal photonic crystal cavity as organic solid-state dye-doped laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Jin, Feng; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2011-02-01

    The authors have demonstrated the optimization of the active layer thickness on the threshold of organic solid-state dye-doped laser (SSDL), which was fabricated by three-dimensional polymeric opal photonic crystal and tert-butyl Rhodamine B (t-Bu-RhB) doped polymer film. Gain media were produced by incorporating t-Bu-RhB into polymer film at 3.0 wt %. The sandwiched laser resonator cavities with different active layer thickness displayed single-mode lasing oscillations in the reflection band gap of the resonator structure. The lasing threshold as low as 1.13 μJ/pulse was achieved. The optimization of active layer would provide an opportunity to accelerate the development of low threshold polymeric SSDLs.

  18. Conducting glasses recovered from thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastes for dye-sensitized solar cell cathodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C; Chang, F-C; Peng, C Y; Wang, H Paul

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive glasses such as thin film transistor (TFT) array and colour filter glasses were recovered from the TFT-liquid crystal display panel wastes by dismantling and sonic cleaning. Noble metals (i.e. platinum (Pt)) and indium tin oxide (ITO) are generally used in the cathode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). To reduce the DSSC cost, Pt was replaced with nano nickel-encapsulated carbon-shell (Ni@C) nanoparticles, which were prepared by carbonization of Ni²⁺-β-cyclodextrin at 673 K for 2 h. The recovered conductive glasses were used in the DSSC electrodes in the substitution of relatively expensive ITO. Interestingly, the efficiency of the DSSC having the Ni@C-coated cathode is as high as 2.54%. Moreover, the cost of the DSSC using the recovered materials can be reduced by at least 24%. PMID:25399759

  19. Low-voltage and wide-band tuning of lasing in a dye-doped liquid-crystal sandwich structure.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y-S; Liu, Y-M; Yeh, H-C

    2015-11-16

    This paper reports the electrical tuning of a lasing in a liquid crystal (LC) sandwich structure. A dye-doped nematic LC (NLC) layer is sandwiched between two CLC layers to act as a phase retarder with the CLC layers acting as cavity mirrors, for the selective reflection of light in the photonic band with the same sense of helix handedness as that of the CLC layers. The transmittance spectrum of the sandwich cell provides a large range of modulation due to the wavelength dependent nature of phase retardation between the optical eigenmodes in the NLC layer. Lasing occurs at wavelengths corresponding to the maximum transmittance within the reflection band of the CLC layers. The application of voltage to the NLC layer makes it possible to shift the wavelengths of maximum transmittance, thereby tuning the wavelength of lasing. In these experiments, an applied voltage of 1.25 V was sufficient to shift the lasing peak wavelength by approximately 47 nm. PMID:26698521

  20. Nonlinear dye-doped liquid crystals for fast and broadband CW and long-pulse laser power control and switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J. D.; Park, J. H.; Stinger, M. V.; Diaz, A.; Huang, J.; Khoo, I. C.

    2007-09-01

    We present a theoretical model and some experiment demonstrations of all-optical passive switching processes with 90° twist-aligned nano-doped nematic liquid crystal cells sandwiched between two crossed polarizers. The photosensitive dopants give rise to laser induced dye-assisted director axis reorientation and order parameter modifications, which in turn produce an intensity dependent polarization switching and hence a transmission modulation capability. Experimental observations are in good agreement with our expectation derived from modified Jones matrix analysis and also demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient [microwatt power] low threshold polarization and fast switching [microseconds] all optical limiting device for visible as well as infrared lasers or bright light sources.

  1. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  2. Transfer of Preformed Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals onto Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mihi, Agustín; Zhang, Chunjie; Braun, Paul V.

    2011-05-09

    Preformed self-assembled 3D photonic crystals can be infilled with a polycarbonate matrix for mechanical stability and transferred onto rough and porous optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. This technique allows the incorporation of photonic crystals onto independently processed devices, in which the transferred films have high optical quality.

  3. Spectral properties of bacteriochlorophyll c in nematic liquid crystal. Part 1. Monomeric forms of dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowiak, A.; Francke, C.; Amesz, J.; Planner, A.; Hanyz, I.; Fraçkowiak, D.

    1996-02-01

    The spectroscopic features of bacteriochlorophyll c and bacteriopheophytin c in a nematic liquid crystal matrix have been investigated. Absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence and time resolved delayed luminescence spectra have been measured. The pigment is introduced to the liquid crystal from a dry and from a hydrated chloroform solution. In both cases the pigment is in the monomeric form. Hydration of the solvent and the presence or absence of the central Mg atom affect the interaction of the pigment molecules with the liquid crystal matrix, changing the fluorescence anisotropy. A model for the bacteriochlorophyll c orientation in the liquid crystal is proposed and the averaged angles between the transition moments and the liquid crystal orientation axis are determined. A slow process (in the microsecond range) of radiative deactivation of energy absorbed by the pigments is observed. This delayed emission could be due to pigment ionization and delayed charge recombination and/or thermal activation from the triplet to the excited singlet state.

  4. Optically and thermally controllable light scattering based on dye-doped liquid crystals in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films-coated liquid crystal cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Di; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Cheng, Ko-Ting

    2012-11-19

    This paper presents the optically controllable light scattering based on dye-doped liquid crystals (DDLCs) in a cell, whose substrates are coated with poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) films. The optical control mechanism is the light-induced dissolution of PVK in DDLCs, which reforms the disordered LC distribution into multiple and micron-sized LC domains. The induced thermal effect on the process is investigated in detail. Scanning electron microscopy images are obtained to show the surface structures of the produced PVK films. The generated scattering can be switched back to the original one by particular thermally induced phase separation. Results indicate that the light-induced thermal effect and photoisomerization lead to the dissolution of PVK in DDLCs. Finally, scattering mode light shutter with different transmission is successfully achieved by illuminating the cell under various light intensities. PMID:23187479

  5. Dyes in Liquid Crystals: Experimental and Computational Studies of a Guest–Host System Based on a Combined DFT and MD Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mark T; Abbott, Laurence C; Cowling, Stephen J; Goodby, John W; Moore, John N

    2015-01-01

    Practical applications of guest–host liquid crystal systems are critically dependent on the alignment of the guest species within the liquid crystal host. UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy shows that the 1,5-dihydroxy-2,6-bis-(4-propylphenyl)-9,10-anthraquinone dye aligns within the E7 nematic host, giving an experimental dichroic ratio of 9.40 and dye order parameter of 0.74. This alignment was modelled by using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) computational approaches that do not require the input of experimental data. Time-dependent DFT calculations show that the electronic transition dipole moment is highly aligned with the long molecular axis of the dye. Fully atomistic MD simulations show that the long axis of the dye is less highly aligned within the E7 host, indicating that this contribution limits the overall dye alignment and, thereby, the potential practical applications of this particular system. Importantly, this study demonstrates an experimental and combined DFT and MD computational approach that may be applied generally to guest–host systems, providing a potential route to their rational design. PMID:26031244

  6. Persistence of gentian violet and leucogentian violet in channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) muscle after water-borne exposure.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H C; Rushing, L G; Gehring, T; Lochmann, R

    1999-02-19

    Gentian violet is a triphenylmethane dye that is an antifungal/antiparastic agent. GV is similar to malachite green that has been used in the aquaculture industry for treatment or prevention of external fungal and parasitic infections in fish and fish eggs although it (MG) is not approved for this use. For these reasons, GV's potential for misuse by the aquaculture industry is high. The uptake and depletion of gentian violet (GV) were determined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after water-borne exposure (100 ng ml(-1), 1 h) under simulated aquaculture farming conditions. Leucogentian violet (LGV) was rapidly formed, concentrated in the muscle tissue, and very slowly eliminated from muscle tissue. An isocratic (60% acetonitrile-40% water; 0.05 M ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.5) HPLC system consisting of a 5 microm LC-CN 250x4.6 mm I.D. column, a 20x2.0 mm I.D. PbO2 oxidative post-column, and a UV-VIS detector set at 588 nm were used to determine uptake and depletion of tissue residues of GV and LGV with time. GV was rapidly depleted and converted to its major metabolite, LGV, which was detected out to 79 days. Therefore, LGV is the appropriate target analyte for monitoring exposure of channel catfish to GV. PMID:10080657

  7. Highly sensitive wavelength-dependent nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous screening of various synthetic organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Park, Moonhee; Bahng, Seung-Hoon; Woo, Nain; Kang, Seong Ho

    2016-05-15

    A novel multi-wavelength nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (MW-NACE) technique based on wavelength-dependent laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was investigated for the simultaneous screening of various synthetic organic dyes. Multi-wavelength excitation light sources were utilized to excite different organic dyes [e.g., 543nm for crystal violet (CV), methyl violet B (MVB), methyl violet B base (MBB), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and rhodamine B base (RBB); 635nm for nile blue A (NBA) and methylene blue (MB)] simultaneously. Using a nonaqueous buffer system composed of 15mM sodium borate and 835mM acetic acid in 100% ethanol (pH=5.4), all dyes were analyzed within 15min with excellent resolution (R≥4.0) under an electric field of 500V/cm. Calibration curves showed excellent linearity with square of correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.9908 over wide dynamic ranges of 0.4-50μM for CV, 0.8-50μM for MVB, 1.5-50μM for MBB, 0.08-5nM for R6G, 0.06-10μM for MB, 0.02-10μM for NBA, and 0.13-10 pM for RBB. The detection limits (S/N=3) of 40fM to 0.5μM were 10-200,000 times lower than those of previous detection methods. While adjacent peaks were not well distinguished with baseline separation in a single capillary, the devised technique was faster and more sensitive than conventional aqueous and nonaqueous CE approaches, thereby enabling the quantitative analysis of various dyes based on wavelength-dependent fluorescence detection with different excitation wavelengths. PMID:26992516

  8. Degradation of textile dyes mediated by plant peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Nair, R Aswathi; Abraham, T Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The peroxidase enzyme from the plants Ipomea palmata (1.003 IU/g of leaf) and Saccharum spontaneum (3.6 IU/g of leaf) can be used as an alternative to the commercial source of horseradish and soybean peroxidase enzyme for the decolorization of textile dyes, mainly azo dyes. Eight textiles dyes currently used by the industry and seven other dyes were selected for decolorization studies at 25-200 mg/L levels using these plant enzymes. The enzymes were purified prior to use by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic techniques. Peroxidase of S. spontaneum leaf (specific activity of 0.23 IU/mg) could completely degrade Supranol Green and Procion Green HE-4BD (100%) dyes within 1 h, whereas Direct Blue, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G and Chrysoidine were degraded >70% in 1 h. Peroxidase of Ipomea (I. palmata leaf; specific activity of 0.827 U/mg) degraded 50 mg/L of the dyes Methyl Orange (26%), Crystal Violet (36%), and Supranol Green (68%) in 2-4 h and Brilliant Green (54%), Direct Blue (15%), and Chrysoidine (44%) at the 25 mg/L level in 1 to 2 h of treatment. The Saccharum peroxidase was immobilized on a hydrophobic matrix. Four textile dyes, Procion Navy Blue HER, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G, Procion Green HE-4BD, and Supranol Green, at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L were completely degraded within 8 h by the enzyme immobilized on the modified polyethylene matrix. The immobilized enzyme was used in a batch reactor for the degradation of Procion Green HE-4BD and the reusability was studied for 15 cycles, and the half-life was found to be 60 h. PMID:12396133

  9. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  10. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

  11. Effect of single walled carbon nanotubes on the threshold voltage of dye based photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Manik, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being widely used in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices as their usage has been reported to enhance the device efficiency along with other related parameters. In this work we have studied the energy (Ec) effect of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the threshold voltage (Vth) and also on the trap states of dye based photovoltaic devices. SWCNT is added in a series of dyes such as Rose Bengal (RB), Methyl Red (MR), Malachite Green (MG) and Crystal Violet (CV). By analysing the steady state dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics Vth and Ec is estimated for the different devices with and without addition of SWCNT. It is observed that on an average for all the dyes Vth is reduced by about 30% in presence of SWCNT. The trap energy Ec also reduces in case of all the dyes. The relation between Vth, Ec and total trap density is discussed. From the photovoltaic measurements it is seen that the different photovoltaic parameters change with addition of SWCNT to the dye based devices. Both the short circuit current density and fill factor are found to increase for all the dye based devices in presence of SWCNT.

  12. Light-controlled electric Freedericksz threshold in dye doped liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchetti, L.; Catani, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-05-28

    We report the results of measurements of the threshold of Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal doped by Methyl-red. We show that in case of dc field the threshold voltage can decrease or increase depending on the light dose, due to the light-induced desorption and adsorption of charge complexes from and on the irradiated surface, that has been recently demonstrated. This effect has the potential to be exploited in optical devices such as liquid crystal microlenses and spatial light modulators.

  13. Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard-particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

  14. Use of dye tracing to determine ground-water movement to Mammoth Crystal Springs, Sylvan Pass area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Susong, David D.

    2006-01-01

    At the request of and in cooperation with the Geology Program at Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation of the Sylvan Pass area in June 2005 to determine the relation between surface water and ground-water flow to Mammoth Crystal Springs. Results of a dye-tracing investigation indicate that streamflow lost into talus deposits on Sylvan Pass enters the ground-water system and moves to the southeast to discharge at Mammoth Crystal Springs. Ground-water travel times to the springs from a distance of 1.45 miles and a vertical relief of 500 feet were less than 1 day, indicating apparent rates of movement of at least 8,000 feet per day, values that are similar to those in karst aquifers. Peak dye concentrations were reached about 2 days after dye injection, and transit time of most of the dye mass through the system was about 3 weeks. High permeability and rapid travel times within this aquifer also are indicated by the large variation in springflow in response to snowmelt runoff and precipitation, and by the high concentration of suspended sediment (turbidity) in the water discharging into the spring-fed lake.

  15. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  18. Simultaneous exhibition of positive and negative nonlinear refractive index in dye-doped liquid crystal in a Z-scan experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.; Ramos-García, R.; Rodriguez-Rosales, A. A.

    2006-08-01

    Dye-doped nematic liquid crystal samples where the vector director is not pre-aligned exhibits simultaneously positive and negative nonlinear refractive index under cw illumination at room temperature, regardless the polarization state of the illuminating beam. However, its relative contributions are polarization dependent. Experimental Z-scan curves for 100 μm thick methyl red doped 5CB nematic liquid crystals, demonstrate that negative nonlinearity is an order of magnitude larger than the positive. The polarization state of the transmitted beam is change to elliptical carrying information about the positive and negative nonlinearities.

  19. Laser-pointer-induced self-focusing effect in hybrid-aligned dye-doped liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Aihara, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Motoi; Mamiya, Jun-Ichi; Priimagi, Arri; Shishido, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optics deals with phenomena where "light controls light"; e.g., there is mediation by an intensity-dependent medium through which light propagates. This field has attracted much attention for its immense potential in applications dependent on nonlinear processes, such as frequency conversion, multiple-photon absorption, self-phase modulation, and so on. However, such nonlinearities are typically only observed at very high light intensities and thus they require costly lasers. Here, we report on a self-focusing effect induced with a 1 mW handheld laser pointer. We prepared polymer-stabilized dye-doped liquid crystals, in which the molecular director orientation gradually changes from homeotropic at one surface to homogeneous at the other. This is referred to as hybrid alignment. In such films, the threshold intensity needed to form diffraction rings was reduced by a factor of 8.5 compared to that in conventional homeotropic cells, which enabled the induction of the self-focusing effect with a laser pointer. PMID:25944052

  20. Laser-pointer-induced self-focusing effect in hybrid-aligned dye-doped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Aihara, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Motoi; Mamiya, Jun-Ichi; Priimagi, Arri; Shishido, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear optics deals with phenomena where “light controls light” e.g., there is mediation by an intensity-dependent medium through which light propagates. This field has attracted much attention for its immense potential in applications dependent on nonlinear processes, such as frequency conversion, multiple-photon absorption, self-phase modulation, and so on. However, such nonlinearities are typically only observed at very high light intensities and thus they require costly lasers. Here, we report on a self-focusing effect induced with a 1 mW handheld laser pointer. We prepared polymer-stabilized dye-doped liquid crystals, in which the molecular director orientation gradually changes from homeotropic at one surface to homogeneous at the other. This is referred to as hybrid alignment. In such films, the threshold intensity needed to form diffraction rings was reduced by a factor of 8.5 compared to that in conventional homeotropic cells, which enabled the induction of the self-focusing effect with a laser pointer.

  1. Laser-pointer-induced self-focusing effect in hybrid-aligned dye-doped liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Aihara, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Motoi; Mamiya, Jun-ichi; Priimagi, Arri; Shishido, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optics deals with phenomena where “light controls light”; e.g., there is mediation by an intensity-dependent medium through which light propagates. This field has attracted much attention for its immense potential in applications dependent on nonlinear processes, such as frequency conversion, multiple-photon absorption, self-phase modulation, and so on. However, such nonlinearities are typically only observed at very high light intensities and thus they require costly lasers. Here, we report on a self-focusing effect induced with a 1 mW handheld laser pointer. We prepared polymer-stabilized dye-doped liquid crystals, in which the molecular director orientation gradually changes from homeotropic at one surface to homogeneous at the other. This is referred to as hybrid alignment. In such films, the threshold intensity needed to form diffraction rings was reduced by a factor of 8.5 compared to that in conventional homeotropic cells, which enabled the induction of the self-focusing effect with a laser pointer. PMID:25944052

  2. On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, Francesco; Lucchetti, L.; Lucchetta, D. E.; Francescangeli, O.

    2001-07-01

    We report the results of an investigation carried on Methyl Red-doped nematic liquid crystals with the aim of studying the basic mechanism of the extraordinarily large nonlinear response recently reported. We show that the experimental data can be explained as due to light-induced modifications of the anchoring conditions leading to director reorientation on the irradiated surface, which in turn gives rise to a bulk reorientation through the cell. We have called this phenomenon SINE (Surface Induced Nonlinear Effect) to remind that it occurs "without" (= sine in latin language) a direct optical or electric torque on the director in the bulk.

  3. Photodynamic properties and photoinactivation of Candida albicans mediated by brominated derivatives of triarylmethane and phenothiazinium dyes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Gabriela; Montes de Oca, M Noel; Milanesio, M Elisa; Ortiz, Cristina S; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2014-06-01

    The photodynamic activity of brominated derivatives of New Fuchsin and Azure B was studied in solution and in cell suspensions of Candida albicans. The spectroscopic and photodynamic properties of these photosensitizers were compared with those of Crystal Violet and Azure B, which represent active photosensitizer related to each family of compounds. Triarylmethane derivatives absorb intensely with a band centered at ∼ 570 nm, while the phenothiazinium dyes at ∼ 650 nm. Photooxidation of 9,10-dimethylanthracene was observed using phenothiazinium compounds indicating the formation of singlet molecular oxygen, while it was not detected using triarylmethane agents. However, triarylmethane dyes were able to photooxidize l-tryptophan. In yeast cell suspensions, the photosensitized inactivation of C. albicans increases with photosensitizer concentration, causing a ∼ 5 log decrease of cell survival, when the cultures are treated with 20 μM of Crystal Violet and irradiated for 60 min. Under these conditions, the photodynamic activity of 50 μM Azure B induced a ∼ 3 log decrease of cell survival. Studies of photodynamic action mechanism indicated that photoinactivation of C. albicans cells induced by triarylmethane compounds involves mainly type I photoprocess. Although, phenothiazinium derivatives produce singlet molecular oxygen, a contribution of other reactive oxygen species cannot be discarded in the photoinactivation of C. albicans. PMID:24642192

  4. Low threshold photonic crystal laser based on a Rhodamine dye doped high gain polymer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Jin, Feng; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-02-21

    We demonstrate low threshold lasing oscillation in a photonic crystal (PhC) laser by using tert-butyl Rhodamine B (t-Bu-RhB) doped gain media. Lactonic t-Bu-RhB is synthesized to improve doping concentration in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films, and then isomerized to the zwitterion form to achieve highly fluorescent gain medium. The t-Bu-RhB doped PMMA film is sandwiched by a pair of polystyrene colloidal crystals to construct a PhC resonating cavity. Single-mode laser oscillation at 592 nm is observed when the PhC resonating cavity is pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. The lasing threshold is 0.12 MW cm(-2) utilizing 6.9 wt% t-Bu-RhB doped PMMA films, which is only 1/60 of that with 3 wt% t-Bu-RhB doped PMMA films. The concentration-dependent lasing action is attributed to different gain factors of the t-Bu-RhB doped PMMA films. Furthermore, a spatially and spectrally coherent laser beam from the PhC resonating cavity is verified by exploring the far-field image and angular dependence of the lasing emission. The approach provides a facile and efficient strategy to reduce the lasing threshold for fabricating low threshold PhC lasers. PMID:26817423

  5. Reduction in the mutagenicity of synthetic dyes by successive treatment with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, Irpex lacteus.

    PubMed

    Malachov, Katerina; Pavlckov, Zuzana; Novotn, Cenek; Svobodov, Katerina; Lednick, Denisa; Muslkov, Eva

    2006-08-01

    Synthetic dyes are released in wastewater from textile manufacturing plants, and many of these dyes are genotoxic. In the present study, the mutagenicity of azo, anthraquinone, and triphenyl methane dyes was investigated before and after successive biodegradation with activated sludge and the ligninolytic fungus, Irpex lacteus. Two biodegradation systems were used to reduce the genotoxicity of dyes that were not efficiently inactivated by activated sludge alone. Mutagenicity was monitored with the Salmonella reversion assay conducted with the base-pair substitution detector strains, TA100 and YG1042, and the frame-shift detector strains, TA98 and YG1041, with and without rat liver S9. All dyes except for Congo Red (CR) were mutagenic with S9 activation. Assays conducted with the dyes indicated that only the azo dye Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was mutagenic in both TA98 and TA100. Methyl Red and Disperse Blue 3 (DB3) were mutagenic in TA98, YG1041 and YG1042, while Reactive Black 5 was mutagenic in YG1041 and YG1042. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Crystal violet (CV) and Bromophenol Blue (BPB) were mutagenic only in TA98, but the toxicity of the latter two dyes complicated the evaluation of their mutagenicity. CR was not mutagenic in any of the tester strains. Biodegradation studies conducted with RO16 and DB3 indicated that the two-step biodegradation process reduced the mutagenic potential of RO16 and DB3 to a greater extent than activated sludge alone; the mutagenicity of the two dyes was reduced by 95.2% and 77.8%, respectively, by the two-step process. These data indicate that the combined biodegradation process may be useful for reducing the mutagenicity associated with wastewater from textile factories that contain recalcitrant dyes. PMID:16758470

  6. Fast Optical Recording of Polarization Holographic Grating Based on an Azo-Dye-Doped Polymer-Ball-Type Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Lee, Chia-Rong; Cheng, Ko-Ting

    2003-07-01

    This work reports a fast optical recording material based on an azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film. A memory polarization holographic grating is written on the film and formed in ˜2 ms using two writing beams derived from a Q-switched Nd:YAG SHG pulse laser (λw=532 nm) with duration of 20 ns and a total energy density of ˜15 mJ/cm2. The polarization grating (PG) is created from the photo-excited dye molecules. These photo-excited dye molecules undergo three-dimensional rotation, diffusion, then adsorb on the surface of the polymer balls, and finally induce the reorientation of the LCs. Polarization analysis of the PG reveals that it diffracts the linearly polarized incident light into beams with different polarizations. A model based on the Jones matrix method is also proposed and closely fits the experiment results. Experimental results indicate that the PG is electrically switched (˜3 V/μm). The PG can be erased partially by thermal treatment. We speculate that the weakly-adsorbed dyes desorb from the surfaces of the polymer balls owing to thermal disturbance, causing partial grating erasion.

  7. Pulsed electric linear dichroism of triphenylmethane dyes adsorbed on montmorillonite K10 in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kiwamu; Sasai, Ryo

    2000-05-01

    Electric linear dichroism (ELD) spectra of two cationic triphenylmethane dyes, crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG), bound to sodium montmorillonite K10 (MK-10) were studied at 20 C in aqueous media at two mixing ratios, D/S, of 0.10 and 0.24 in the 700- to 400 nm wavelength region and in the applied electric field strength range between 0 and 3 kV/cm. The specific parallel and perpendicular dichroism ({Delta}A{sub {parallel}}/A and {Delta}A{sub {perpendicular}}/A) spectra of dye-adsorbed MK-10 suspension were measured at a fixed field strength with an apparatus equipped with a 512-channel photodiode array detector. By changing the field strength over a wide range, a series of the reduced dichroism values of the bound dyes were measured at a fixed wavelength. By fitting these dichroism values to theoretical orientation functions, the intrinsic reduced dichroism ({Delta}A/A){sub int} spectra at the limiting high fields (ELD spectrum) were determined for CV and MG bound to MK-10. No appreciable difference was observed at the two D/S values. The ELD spectra of these bound dyes are undulatory but never constant, throughout their absorption region; thus, the dye plane does not lie flatly either on the surface or between layers of MK-10 particle.

  8. Strong ultraviolet and violet emissions from ZnO/TiO2 multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linhua; Zheng, Gaige; Wu, Hongyan; Wang, Junfeng; Gu, Fang; Su, Jing; Xian, Fenglin; Liu, Zhanhui

    2013-06-01

    ZnO/TiO2 multilayer thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation and the influence of annealing temperature on their structural and optical properties was investigated. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that TiO2 in the as-deposited ZnO/TiO2 multilayer thin film as well as in that one annealed at 300 °C is amorphous. When the annealing temperature is increased up to 400 °C, the TiO2 is transformed into a brookite phase. Eventually, the TiO2 is transformed into an anatase phase with the annealing temperature rising up to 500 °C. However, ZnO in these composite films all crystallizes in a wurtzite structure and has a preferred orientation along the (0 0 2) direction whether the ZnO/TiO2 multilayer thin film is annealed or not. The photoluminescence spectra show that all the samples have two strong emission peaks including an ultraviolet (UV) peak and a violet peak. The strong UV and violet co-emissions in ZnO materials is seldom reported previously. With the increase of annealing temperature, both the UV and violet emissions are enhanced. However, the intensity of UV emission is increased faster than that of the violet emission under the same annealing temperature. The mechanism of the violet emission and the reason for the variations of the UV and violet emissions with the different annealing temperatures are analyzed.

  9. The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-08-01

    Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. PMID:21596089

  10. Nonlinear experimental dye-doped nematic liquid crystal optical transmission spectra estimated by neural network empirical physical formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Köysal, Oğuz

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, two complementary objectives related to optical transmission spectra of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) were achieved. First, at room temperature, for both pure and dye (DR9) doped E7 NLCs, the 10-250 W halogen lamp transmission spectra (wavelength 400-1200 nm) were measured at various bias voltages. Second, because the measured spectra were inherently highly nonlinear, it was difficult to construct explicit empirical physical formulas (EPFs) to employ as transmittance functions. To avoid this difficulty, layered feedforward neural networks (LFNNs) were used to construct explicit EPFs for these theoretically unknown nonlinear NLC transmittance functions. As we theoretically showed in a previous work, a LFNN, as an excellent nonlinear function approximator, is highly relevant to EPF construction. The LFNN-EPFs efficiently and consistently estimated both the measured and yet-to-be-measured nonlinear transmittance response values. The experimentally obtained doping ratio dependencies and applied bias voltage responses of transmittance were also confirmed by LFFN-EPFs. This clearly indicates that physical laws embedded in the physical data can be faithfully extracted by the suitable LFNNs. The extraordinary success achieved with LFNN here suggests two potential applications. First, although not attempted here, these LFNN-EPFs, by such mathematical operations as derivation, integration, minimization etc., can be used to obtain further transmittance related functions of NLCs. Second, for a given NLC response function, whose theoretical nonlinear functional form is yet unknown, a suitable experimental data based LFNN-EPF can be constructed to predict the yet-to-be-measured values.

  11. Ultra violet disinfection: A 3-year history

    SciTech Connect

    Tubesing, R.R.; Lindeke, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    The Stillwater Wastewater Treatment Facility is one of nine wastewater treatment facilities operated by the Metropolitan Council Environmental Services in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The facility services the cities of Stillwater, Oak Park Heights, and Bayport. In 1993, an ultra violet disinfection facility began operation to provide the disinfection for the Facility. This presentation discusses the reasons for using ultra violet disinfection in lieu of chlorination/dechlorination facilities, the operating performance, and operating cost factors.

  12. The violet emissions produced by laser excitation of Na vapor in the 570-595 nm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Chen, J. K.

    1982-12-01

    Atomic Na and molecular Na2 emissions in the violet region have been observed when Na vapor in a heatpipe (1000 to 10 to the 16th atmos/cu cm) is irradiated with a pulsed dye laser with output wavelength in the 570-597 nm region. The Na atomic emissions probably results from recombination of Na(+) and e(-) and energy-pooling involving highly excited atoms and molecules, while the diffuse violet emission bands are probably produced through collisions among excited Na atoms and Na2 molecules.

  13. A strategy to reduce the angular dependence of a dye-sensitized solar cell by coupling to a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Liu, Xiaolin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-11-01

    Almost all types of solar cells suffer from a decreased power output when the incident light is tilted away from normal since the incident intensity generally follows a cosine law of the incident angle. Making use of the blue shift nature of the Bragg position of a TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal (NT PC) under oblique incidence, we demonstrate experimentally that the use of the NT PC can partially compensate the cosine power loss of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The strategy used here is to purposely choose the Bragg position of the NT PC to be at the longer wavelength side of the dye absorption peak. When the incident light is tilted, the blue shift of the Bragg position results in more overlap with the dye absorption peak, generating a higher efficiency that partially compensates the reduced photon flux due to light inclination. Moreover, the unique structure of the vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes contributes an additional scattering effect when the incident light is tilted. As a result, the power output of a DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer shows a much flatter angular dependence than a DSSC without the NT PC. At all the incident angles, the DSSC coupled with the NT PC layer also shows a higher power conversion efficiency than the one without. The concept of using NT PC to mitigate the angular dependence of DSSCs can be easily extended to many other optoelectronic devices that are irradiance sensitive. PMID:25247717

  14. Particle beam liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of triphenylmethane dyes: application to confirmation of malachite green in incurred catfish tissue.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, S B; Roybal, J E; Rupp, H S; Hurlbut, J A; Long, A R

    1995-08-01

    Eight triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, leucomalachite green, gentian violet, leucogentian violet, brilliant green, pentamethyl gentian violet, N',N'-tetramethyl gentian violet and N',N"-tetramethyl gentian violet) have been characterized by particle beam liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The electron ionization spectra obtained of these dyes by this technique exhibit similar fragmentation, with the formation of phenyl and substituted phenyl radicals, and loss of alkyl groups from the amines. It was observed that the six cationic dyes are reduced in the mass spectrometer source to form the corresponding leuco compounds. This technique was evaluated for the confirmation of malachite green and leucomalachite green in incurred catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) muscle tissue. PMID:7493085

  15. Spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission in a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-R; Lin, S-H; Ku, H-S; Liu, J-H; Yang, P-C; Huang, C-Y; Yeh, H-C; Ji, T-D; Lin, C-H

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates a spatially band-tunable color-cone lasing emission (CCLE) based on a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal with a photoisomerizable chiral dopant (IBM). Experimental results show that the lasing band of the formed CCLE of the cell with a photoinduced pitch gradient can be spatially tuned among various color regions by adjusting the pumped position of the cell. The spatially band tunability of the laser results from the UV-irradiation-induced decrease of the helical twisting power of IBM via trans-->cis isomerization, accordingly shrinking the pitch of the cholesteric-liquid-crystal host. The total spatially tunable wavelength range for the laser exceeds 100 nm. PMID:20436582

  16. Electrochemically enhanced removal of polycyclic aromatic basic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon cloth electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Edip; Ayranci, Erol

    2010-08-15

    Open-circuit (OC) adsorption and electrosorption behaviors of three polycyclic aromatic dyes from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon cloth (ACC) were investigated. The selected dyes were crystal violet (BB-3), basic blue7 (BB-7), and basic blue11 (BB-11). OC adsorption and electrosorption processes were monitored by in situ UV-visible spectrophotometry. Electrosorption was carried out by polarization of an ACC electrode, galvanostatically. Considerable enhancements in removal capacity and duration of the dyes were achieved upon polarization of ACC. Kinetic data for OC adsorption and electrosorption were successfully treated according to pseudo-first-order law, and rate constants were determined. Adsorption isotherms were derived, and the data were treated according to Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Both the rate and extent of adsorption and electrosorption of dyes were found to increase in the order of BB-7 < BB-11 < BB-3. This order was discussed in terms of correlation between sizes of dye species and of ACC pores. Electrodesorption experiments were carried out to explore possibilities of regeneration of ACC. PMID:20704233

  17. Surface microstructural features of scales in relation to toxic stress of Basic Violet-1.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaur, Arvinder

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of the scales of Labeo rohita on exposure to lethal and sublethal doses of Basic Violet-1 (an important textile and hair colorant). The dye induced loosening of the scales and caused breakage and disorganization of lepidonts. Erosion of lepidonts occurred mostly in the fish exposed to 0.20 and 0.40 mg/L dye, during acute exposure and to 0.0225 and 0.045 mg/L dye, during the subchronic exposure. However, lepidonts were sloughed off from their sockets in 0.60 and 0.80 mg/L dye during acute exposure and in 0.09 mg/L dye during the subchronic exposure. Circuli, the base that provides anchorage to the lepidonts, got damaged, and tubercles responsible for coloration of a fish became atrophied with an increase in the duration of exposure. The results of the present investigation clearly indicated that exposure to Basic Violet-1 (BV-1) even at a concentration as low as 0.0225 mg was responsible for deleterious changes in the scale morphology of the test fish after 150 days of exposure. Similar changes were observed in the scales of the dead fish also. It can thus be suggested that this noninvasive technique is very helpful for evaluating the health status of an aquatic body. At the same time, the changes in ultramorphology of scales can act as an early indicator of the stress of very minute doses of dyes and even the scales of a dead fish can act as indicators of the untoward changes that would have occurred in the environment of the fish before death. PMID:26432273

  18. Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures: chemical characterization of combusted inventory red and violet smoke mixes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, I.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Red and violet smoke grenades (Grenade, Hand, Smoke, M18) were combusted within canvas tents and the combustion products were sampled and analyzed. Uncombusted red and violet smoke mixes from the same lots used to fill the combusted grenades were also analyzed. Approximately ten percent of the major dye component of the red smoke mix, methylaminoanthraquinone (MAA) was converted to aminoanthraquinones (1-AA and 2-AA). The violet smoke mix was formulated to contain 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DAA) and MAA. Upon combustion the DAA was converted almost completely to diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) which was a minor constituent of the uncombusted mix. As in the combusted red smoke mix, it was found that MAA was partially converted to aminoanthraquinones.

  19. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese violet. 73.2775 Section 73.2775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... extent that such other impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash (at 600 °C),...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... extent that such other impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash (at 600 °C), not... substances, not more than 6 percent. pH of filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally for...

  1. Heterologous expression and characterization of laccase 2 from Coprinopsis cinerea capable of decolourizing different recalcitrant dyes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Hu; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong; Wang, Rong-Tan

    2014-01-01

    The gene (CcLcc2) encoding laccase from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea Okayama-7 #130 was synthesized by polymerase chain reaction-based two-step DNA synthesis, and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and nickel nitrilotriacetic acid chromatography. The molecular mass of CcLcc2 was estimated to be 54 kDa by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature for laccase catalysis for the oxidation of 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) were 2.6 and 45 °C, respectively. The Km values of the enzyme towards the substrates ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and guaiacol were 0.93, 1.02 and 28.07 mmol·L−1, respectively. The decolourization of methyl orange, crystal violet and malachite green, commonly used in the textile industry, was assessed. The decolourization percentage of crystal violet and malachite green was 80% after 4 h of reaction, and that of methyl orange was 50% at 4 h. These results show that the CcLcc2 has enormous potential for the decolourization of highly stable triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:26019510

  2. Resonant Rayleigh scattering for the determination of trace amounts of mercury (II) with thiocyanate and basic triphenylmethane dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G.

    1998-05-01

    Intense resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) appears when mercury (II) reacts with thiocyanate and a basic triphenylmethane dye (BTPMD), such as crystal violet (CV), ethyl violet (EV), brilliant green (BG), malachite green (MG) or indine green (IG), to form an ion-association complex of the type (BTPMD){sub 2}[Hg(SCN){sub 4}]. The characteristics of RRS spectra of the ion-association complexes and suitable conditions for the reactions were investigated. The intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of mercury (II) in the range of 0--2.0 {micro}g/25 ml. The RRS methods have very high sensitivities for determination of mercury (II); their detection limits are between 1.68 ng/ml and 6.00 ng/ml on different dye systems. The effects of foreign ions and ways to improve the selectivity were studied. The new highly sensitive methods for the determination of trace amounts of mercury based on the RRS of the ion-association complexes have been developed.

  3. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  4. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  5. Reversible suppression of second harmonic generation in dye-doped liquid crystal by light-induced thermal phase transition on sub-micrometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Chieh; Lai, Kai-Wen; Wang, Chao-Ran; Chao, Chih-Yu; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Optically controllable signals are fundamental to various applications from communication to super-resolution imaging. However, literature on non-fluorescent, nonlinear optical signals that can be reversibly turned on/off on a sub-micrometer scale is scant. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a scheme for the reversible suppression of second harmonic generation (SHG) based on dye-doped nematic liquid crystal molecules. Under a pump (suppressing SHG) and probe (generating SHG) setup with a tightly focusing microscope and a time-gated detection, outstanding modulation depth (>80%) has been realized. Surprisingly, the mechanism of liquid crystal SHG switch on a sub-micrometer scale was found to be light-induced thermal phase transition as against optical Frederick's transition. Quantitative analysis of the optical nonlinearity χ ( 2 ) versus local heating shows an excellent agreement of SHG signal suppression as well as its dependence on the liquid crystal molecular order and phase change. Our work provides an innovative example of applying nonlinear optical properties of soft materials, and can be further optimized for all-optical modulation applications.

  6. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Izadmanesh, Y; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-08-01

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26±0.01), 1:1 (1.53±0.08), 1:1 (3.11±0.04), 1:1 (1.06±0.12), and 2:1 (5.27±0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper. PMID:27111153

  7. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M. Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  8. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  9. Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) on ASTROSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Ghosh, S. K.; Hutchings, J.; Kamath, P. U.; Kathiravan, S.; Mahesh, P. K.; Murthy, J.; Nagbhushana, S.; Pati, A. K.; Rao, M. N.; Rao, N. K.; Sriram, S.; Tandon, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope on ASTROSAT Satellite mission is a suite of Far Ultra Violet (FUV: 130 - 180 nm), Near Ultra Violet (NUV: 200 - 300 nm) and Visible band (VIS: 320-550nm) imagers. ASTROSAT is the multi-wavelength mission of ISRO. UVIT will image the sky simultaneously in three channels with a field of view diameter of ~ 28 arcminutes and an angular resolution < 1.8". Two identical co-aligned telescopes (T1, T2) of Ritchey-Chretien configuration (Primary mirror of ~375 mm diameter) collect the celestial radiation and feed the detector systems via a selectable filter on a filter wheel mechanism; gratings are available in the filter wheels of FUV and NUV channels for slitless low-resolution spectroscopy. The photon-counting detector system for each of the 3 channels is generically identical. One of the telescopes images in the FUV channel, while the other images in NUV and VIS channels via a beamsplitter. Images from the VIS channel are principally used for measuring drift, used in construction of images on the ground by shift and add, and to reconstruct absolute aspect of the images. Adequate baffling has been provided for reducing the scattered background from the Sun, earth albedo and other bright objects. The one-time opening mechanical cover on each telescope also works as a Sun-shield after deployment. We will present the overall (mechanical, optical and electrical) design of the payload.

  10. Improvement of Crystal Quality of AlGaN Multi Quantum Well Structure by Combination of Flow-Rate Modulation Epitaxy and AlN/GaN Multi-Buffer Layer and Resultant Lasing at Deep Ultra-Violet Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takayoshi; Ohtaki, Yasuyuki; Narita, Yoshinobu; Kawanishi, Hideo

    2004-10-01

    The crystal quality of AlN and AlGaN MQW layers was improved greatly by a combination of flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME) and the optimized AlN/GaN multi-buffer layer in low-pressure metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE). The cross-sectional TEM image indicated that the threading-dislocation density of the AlN template decreased from 109-1010 cm-2 to 107-108 cm-2 by this combination. Resultantly, the lasing wavelength with the same optical pumping power decreased by about 80 nm, and lasing at 241 nm, the shortest reported so far at room temperature, has been achieved.

  11. Spontaneous crystalization and aggregation of DCNP pyrazoline-based organic dye as a way to tailor random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyprych, K.; Sznitko, L.; Morawski, O.; Miniewicz, A.; Rau, I.; Mysliwiec, J.

    2015-03-01

    The 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP) compound is showing versatile optical features including nonlinear optical effects, photoluminescence and stimulated emission resulting from its molecular design as well as polar alignment in crystal lattice. We present detailed studies carried out for the DCNP compound on a photoluminescence phenomenon, showing that its emission properties are strongly different for molecular and aggregated forms. Experiments have proved that stimulated emission can occur only from the crystaline form of DCNP and the precipitation of it from a solution leads to the constitution of gain and different, random feedback mechanisms depending on aggregate size. The immobilization of DCNP crystals and the controlled crystalization in a viscous biopolymeric matrix have been utilized to generate random micro-cavities, that support weak light localization and coherent random laser emission.

  12. New method for quantification of dye sorption using SBA mesoporous silica as a target sorbent.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Aleksandra R; Kokunesoski, Maja J; Volkov-Husovic, Tatjana D; Velickovic, Sava J

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a new method for the quantification of methyl violet cationic dye sorption onto SBA-15 mesoporous silica was developed. This method related the intensity of coloration of SBA-15 samples (after reached equilibrium sorption) within dye concentration in aqueous solution using Image-Pro Plus software. The sorption process of methyl violet dye onto SBA-15 was analyzed varying different initial parameters (dye concentration, mass of sorbent, pH of dye solution, and contact sorption time). SBA-15 proved as efficient sorbent for removal of methyl violet dye in contact time of 5 min, with maximum percentage of dye removal 99 % at pH 8. The results obtained from Image-Pro Plus showed to be in good agreement with the sorption parameters obtained by UV/Vis spectroscopy, which has been the most commonly used instrument for quantification of dye sorption. The image analysis method proved well prediction of dye concentrations with maximum relative error of 1.83 %. The advantages of this method are low cost and reliable quantitative evaluation with minimum of time. PMID:26875074

  13. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of dye residues in aquaculture products: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud-Pessel, D; Couëdor, P; Verdon, E

    2011-03-25

    A method is described for the identification and the quantitative determination of the triphenylmethane dyes, malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), brilliant green (BG) and leuco malachite green (LMG) and leuco crystal violet (LCV). The analytes were isolated from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile. Determination was performed using LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionisation. 4 different deuterated internal standards were introduced to improve the quantitative performance of the method. The method has been validated in line with the EU criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC in accordance with the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) set at 2 μgkg(-1) for the sum of MG and LMG. For all the monitored compounds, accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision were determined at each level of fortification (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 2.0 μgkg(-1)). Decision limits CCα and detection capabilities CCβ were calculated according to the standard ISO 11843-2. A study on the applicability of the method was conducted on various aquacultured species with the aim to assess the matrix effects. The presence of residues of leuco brilliant green in fish has also been confirmed from experimental study performed on trout treated with brilliant green, using LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. PMID:21310421

  14. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0–10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0–60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by β-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

  15. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Chanwun, Thitikorn; Muhamad, Nisaporn; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Churngchow, Nunta

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0-10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0-60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by β-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

  16. Fully resonant four-wave mixing spectroscopy of pentacene and dye molecules in condensed phases

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Four-wave mixing spectroscopy (FWM) including coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and coherent stokes Raman spectroscopy (CSRS) have been studied for pentacene doped in naphthalene crystals at low temperatures (4.5 to 35 K) in order to investigate nonlinear optical behavior of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility, X/sup (3)/. Further, its application to study of cresyl violet perchlorate embedded in polyacrylic acid and in polyvinyl carbazole has been examined. The theoretical basis for line narrowing has been established for fully resonant four wave mixing for a four-level system. A careful line-narrowing study for the pentacene 755 cm/sup -1/ resonance in naphthalene illustrates that line narrowing is operative. Temperature dependent studies indicate that the excited state population mechanism for negative detuning involves phonon hotband absorption. Power broadening data are discussed in terms of dynamic Stark shifts resulting from the site inhomogeneous line broadening of vibronic transitions. Cresyl violet perchlorate in polyacrylic acid shows that the CARS intensity of the excited state resonance at 585 cm/sup -1/ depends on the location of the omega/sub 1/-field within the severely inhomogeneously broadened absorption profile of the dye. It is argued that the linear electron-phonon interaction is an important mechanism for the intensity of the excited state resonance.

  17. Size-controlled anatase titania single crystals with octahedron-like morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Jia-Wei; Lan, Chi-Ming; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Hui-Ping; Huang, Wei-Kai; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2012-12-21

    A simple hydrothermal method with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a chelating agent enabled growth in the presence of a base (diethylamine, DEA) of anatase titania nanocrystals (HD1-HD5) of controlled size. DEA played a key role to expedite this growth, for which a biphasic crystal growth mechanism is proposed. The produced single crystals of titania show octahedron-like morphology with sizes in a broad range of 30-400 nm; a typical, extra large, octahedral single crystal (HD5) of length 410 nm and width 260 nm was obtained after repeating a sequential hydrothermal treatment using HD3 and then HD4 as a seed crystal. The nanocrystals of size ~30 nm (HD1) and ~300 nm (HD5) served as active layer and scattering layer, respectively, to fabricate N719-sensitized solar cells. These HD devices showed greater V(OC) than devices of conventional nanoparticle (NP) type; the overall device performance of HD attained an efficiency of 10.2% power conversion at a total film thickness of 28 μm, which is superior to that of a NP-based reference device (η = 9.6%) optimized at a total film thickness of 18-20 μm. According to results obtained from transient photoelectric and charge extraction measurements, this superior performance of HD devices relative to their NP counterparts is due to the more rapid electron transport and greater TiO(2) potential. PMID:23116194

  18. Adsorption and subsequent partial photodegradation of methyl violet 2B on Cu/Al layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Vargas, Ariel; Lima, Enrique; Uriostegui-Ortega, Gisselle A.; Oliver-Tolentino, Miguel A.; Rodríguez, Esaú E.

    2016-02-01

    Uncalcined Cu/Al LDH was studied as adsorbent and photocatalyst in the adsorption and subsequent photodegradation of methyl violet 2B dye (MV2B). Physicochemical characterization was carried out by XRD, FTIR, UV-vis, including photoactive properties, DSC/TGA and SEM. Kinetic and thermodynamic models showed great affinity and sorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity was 361.0 mg g-1 obtained by Langmuir model, in addition, the results showed that the dye was adsorbed on the LDH surface. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the MV2B dye photodegradation process, and it was confirmed by the presence rad OH radicals monitored by EPR spin trapping technique, additionally, COD and TOC parameters were measured, 13C NMR showed differences for the adsorbed and photodegraded samples.

  19. Crystal Structures of Two Novel Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidases Reveal a Beta-Bar Fold With a Conserved Heme-Binding Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Zubieta, C.; Krishna, S.S.; Kapoor, M.; Kozbial, P.; McMullan, D.; Axelrod, H.L.; Miller, M.D.; Abdubek, P.; Ambing, E.; Astakhova, T.; Carlton, D.; Chiu, H.J.; Clayton, T.; Deller, M.C.; Duan, L.; Elsliger, M.A.; Feuerhelm, J.; Grzechnik, S.K.; Hale, J.; Hampton, E.; Han, G.W.; /JCSG /SLAC, SSRL /Burnham Inst. Med. Res. /UC, San Diego /Scripps Res. Inst. /Novartis Res. Found.

    2007-10-31

    BtDyP from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (strain VPI-5482) and TyrA from Shewanella oneidensis are dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs), members of a new family of heme-dependent peroxidases recently identified in fungi and bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structures of BtDyP and TyrA at 1.6 and 2.7 Angstroms, respectively. BtDyP assembles into a hexamer, while TyrA assembles into a dimer; the dimerization interface is conserved between the two proteins. Each monomer exhibits a two-domain, {alpha}+{beta} ferredoxin-like fold. A site for heme binding was identified computationally, and modeling of a heme into the proposed active site allowed for identification of residues likely to be functionally important. Structural and sequence comparisons with other DyPs demonstrate a conservation of putative heme-binding residues, including an absolutely conserved histidine. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments confirm heme binding, but with a stoichiometry of 0.3:1 (heme:protein).

  20. Morphological appearances and photo-controllable coloration of dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal/polymer coaxial microfibers fabricated by coaxial electrospinning technique.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-De; Chen, Che-Pei; Chen, Lin-Jer; Chuang, Yu-Chou; Huang, Shuan-Yu; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study systematically investigates the morphological appearance of azo-chiral dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC)/polymer coaxial microfibers obtained through the coaxial electrospinning technique and examines, for the first time, their photocontrollable reflection characteristics. Experimental results show that the quasi-continuous electrospun microfibers can be successfully fabricated at a high polymer concentration of 17.5 wt% and an optimum ratio of 2 for the feeding rates of sheath to core materials at 25 °C and a high humidity of 50% ± 2% in the spinning chamber. Furthermore, the optical controllability of the reflective features for the electrospun fibers is studied in detail by changing the concentration of the azo-chiral dopant in the core material, the UV irradiation intensity, and the core diameter of the fibers. Relevant mechanisms are addressed to explain the optical-control behaviors of the DDCLC coaxial fibers. Considering the results, optically controllable DDCLC coaxial microfibers present potential applications in UV microsensors and wearable smart textiles or swabs. PMID:26906876

  1. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Takashi; Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo

    2009-01-01

    The vertebrate ancestor possessed ultraviolet (UV) vision and many species have retained it during evolution. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are mediated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (λmax) at approximately 360 and 390–440 nm, respectively. It is not well understood why and how these functional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish (Lepidopus fitchi) with a λmax of 423 nm, an example of violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in fish. Mutagenesis experiments and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) computations show that the violet-sensitivity was achieved by the deletion of Phe-86 that converted the unprotonated Schiff base-linked 11-cis-retinal to a protonated form. The finding of a violet-sensitive SWS1 pigment in scabbardfish suggests that many other fish also have orthologous violet pigments. The isolation and comparison of such violet and UV pigments in fish living in different ecological habitats will open an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision. PMID:19805066

  2. Isotherm parameters for basic dyes onto activated carbon: comparison of linear and non-linear method.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vasanth; Sivanesan, S

    2006-02-28

    Equilibrium sorption experiments were carried out at 305 K with four different basic dyes basic red 9 (BR9), basic violet 3 (BV3), basic brown 1 (BB1) and basic violet 10 (BV10) onto activated carbon. The isotherm parameters were estimated linear and non-linear regression analysis. Non-linear method was found to be more appropriate method for estimating the isotherm parameters. The sorption capacity of activated carbon to uptake cationic dye ions in the increasing order was given by: BR9 (131 mg/g)< BV3 (247 mg/)< BV10 (259 mg/)< BB1 (404 mg/g). PMID:16298056

  3. Orientation and electronic structure of ion exchanged dye molecules on mica: An X-ray absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Caseri, W.R.; Haehner, G.

    1998-02-15

    Dye molecules are frequently used to determine the specific surface area and the ion exchange capacity of high-surface-area materials such as mica. The organic molecules are often considered to be planar and to adsorb in a flat orientation. In the present study the authors have investigated the orientation and electronic structure of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) on muscovite mica, prepared by immersing the substrates for extended periods into aqueous solutions of the dyes of various concentrations. The K{sup +} ions of the mica surface are replaced by the organic cations via ion exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that only one amino group is involved in the interaction of CV and MG with the muscovite surface, i.e., certain resonance structures are abolished upon adsorption. With near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy a significant tilt angle with respect to the surface was found for all investigated species. A flat orientation, as has often been proposed before, can effectively be ruled out. Hence, results are in marked contrast to the often quoted orientation and suggest that the specific surface areas determined with dyes may, in general, be overestimated.

  4. A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen; Sharma, Monika; Sahore, Vishal

    2011-12-01

    The effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing, cosmetics, etc., contains large amount of hazardous dyes. There is huge number of treatment processes as well as adsorbent which are available for the processing of this effluent water-containing dye content. The applicability of naturally available low cast and eco-friendly adsorbents, for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste by adsorption treatment, has been reviewed. In this review paper, we have provided a compiled list of low-cost, easily available, safe to handle, and easy-to-dispose-off adsorbents. These adsorbents have been classified into five different categories on the basis of their state of availability: (1) waste materials from agriculture and industry, (2) fruit waste, (3) plant waste, (4) natural inorganic materials, and (5) bioadsorbents. Some of the treated adsorbents have shown good adsorption capacities for methylene blue, congo red, crystal violet, rhodamine B, basic red, etc., but this adsorption process is highly pH dependent, and the pH of the medium plays an important role in the treatment process. Thus, in this review paper, we have made some efforts to discuss the role of pH in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:21387170

  5. EDTA-Cross-Linked β-Cyclodextrin: An Environmentally Friendly Bifunctional Adsorbent for Simultaneous Adsorption of Metals and Cationic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feiping; Repo, Eveliina; Yin, Dulin; Meng, Yong; Jafari, Shila; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-09-01

    The discharge of metals and dyes poses a serious threat to public health and the environment. What is worse, these two hazardous pollutants are often found to coexist in industrial wastewaters, making the treatment more challenging. Herein, we report an EDTA-cross-linked β-cyclodextrin (EDTA-β-CD) bifunctional adsorbent, which was fabricated by an easy and green approach through the polycondensation reaction of β-cyclodextrin with EDTA as a cross-linker, for simultaneous adsorption of metals and dyes. In this setting, cyclodextrin cavities are expected to capture dye molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes and EDTA units as the adsorption sites for metals. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, ζ-potential, and TGA. In a monocomponent system, the adsorption behaviors showed a monolayer adsorption capacity of 1.241 and 1.106 mmol g(-1) for Cu(II) and Cd(II), respectively, and a heterogeneous adsorption capacity of 0.262, 0.169, and 0.280 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, Safranin O, and Crystal Violet, respectively. Interestingly, the Cu(II)-dye binary experiments showed adsorption enhancement of Cu(II), but no significant effect on dyes. The simultaneous adsorption mechanism was further confirmed by FT-IR, thermodynamic study, and elemental mapping. Overall, its facile and green fabrication, efficient sorption performance, and excellent reusability indicate that EDTA-β-CD has potential for practical applications in integrative and efficient treatment of coexistenting toxic pollutants. PMID:26237660

  6. Fluorescence enhancement of dyes embedded in nanoparticles of Lu, Eu, Al, and Sc diketonates of different composition and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, L. Yu.; Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the effect of central ions (Lu(III), Eu(III), Sc(III), and Al(III)), organic ligands (2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (NTA) and p-phenylbenzoyltrifluoroacetone (PhBTA)), and their concentration in a water-alcohol solution on the fluorescence of β-diketonate complexes formed and nanoparticles (NPs) generated by the self-assembly of these complexes. The fluorescence quenching of ligands of the complexes of nanoparticles because of the introduction of molecules of dyes, such as Nile Blue (NB), Lissamine Rhodamine RB-200 (RB), and Crystal Violet (CV), in these nanoparticles is investigated, and the NP-sensitization of the fluorescence of these dyes is explored. The dependence of the intensity of the NP-sensitized fluorescence of NB on its concentration in nanoparticles consisting of complexes that differ in composition and concentration is studied. By analyzing this dependence for the nanoparticles consisting of Sc(NTA)3, the size of the studied nanoparticles is evaluated. It is shown that the nature of this dependence is determined by a competition of two processes: the migration of the excitation energy over complexes to dyes and the migration of the excitation energy of dyes to impurities or dimer of dyes. The size of nanoparticles is compared to the estimated values of the exciton diffusion length and the critical radius of energy transfer from complexes to NB. An energy transfer of close to 100% from the nanoparticles formed of 10 μM of Sc(NTA)3 to 50 nM of NB molecules embedded therein is observed. The introduction of NB molecules into nanoparticles leads to a 200-fold increase in fluorescence intensity compared to their direct excitation in solution.

  7. Heterologous expression and characterisation of a laccase from Colletotrichum lagenarium and decolourisation of different synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yan, Ying; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Li, Zhengjun; Gao, Jianjie; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

    2016-03-01

    Laccases have received considerable attention in recent decades because of their ability to oxidise a large spectrum of phenolic and non-phenolic organic substrates and highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. In this research, a laccase gene from Colletotrichum lagenarium was chemically synthesised using yeast bias codons and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The molecular mass of the recombinant laccase was estimated to be 64.6 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and the enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 3.6-4.0 but more stability in buffer with higher pH (>pH 3.6). The optimal reaction temperature of the enzyme was 40 °C, beyond which stability significantly decreased. By using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonate (ABTS) as a substrate, K m and V max values of 0.34 mM and 7.11 mM min(-1) mg(-1), respectively, were obtained. Using ABTS as a mediator, the laccase could oxidise hydroquinone to p-benzoquinone and decolourise the synthetic dyes malachite green, crystal violet and orange G. These results indicated that the laccase could be used to treat industrial effluents containing artificial dyes. PMID:26867601

  8. Adsorption and removal of triphenylmethane dyes from water by magnetic reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Zhong; Liao, Zhi-Hong; Si, Rong-Wei; Kingori, Gakai Peter; Chang, Fu-Xiang; Gao, Lu; Shen, Yu; Xiao, Xiang; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Triphenylmethane (TPM) dye is one of the most prevalent and recalcitrant water contaminants. Magnetic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is an efficient adsorbent for organic pollutants removal. However, the performance and adsorption kinetics of magnetic rGO towards TPM have not yet been studied. In this study, a magnetic Fe3O4@rGO nano-composite, which could be easily removed from water with a simple magnetic separation step was synthesized and characterized. The magnetic rGO showed fast adsorption rate and high adsorption capacity towards different TPM dyes (the Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity is 64.93 mg/g for adsorption of crystal violet). The adsorption processes are well-fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) > 0.99) and the Langmuir isotherm model (R(2) = 0.9996). Moreover, the magnetic rGO also showed excellent recycling and regeneration capabilities. The results indicated that adsorption with magnetic rGO would be a promising strategy to clean up the TPM contamination. PMID:25429455

  9. Photodegradation of Acid Violet 7 with AgBr-ZnO under highly alkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakumar, B.; Swaminathan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The photocatalytic activity of AgBr-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Acid Violet 7 (AV 7) in aqueous solution using UV-A light. AgBr-ZnO is found to be more efficient than commercial ZnO and prepared ZnO at pH 12 for the mineralization of AV 7. The effects of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo mineralization have been analyzed. Expect oxone, other oxidants decrease the degradation efficiency. Addition of metal ions and anions decrease the degradation efficiency of AgBr-ZnO significantly. The mineralization of AV 7 has also been confirmed by COD measurements. The mechanism of degradation by AgBr-ZnO is proposed to explain its higher activity under UV light. The catalyst is found to be reusable.

  10. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring material in plants on which all earthly life depends. Chlorophyll is an organometallic dye, with a metal ion, Mg, within a porphyrin cage of nitrogen atoms. The synthetic chemist of course can select any convenient metal within the periodic table, and experience shows that ruthenium has the optimal properties expected. A ruthenium-pyridyl complex provides the chromophore of the dye, with the HOMO-LUMO gap, and thence the absorption spectrum bring modified by substitution with thiocyanide groups. Chemisorptive attachment of the dye to the metal oxide surface is obtained by carboxyl groups attached to the pyridyl components. The energetics of the dye is such that the LUMO level is just above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor, enabling relaxation by electron injection as required. A satisfactory electroactive dye structure, with good attachment properties and a wide optical absorption spectrum is therefore a sophisticated molecular engineering product. The electrolyte is also an optimized electrochemical system. The basic redox behavior is provided by the iodine/iodide system, with the advantage that the ions, both oxidized and reduced are relatively small, and therefore mobile in the supporting electrolyte. Energy losses due to slow diffusion are minimized. Early experiments used aqueous electrolytes, though with limited cell lifetime due to hydrolysis of the chemisorptive dye---semiconductor bond. A wide range of organic systems were therefore investigated, with the present favored formulation being based on imidazole salts. These have the additional advantage of low vapor pressure, very necessary as the photoactive sites under mid---day sun illumination may reach 80 C or higher. Low losses at the cathode counterelectrode are also a requirement for cell efficiency. The cathode is not necessarily transparent, and prototype cells on thin metal foils have been produced. However a TCO on glass or polymer counterelectrode is widely used. In either case suitable electrocatalytic behavior is required and frequently a nanodispersed Pt precipitated from haxachloride solution is employed. It is by now evident that the achievement of an industrially-competitive sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cell is the result of the optimization of several components, associated obviously with their effective synergy. Each change of a single component has repercussions on the choice and performance of others. However as already mentioned an efficiency of over 11% has now been certified, and a stability of over 14,000 hours under accelerated testing with continuous simulated AM1.5 illumination was recently reported. In consequence there is increasing confidence on the part of industry. Several licensees of EPFL patents on dye---sensitized photovoltaic systems are now preparing for large-scale production. G24 Innovations PLC in Wales is commissioning a manufacturing plant, and Dyesol PLC in Australia is making available the required materials on an industrial scale. In conclusion, then, it can be stated that the DSC system is much more than a fascinating scientific artifact illustrating charge-transfer mechanisms at electrochemical interfaces; an efficiency and reliability with industrial credibility have been demonstrated and verified, and a significant role in competition with other photosystems can be foreseen.

  11. Metallophyte status of violets of the section Melanium.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Bothe; Katarina, Vogel-Mikuš; Paula, Pongrac; Matevž, Likar; Neva, Stepic; Primož, Pelicon; Primož, Vavpetič; Luka, Jeromel; Marjana, Regvar

    2013-11-01

    Violets from metal-enriched soils have controversially been described as both heavy-metal accumulators and excluders in the literature. The present study solves the issue for violets of the section Melanium (zinc violets, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria and V. lutea ssp. westfalica; hartsease or wild pansy, Viola tricolor; and mountain pansy, V. lutea). The aims were to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and in the roots and shoots of field-collected plants, to evaluate the potential impact of colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on heavy-metal concentrations in the plant tissues, and to quantitatively define the localisation of the elements in root cross-sections. When these violets grow in low-metal soils, higher concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the roots and shoots than in the soil, whereas the opposite was seen in samples from high-metal soils. Under all field conditions examined, the roots of all of these species were colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. However, V. tricolor was marginally colonised when the concentrations of Zn and P were higher in the soil. Determination of the spatial distribution of the elements in root cross-sections of these violets indicates tissue-specific deposition of elements within the vascular tissue, the cortex, and the rhizodermis. These data indicate that violets of the section Melanium are heavy-metal excluders. PMID:23859423

  12. Facile preparation of stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 "Maya Violet" pigment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-11-01

    Maya Blue pigment has attracted considerable attention owing to their extraordinary stability. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the study of Maya Blue-like pigments. Inspired by Maya Blue, a stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 (PAL/MV@SiO2) "Maya Violet" pigment was fabricated via adsorption of MV by PAL, and then deposition of a layer of SiO2 on the surface by polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The weight ratio of MV to PAL is as high as 10%. The pigments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and a variety of analytical techniques, e.g., Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta potential. The results indicate that MV molecules are fixed onto the exterior surface, the grooves and at the entrances of the channels of PAL. The PAL/MV@SiO2 pigment shows excellent stability against chemical attacks, e.g., 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH and various organic solvents. Different from Maya Blue, grinding and heating treatment are virtually ineffective in improving stability of the PAL/MV pigment. CTAB and the SiO2 layer formed on the surface of PAL/MV contribute greatly to the improved stability of the pigment due to shielding effect. The optimal CTAB/TEOS/ammonia/H2O molar ratio for the surface modification of PAL/MV is 0.24/1/2.89/495. PMID:26196708

  13. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed. PMID:22748361

  14. Continuous-wave violet generation at 373.5 nm by frequency-doubled power-scaled near-infrared emitting Pr:YAlO3 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibrich, Martin; Jelínková, Helena

    2013-10-01

    We report on a continuous-wave Pr:YAlO3 laser operating at a wavelength of 373.5 nm in a power-scaled resonator arrangement. Violet light generation has been achieved by intracavity frequency doubling of the near-infrared emitting Pr:YAP laser at a fundamental wavelength of 747 nm. For active medium pumping, two GaN laser diodes providing up to 1 W of output power each at 448 nm were used. By employing BBO crystal as a nonlinear medium, more than 46 mW of violet radiation has been obtained.

  15. Sensitization to reactive textile dyes in patients with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Motolese, A; Conti, A; Ferdani, G; Seidenari, S

    1996-03-01

    Reactive dyes are used especially for colouring natural fibres (cotton, silk and wool) that are widely used in Western countries, particularly Italy, in the production of clothes. The aim of our study was to investigate sensitization to the most commonly used reactive textile dyes in patients undergoing patch tests, and to assess the clinical relevance of contact sensitization to these dyes. 1813 consecutive patients underwent patch tests with the GIRDCA standard series and an additional textile series of 12 reactive dyes. 18 of these patients were sensitized to reactive dyes (0.99%) (4 only to reactive dyes). The dyes most frequently responsible for positive patch tests were Red Cibacron CR and Violet Remazol 5R (respectively, 8 and 5 positivities). In 5 cases only was a history of intolerance to particular garments given; of 4 patch tests performed with pieces of garment, 2 were positive. In 1 occupationally-exposed patient, airborne contact dermatitis was suspected. Owing to the lack of up-to-date patch test series, some cases of allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are probably misdiagnosed: new colouring agents are continuously introduced to the market, so that a close relationship with textile industry is necessary to improve our diagnostic tools. PMID:8833459

  16. Fully resonant CARS of cresyl violet in polyacrylic acid polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ta-Chau; Small, Gerald J.

    1985-11-01

    Multi-resonant CARS data for ground and excited electronic state resonances (593.585 cm -1) of cresyl violet perchlorate in polyacrylic acid are reported. The intensity of the excited state resonance (585 cm -1) depends on the location of the ω 1-field (ω as = 2ω 1 - ω 2) within the severely inhomogeneously broadened absorption profile of the dye. Non-photochemical hole burning is used to determine the vibronic transitions which contribute to the absorption profile. It is argued that the linear electron-phonon interaction is an important mechanism for producing an egalitarian distribution of excited dye sites with a population sufficiently high to permit observation of the excited state resonance. A marked non-photochemical hole burning effect on the intensities of the CARS resonances is used for the assignment of 585 cm -1 as an excited state resonance. The absence of line narrowing in the CARS and CSRS spectra is reported and discussed. Finally, a novel narrowing of the 593 cm -1 ground state resonance with increasing temperature is reported and shown to occur only for restricted values (frequency) of ω 1.

  17. Violet-red discolouration of canned Palmyra palm during processing.

    PubMed

    Chamchong, Montip; Tatidin, Yuporn; Misayan, Apinya

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to investigate the causes of the violet-red discolouration during processing of canned Palmyra palm and to identify preventive methods without the use of chemical additives. Palmyra palm flesh with (13-21 %) /without some peel left on was tested for the source of violet-red discolouration during blanching. It was found that blanching in distilled water had no effect on discolouration when blanching conditions were at 75, 85, and 95 °C for 7 min but the violet-red discolouration occurred only when tap water was used for blanching at 95 °C for 7 min. Moreover, the addition of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in distilled water to imitate higher alkalinity of tap water during blanching could contribute to the violet-red discolouration. Thus the observed cut off alkalinity of the blanching water wherein not to expect any discolouration was found to be about 100 ppm. After sterilization, there was no violet-red discolouration from Palmyra palm flesh without any peel left on even though it had a preceding treatment of blanching in highly alkaline tap water. PMID:26787982

  18. Dye-sensitized photocathodes: efficient light-stimulated hole injection into p-GaP under depletion conditions.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Michelle; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yiming; Rockett, Angus; Maldonado, Stephen

    2012-06-27

    The steady-state photoelectrochemical responses of p-GaP photoelectrodes immersed in aqueous electrolytes and sensitized separately by six triphenylmethane dyes (rose bengal, rhodamine B, crystal violet, ethyl violet, fast green fcf, and brilliant green) have been analyzed. Impedance measurements indicated that these p-GaP(100) photoelectrodes operated under depletion conditions with an electric field of ∼8.5 × 10(5) V cm(-1) at the p-GaP/solution interface. The set of collected wavelength-dependent quantum yield responses were consistent with sensitization occurring specifically from adsorbed triphenylmethane dyes. At high concentrations of dissolved dye, the measured steady-state photocurrent-potential responses collected at sub-bandgap wavelengths suggested unexpectedly high (>0.1) net internal quantum yields for sensitized hole injection. Separate measurements performed with rose bengal adsorbed on p-GaP surfaces pretreated with (NH(4))(2)S verified efficient sensitized hole injection. A modified version of wxAMPS, a finite-difference software package, was utilized to assess key operational features of the sensitized p-GaP photocathodes. The net analysis showed that the high internal quantum yield values inferred from the experimental data were most likely afforded by the internal electric field present within p-GaP, effectively sweeping injected holes away from the interface and minimizing their participation in deleterious pathways that could limit the net collection yield. These simulations defined effective threshold values for the charge carrier mobilities (≥10(-6) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and ≥10(-1) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at dopant densities of 10(18) and 10(13) cm(-3), respectively), hole injection rate constants (≥10(12) s(-1)), and surface trap densities (10(12) cm(-2)) needed to attain efficient hole collection with the quality of p-GaP materials used here. The cumulative experimental and modeling data thus provide insight on design strategies for assembling new types of dye-sensitized photocathodes that operate under depletion conditions. PMID:22734693

  19. Determination of Triphenylmethane Dyes and Their Metabolites in Salmon, Catfish, and Shrimp by LC-MS/MS Using AOAC First Action Method 2012.25: Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marilyn J; Andersen, Wendy C

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood. Fourteen laboratories from the United States, Canada, and the European Union member states participated in the study including national and state regulatory laboratories, university and national research laboratories, and private analytical testing laboratories. A variety of LC-MS/MS instruments were used for the analysis. Each participating laboratory received blinded test samples in duplicate of salmon, catfish, and shrimp consisting of negative control matrix; matrix fortified with residues at 0.42, 0.90, and 1.75 μg/kg; and samples of incurred matrix. The analytical results from each participating laboratory were evaluated for both quantitative residue determination and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Results from statistical analysis showed that this method provided excellent trueness (generally ≥90% recovery) and precision (RSDr generally ≤10%, HorRat<1). The Study Directors recommend Method 2012.25 for Final Action status. PMID:26025133

  20. Biosorption potential of synthetic dyes by heat-inactivated and live Lentinus edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Gabriela Gregolin; Ruiz, Suelen Pereira; Caetano, Wilker; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-12-01

    Lentinus edodes CCB-42 was immobilized in loofa sponges and applied to the biosorption of the synthetic dyes congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet. Live immobilized microorganisms achieved average decolorations of congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet of 97.8, 99.7 and 90.6 %, respectively. The loofa sponge was the support and the coadjuvant promoting dye adsorption. The biosorption conditions were optimized for each dye, yielding 30 C, pH 5.0 and a 12 h reaction time for congo red; 25 C, pH 3.0 and 36 h for bordeaux red; and 25 C, pH 8.0 and 24 h for methyl violet. Operational stability was evaluated over five consecutive cycles, with both bordeaux red and congo red exhibiting decolorations above 90 %, while the decoloration of methyl violet decreased after the third cycle. In the sixth month of storage, congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet had decolorations of 93.1, 79.4 and 73.8 %, respectively. Biosorption process best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. Maximum biosorption capacity of heat-treated L. edodes immobilized in loofa sponge was determined as 143.678, 500.00 and 381.679 mg/g for congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet, respectively. Treatment with immobilized L. edodes reduced the phytotoxicity of the medium containing dyes. FT-Raman experiments suggested the occurrence of interactions between loofa sponge fibers, L. edodes and dye. L. edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges represents a promising new mode of treatment of industrial effluents. PMID:25267474

  1. Adsorption characteristics of humic acid-immobilized amine modified polyacrylamide/bentonite composite for cationic dyes in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Suchithra, P S

    2009-01-01

    Humic acid-immobilized amine modified polyacrylamide/bentonite composite (HA-Am-PAA-B) was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of cationic dyes (Malachite Green (MG), Methylene Blue (MB) and Crystal Violet (CV)) from aqueous solutions. The polyacrylamide/bentonite composite (PAA-B) was prepared by intercalative polymerization of acrylamide with Na-bentonite in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinking agent and hexamethylenediammine as propagater. PAA-B was subsequently treated with ethylenediammine to increase its loading capacity for HA. The surface characterizations of the adsorbent were investigated. The adsorbent behaved like a cation exchanger and more than 99.0% removal of dyes was detected at pH range 6.0-8.0. The capacity of HA-Am-PAA-B was found to decrease in the following order: MG > MB > CV. The kinetic and isotherm data were interpreted by pseudo-second order rate equation and Freundlich isotherm model, respectively. Experiments were carried out using binary solute systems to assess the competitive adsorption phenomenon. The experimental isotherm data for each binary solute combination of MG, MB and CV were analyzed using Sheindrof-Rebhun-Sheintuch (SRS) (multicomponent Freundlich type) equation. PMID:19862952

  2. Mathematical modelling and optimization of synthetic textile dye removal using soil composites as highly competent liner material.

    PubMed

    Das, Papita; Banerjee, Priya; Mondal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Soil is widely used as adsorbent for removing toxic pollutants from their aqueous solutions due to its wide availability and cost efficiency. This study investigates the potential of soil and soil composites for removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from solution on a comparative scale. Optimisation of different process parameters was carried out using a novel approach of response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) was used for determining the optimum experimental conditions, as well as the result of their interactions. Around 99.85 % removal of CV was obtained at initial pH 6.4, which further increased to 99.98 % on using soil and cement composite proving it to be the best admixture of those selected. The phenomenon was found to be represented best by the Langmuir isotherm at different temperatures. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was determined to be spontaneous chemisorption in nature. This adsorbent can hence be suggested as an appropriate liner material for the removal of CV dye. PMID:25138552

  3. Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception

    PubMed Central

    Mainster, M A

    2006-01-01

    Aim To analyse how intraocular lens (IOL) chromophores affect retinal photoprotection and the sensitivity of scotopic vision, melanopsin photoreception, and melatonin suppression. Methods Transmittance spectra of IOLs, high pass spectral filters, human crystalline lenses, and sunglasses are used with spectral data for acute ultraviolet (UV)‐blue photic retinopathy (“blue light hazard” phototoxicity), aphakic scotopic luminous efficiency, melanopsin sensitivity, and melatonin suppression to compute the effect of spectral filters on retinal photoprotection, scotopic sensitivity, and circadian photoentrainment. Results Retinal photoprotection increases and photoreception decreases as high pass filters progressively attenuate additional short wavelength light. Violet blocking IOLs reduce retinal exposure to UV (200–400 nm) radiation and violet (400–440 nm) light. Blue blocking IOLs attenuate blue (440–500 nm) and shorter wavelength optical radiation. Blue blocking IOLs theoretically provide better photoprotection but worse photoreception than conventional UV only blocking IOLs. Violet blocking IOLs offer similar UV‐blue photoprotection but better scotopic and melanopsin photoreception than blue blocking IOLs. Sunglasses provide roughly 50% more UV‐blue photoprotection than either violet or blue blocking IOLs. Conclusions Action spectra for most retinal photosensitisers increase or peak in the violet part of the spectrum. Melanopsin, melatonin suppression, and rhodopsin sensitivities are all maximal in the blue part of the spectrum. Scotopic sensitivity and circadian photoentrainment decline with ageing. UV blocking IOLs provide older adults with the best possible rhodopsin and melanopsin sensitivity. Blue and violet blocking IOLs provide less photoprotection than middle aged crystalline lenses, which do not prevent age related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments if the unproved phototoxicity‐AMD hypothesis is valid. PMID:16714268

  4. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  5. The detection of multiply charged dyes using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the forensic examination of pen ink dyes directly from paper.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jamie D; Allison, John

    2007-09-01

    Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) is emerging as a technique for questioned document examination. Its use is limited to detecting ink dyes that are neutral or singly charged. Several inks contain dyes that are multiply charged and LDMS cannot be employed for their identification. We have successfully detected >20 polyionic dyes that can be used in the manufacture of inks using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS, directly from paper, with the matrix, 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid (HABA), and the additive, diammonium hydrogen citrate (DAHC). For example, Acid Violet 49, a charged dye containing one positively-charged site and two negatively charged sulfonate groups, cannot be detected by LDMS, but forms intact, singly charged ions in the MALDI MS experiment. The method described is also useful for identifying multiply charged dye mixtures that are used in modern pen inks. PMID:17767663

  6. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  7. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  8. crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fen; Wang, Qingpu; Tao, Xutang; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xingyu; Liu, Zhaojun; Shen, Hongbin; Lan, Weixia; Gao, Liang; Gao, Zeliang; Zhang, Junjie; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2014-08-01

    An eye-safe Raman laser is realized with BaTeMo2O9 (BTM) nonlinear crystal for the first time. By using a diode-end-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser as the pumping source, the BTM crystal converts the fundamental laser at 1,342 nm to first-Stokes laser at 1,531 nm successfully. With an incident power of 10.8 W and a pulse repetition rate of 25 kHz, the average output power at 1,531 nm is obtained to be 0.83 W, corresponding to a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 7.7 %. The pulse width is 11 ns, and the peak power is 3.0 kW.

  9. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive subject... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed....

  10. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive subject... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed....

  11. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  12. MODIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DRY MATERIAL FEEDER FOR DELIVERY OF RED AND VIOLET DYE MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uniform delivery of dry material for stable concentrations of aerosols in inhalation exposure chambers is essential in inhalation experiments. his paper characterizes an AccuRate dry material feeder with modifications, for different helix sizes, actuation rates, nozzle types and ...

  13. Ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal synthesis of activated carbon-HKUST-1-MOF hybrid for efficient simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of ternary organic dyes and antibacterial investigation: Taguchi optimization.

    PubMed

    Azad, F Nasiri; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Pezeshkpour, V

    2016-07-01

    Activated carbon (AC) composite with HKUST-1 metal organic framework (AC-HKUST-1 MOF) was prepared by ultrasonically assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by FTIR, SEM and XRD analysis and laterally was applied for the simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of crystal violet (CV), disulfine blue (DSB) and quinoline yellow (QY) dyes in their ternary solution. In addition, this material, was screened in vitro for their antibacterial actively against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) bacteria. In dyes removal process, the effects of important variables such as initial concentration of dyes, adsorbent mass, pH and sonication time on adsorption process optimized by Taguchi approach. Optimum values of 4, 0.02g, 4min, 10mgL(-1) were obtained for pH, AC-HKUST-1 MOF mass, sonication time and the concentration of each dye, respectively. At the optimized condition, the removal percentages of CV, DSB and QY were found to be 99.76%, 91.10%, and 90.75%, respectively, with desirability of 0.989. Kinetics of adsorption processes follow pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir model as best method with high applicability for representation of experimental data, while maximum mono layer adsorption capacity for CV, DSB and QY on AC-HKUST-1 estimated to be 133.33, 129.87 and 65.37mgg(-1) which significantly were higher than HKUST-1 as sole material with Qm to equate 59.45, 57.14 and 38.80mgg(-1), respectively. PMID:26964963

  14. Synthesis and utilization of a novel carbon nanotubes supported nanocables for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-09-15

    Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) as mechanical support and glucose as carbon resource, a hydrothermal carbonization route was designed for the synthesis of MWCNTs@carbon nanocables with tunable diameter and length. MWCNTs are firstly used as templates for the formation of carbon-rich composite nanocables, and the diameter of the nanocables could be tailored through adjusting the hydrothermal time or the ratio of MWCNTs and glucose. Owing to abundant superficial oxygen-containing functional groups, porous surface and remarkable reactivity, the as-synthesized nanocables are capable of efficiently adsorbing cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). Furthermore, the optimum adsorption conditions, kinetics, adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics of dyes were studied systematically. Additionally, the maximum adsorption capacities calculated from data analysis (298.5 mg/g for MB and 228.3 mg/g for CV) are significant higher than those of raw MWCNTs and some other adsorbents reported previously, which provides strong evidence for using MWCNTs@carbon nanocables as adsorbent to remove dyes from aqueous solutions. - Graphical abstract: MWCNTs@carbon nanocables has been successfully fabricated by a hydrothermal carbonization method. The as-synthesized novel samples were used as adsorbents and exhibited high adsorption capacity on MB and CV. - Highlights: • A simple, cost-effective and “green” method for the synthesis of the material. • The diameter and length of the material are relatively easy to control. • The surface has large oxygen-containing groups and preferable chemical reactivity. • Compared with raw MWCNTs and some other adsorbents, the adsorption capacity is much high.

  15. OBSERVATIONS ON THE GROWTH OF BACTERIA ON MEDIA CONTAINING VARIOUS ANILIN DYES.

    PubMed

    Krumwiede, C; Pratt, J S

    1914-01-01

    Gentian violet and allied anilin dyes have a similar influence on bacterial growth, dividing bacteria into two groups corresponding in general to their reaction to the Gram stain. Among Gram-negative bacteria a strain is occasionally encountered which will not grow on violet agar, differentiating it from other members of the same species or variety. The reaction is quantitative, although the quantitative character is more marked with some species than with others. The streptococcus-pneumococcus group differ from other Gram-positive bacteria in their ability to grow in the presence of amounts of dye sufficient to inhibit the other species. The dysentery bacillus group shows marked variation in the presence of dyes. In the case of fuchsin the variation approaches closely a specific difference between the dysentery and paradysentery groups. The variations of the latter groups with other dyes show no correlation with the common differential characteristics. A closer study might reveal variations in other characteristics which would parallel the different reactions to dyes. Decolorization with sodium sulphite robs the dyes of some of their inhibitive powers. PMID:19867746

  16. Efficient synthesis of triarylamine-based dyes for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wild, Martin; Griebel, Jan; Hajduk, Anna; Friedrich, Dirk; Stark, Annegret; Abel, Bernd; Siefermann, Katrin R

    2016-01-01

    The class of triarylamine-based dyes has proven great potential as efficient light absorbers in inverse (p-type) dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, detailed investigation and further improvement of p-type DSSCs is strongly hindered by the fact that available synthesis routes of triarylamine-based dyes are inefficient and particularly demanding with regard to time and costs. Here, we report on an efficient synthesis strategy for triarylamine-based dyes for p-type DSSCs. A protocol for the synthesis of the dye-precursor (4-(bis(4-bromophenyl)amino)benzoic acid) is presented along with its X-ray crystal structure. The dye precursor is obtained from the commercially available 4(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde in a yield of 87% and serves as a starting point for the synthesis of various triarylamine-based dyes. Starting from the precursor we further describe a synthesis protocol for the dye 4-{bis[4'-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]amino}benzoic acid (also known as dye P4) in a yield of 74%. All synthesis steps are characterized by high yields and high purities without the need for laborious purification steps and thus fulfill essential requirements for scale-up. PMID:27196877

  17. Biodegradation of Basic Violet 3 by Candida krusei isolated from textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Deivasigamani, Charumathi; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-11-01

    Basic Violet 3 (BV) belongs to the most important group of synthetic colorants and is used extensively in textile industries. It is considered as xenobiotic compound which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. As Candida krusei could not use BV as sole carbon source, experiments were conducted to study the effect of cosubstrates on decolorization of BV in semi synthetic medium using glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, yeast extract, peptone, urea and ammonium sulphate. Maximum decolorization (74%) was observed in media supplemented with sucrose. Use of sugarcane bagasse extract as sole nutrient source showed 100% decolorization of BV within 24 h under optimized condition. UV-visible, FTIR spectral analysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of BV. Six degradation products were isolated and identified. We propose the biodegradation pathway for BV which occurs via stepwise reduction and demethylation process to yield mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-demethylated BV species which was degraded completely. The study of the enzymes responsible for decolorization showed the activities of lignin peroxidase, lacasse, tyrosinase, NADH-DCIP reductase, MG reductase and azoreductase in cells before and after decolorization. A significant increase in activities of NADH-DCIP reductase and laccase was observed in the cells after decolorization. The yeast C. krusei could show the ability to decolorize the textile dye BV using inexpensive source like sugarcane bagasse extract for decolorization. PMID:21479732

  18. Suppression of NF-κB Activation By Gentian Violet Promotes Osteoblastogenesis and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, M.; Vikulina, T.; Arbiser, J.L.; Weitzmann, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal mass is regulated by the coordinated action of bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Accelerated rates of bone resorption relative to bone formation lead to net bone loss and the development of osteoporosis, a devastating disease that predisposes the skeleton to fractures. Bone fractures are associated with significant morbidity and in the case of hip fractures, high mortality. Gentian violet (GV), a cationic triphenylmethane dye, has long been used as an antifungal and antibacterial agent and is presently under investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic and antiangiogenic agent. However, effects on bone cells have not been previously reported and the mechanisms of action of GV, are poorly understood. In this study we show that GV suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts, but paradoxically stimulates the differentiation of MC3T3 cells into mineralizing osteoblasts. These actions stem from the capacity of GV to suppress activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal transduction pathway that is required for osteoclastogenesis, but inhibitory to osteoblast differentiation and activity. Our data reveal that GV is an inhibitor of NF-κB activation and may hold promise for modulation of bone turnover to promote a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, favorable to gain of bone mass. PMID:25056540

  19. Why do mice have ultra-violet vision?

    PubMed

    Gouras, Peter; Ekesten, Bjorn

    2004-12-01

    Murine vision has become a fascinating entity due to discoveries about the histology and physiology of its retina over the past decade. It has two varieties of cones, one serving the traditional green-yellow region of the vision spectrum and another serving the ultra-violet region, essentially invisible to man and many other mammal. This puts unusual constraints on the optical transmission of the murine eye, in particular its relatively large lens. Its ultra-violet vision appears to involve its upper much more than its lower visual field, providing a heuristic clue to its purpose. In addition behavioural evidence exists for colour vision in mice. On the other hand there is unequivocal evidence that many murine cones contain both cone photopigments, an unrealistic but not impossible arrangement for colour vision. A better understanding of how ultra-violet vision is interwoven into cone and rod vision and possible colour vision can be clarified by analysing the responses of single retinal neurons. This paper reviews the current information on this topic and provides new insights from single retinal ganglion cell recordings. PMID:15642326

  20. Poly (Acrylamide-co-Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel Induced by Glow-Discharge Electrolysis Plasma and Its Adsorption Properties for Cationic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Yang, Gege; Pan, Yuanpei; Lu, Quanfang; Yang, Wu; Gao, Jinzhang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(AM-co-AA)) hydrogel was prepared in an aqueous solution by using glow-discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP) induced copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA), in which N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a crosslinker. A mechanism for the synthesis of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel was proposed. To optimize the synthesis condition, the following parameters were examined in detail: the discharge voltage, discharge time, the content of the crosslinker, and the mass ratio of AM to AA. The results showed that the optimum pH range for cationic dyes removal was found to be 5.0-10.0. The P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel exhibits a very high adsorption potential and the experimental adsorption capacities for Crystal violet (CV) and Methylene blue (MB) were 2974.3 mg/g and 2303.6 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel for cationic dyes was also discussed.

  1. Confirmation of gentian violet and its metabolite leucogentian violet in catfish muscle using liquid chromatography combined with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Doerge, D R; Churchwell, M I; Rushing, L G; Bajic, S

    1996-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV) is a triphenylmethane dye antiseptic with potential for illegal use in livestock production, especially aquaculture where the related malachite green has been widely used. This potential misuse has regulatory importance because of the observed rodent carcinogenicity of GV. This report describes the use of online LC-APCI/MS for confirmation of incurred GV residues, and those of its principal metabolite, LGV, in catfish muscle following treatment of live catfish with GV under putative use conditions. LC with APCI/MS detection provided sensitive analysis of GV and LGV with estimated detection limits of < 1 pg observed for both compounds. Fragmentation of GV and LGV via in-source CID was effected by varying the sampling cone-skimmer voltage. Ion intensity data were collected using a rapid cone voltage switching procedure that permits selected ion acquisition under optimal conditions for the parent molecule and several selected fragment ions. For GV, four ions including the ionized molecule were used and for LGV, six ions including the protonated molecule were used. The levels of GV and LGV in muscle from fish dosed with 10 micrograms/l in aquarium water were determined by LC/VIS to be 0.5 and 44 ppb, respectively. Analysis of these samples yielded ion intensity ratios that agreed precisely between injections (< 5%) and accurately with those generated by a comparable amount of authentic GV and LGV (< 10% deviation). These results show the utility of on-line LC-APCI/MS to do both sensitive confirmatory analyses of incurred drug residues for use in monitoring the food supply. PMID:8885419

  2. Vacuum ultra-violet and ultra-violet scintillation light detection by means of silicon photomultipliers at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, A.; Bertoni, R.; Boffelli, F.; Bonesini, M.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Montanari, C.; Prata, M. C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Simonetta, M.; Spanu, M.; Torti, M.; Zani, A.

    2015-07-01

    We tested the performance of two types of silicon photomultipliers, AdvanSiD ASD-NUV-SiPM3S-P and Hamamatsu 3×3 MM-50 UM VUV2, both at room (300 K) and at liquid nitrogen (77 K) temperature: breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, signal shape, gain and dark counts rate have been studied as function of temperature. The response of the devices to ultra-violet light is also studied.

  3. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  4. Study of excitation transfer in laser dye mixtures by direct measurement of fluorescence lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C.; Dienes, A.

    1973-01-01

    By directly measuring the donor fluorescence lifetime as a function of acceptor concentration in the laser dye mixture Rhodamine 6G-Cresyl violet, we found that the Stern-Volmer relation is obeyed, from which the rate of excitation transfer is determined. The experimental results indicate that the dominant mechanism responsible for the efficient excitation transfer is that of resonance transfer due to long range dipole-dipole interaction.

  5. Expansion of the Scope of AOAC First Action Method 2012.25--Single-Laboratory Validation of Triphenylmethane Dye and Leuco Metabolite Analysis in Shrimp, Tilapia, Catfish, and Salmon by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Wendy C; Casey, Christine R; Schneider, Marilyn J; Turnipseed, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    Prior to conducting a collaborative study of AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood, a single-laboratory validation of method 2012.25 was performed to expand the scope of the method to other seafood matrixes including salmon, catfish, tilapia, and shrimp. The validation included the analysis of fortified and incurred residues over multiple weeks to assess analyte stability in matrix at -80°C, a comparison of calibration methods over the range 0.25 to 4 μg/kg, study of matrix effects for analyte quantification, and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Method accuracy ranged from 88 to 112% with 13% RSD or less for samples fortified at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μg/kg. Analyte identification and determination limits were determined by procedures recommended both by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission. Method detection limits and decision limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.24 μg/kg and 0.08 to 0.54 μg/kg, respectively. AOAC First Action Method 2012.25 with an extracted matrix calibration curve and internal standard correction is suitable for the determination of triphenylmethane dyes and leuco metabolites in salmon, catfish, tilapia, and shrimp by LC-MS/MS at a residue determination level of 0.5 μg/kg or below. PMID:26024871

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of germanium with Catechol Violet and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Leong, C L

    1971-08-01

    A ternary complex between germanium, Catechol Violet (CV) and cetyltrimethylanunoniuni bromide is proposed for the determination of germanium. The stoichiometric ratio Ge:CV is 1:2. Beer's law is obeyed from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm of Ge. The method is highly selective. Interference from Sn(IV), Fe(III), Bi(III), Cr(VI), Mo(VI), V(V) and Sb(III) in mg amounts is eliminated by extracting the germanium into carbon tetrachloride from 9M HC1 and then stripping into water before the photometric determination. PMID:18960953

  7. Bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Corso, C R; Almeida, E J R; Santos, G C; Morão, L G; Fabris, G S L; Mitter, E K

    2012-01-01

    Azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. The textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10-15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. Almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. Biological treatment has advantages over physical and chemical methods due to lower costs and minimal environmental effect. This research focuses on the utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to remove some types of azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The fungus, physically induced in its paramorphogenic form (called 'pellets'), was used in the dye biosorption studies with both non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae, at different pH values. The goals were the removal of dyes by biosorption and the decrease of their toxicity. The dyes used were Direct Red 23 and Direct Violet 51. Their spectral stability (325-700 nm) was analyzed at different pH values (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best biosorptive pH value and the toxicity limit, (which is given by the lethal concentration (LC(100)), were then determined. Each dye showed the same spectrum at different pH values. The best biosorptive pH was 2.50, for both non- autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae of A. oryzae. The toxicity level of the dyes was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber Method, with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The Direct Violet 51 (LC(100) 400 mg · mL(-1)) was found to be the most toxic dye, followed by the Direct Red 23 (LC(100) 900 mg · mL(-1)). The toxicity bioassays for each dye have shown that it is possible to decrease the toxicity level to zero by adding a small quantity of biomass from A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form. The autoclaved biomass had a higher biosorptive capacity for the dye than the non-autoclaved biomass. The results show that bioremediation occurs with A. oryzae in its paramorphogenic form, and it can be used as a biosorptive substrate for treatment of industrial waste water containing azo dyes. PMID:22466598

  8. Decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes from textile effluent using horseradish peroxidase: optimization and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainović, Nevena Ž; Stefanović, Andrea B; Žuža, Milena G; Čičkarić, Dragana Z; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  9. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainović, Nevena Ž.; Stefanović, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; Čičkarić, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32 min, enzyme concentration 0.15 IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04 mM, dye concentration 30 mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  10. Silver nanoparticles doped agarose disk: highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for in situ analysis of ink dyes.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Saha, Basudeb

    2013-12-10

    Raman spectroscopy is a preferred analytical tool for forensic trace analysis due to its non-invasive nature. This technique has been utilized in examination of organic colorants present in fibers and ink, but high fluorescent nature of these compounds is a problem. In the present study, silver-doped agarose gel disk, having property of quenching fluorescence and enhancing Raman signals, is found to be effective as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for analysis of rhodamine 6G (Rh 6G) and crystal violet (CV) dyes. As-prepared and well characterized by UV, TEM-EDAX and XRD techniques, the investigated silver-doped agarose gel disk proves to have minimal invasive as confirmed by the ATR-FTIR method and effective for in situ SERS analysis of blue and red ballpoint ink. The disk is stable upon storage and hence can be re-used and re-examined. The present method offers new possibilities in trace forensic analysis with minimal destruction. PMID:24314497

  11. Photonic band-gap modulation of blue phase liquid crystal (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2015-10-01

    Blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) are self-assembled 3D photonic crystals exhibiting high susceptibility to external stimuli. Two methods for the photonic bandgap tuning of BPs were demonstrated in this work. Introducing a chiral azobenzene into a cholesteric liquid crystal could formulate a photoresponsive BPLC. Under violet irradiation, the azo dye experiences trans-cis isomerization, which leads to lattice swelling as well as phase transition in different stages of the process. Ultrawide reversible tuning of the BP photonic bandgap from ultraviolet to near infrared has been achieved. The tuning is reversible and nonvolatile. We will then demonstract the electric field-induced bandgap tuning in polymer-stabilized BPLCs. Under different BPLCs material preparation conditions, both red-shift and broadening of the photonic bandgaps have been achieved respectively. The stop band can be shifted over 100 nm. The bandwidth can be expanded from ~ 30 nm to ~ 250 nm covering nearly the full visible range. It is believed that the developed approaches could strongly promote the use of BPLC in photonic applications.

  12. Phenylazoindole dyes 3: Determination of azo-hydrazone tautomers of new phenylazoindole dyes in solution and solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babür, Banu; Seferoğlu, Nurgül; Aktan, Ebru; Hökelek, Tuncer; Şahin, Ertan; Seferoğlu, Zeynel

    2015-02-01

    A new two series of phenylazo indole dyes was synthesized and the structures of the dyes were confirmed by UV-vis, FT-IR, HRMS and 1H/13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Five of these dyes (I, I‧, II‧, III and III‧) were also characterized in solid state by using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies besides other spectroscopic techniques. The geometries of the azo and hydrazone tautomeric forms of the dyes were optimized by using Density Functional Theory (DFT). In addition, the effects of the donor and acceptor groups on the azo and hydrazone forms of the dyes were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the phenylazoindole dyes derived from 2-phenyl indole as coupling component exist as azo form in solution, gas phase and solid state.

  13. ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qichang; Li, Yafeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ding, Kai; Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires arrays were homoepitaxial grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal (GZOSC), which have the advantages of high conductivity, high carrier mobility and high thermal stability. When it was employed as a photoanode in the DSSCs, the cell exhibited a 1.44% power-conversion efficiency under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5G). The performance is superior to our ZnO nanowires/FTO based DSSCs under the same condition. This enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the perfect interface between the ZnO nanowires and the GZOSC substrate that contributes to lower carrier scattering and recombination rates compared with that grown on traditional FTO substrate. PMID:26099568

  14. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  15. Irrigation Effects on the Spread of Corynespora Leaf Spot on African Violets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African violet cultivars have had severe leaf spot epidemics caused by Corynespora cassiicola in recent years. Unfortunately, little information has been published on the relationship between African violets and C. cassiicola. Mist, drip, and ebb and flow irrigation systems were studied to determi...

  16. 75 FR 27815 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... (74 FR 56663) and determined on February 5, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR 14468... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-437 and 731-TA-1060 and 1061 (Review) Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From... on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  17. 76 FR 24855 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004). On January 28... order. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 5137 (January... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative...

  18. Occurrence of Violet Root Rot on Membranous Milk Vetch Caused by Helicobasidium mompa in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee; Shim, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    Severe violet root rot occurred in a field of membranous milk vetch in Bonghwa, Korea, in October 2010. Two fungal isolates from the diseased plants were identified as Helicobasidium mompa based on their morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report that H. mompa causes violet root rot on membranous milk vetch in Korea. PMID:22783126

  19. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section 500.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use....

  20. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section 500.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use....

  1. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  7. Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent at carbon-felt cathode.

    PubMed

    Sirs, Ignasi; Guivarch, Elodie; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2008-06-01

    Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ +H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used as a model among them to study the influence of some experimental parameters on the decay kinetics, COD removal and current efficiency. The results in such electro-Fenton system are explained in terms of the many parasitic reactions involving .OH. Higher efficiency values are obtained with rising organic content and decreasing applied current. The first stage of the mineralization process, involving aromatic by-products, leads to fast decoloration as well as quick initial COD removal that fit well to a pseudo-first-order kinetics. At prolonged electrolysis time, the mineralization rate and efficiency decrease due to the formation of hardly oxidizable compounds and the enhancement of wasting reactions. Solutions of all four TPMs are quickly degraded following a pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The absolute rate constant (kTPM) for their reaction with .OH increases in the order MeGdyes with initial COD ca. 1000 mg l(-1) is totally depolluted with efficiency near 100% at the beginning of the treatment. A general scheme for the mineralization of TPMs is proposed. PMID:18486964

  8. Interactions of Enolizable Barbiturate Dyes.

    PubMed

    Schade, Alexander; Schreiter, Katja; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich; Spange, Stefan

    2016-04-11

    The specific barbituric acid dyes 1-n-butyl-5-(2,4-dinitro-phenyl) barbituric acid and 1-n-butyl-5-{4-[(1,3-dioxo-1H-inden-(3 H)-ylidene)methyl]phenyl}barbituric acid were used to study complex formation with nucleobase derivatives and related model compounds. The enol form of both compounds shows a strong bathochromic shift of the UV/Vis absorption band compared to the rarely coloured keto form. The keto-enol equilibria of the five studied dyes are strongly dependent on the properties of the environment as shown by solvatochromic studies in ionic liquids and a set of organic solvents. Enol form development of the barbituric acid dyes is also associated with alteration of the hydrogen bonding pattern from the ADA to the DDA type (A=hydrogen bond acceptor site, D=donor site). Receptor-induced altering of ADA towards DDA hydrogen bonding patterns of the chromophores are utilised to study supramolecular complex formation. As complementary receptors 9-ethyladenine, 1-n-butylcytosine, 1-n-butylthymine, 9-ethylguanidine and 2,6-diacetamidopiridine were used. The UV/Vis spectroscopic response of acid-base reaction compared to supramolecular complex formation is evaluated by (1) H NMR titration experiments and X-ray crystal structure analyses. An increased acidity of the barbituric acid derivative promotes genuine salt formation. In contrast, supramolecular complex formation is preferred for the weaker acidic barbituric acid. PMID:26945529

  9. Optical study and ruthenizer (II) N3 dye-sensitized solar cell application of ZnO nanorod-arrays synthesized by combine two-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Mohammad Ramzan; Haque, Fozia Z.

    2015-10-01

    Highly dense ZnO nanorod-arrays were successfully synthesized with uniform c-axis growth by using combine two-step process: sol-gel spin coating followed by the aqueous solution growth method. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorod-arrays were investigated. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak with high crystallinity. Nanorods of 3-4 μm length and 500 nm diameter, with surface roughness ˜20 nm were observed. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic results revealed the presence of E 2 peak ˜438 cm-1 which again corroborated the existence of wurtzite crystal structures assigned to ZnO. The optical transmittance spectrum indicated that the transmittance of more than 80% was observed in the visible and infrared (IR) regions with the optical band-gap energy ˜3.35 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks in ultra-violet (382.0 nm) and green region (524.9 nm), which specified good-quality crystallite formation containing high density of surface defects, zinc interstitials and oxygen-vacancies. Ruthenizer (II) N3-dye loaded sensitized solar cell test illustrated that the uniform ZnO nanorod-arrays as working electrode with a short circuit current density of 3.99 mA/cm2, fill factor ˜50% and overall power conversion efficiency (η) ˜1.36% might be a promising electrode material of dye sensitized solar cell application.

  10. Ultra-violet indoor tanning addiction: a reinforcer pathology interpretation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D

    2015-02-01

    Ultra-violet indoor tanning (UVIT) is a pervasive issue that is increasing at record rates, despite obvious and well-publicized links to skin cancer. Recent studies on UVIT have found that frequent users face difficulty quitting and report symptomatology similar to substance-related disorders, causing the medical field to begin classifying excessive UVIT use as an addicting behavior. Despite calls for research, relatively little behavioral research has been aimed at determining the psychology of UVIT. This mini-review reinterprets the existing dermatology literature in light of the reinforcer pathology model of addiction. The relevancy of this model, in conjunction with the similarities between UVIT addiction and other substance-related addiction, suggests that behavioral economic research on UVIT is overdue. This mini-review concludes with directions for future research in this area. PMID:25452072

  11. Venus as Viewed Through Violet and Near Infrared Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    These two Galileo images of Venus show the global structure of cloud patterns at two different depths in the upper cloud layers. The large bluish image, taken through the violet filter, shows patterns at the very top of Venus' main sulfuric acid haze layer. The subsolar point is to the right, not far from the limb; the atmospheric flow runs to the left from there. The small red image, taken through a near infrared filter, shows the cloud patterns several miles below the visible cloud tops. The colors shown are artificial; the images were enhanced at the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, Arizona. The Galileo Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  12. Transient transfection of mammalian cells using a violet diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Mapa, Maria Leilani; Angus, Liselotte; Ploschner, Martin; Dholakia, Kishan; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate the first use of the violet diode laser for transient mammalian cell transfection. In contrast to previous studies, which showed the generation of stable cell lines over a few weeks, we develop a methodology to transiently transfect cells with an efficiency of up to ~40%. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells are exposed to a tightly focused 405-nm laser in the presence of plasmid DNA encoding for a mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein. We report transfection efficiencies as a function of laser power and exposure time for our system. We also show, for the first time, that a continuous wave laser source can be successfully applied to selective gene silencing experiments using small interfering RNA. This work is a major step towards an inexpensive and portable phototransfection system.

  13. The Role of Order in the Amplification of Light-Energy Conversion in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Coupled to a Photonic Crystal.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Remi; Halaoui, Lara

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cause of amplification of light-energy conversion when coupling a nc-TiO2 film to a TiO2 inverse opal by comparing it to an inverse TiO2 glass (i-TiO2 -g) fabricated with the exact monodisperse air-hole size as an inverse opal with a stop band at 600 nm (600-i-TiO2 -o). A significant twofold average gain in the photon-to-current conversion efficiency is measured to the red of the stop band at the 600-i-TiO2 -o/nc-TiO2 bilayer under front-wall and back-wall illumination, greater than the gain within the stop band. A smaller amplification is measured under front-wall illumination-and no gain is measured under back-wall illumination-for i-TiO2 -g/nc-TiO2 at these energies. The photonic crystal therefore causes trapping of light through the bilayer, not only within the gap but also to the red, at frequencies within its dielectric band. This light-trapping effect is found to be dependent on structural order, as a highly disordered inverse glass film with the same air-hole size and thickness does not yield the same gain. A drop in the transmission of light is measured within the same frequencies to the red of the stop band upon adding nc-TiO2 to 600-i-TiO2 -o, consistent with light trapping in the bilayer. PMID:26643111

  14. [Qualitative Determination of Organic Vapour Using Violet and Visible Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Hu, Wen-zhong; Liu, Chang-jian; Zheng, Wei; Qi, Xiao-hui; Jiang, Ai-li; Wang, Yan-ying

    2015-12-01

    Vapours of organic matters were determined qualitatively employed with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapours of organic matters were detected using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer employing polyethylene film as medium, the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of vegetable oil vapours of soybean oil, sunflower seed oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sesame oil, cotton seed oil, tung tree seed oil, and organic compound vapours of acetone, ethyl acetate, 95% ethanol, glacial acetic acid were obtained. Experimental results showed that spectra of the vegetable oil vapour and the organic compound vapour could be obtained commendably, since ultra violet and visible spectrum of polyethylene film could be deducted by spectrograph zero setting. Different kinds of vegetable oils could been distinguished commendably in the spectra since the λ(max), λ(min), number of absorption peak, position, inflection point in the ultra violet and visible spectra obtained from the vapours of the vegetable oils were all inconsistent, and the vapours of organic compounds were also determined perfectly. The method had a good reproducibility, the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the vapours of sunflower seed oil in 10 times determination were absolutely the same. The experimental result indicated that polyethylene film as a kind of medium could be used for qualitative analysis of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy. The method for determination of the vapours of the vegetable oils and organic compounds had the peculiarities of fast speed analysis, well reproducibility, accuracy and reliability and low cost, and so on. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectrum of organic vapour could provide feature information of material vapour and structural information of organic compound, and provide a novel test method for identifying vapour of compound and organic matter. PMID:26964229

  15. Optimized Stem Cell Detection Using the DyeCycle-Triggered Side Population Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Maximilian; Wolf, Dominik; Sopper, Sieghart

    2016-01-01

    Tissue and cancer stem cells are highly attractive target populations for regenerative medicine and novel potentially curative anticancer therapeutics. In order to get a better understanding of stem cell biology and function, it is essential to reproducibly identify these stem cells from biological samples for subsequent characterization or isolation. ABC drug transporter expression is a hallmark of stem cells. This is utilized to identify (cancer) stem cells by exploiting their dye extrusion properties, which is referred to as the “side population assay.” Initially described for high-end flow cytometers equipped with ultraviolet lasers, this technique is now also amenable for a broader scientific community, owing to the increasing availability of violet laser-furnished cytometers and the advent of DyeCycle Violet (DCV). Here, we describe important technical aspects of the DCV-based side population assay and discuss potential pitfalls and caveats helping scientists to establish a valid and reproducible DCV-based side population assay. In addition, we investigate the suitability of blue laser-excitable DyeCycle dyes for side population detection. This knowledge will help to improve and standardize detection and isolation of stem cells based on their expression of ABC drug transporters. PMID:26798352

  16. Optimized Stem Cell Detection Using the DyeCycle-Triggered Side Population Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Maximilian; Wolf, Dominik; Sopper, Sieghart

    2016-01-01

    Tissue and cancer stem cells are highly attractive target populations for regenerative medicine and novel potentially curative anticancer therapeutics. In order to get a better understanding of stem cell biology and function, it is essential to reproducibly identify these stem cells from biological samples for subsequent characterization or isolation. ABC drug transporter expression is a hallmark of stem cells. This is utilized to identify (cancer) stem cells by exploiting their dye extrusion properties, which is referred to as the "side population assay." Initially described for high-end flow cytometers equipped with ultraviolet lasers, this technique is now also amenable for a broader scientific community, owing to the increasing availability of violet laser-furnished cytometers and the advent of DyeCycle Violet (DCV). Here, we describe important technical aspects of the DCV-based side population assay and discuss potential pitfalls and caveats helping scientists to establish a valid and reproducible DCV-based side population assay. In addition, we investigate the suitability of blue laser-excitable DyeCycle dyes for side population detection. This knowledge will help to improve and standardize detection and isolation of stem cells based on their expression of ABC drug transporters. PMID:26798352

  17. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  18. A rapid and simple method for simultaneous determination of triphenylmethane dye residues in rainbow trouts by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Muammer; Olgun, Elmas O; Karaoglu, Oznur

    2014-07-01

    A rapid and simple LC-MS/MS method was developed and optimized for screening and confirmation of triphenylmethane dyes including malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV), leucocrystal violet (LCV) and brilliant green (BG) in fish muscle with skin. Leucocrystal violet D6 (LCV-D6) and leucomalachite green-D5 (LMG D5) was used as internal standards. Sample preparation is a simple procedure based on solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile containing 1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in acetonitrile with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil ODS-4 C18 column with ammonium acetate buffer in acetonitrile gradient. The mass detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI+). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CCα) was 0.43, 0.24, 0.33, 0.28 and 0.17μgkg(-1) for MG, LMG, CV, LCV and BG respectively. The detection capability (CCβ) values obtained were 0.56, 0.31, 0.43, 0.37 and 0.22μgkg(-1), respectively. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) values for the within-day and inter-day laboratory reproducibility, for MG, LMG, CV, LCV and BG at the four levels of fortification (0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2μgkg(-1)), was less than 16 and 19% respectively. Accuracy of the method was confirmed by successful participation of a proficiency test organized by FAPAS. The method has been used for the analysis of 208 fish samples of which seven samples were found to be non-compliant containing low residues of LMG and LCV. PMID:24866565

  19. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  2. Adaptation for improving lifetime of dye laser using coumarin dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1984-10-23

    The effective lasing lifetime of laser dyes including coumarin dyes are significantly extended by the use of an inert cover gas for the laser dye solution such as argon in combination with the employment of a glass filter such as Pyrex disposed between the pumping flash lamp and the dye laser cavity capable of absorbing electromagnetic radiation of about 300 nanometers or shorter wavelength.

  3. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  4. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Violet Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through the violet (404 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over a 75 second interval beginning at universal time 4 hours, 18 minutes, 8 seconds on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image. The range is 1.76 million kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. Violet Fox: A Clinical View of Vertebral Fractures.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Fergus E

    2016-01-01

    Had Violet's abdominal MR not been performed, or its findings not appreciated, the cause of her clinical event might never have been known because our current concept of osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) is substantially predicated on a change in either vertebral height or shape on lateral or sagittal spine imaging. The intention of this commentary is to stimulate a multidisciplinary conversation of osteoporotic VFs from an integrated clinical, physiological, and imaging perspective. For research and epidemiological purposes, osteoporotic VFs have been defined as a reduction in anterior, middle, or posterior vertebral height although the required minimum height reduction (e.g., 15% or 20%) varies among definition schemes. We further classify osteoporotic VFs to be "clinical" when they are accompanied by back pain and "morphometric" when they are not, and we have generally accepted the assertion that most of the osteoporotic VFs are painless, that is, morphometric. This dichotomous VF definition scheme has been the foundation of osteoporosis epidemiology and the primary endpoint in most pivotal osteoporosis pharmaceutical trials. Although, having served the osteoporosis community well, our clinical experience, refined by recent insights into vertebral anatomy and spinal biomechanics, advances in vertebral imaging, and 2 decades of vertebral augmentation suggest that the spectrum of osteoporotic VFs is more complicated than this scheme suggests. PMID:26356546

  6. Development and validation of a fast monoclonal based disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites in fish.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Connolly, Lisa; Stevenson, Paul; Stead, Sara; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-07-18

    Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic agents that have been used for treatment and prevention of diseases in fish. These dyes are metabolized into reduced leuco forms (LMG, LCV, LBG) that can be present in fish muscles for a long period. Due to the carcinogenic properties they are banned for use in fish for human consumption in many countries including the European Union and the United States. HPLC and LC-MS techniques are generally used for the detection of these compounds and their metabolites in fish. This study presents the development of a fast enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method as an alternative for screening purposes. A first monoclonal cell line producing antibodies to MG was generated using a hybridoma technique. The antibody had good cross-reactivates with related chromatic forms of triphenylmethane dyes such as CV, BG, Methyl Green, Methyl Violet and Victoria Blue R. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to develop a fast (20 min) disequilibrium ELISA screening method for the detection of triphenylmethanes in fish. By introducing an oxidation step with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) during sample extraction the assay was also used to detect the presence of the reduced metabolites of triphenylmethanes. The detection capability of the assay was 1 ng g(-1) for MG, LMG, CV, LCV and BG which was below the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) for the detection method of total MG (sum of MG and LMG) set by the Commission Decision 2004/25/EC (2 ng g(-1)). The mean recoveries for fish samples spiked at 0.5 MRPL and MRPL levels with MG and LMG were between 74.9 and 117.0% and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation between 4.7 and 25.7%. The validated method allows the analysis of a batch of 20 samples in two to three hours. Additionally, this procedure is substantially faster than other ELISA methods developed for MG/LMG thus far. The stable and efficient monoclonal cell line obtained is an unlimited source of sensitive and specific antibody to MG and other triphenylmethanes. PMID:21645659

  7. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  8. Solution processed multilayer cadmium-free blue/violet emitting quantum dots light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chaoyu; Koo, Wonhoe; Chen, Song; So, Franky; Liu, Xiong; Kong, Xiangxing; Wang, Yunjun

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate blue/violet emitting devices based on cadmium-free zinc selenide/zinc sulfide core/shell quantum dots. Using poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with a low lying highest occupied molecular orbital energy for the hole transporting layer, enhanced hole injection was observed, resulting in efficient blue/violet emitting devices. The device charge balance was further enhanced by tuning the thicknesses of the hole transporting layer and quantum dot emitting layer.

  9. Dimer formation effect on the red-shift in fluorescent spectra of dye solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukprasong, Saksit; Manjit, Yongyut; Limpichaipanit, Apichart; Ngamjarurojana, Athipong

    2015-07-01

    The red-shift on fluorescent dyes spectra at high concentration was investigated by laser induce fluorescence technique. In this research, the fluorescent dyes (Rhodamine 6G, Rhodamine B, Fluorescein and Bromofluorescein) were used. The sample solutions were prepared with methanol solvent in the concentration range of 10-5 to 10-3 Molar and the temperature of sample solution was controlled at 25 °C by temperature control chamber. Then, the sample solution was illuminated by violet laser (405 nm) excitation source and the fluorescence spectra were recorded by CCD spectrometer. The result showed that the fluorescence spectra of all fluorescent dye solutions were dependent on concentration of fluorescent dyes. The position of fluorescence maximum intensity was shifted to a higher wavelength (red-shift) when the concentration increased because the dimer formation rate increases with increasing concentration, but the shifting of wavelength for each fluorescent dye solutions was different, which suggests the different rate of formation of dimer molecules in each fluorescent dye solutions.

  10. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Tad H.

    1987-05-01

    Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

  11. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-TAM dyes, 2,2-(2-(pyridinyl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethyl indoline) derivatives and unusual stability of 4-pyridinyl compound.

    PubMed

    Ma, So-Young; Keum, Sam-Rok

    2013-09-01

    The solid-state structures and unequivocal stereochemistries of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes 2,2'-(2-(pyridin-4 or 3-yl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives were established by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the EE isomer was formed for the 4-pyridinyl compound, whereas the 3-pyridinyl compound formed ZE isomers. In addition, the latter have a so-called three-bladed propeller conformation, whereas the former possess a Y-shaped conformation. These pyridine-based LTAM compounds stack to form a dimer, adopting either an orthorhombic, with Pcmn space group, or monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group in the crystal unit cell. PMID:23735204

  12. Azo Dye Biodecolorization Enhanced by Echinodontium taxodii Cultured with Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose facilitates the fungal oxidization of recalcitrant organic pollutants through the extracellular ligninolytic enzymes induced by lignin in wood or other plant tissues. However, available information on this phenomenon is insufficient. Free radical chain reactions during lignin metabolism are important in xenobiotic removal. Thus, the effect of lignin on azo dye decolorization in vivo by Echinodontium taxodii was evaluated. In the presence of lignin, optimum decolorization percentages for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B, Direct Black 38, and Direct Black 22 were 91.75% (control, 65.96%), 76.89% (control, 43.78%), 43.44% (control, 17.02%), and 44.75% (control, 12.16%), respectively, in the submerged cultures. Laccase was the most important enzyme during biodecolorization. Aside from the stimulating of laccase activity, lignin might be degraded by E. taxodii, and then these degraded low-molecular-weight metabolites could act as redox mediators promoting decolorization of azo dyes. The relationship between laccase and lignin degradation was investigated through decolorization tests in vitro with purified enzyme and dozens of aromatics, which can be derivatives of lignin and can function as laccase mediators or inducers. Dyes were decolorized at triple or even higher rates in certain laccase–aromatic systems at chemical concentrations as low as 10 µM. PMID:25285777

  13. Investigation of ultra violet (UV) resistance for high strength fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, M. A.; Dingwall, Brenda; Gupta, A.; Seyam, A. M.; Mock, G.; Theyson, T.

    Ultra long duration balloons (ULDB), currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), requires the use of high strength fibers in the selected super-pressure pumpkin design. The pumpkin shape balloon concept allows clear separation of the load transferring functions of the major structural elements of the pneumatic envelope, the tendons and the film. Essentially, the film provides the gas barrier and transfers only local pressure load to the tendons. The tendons, in the mean time, provide the global pressure containing strength. In that manner, the strength requirement for the film only depends on local parameters. The tendon is made of p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO) fibers, which is selected due to its high strength to weight ratio when compared to other high performance, commercially available, fibers. High strength fibers, however, are known to degrade upon exposure to light, particularly at short wavelengths. This paper reports the results of an investigation of the resistance of four commercial high strength fibers to ultra violet (UV) exposure. The results indicate that exposing high strength fibers in continuous yarn form to UV led to serious loss in strength of the fibers except for Spectra® fibers. The adverse changes in mechanical behavior occurred over short duration of exposure compared to the 100 day duration targeted for these missions. UV blocking finishes to improve the UV resistance of these fibers are being investigated. The application of these specially formulated coatings is expected to lead to significant improvement of the UV resistance of these high performance fibers. In this publication, we report on the mechanical behavior of the fibers pre- and post-exposure to UV, but without application of the blocking finishes.

  14. NSCAT high-resolution surface wind measurements in Typhoon Violet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. Linwood; Cardone, Vincent J.; Pierson, Willard J.; Zec, Josko; Rice, Larry P.; Cox, Andrew; Sylvester, Winfield B.

    1999-05-01

    NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) measurements of the western Pacific Supertyphoon Violet are presented for revolutions 478 and 485 that occurred in September 1996. A tropical cyclone planetary boundary layer numerical model, which uses conventional meteorological and geostationary cloud data, is used to estimate the winds at 10-m elevation in the cyclone. These model winds are then compared with the winds inferred from the NSCAT backscatter data by means of a novel approach that allows a wind speed to be recovered from each individual backscatter cell. This spatial adaptive (wind vector) retrieval algorithm employs several unique steps. The backscatter values are first regrouped in terms of closest neighbors in sets of four. The maximum likelihood estimates of speed and direction are then used to obtain speeds and directions for each group. Since the cyclonic flow around the tropical cyclone is known, NSCAT wind direction alias selection is easily accomplished. The selected wind directions are then used to convert each individual backscatter value to a wind speed. The results are compared to the winds obtained from the tropical cyclone boundary layer model. The NSCAT project baseline geophysical model function, NSCAT 1, was found to yield wind speeds that were systematically too low, even after editing for suspected rain areas of the cyclone. A new geophysical model function was developed using conventional NSCAT data and airborne Ku band scatterometer measurements in an Atlantic hurricane. This new model uses the neural network method and yields substantially better agreement with the winds obtained from the boundary layer model according to the statistical tests that were used.

  15. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other harmful ... bleeding and infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ...

  16. The perfection and defect structure of organic hourglass inclusion K 2SO 4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, William M.; Totsuka, Hirono; Dudley, Michael; Kahr, Bart

    2002-06-01

    Hourglass inclusion crystals of K 2SO 4 were grown from aqueous solutions containing the dye acid fuchsin, and studied by synchrotron white-beam X-ray topography and reciprocal space mapping. Both self-nucleated and larger, seeded dye-included crystals were prepared, as well as comparable undoped crystals. While the dye modified the crystals' habit strongly, X-ray topographs showed it had no influence on their dislocation configurations, which were typical for solution-grown crystals. No kinematical contrast arising from the presence of the dye was observed that indicated dye-induced strain in the crystal lattice. Growth sector boundaries were visible in the dyed crystals but not in undoped crystals, implying there was a slightly higher lattice mismatch across growth sector boundaries in the dye-included crystals. Reciprocal space maps of small areas on an hourglass inclusion crystal within either a dye-included growth sector or an undoped growth sector showed single peaks with the same perfect crystal rocking curve width and no dilatation or tilt of the host lattice resulting from the dye's presence. These results showed hourglass inclusion crystals can be grown in which the presence of the dye disturbs the crystalline structure of the host salt minimally, and that hourglass inclusions have the nature of a solid solution.

  17. [Natural dyes and dyeing from the XVIIth century to the birth of synthetic dyes].

    PubMed

    Viel, Claude

    2005-01-01

    After historical considerations on the state and evolution of French dyeing industry in the end of the XVIIth century to the beginning of XIXth, we find this presentation a résumé of the different states of tissues dyeing. We easily note that the techniques of dyeing. We easily note that the techniques of dyeing were very brought forward the end of the XVIIIth century before that synthetic dyes appeared in the second half of the XIXth century. PMID:16358458

  18. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

    2001-04-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

  19. Global Ultra-Violet Ionosphere-Thermosphere Observatory (GUVITO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, N.; Crowley, G.; Christensen, A. B.; Paxton, L. J.; Robichaud, J.; Barry, M. A.; Bust, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    UV spectrographic imagers such as SSUSI and GUVI provide measurements of the aurora, ionospheric electron density, ionospheric bubbles, and thermospheric temperature, composition, and density. These imagers have been a key element of the Air Force DMSP program, but to accommodate new satellite concepts and maintain flexibility in the choice of new space systems and launch options, lighter weight and more capable UV instruments are needed to replace the current series of SSUSI sensors. Here we describe a technological alternative to the currently flying SSUSI sensors. It is a spectrographic imaging capability known as the “Global Ultra-Violet Ionosphere-Thermosphere Observatory” (GUVITO) sensor and associated software. GUVITO improves upon current instruments by being smaller in size, weight and power but with improved functionality. The GUVITO sensor represents an upgrade of the SSUSI and GUVI sensors in terms of scan mirror functionality and reliability, sensor functionality, mass, and power requirements. In particular, this improved functionality is expected to lead to enhanced capability in observing ionospheric bubbles, which are thought to cause scintillation and serious technological challenges for communications, navigation and surveillance systems. Initial development and risk reduction activities are currently funded by AFRL through a SBIR Phase II contract. The enhanced reliability and performance of the GUVITO sensor system is achieved with flight heritage components, concepts, software, hardware and is guided by key personnel experienced with both the SSUSI and GUVI hardware, software and operations. GUVITO would meet DoD priority requirements in ionospheric density, scintillation, and satellite drag, meet NPOESS IORD-II requirements for space environment Environmental Data Records (EDRs), maintain current DMSP capability, ensure long-term continuity of space environmental monitoring and leverage new technology development for future operational systems. The existing SSUSI/GUVI design consists of a scanning imaging spectrograph with a cross-track scanning mirror at the input to an off-axis parabaloid telescope which feeds a Rowland Circle spectrograph. A toroidal grating disperses the wavelength and focuses the UV photons onto a two-dimensional photon-counting detector. The detector is effectively divided into a number of spatial elements along the spacecraft track and into a number of spectral bins cross-track over the range of 115 nm to 180 nm. Full spectral information can be collected for each spatial element, but it is sufficient to save and telemeter only the spectral bins associated with selected emission lines and bands. These are mission-selectable. We find that a minimum number of colors is five, corresponding to the most significant key products that we will provide. This presentation will demonstrate and discuss some of the GUVITO capabilities in detail, together with assimilation techniques that could be used for ionospheric specification.

  20. Comparison of violet diode laser with CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatayama, H.; Kato, J.; Inoue, A.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-02-01

    The violet diode laser (405nm) has recently begun to be studied for surgical use and authors reported the soft tissue could be effectively incised by irradiation power of even less than 1W. The wavelength of this laser is highly absorbed by hemoglobin, myoglobin or melanin pigment. Cutting or ablating soft tissues by lower irradiation power might be preferable for wound healing. The CO II laser is known to be preferable for low invasive treatment of soft tissues and widely used. The CO II laser light (10.6μm) is highly absorbed by water and proper for effective ablation of soft tissues. In this paper, we report the comparison of the violet diode laser with the CO II laser in surgical performance of soft tissues. Tuna tissue was used as an experimental sample. In the case of the violet diode laser, extensive vaporization of tissue was observed after the expansion of coagulation. Carbonization of tissue was observed after the explosion. On the other hand, consecutive vaporization and carbonization were observed immediately after irradiation in the case of CO II laser. The violet diode laser could ablate tissue equivalently with the CO II laser and coagulate larger area than the CO II laser. Therefore the violet diode laser might be expectable as a surgical tool which has excellent hemostatis.

  1. Rapid Dye Regeneration Mechanism of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jiwon; Park, Young Choon; Han, Sang Soo; Goddard, William A; Lee, Yoon Sup; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-12-18

    During the light-harvesting process of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the hole localized on the dye after the charge separation yields an oxidized dye, D(+). The fast regeneration of D(+) using the redox pair (typically the I(-)/I3(-) couple) is critical for the efficient DSSCs. However, the kinetic processes of dye regeneration remain uncertain, still promoting vigorous debates. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine that the inner-sphere electron-transfer pathway provides a rapid dye regeneration route of ∼4 ps, where penetration of I(-) next to D(+) enables an immediate electron transfer, forming a kinetic barrier. This explains the recently reported ultrafast dye regeneration rate of a few picoseconds determined experimentally. We expect that our MD based comprehensive understanding of the dye regeneration mechanism will provide a helpful guideline in designing TiO2-dye-electrolyte interfacial systems for better performing DSSCs. PMID:26273975

  2. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno, Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Hadi, Syamsul

    2016-03-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  3. Hypoiodous acid, iodine, and iodide determination with leuco crystal violet and N-chlorosuccinimide-succinimide reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    A two-step colorimetric method is described for determining the composition of aqueous iodine solutions containing mixtures of the zero and -1 or +1 oxidation state. An advantage of this method over the standard method for iodine is that for a mixture of iodine (as I/sub 2/) and hypoiodous acid (I/sup +/ as HOI), the I/sub 2/ and HOI can be determined individually. Also, the procedure allows for easy differentiation between I/sub 2/-HOI or I/sub 2/-I/sup -/ solutions and provides for a semiquantitative method for determining the HOI/I/sub 2/ and I/sup -//I/sub 2/ ratios. These advantages are of significant importance in determining disinfection efficiencies in iodine disinfection systems. Other advantages of this method over the standard method are presented.

  4. A Fresh Look at the Crystal Violet Lab with Handheld Camera Colorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Theodore R.; Knutson, Cassandra M.; Mozzetti, Abbie R.; Campos, Antonio R.; Haynes, Christy L.; Penn, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Chemical kinetic experiments to determine rate laws are common in high school and college chemistry courses. For reactions involving a color change, rate laws can be determined experimentally using spectrophotometric or colorimetric equipment though this equipment can be cost prohibitive. Previous work demonstrated that inexpensive handheld camera

  5. A Fresh Look at the Crystal Violet Lab with Handheld Camera Colorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Theodore R.; Knutson, Cassandra M.; Mozzetti, Abbie R.; Campos, Antonio R.; Haynes, Christy L.; Penn, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Chemical kinetic experiments to determine rate laws are common in high school and college chemistry courses. For reactions involving a color change, rate laws can be determined experimentally using spectrophotometric or colorimetric equipment though this equipment can be cost prohibitive. Previous work demonstrated that inexpensive handheld camera…

  6. Spectral properties of naphthalimide dyes mixed with 4-heptyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (7CB) in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielejewska, N.; Chrzumnicka, E.; Stolarski, R.; Bauman, D.

    2010-06-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films formed of some fluorescent dyes, namely derivatives of 4-aminonaphthalimide, and their binary mixtures with the liquid crystal 4-heptyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (7CB) have been studied. The electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. On the basis of these spectra, the spectral properties of the dyes and the intermolecular interactions in ultrathin ordered films were determined. The conclusions about the tendency to the creation of aggregates by dye molecules in LB films have been drawn. The measurements of absorption by using linearly polarised light have allowed us to determine the arrangement of the dye and liquid crystal molecules on the air-solid substrate interface.

  7. Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Annadurai, Gurusamy; Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2002-06-10

    Low-cost banana and orange peels were prepared as adsorbents for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Dye concentration and pH were varied. The adsorption capacities for both peels decreased in the order methyl orange (MO) > methylene blue (MB) > Rhodamine B (RB) > Congo red (CR) > methyl violet (MV) > amido black 10B (AB). The isotherm data could be well described by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations in the concentration range of 10-120 mg/l. An alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of dyes. Based on the adsorption capacity, it was shown that banana peel was more effective than orange peel. Kinetic parameters of adsorption such as the Langergren rate constant and the intraparticle diffusion rate constant were determined. For the present adsorption process intraparticle diffusion of dyes within the particle was identified to be rate limiting. Both peel wastes were shown to be promising materials for adsorption removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:12031611

  8. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  9. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

  10. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  11. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Furey, John S.; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system. PMID:17617670

  12. Advanced Cd(II) complexes as high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Qiang, Liang Sheng; Wei, Li Guo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin; Wang, Yu Lei

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on two new complexes with the general formula [Cd3(IBA)3(Cl)2(HCOO)(H2O)]n (1) and {[Cd1.5(IBA)3(H2O)6]·3.5H2O}n (2), which can be synthesized by the reaction of Cd(II) with rigid linear ligand 4-HIBA containing imidazolyl and carboxylate functional groups [4-HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that complex 1 is a 2D "wave-like" layer structure constructed from trinuclear units and complex 2 is just a mononuclear structure. Surprisingly, both complexes 1 and 2 appear as a 3D supramolecular network via intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. What's more, due to their strong UV-visible absorption, 1 and 2 can be employed as co-sensitizers in combination with N719 to enhance dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. Both of them could overcome the deficiency of the ruthenium complex N719 absorption in the region of ultraviolet and blue-violet, and the charge collection efficiency is also improved when 1 and 2 are used as co-sensitizers, which are all in favor of enhancing the performance. The DSSC devices using co-sensitizers of 1/N719 and 2/N719 show an overall conversion efficiency of 8.27% and 7.73% with a short circuit current density of 17.48 mA cm(-2) and 17.39 mA cm(-2), and an open circuit voltage of 0.75 V and 0.74 V, respectively. The overall conversion efficiency is 27.23% and 18.92% higher than that of a device solely sensitized by N719 (6.50%). Consequently, the prepared complexes are high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhancing the performance of N719 sensitized solar cells. PMID:26419745

  13. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  14. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  15. Fabricating chiral polydiacetylene film by monolayer compression and circularly polarized ultra-violet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Gang; Kohn, Hideki; Ohshima, Yuki; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2007-07-01

    We study polydiacetylene films that are pertinent to the problems of mirror symmetry breaking induced by the effects of compression and circularly polarized ultra-violet (UV) light. The subphase is only pure water. After polymerization, polymerized 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid (PTDA) LB films that deposited at the surface pressure of 20 mN m -1 showed obviously chiral properties, however, no obvious Cotton effect was obtained for PTDA LB films that deposited at the surface pressure of 10 mN m -1. In addition, TDA LB films could be polymerized to a designed chirality by using chiral circular polarized ultra-violet light (CPUL).

  16. 75 FR 23239 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on CVP 23 from India. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68038 (December 22, 2009... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

  17. 75 FR 26716 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... FR 977 (January 7, 2010). This administrative review covers the period January 1, 2007 through... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India....

  18. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  19. Vegetable Dyeing of Wool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Pearl

    1976-01-01

    In keeping with the Bicentennial celebration, many art teachers will find themselves "looking back" to crafts of the American past. Dyeing is certainly one that was used extensively and here a professor in a Fine Arts Department details how the process takes place. (Author/RK)

  20. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only

  1. Determination of leucomalachite green, leucocrystal violet and their chromic forms using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ju, Saiqin; Deng, Jian; Cheng, Jianlin; Xiao, Ni; Huang, Kaihui; Hu, Canhui; Zhao, Haiqing; Xie, Jin; Zhan, Xiaozhu

    2015-10-15

    A novel spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet (LCV), malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of the second-order calibration. Residues of LMG, LCV, MG and CV were simultaneously extracted from fish and shrimp muscle with acetonitrile. The non-fluorescent CV and MG were then reduced to the corresponding fluorescent LMG and LCV by reacting with sodium borohydride. After preconcentration with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique, the extracts were analyzed by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration methods based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithms. The limits of detection obtained were 2.21-2.65 ng g(-1) by PARAFAC and 2.30-2.86 ng g(-1) by ATLD, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the four analytes in grass carp and shrimp samples with recoveries of 90.53-103.03% for PARAFAC and 90.40-102.75% for ATLD. The accuracy of this novel method was also verified by high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:25952896

  2. Generation of 3.5W high efficiency blue-violet laser by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state tunable Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Ding, X; Wang, R; Zhang, H; Wen, W Q; Huang, L; Wang, P; Yao, J Q; Yu, X Y; Li, Z

    2008-03-31

    In this paper, we report a high power, high efficiency blue-violet laser obtained by intracavity frequency-doubling of an all-solid-state Q-switched tunable Ti:sapphire laser, which was pumped by a 532 nm intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. A beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal was used for frequency-doubling of the Ti:sapphire laser and a V-shape folded three-mirror cavity was optimized to obtain high power high efficiency second harmonic generation (SHG). At an incident pump power of 22 W, the tunable output from 355 nm to 475 nm was achieved, involving the maximum average output of 3.5 W at 400 nm with an optical conversion efficiency of 16% from the 532 nm pump laser to the blue-violet output. The beam quality factor M(2) was measured to be Mx(2)=2.15, My(2)=2.38 for characterizing the tunable blue laser. PMID:18542555

  3. Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    von Trebra, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

  4. Kinetics and thermodynamics of textile dye adsorption from aqueous solutions using babassu coconut mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Adriana P; Santana, Sirlane A A; Bezerra, Cícero W B; Silva, Hildo A S; Chaves, José A P; de Melo, Júlio C P; da Silva Filho, Edson C; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-07-30

    Extracted babassu coconut (Orbignya speciosa) mesocarp (BCM) was applied as a biosorbent for aqueous Blue Remazol R160 (BR 160), Rubi S2G (R S2G), Red Remazol 5R (RR 5), Violet Remazol 5R (VR 5) and Indanthrene Olive Green (IOG) dye solutions. The natural sorbent was processed batchwise while varying several system parameters such as stirring time, pH and temperature. The interactions were assayed with respect to both pseudo-first-order and second-order reaction kinetics, with the latter the more suitable kinetic model. The maximum adsorption was obtained at pH 1.0 for all dyes due to available anionic groups attached to the structures, which can be justified by pH(pzc) 6.7 for the biosorbent BCM. The ability of babassu coconut mesocarp to adsorb dyes gave the order R S2G>VR 5>BR 160>IOG>RR 5, which data were best fit to Freundlich model, but did not well-adjusted for all dyes. The dye/biopolymer interactions at the solid/liquid interface are all spontaneous as given by free Gibbs energy, with exothermic enthalpic values of -26.1, -15.8, -17.8, -15.8 and -23.7 kJ mol(-1) for BR 160, R S2G, RR 5, IOG and VR 5, respectively. In spite of the negative entropic values contribution, the set of thermodynamic data is favorable for all dyes removal. However, the results pointed to the effectiveness of the mesocarp of babassu coconut as a biosorbent for removing textile dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:19150173

  5. Biosorption studies on waste cotton seed for cationic dyes sequestration: equilibrium and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarajasekar, N.; Baskar, R.; Ragu, T.; Sarika, K.; Preethi, N.; Radhika, T.

    2016-01-01

    The immature Gossypium hirsutum seeds—an agricultural waste was converted into a novel adsorbent and its effectiveness for cationic dyes removal was discussed in this study. Characterization revealed that sulfuric acid activated waste Gossypium hirsutum seed (WGSAB) contains surface area 496 m2 g-1. The ability of WGSAB to adsorb basic red 2 (BR2) and basic violet 3 (BV3) from aqueous solutions has been studied. Batch adsorption studies were carried out at different initial dye concentrations (100-300 mg l-1), contact time (1-5 h), pH (2-12) and temperature (293-323 K) to understand the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Toth adsorption isotherms. Equilibrium data of the adsorption process fitted very well to the Toth model for both dyes. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 66.69 mg g-1 for BV3 and 50.11 mg g-1 for BR2 at optimum conditions. The near unity value of Toth isotherm constant (BR2: 0.999 and BV3: 1.0) indicates that WGSAB surface is heterogeneous in nature. The maximum adsorption capacity predicted by Toth isotherm of BV3 (66.699 mg g-1) is higher than BR2 (50.310 mg g-1). The kinetic investigation revealed that the BR2 and BV3 were chemisorbed on WGSAB surface following Avrami fractional order kinetics. Further, the fractional order and rate constant values are almost similar for every concentration in both the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH 0, ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 were evaluated. The dye adsorption process was found to be spontaneous and endothermic for the two dyes. Regeneration of WGSAB exhausted by the two dyes could be possible via acetic acid as elutant.

  6. [Allergy to dyes in stockings].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Schulz, K H

    1984-09-28

    Skin allergies caused by the wearing of stockings and hose have received little attention. Findings in patients of an allergy department, enquiries at stocking counters of stores and recent publications indicate, however, that probably many more persons have an allergy to stocking dyes than is generally thought. Skin tests with isolated stocking dyes indicate that azo dye dispersion yellow 3, dispersion orange 3 and dispersion red 1 are the most important contact allergens. They were demonstrated in 18-21 of the 23 hose examined. In textile materials, azo dye dispersion blue 124 is predominant among allergens. Cross-reactions may occur to other dispersion azo dyes, used in cosmetics, textiles, toiletries and hygenic articles, permitted food additives and hair dyes. It is suggested that in persons who have dye allergy or intolerance, decolouration followed by colouring with natural colours be undertaken. PMID:6479046

  7. Bioremediation of dyes in textile effluents by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Corso, Carlos Renato; Maganha de Almeida, Ana Carolina

    2009-02-01

    In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption was 2.50, though the autoclaved demonstrated a higher biosorption capacity than the non-autoclaved pellets. The toxicity level was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The calculated toxicity of PV-H3R (LC100 62.50 microg mL(-1)) was higher than to PR-HE7B (LC100 300.00 microg mL(-1)), and its results brought out that the decrease of toxicity levels to zero might be accomplished by adding small quantities of pelletized A. oryzae to the solutions. PMID:18989608

  8. A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Min-Jian; Xie, Ya-Bo; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework, (Me2NH2)2[Zn2L1.5bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H4L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH3)2NH2+, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acid Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO3.

  9. Tunable liquid crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltman, Scott J.

    Liquid crystal lasers are dye-doped distributed feedback lasing systems. Fabricated by coupling the periodic structure of a liquid crystal medium with a fluorescent dye, the emission from these systems is tunable by controlling the liquid crystal system---be it through electric or thermal field effects, photochemical reactions, mechanical deformations, etc. The laser action arises from an extended interaction time between the radiation field, the laser emission, and the matter field, the periodic liquid crystal medium, at the edge of the photonic band gap. In this thesis, several tunable liquid crystal laser systems are investigated: cholesteric liquid crystals, holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals and liquid crystal polarization gratings. The primary focus has been to fabricate systems that are tunable through electrical means, as applications requiring mechanical or thermal changes are often difficult to control. Cholesteric liquid crystal lasers are helical Bragg reflectors, with a band gap for circularly polarized light of equivalent handedness to their helix. These materials were doped with a laser dye and laser emission was observed. The use of an in-plane electric field tends to unwind the helical pitch of the film and in doing so tunable emission was demonstrated for ˜15 nm. Holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) are grating structures consisting of alternating layers of polymer and liquid crystal, with different indices of refraction. The application of an electric field index matches these layers and switches off the grating. Thus, laser emission can be switched on and off through the use of an electric field. Spatially tunable H-PDLC lasers were fabricated by creating chirped gratings, formed by divergent beams. The emission was shown to tune ˜5 nm as the pump beam was translated across a 1 inch film. Liquid crystal polarization gratings use photo-patterned alignment layers, through a polarization holography exposure, to induce an alignment in a liquid crystal film. Electrically tunable emission was demonstrated in these systems. Applications of liquid crystal lasers include emissive substrates or backplanes for displays or tunable emission sources for biology and medicine. The potential for such applications are discussed.

  10. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  11. 75 FR 34699 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 62743 (December 1, 2009). On December 31... Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010). Rescission of Countervailing Duty... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing...

  12. 75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68038... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). The Department intends to issue...

  13. 75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 977 (January 7, 2010... Administrative Review, 75 FR 26716 (May 12, 2010). Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by this order is... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

  14. 75 FR 29719 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    .... See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77995 (December... Pigment 23 from China and India; Determinations, 75 FR 27815 (May 18, 2010). Scope of the Order The... (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009). As...

  15. 75 FR 25209 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... in Part, and Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010... Review, 75 FR 10759 (March 9, 2010). In this notice we indicated that we would be conducting the changed... International Trade Administration A-533-838 Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... impurities can be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile matter (at 135 °C.), not more than...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... impurities can be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile matter (at 135 °C.), not more than...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall conform to the... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING...

  2. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and...

  3. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and...

  4. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section 500.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions §...

  5. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section 500.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions §...

  6. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section 500.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions §...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall conform to the... color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2- -5-methyl-benzenesulfonic... avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of volatile matter (at 135 °C) and chlorides and...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall conform to the... color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2- -5-methyl-benzenesulfonic... avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of volatile matter (at 135 °C) and chlorides and...

  9. Adaptive evolutionary paths from UV reception to sensing violet light by epistatic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; Jia, Huiyong; Yang, Hui; Koyama, Takashi; Faggionato, Davide; Liu, Yang; Starmer, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reception is useful for such basic behaviors as mate choice, foraging, predator avoidance, communication, and navigation, whereas violet reception improves visual resolution and subtle contrast detection. UV and violet reception are mediated by the short wavelength–sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (λmax) at ~360 nm and ~395 to 440 nm, respectively. Because of strong nonadditive (epistatic) interactions among amino acid changes in the pigments, the adaptive evolutionary mechanisms of these phenotypes are not well understood. Evolution of the violet pigment of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, λmax = 423 nm) from the UV pigment in the amphibian ancestor (λmax = 359 nm) can be fully explained by eight mutations in transmembrane (TM) I–III segments. We show that epistatic interactions involving the remaining TM IV–VII segments provided evolutionary potential for the frog pigment to gradually achieve its violet-light reception by tuning its color sensitivity in small steps. Mutants in these segments also impair pigments that would cause drastic spectral shifts and thus eliminate them from viable evolutionary pathways. The overall effects of epistatic interactions involving TM IV–VII segments have disappeared at the last evolutionary step and thus are not detectable by studying present-day pigments. Therefore, characterizing the genotype-phenotype relationship during each evolutionary step is the key to uncover the true nature of epistasis. PMID:26601250

  10. Molecular aggregation of naphthalimide dyes in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielejewska, Natalia; Bauman, Danuta

    2011-05-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films formed of some naphthalimide dyes, namely derivatives of 4-aminonaphthalimide, mixed with arachidic acid have been studied. The electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. The results obtained have led to conclusions about formation of self-aggregates of dye molecules. The absorption spectra have indicated that in the ground electronic state, depending on the molecular structure of substituents to the main core of the dye molecule, some fractions of J-type and/or H-type aggregates can be created. The fluorescence spectra have been dominated by the emission from excimer states. The efficiency of fluorescence has been dependent on the dye content and the number of layers in LB films. Comparison of the results of this study with those obtained previously for these same dyes mixed with the thermotropic liquid crystal 4-heptyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl has revealed that the interactions among dye molecules in monolayers formed at interfaces are strongly affected by a compound used as a supporting matrix.

  11. Reuse of reactive dyes for dyeing of jute fabric.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S N; Pan, N C; Day, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work was to find out suitable method of dyeing so that costly reactive dye can be reused without draining them. The bleached jute fabric was dyed with four different class of reactive dyes namely, cold brand, hot brand, vinyl sulphone and high exhaustion (HE) brand. It is found that the two-step two-bath method of reactive dyeing, where exhaustion and fixation step is separated, is most ideal for reuse of dye bath. Separate original samples produced K/S value same as that of original sample and the K/S value of separate reuse sample varied from 50% to 80% of the original sample depending on the class of dye. In case of same bath method, colour yield of original reuse samples varies from only 10% to maximum 30% of the original samples depending on the class of dyes. Reuse of reactive dyes following separate bath method is particularly suitable for higher depth of shade (4% and above). This process not only utilises costly reactive dyes to the maximum extent but it also produces low water pollution as the effluent contain minimum amount of dye. So the process is economic and eco-friendly as well. PMID:16154505

  12. Titanium: sapphire laser with dye-laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Michael J.; Lowde, N. A.

    1990-08-01

    A simple laser of titanium-doped sapphire in a plane mirror res9nator was pumped by a flashlamp pumped dye laser. The dye laser emitted pulses of duration 2 js (FWHM) and energy close to one joule at 490 nm. Values for the lasing threshold and slope efficiency (well above threshold) for the titanium :sapphire laser were derived by two methods. Firstly the experimental data were fitted by theory which took account of the spatial and temporal properties of the pump beam and had only the threshold and slope as adjustable parameters. Secondly, the parameters were calculated from the measured spectroscopic properties of the resonator mirrors and the crystal. The sets of derived parameters agreed within about I 5%. Two crystals were employed, with low figure of merit (27 for the higher-doped sample). The greatest overall efficiency was limited principally by the pump beam properties and not by losses in the crystals.

  13. Consequences of Ultra-Violet Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Spider Silk

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wee Loong; Goh, Kheng Lim

    2015-01-01

    The outstanding combination of high tensile strength and extensibility of spider silk is believed to contribute to the material’s toughness. Thus, there is great interest in engineering silk for biomedical products such as suture or implants. Additionally, over the years, many studies have also sought to enhance the mechanical properties of spider silk for wider applicability, e.g., by irradiating the material using ultra-violet radiation. However, the limitations surrounding the use of ultra-violet radiation for enhancing the mechanical properties of spider silk are not well-understood. Here, we have analyzed the mechanical properties of spider silk at short ultra-violet irradiation duration. Specimens of spider silk were subjected to ultra-violet irradiation (254-nm wavelength, i.e. UVC) for 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively, followed by tensile test to rupture to determine the strength (maximum stress), extensibility (rupture strain), and toughness (strain energy density to rupture). Controls, i.e., specimens that did not received UVC, were also subjected to tensile test to rupture to determine the respective mechanical properties. One-way analysis of variance reveals that these properties decrease significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing irradiation duration. Among the three mechanical parameters, the strength of the spider silk degrades most rapidly; the extensibility of the spider silk degrades the slowest. Overall, these changes correspond to the observed surface modifications as well as the bond rupture between the peptide chains of the treated silk. Altogether, this simple but comprehensive study provides some key insights into the dependence of the mechanical properties on ultra-violet irradiation duration. PMID:26378587

  14. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-25

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  15. Features of femtosecond laser pulses interaction with nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enikeeva, V. A.; Makarov, V. A.; Ozheredov, I. A.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the features of femtosecond laser pulses interaction with pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystals. For femtosecond laser pulses interacting with dye-doped nematic liquid crystal we found the distinction between the efficiency of liquid crystal director reorientation in comparison to the continuous wave irradiation. The mechanisms responsible for such distinction associated with changes of intermolecular forces under two-photon absorption and light induced changes of anchoring conditions are discussed.

  16. Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hwan; Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control , Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences , Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 ; Kim, Nam Doo; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Gyoonhee; Sim, Taebo; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •FAK signaling cascade in cancer cells is profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B. •Methyl violet 2B identified by virtual screening is a novel allosteric FAK inhibitor. •Methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity. •Methyl violet 2B suppresses strongly the proliferation of cancer cells. •Methyl violet 2B inhibits focal adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells. -- Abstract: The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1 nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion/migration/invasion of tumor cells.

  17. In Situ Mapping of the Molecular Arrangement of Amphiphilic Dye Molecules at the TiO₂ Surface of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Tétreault, Nicolas; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Stellacci, Francesco; Grätzel, Michael; Harms, Hauke A

    2015-05-27

    Amphiphilic sensitizers are central to the function of dye-sensitized solar cells. It is known that the cell's performance depends on the molecular arrangement and the density of the dye on the semiconductor surface, but a molecular-level picture of the cell-electrolyte interface is still lacking. Here, we present subnanometer in situ atomic force microscopy images of the Z907 dye at the surface of TiO2 in a relevant liquid. Our results reveal changes in the conformation and the lateral arrangement of the dye molecules, depending on their average packing density on the surface. Complementary quantitative measurements on the ensemble of the film are obtained by the quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation technique. An atomistic picture of the dye coverage-dependent packing, the effectiveness of the hydrophobic alkyl chains as blocking layer, and the solvent accessibility is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25936429

  18. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  19. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  20. Zeolite-Dye Microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietze, U.; Krauß, O.; Laeri, F.; Ihlein, G.; Schüth, F.; Limburg, B.; Abraham, M.

    1998-11-01

    We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-ethyl-4-[4-( p-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl]-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO 4-5 host. The zeolitic microcrystal compounds were hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-μm-diameter monolithic microresonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

  1. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  2. Albanian violets of the section Melanium, their morphological variability, genetic similarity and their adaptations to serpentine or chalk soils.

    PubMed

    Słomka, Aneta; Godzik, Barbara; Szarek-Łukaszewska, Grażyna; Shuka, Lulëzim; Hoef-Emden, Kerstin; Bothe, Hermann

    2015-02-01

    Violets of the section Melanium from Albanian serpentine and chalk soils were examined for their taxonomic affiliations, their ability to accumulate heavy metals and their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region showed that all the sampled six Albanian violets grouped between Viola lutea and Viola arvensis, but not with Viola tricolor. The fine resolution of the ITS sequences was not sufficient for a further delimitation of the Albanian violets within the V. lutea-V. arvensis clade. Therefore, the Albanian violets were classified by a set of morphological characters. Viola albanica, Viola dukadjinica and Viola raunsiensis from serpentine soils as well as Viola aetolica from a chalk meadow were unambiguously identified, whereas the samples of Viola macedonica showed high morphological variability. All the violets, in both roots and shoots contained less than or similar levels of heavy metals as their harboring soils, indicating that they were heavy metal excluders. All the violets were strongly colonized by AMF with the remarkable exception of V. albanica. This violet lived as a scree creeper in shallow serpentine soil where the concentration of heavy metals was high but those of P, K and N were scarce. PMID:25462973

  3. Violets of the section Melanium, their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their occurrence on heavy metal heaps.

    PubMed

    Słomka, A; Kuta, E; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G; Godzik, B; Kapusta, P; Tylko, G; Bothe, H

    2011-07-15

    Violets of the sections Melanium were examined for their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Heartsease (Viola tricolor) from several heavy metal soils was AMF-positive at many sites but not at extreme biomes. The zinc violets Viola lutea ssp. westfalica (blue zinc violet) and ssp. calaminaria (yellow zinc violet) were always AMF-positive on heavy metal soils as their natural habitats. As shown for the blue form, zinc violets germinate independently of AMF and can be grown in non-polluted garden soils. Thus the zinc violets are obligatorily neither mycotrophs nor metalophytes. The alpine V. lutea, likely ancestor of the zinc violets, was at best poorly colonized by AMF. As determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, the contents of Zn and Pb were lower in AMF colonized plants than in the heavy metal soils from where the samples had been taken. AMF might prevent the uptake of toxic levels of heavy metals into the plant organs. Dithizone staining indicated a differential deposition of heavy metals in tissues of heartsease. Leaf hairs were particularly rich in heavy metals, indicating that part of the excess of heavy metals is sequestered into these cells. PMID:21492955

  4. A comparative study on the properties, mechanisms and process designs for the adsorption of non-ionic or anionic dyes onto cationic-polymer/bentonite.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Yue, Qin-Yan; Sun, Hong-Jian; Su, Yuan; Gao, Bao-Yu

    2010-07-01

    The adsorption properties and mechanisms of a cationic-polymer/bentonite complex (EPI-DMA/bentonite), prepared from polyepicholorohydrin-dimethylamine and bentonite, for non-ionic dyes (Disperse Blue SBL and Vat Scarlet R) and anionic dyes (Reactive Violet K-3R and Acid Dark Blue 2G) were investigated in this study. The solution pH, presence of salt and surfactant can significantly affect the dye removal efficiency. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model is the most suitable to describe non-ionic dye adsorption, but for anionic dyes the Freundlich model is best. The kinetic data for the adsorption of different dyes were analyzed using pseudo first- and second-order equations, and the experimental data conformed to the pseudo second-order kinetic model better. The possibility of intraparticle diffusion was also examined by using the intraparticle diffusion equation. The single-stage batch adsorber design for the adsorption of both types of dyes onto EPI-DMA/bentonite was studied based on the Langmuir isotherm model for non-ionic dyes and the Freundlich isotherm model for anionic dyes. The results showed that the required amount of EPI-DMA/bentonite for 95% dye removal in 5 L dye solution with a concentration of 50 mg/L is 378.0 g for DB SBL, 126.5 g for VS R, 9.7 g for RV K-3R and 15.5 g for ADB 2G. PMID:20359811

  5. Investigation on efficient adsorption of cationic dyes on porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Guo, Song; Zeng, Changfeng; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2015-07-15

    We report here the preparation of porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres for efficient removal of cationic dyes by a simple polymerization-induced phase separation method. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that the microspheres show porous structures and magnetic properties. They can adsorb methylene blue with high efficiency, with adsorption capacity increasing from 263 to 1977 mg/g as the initial concentration increases from 5 to 300 mg/L. Complete removal of methylene blue can be obtained even at very low concentrations. The equilibrium data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm models, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 1990 mg/g. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial pH and reaches a maximum at pH 8, revealing an electrostatic interaction between the microspheres and the methylene blue molecules. The microspheres also show high adsorption capacities for neutral red and gentian violet of 1937 and 1850 mg/g, respectively, as well as high efficiency in adsorption of mixed-dye solutions. The dye-adsorbed magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres can be easily desorbed, and can be repeatedly used for at least 6 cycles without losing the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity and efficiency of the microspheres are much higher than those of reported adsorbents, which exhibits potential practical application in removing cationic dyes. PMID:25797927

  6. Chromatographic and spectroscopic identification and recognition of ammoniacal cochineal dyes and pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieli, A.; Sanyova, J.; Doherty, B.; Brunetti, B. G.; Miliani, C.

    2016-06-01

    In this work a combined chromatographic and spectroscopic approach is used to provide a diagnostic assessment of semi-synthetic ammoniacal cochineal through the syntheses of its dyes and lakes according to art historical recipes. Commercially introduced in the late XIX century as a dye and pigment, it was used to obtain a brilliant purplish/violet nuance which provided a more stable option over carminic acid although its evidenced use in manufacts and artworks of heritage importance have been scarcely documented. Through HPLC-DAD, it has been possible to identify 4-aminocarminic acid as the main component of ammoniacal cochineal highlighting a chemical formula analogous to acid stable carmine, a recent patented food dye. FTIR clearly distinguishes the amine group in the ammoniacal cochineal dye preparation and TLC-SERS allows for an adequate separation and spectral differentiation in its main components to be evidenced. Colloidal SERS has permitted spectral markers useful in discerning ammoniacal cochineal over carminic acid to be highlighted and discussed. Finally, the methods experimented in this study for the identification of ammoniacal cochineal have been validated on analyzing a sample of dyed wool.

  7. Chromatographic and spectroscopic identification and recognition of ammoniacal cochineal dyes and pigments.

    PubMed

    Chieli, A; Sanyova, J; Doherty, B; Brunetti, B G; Miliani, C

    2016-06-01

    In this work a combined chromatographic and spectroscopic approach is used to provide a diagnostic assessment of semi-synthetic ammoniacal cochineal through the syntheses of its dyes and lakes according to art historical recipes. Commercially introduced in the late XIX century as a dye and pigment, it was used to obtain a brilliant purplish/violet nuance which provided a more stable option over carminic acid although its evidenced use in manufacts and artworks of heritage importance have been scarcely documented. Through HPLC-DAD, it has been possible to identify 4-aminocarminic acid as the main component of ammoniacal cochineal highlighting a chemical formula analogous to acid stable carmine, a recent patented food dye. FTIR clearly distinguishes the amine group in the ammoniacal cochineal dye preparation and TLC-SERS allows for an adequate separation and spectral differentiation in its main components to be evidenced. Colloidal SERS has permitted spectral markers useful in discerning ammoniacal cochineal over carminic acid to be highlighted and discussed. Finally, the methods experimented in this study for the identification of ammoniacal cochineal have been validated on analyzing a sample of dyed wool. PMID:26985877

  8. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

  9. Dye Encapsulation in Polynorbornene Micelles.

    PubMed

    Bell, Nia C; Doyle, Samantha J; Battistelli, Giulia; LeGuyader, Clare L M; Thompson, Matthew P; Poe, Ambata M; Rheingold, Arnold; Moore, Curtis; Montalti, Marco; Thayumanavan, S; Tauber, Michael J; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2015-09-01

    The encapsulation efficiency of high-Tg polynorbornene micelles was probed with a hydrophobic dye 2,6-diiodoboron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY). Changes in the visible absorption spectra of aggregated versus monomeric dye molecules provided a probe for assessing encapsulation. Polynorbornene micelles are found to be capable of loading up to one BODIPY dye per ten polymers. As the hydrophilic block size increased in the polymeric amphiphiles, more of the dye was incorporated within the micelles. This result is consistent with the dye associating with the polymer backbone in the shell of the micelles. The encapsulation rate varied significantly with temperature, and a slight dependence on micellar morphology was also noted. Additionally, we report a 740 μs triplet lifetime for the encapsulated BODIPY dye. The lifetime is the longest ever recorded for a BODIPY triplet excited state at room temperature and is attributed to hindered triplet-triplet annihilation in the high-viscosity micellar shell. PMID:26305151

  10. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  11. Investigation of photosensitizing dyes for pathogen reduction in red cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S J; Skripchenko, A

    2003-01-01

    Despite recent advances in blood safety by careful donor selection and implementation of infectious disease testing, transmission of viruses, bacteria and parasites by transfusion can still rarely occur. One approach to reduce the residual risk from currently tested pathogens and to protect against the emergence of new ones is to investigate methods for pathogen inactivation. The use of photosensitizing dyes for pathogen inactivation has been studied in both red cell and platelet blood components. Optimal properties of sensitizing dyes for use in red cell suspensions include selection of dyes that traverse cell and viral membranes, bind to nucleic acids, absorb light in the red region of the spectrum, inactivate a wide range of pathogens, produce little red cell photodamage from dye not bound to nucleic acid and do not hemolyze red cells in the dark. Early research at the American Red Cross focused on the use of a class of dyes with rigid structures, such as the phenothiazine dyes, beginning with the prototypical sensitizer methylene blue. Results revealed that methylene blue phototreatment could inactivate extracellular virus, but resulted in undesirable defects in the red cell membrane that resulted in enhanced hemolysis that became evident during extended refrigerated blood storage. In addition, methylene blue phototreatment could neither inactivate intracellular viruses nor appreciably inactivate bacteria under conditions of extracellualar viral killing. Attempts to improve intracellular viral inactivation led to the investigations of more hydrophobic phenothiazines, such as methylene violet or dimethylmethylene blue. Although these dyes could inactivate intracellular virus, problems with increased red cell membrane damage and hemolysis persisted or increased. Further studies using red cell additive storage solutions containing high levels of the impermeable ion, citrate, to protect against colloidal osmotic hemolysis as well as competitive inhibitors to limit sensitizer binding to red cell membranes revealed that photoinduced hemolysis stemmed from dye bound to the red cell membrane as well as dye free in solution. Use of red cell additive solutions to prevent colloidal-osmotic hemolysis and use of novel flexible dyes that only act as sensitizers when bound to their targets are two techniques that currently are under investigation for reducing red cell damage. Ultimately, the decision to implement a photodynamic method for pathogen reduction will be determined by weighing the risks of unintended adverse consequences of the procedure itself, such as the potential for genotoxicity and allergic reactions, against the cost and benefits of its implementation. PMID:14714880

  12. Microwave synthesis of cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Winstead, Angela J; Williams, Richard; Zhang, Yongchao; McLean, Charlee; Oyaghire, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Heptamethine cyanine dyes are a class of near infrared (NIR) dyes that have captured the interest of the scientific community. Although applications that utilize NIR fluorescence technology are rapidly expanding, progress is limited by the lack of availability and cost of suitable compounds that can be utilized as labels and/or probes. Herein, we report the use of microwave assisted organic synthesis of five NIR cyanine dyes in yields ranging from 64-83% with a significant reduction in solvent use. Spectra characteristics including absorbance and emission spectra, molar absorptivity, quantum yield, fluorescence lifetime, and redox potentials were determined for each synthesized NIR cyanine dye. PMID:21721469

  13. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  14. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  15. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  16. Optical orientation of azo dye molecules in a thin solid film upon nonlinear excitation by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yongseok, Jung; Kozenkov, V M; Magnitskiy, Sergey A; Nagorskiy, Nikolay M

    2006-11-30

    The orientation of molecules in an amorphous pure azo dye film upon nonlinear excitation is detected for the first time. The simultaneous increase and decrease in the film transmission by a factor of 2.5 for orthogonal polarisations of probe radiation indicated the appearance of orientation order in the film caused by the reorientation of azo dye molecules. Due to a high photostability of the AD-1 azo dye demonstrated in single-photon experiments and a high efficiency of nonlinear orientation obtained in experiments with femtosecond pulses, this dye can be widely used in three-dimensional nanophotonic devices such as photonic crystals, optical computers, and optical memory. (letters)

  17. Decolouration of azo dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised into alginate beads.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Enayatzamir K; Alikhani HA; Yakhchali B; Tabandeh F; Rodríguez-Couto S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Because of high discharged volumes and effluent composition, wastewater from the textile industry can be considered as the most polluting amongst all industrial sectors, thus greatly requiring appropriate treatment technologies. Although some abiotic methods for the reduction of several dyes exist, these require highly expensive catalysts and reagents. Biotechnological approaches were proven to be potentially effective in the treatment of this pollution source in an eco-efficient manner. The white-rot fungi are, so far, the most efficient microorganisms in degrading synthetic dyes. This white-rot fungi's property is due to the production of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes, which are able to degrade a wide range of xenobiotic compounds because of their low substrate specificity. In this paper, we studied the ability of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised into Ca-alginate beads to decolourise different recalcitrant azo dyes such as Direct Violet 51 (DV), Reactive Black 5 (RB), Ponceau Xylidine (PX) and Bismark Brown R (BB) in successive batch cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the immobilisation of P. chrysosporium into Ca-alginate beads for its application in dye decolouration.MATERIALS AND METHODS: P. chrysosporium was immobilised into Ca-alginate beads using a method of gel recoating to minimise cellular leaking. The immobilised fungus was transferred to 250-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml of growth medium and incubated on an orbital shaker at 150 rpm and 30 degrees C for 7 days. The ratio of beads/medium used was 10% (w/v). The dyes were added into the culture flasks when MnP production started (50 U l(-1)), which corresponded with the seventh cultivation day. MnP activity and dye decolouration were measured spectrophotometrically.RESULTS: The dyes DV, RB and PX were almost totally decolourised at the end of each batch during the course of three successive batches. However, the dye BB was more resistant to decolouration and it was not completely decolourised (86.7% in 144 h). Further, the beads were kept in sterilised calcium chloride (2 g l(-1)) for 3 weeks at 4 degrees C. After these three storage weeks, the immobilised P. chrysosporium was again efficiently reused for azo dye decolouration during two successive batches, decolouration being more effective even for BB. Also, the in vitro decolouration of the aforementioned azo dyes by crude MnP from P. chrysosporium was performed. The decolouration levels obtained were lower than those attained with the whole cultures especially for RB and BB dyes, in spite of the fact that dye concentrations used were considerable lower.DISCUSSION: The good performance of the immobilisation system was likely due to the gel re-coating method utilised to prepare the alginate beads which not only maintained the beads integrity but also avoided cellular leaking. The lower decolouration percentages obtained by the enzyme indicates that the mycelial biomass may supply other intracellular or mycelial-bound enzymes, or other compounds that favour dye decolouration.CONCLUSIONS: Immobilised P. chrysosporium efficiently decolourised different types of azo dyes. In this decolouration process, the MnP secreted by the fungus played the main role whilst adsorption was found to be negligible except for the dye BB.RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Efforts should be made to scale up and apply fungal decolouration techniques to real industrial dye-containing wastewater. Further, detailed characterisation of the intermediates and metabolites produced during biodegradation must be done to ensure the safety of the decolourised wastewater.

  18. A violet emission in ZnS:Mn,Eu: Luminescence and applications for radiation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Liu, Xiao-tang

    2014-03-14

    We prepared manganese and europium co-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Mn,Eu) phosphors and used them for radiation detection. In addition to the red fluorescence at 583 nm due to the d-d transition of Mn ions, an intense violet emission at 420 nm is newly observed in ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. The emission is related to Eu{sup 2+} doping but only appears at certain Eu{sup 2+} concentrations. It is found that the intensity of the 420 nm violet fluorescence is X-ray does-dependent, while the red fluorescence of 583 nm is not. The ratio of fluorescence intensities at 420 nm and 583 nm has been monitored as a function of X-ray doses that exposed upon the ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. Empirical formulas are provided to estimate the doses of applied X-ray irradiation. Finally, possible mechanisms of X-ray irradiation induced fluorescence quenching are discussed. The intense 420 nm emission not only provides a violet light for solid state lighting but also offers a very sensitive method for radiation detection.

  19. Tertiary structure and spectral tuning of UV and violet pigments in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Starmer, William T.; Takahashi, Yusuke; Tada, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Many vertebrate species use ultraviolet (UV) vision for such behaviors as mating, foraging, and communication. UV vision is mediated by UV-sensitive visual pigments, which have the wavelengths of maximal absorption (λmax) at ~360 nm, whereas violet (or blue) vision is mediated by orthologous pigments with λmax values of 390–440 nm. It is widely believed that amino acids in transmembrane (TM) I–III are solely responsible for the spectral tuning of these SWS1 pigments. Recent molecular analyses of SWS1 pigments, however, show that amino acids in TM IV–VII are also involved in the spectral tuning of these pigments through synergistic interactions with those in TM I–III. Comparisons of the tertiary structures of UV and violet pigments reveal that the distance between the counterion E113 in TM III and amino acid sites 87–93 in TM II is narrower for UV pigments than for violet pigments, which may restrict the access of water molecules to the Schiff base pocket and deprotonate the Schiff base nitrogen. Both mutagenesis analyses of E113Q and quantum chemical calculations strongly suggest that unprotonated Schiff base-linked chromophore is responsible for detecting UV light. PMID:16343816

  20. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-01

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye.

  1. Effects of Dye Structure in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Anna R.

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are photovoltaic devices that may compete with standard silicon solar cells due to their ease of construction and lower cost [32]. Ruthenium dye structures, such as N3 (Ru -- (4,4' -- dicarboxylic acid -- 2,2' -- bipyridine)2(NCS)2), have shown promise for collection efficiencies near silicon photovoltaic levels [20, 33]. DSSCs have not achieved the reproducibility and maximum efficiency of silicon solar cells [33, 34]. Altering ligands on the dye molecules may affect the energies of light that are absorbed by the DSSC. Photovoltaic testing, including current versus voltage tests, of DSSCs with both narrow band monochromated light sources and broadband (AM1.5 solar simulator) allows comparison between maximum efficiency, short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, and spectral response (SR) for the dye molecules. By studying how the efficiency and power output change with different dye structures, the nature of how to increase efficiency of the DSSC can be addressed. Conjugation length of the ligands in ruthenium dye molecules can be shown, through square-well and Huckel theory calculations, to have a role in changing the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecules and the absorption of specific wavelengths of light by the DSSC. The efficiency, max power, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and SR were all measured for the DSSCs at wavelengths from 350 nm to 690 nm using a monochromated light source. Measurements taken at 20 nm steps reveal trends in the photon acceptance for dye molecules that can be linked to the conjugation length of the ligands in the dye through the SR. The change in the SR centroid and UV-VIS measurements indicate a trend toward increasing optimal wavelength with increasing conjugation length in the dye molecules; however these trends are not as pronounced as theoretical calculations for the dyes. This difference in wavelength shift occurs due to the theoretical calculations accounting for only the ligands rather than for the entire dye structure and DSSC construct. While the wavelength shift is small for the dyes in this study, the measured values indicate that increasing dye conjugation lengths may be a method for extension of photon acceptance into the IR region of the solar spectrum.

  2. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  3. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  4. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  5. Rationalizing the molecular origins of Ru- and Fe-based dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Low, Kian Sing; Cole, Jacqueline M; Zhou, Xiaolan; Yufa, Nataliya

    2012-04-01

    As part of an effort to design more efficient dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), structure-property relationships are established in the world's best-performing chemical series of dyes: 2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-carboxylatoruthenium(II) complexes. Statistical analysis, based on crystallographic data from the Cambridge Structural Database, is used to determine common structural features and the effects of structural change to its salient molecular constituents. Also included is the report of two new crystal structures for tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II)hexahydrate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)iron(II)dithiocyanate; these add to this statistical enquiry. Results show that the metal (M) core exhibits a distorted octahedral environment with M-N π-backbonding effects affording the propensity of the metal ion towards oxidation. The same characteristics are observed in iron-based analogues. The role of carboxylic groups in this series of dyes is assessed by comparing complexes which contain or are devoid of COOH groups. Space-group variation and large molecular conformational differences occur when COOH groups are present, while such structural features are very similar in their absence. The nature of the anion is also shown to influence the structure of COOH-containing complexes. These structural findings are corroborated by solution-based UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and DSC device performance tests. The presence of COOH groups in this series of compounds is shown to be mandatory for dye-uptake in TiO(2) in the DSC fabrication process. Throughout this study, results are compared with those of the world's most famous DSC dye, N3 (N719 in its fully protonated form): cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II). Overall, the molecular origins of charge-transfer in these complexes are ascertained. The findings have important implications to the materials discovery of more efficient dyes for DSC technology. PMID:22436912

  6. Non-Carbon Dyes For Platic Scintillators- Report

    SciTech Connect

    Teprovich, J.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Gaillard, J.; Sexton, L.; Washington, A.; Ward, P.; Velten, J.

    2015-10-19

    Scintillation based detectors are desirable for many radiation detection applications (portal and border monitoring, safeguards verification, contamination detection and monitoring). The development of next generation scintillators will require improved detection sensitivity for weak gamma ray sources, and fast and thermal neutron quantification. Radiation detection of gamma and neutron sources can be accomplished with organic scintillators, however, the single crystals are difficult to grow for large area detectors and subject to cracking. Alternatives to single crystal organic scintillators are plastic scintillators (PS) which offer the ability to be shaped and scaled up to produce large sized detectors. PS is also more robust than the typical organic scintillator and are ideally suited for deployment in harsh real-world environments. PS contain a mixture of dyes to down-convert incident radiation into visible light that can be detected by a PMT. This project will evaluate the potential use of nano-carbon dyes in plastic scintillators.

  7. Dielectric and thermal effects on the optical properties of natural dyes: a case study on solvated cyanin.

    PubMed

    Malcıoğlu, Osman Bariş; Calzolari, Arrigo; Gebauer, Ralph; Varsano, Daniele; Baroni, Stefano

    2011-10-01

    The optical properties of the flavylium state of the cyanin dye are simulated numerically by combining Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and linear-response time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The spectrum of the dye calculated in the gas phase is characterized by two peaks in the yellow and in the blue (green and violet), using a GGA-PBE (hybrid-B3LYP) DFT functional, which would bring about a greenish (bright orange) color incompatible with the dark purple hue observed in nature. Describing the effect of the water solvent through a polarizable continuum model does not modify qualitatively the resulting picture. An explicit simulation of both solvent and thermal effects using ab initio molecular dynamics results instead in a spectrum that is compatible with the observed coloration. This result is analyzed in terms of the spectroscopic effects of the molecular distortions induced by thermal fluctuations. PMID:21905678

  8. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Wang, Xuejiang; Yang, Aming; Xu, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

    2009-04-15

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery. PMID:18718709

  9. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  11. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  12. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  13. nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Shalan, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO3) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency ( η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively.

  14. A study of the feasibility of the use of gentian violet as a fungistat for poultry feed.

    PubMed

    Kingsland, G C; Anderson, J

    1976-05-01

    A 96% formulation of gentian violet was fungistatic to Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria sp., Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, and Penicillum citrinum when incorporated into corn meal agar at 6.5, 39.0, and 156.0 p.p.m. A. flavus, Alternaria sp., F. roseeum, and P. citrinum were inhibited on corn meal agar which had been amended with 12.8, 26.6, and 38.4 p.p.m. of gentian violet in a 2.54% commercial liquid concentrate of gentian violet employed as the active ingredient in a commercial poultry feed additive. Sporulation of these fungi was not inhibited by either of the formulations of gentian violet at any concentration. An anhydrous gentian violet poultry feed additive (containing 2.05% gentian violet) significantly reduced the numbers of A. flavus and F. moniliforme propagules recovered from artificially contaminated feed samples treated with 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 g./1000 kg. of the additive (20, 40, and 80 p.p.m. of gentian violet, respectively) and stored for 12 weeks at 8.5% moisture and compared with the numbers of propagules recovered from contaminated-unamended samples. The numbers of propagules of F. moniliforme and C. albicans recovered from the pre-mix amended samples held for 12 weeks at 19% moisture also were fewer (significantly fewer for F. moniliforme) than those recovered from the contaminated, unamended feed. Amending the A. flavus or F. moniliforme contaminated feed samples did not reduce the numbers of propagules recovered below the numbers present in the original feed samples. GV was fungistatic to the test fungi under the conditions in these studies, since it inhibited, but did not prevent development of the test fungi. A. flavus and F. moniliforme were the fungi isolated in greatest numbers from the original sample. PMID:819918

  15. Valorization of agricultural wastes as dye adsorbents: characterization and adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Luisa A; Cuevas, Fernando A; Contreras, Elsa G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the valorization of agricultural waste, wheat straw (WS) and corn cob leaves (CCLs) as textile dye adsorbents. Physico-chemical and superficial characteristics of the agricultural wastes, together with the interactions with the CI Basic Violet 4 (BV4) dye, were investigated by means of the determination of the isotherm adsorption at different temperatures. The morphological characterization showed that the solid surface is coarse with a low pore level. However, through Fourier transformed infrared analysis, the presence of carboxylic and hydroxylic acid groups and hydrophobic methyl groups was detected. The concentration of acid groups is determined by the Boehm method and was found to be 1.00 and 0.89 meq/g for WS and CCLs, respectively. The point zero charge for each adsorbent was 5.76 and 4.08. Adsorption experimental data presented a better-fit Langmuir model, indicating that adsorption occurred in a monolayer with preferential interaction. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 70.0-89.0 and 47.0-68.0 mg/g for CCLs and WS, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis of the Langmuir parameter b showed that the adsorption of the BV4 dye is spontaneous and exothermic with adsorption energies of 14.43 and 5.58 KJ/mol for CCLs and WS, respectively. PMID:25655393

  16. Facile microwave-assisted synthesis of titanium dioxide decorated graphene nanocomposite for photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayathri, Shunmugiah; Kottaisamy, Muniasamy; Ramakrishnan, Veerabahu

    2015-12-01

    An efficient and facile method was adopted to prepare TiO2-graphene (TG) nanocomposites with TiO2 nanoparticles uniformly distributed on graphene. By adjusting the amount of TiO2 precursor, both high and low dense TiO2 nanoparticles on graphene were effectively attained via electrostatic attraction between graphene oxide sheets and TiO2 nanoparticles. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by various characterization techniques. The TG nanocomposite showed an excellent activity for the photodegradation of the organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rose bengal (RB) under ultra violet (UV) light irradiation. The TG nanocomposite of TG 2.5 showed better photocatalytic performance than bare TiO2 nanoparticles and other composites. The enhanced activity of the composite material is attributed to the reduction in charge recombination and interaction of organic dyes with graphene. The decrease in charge recombination was evidenced from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The observed results suggest that the synthesized TG composites have a potential application to treat the industrial effluents, which contain organic dyes.

  17. Nanoporous membranes with cellulose nanocrystals as functional entity in chitosan: removal of dyes from water.

    PubMed

    Karim, Zoheb; Mathew, Aji P; Grahn, Mattias; Mouzon, Johanne; Oksman, Kristiina

    2014-11-01

    Fully biobased composite membranes for water purification were fabricated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as functional entities in chitosan matrix via freeze-drying process followed by compacting. The chitosan (10 wt%) bound the CNCs in a stable and nanoporous membrane structure with thickness of 250-270 μm, which was further stabilized by cross-linking with gluteraldehyde vapors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies revealed well-individualized CNCs embedded in a matrix of chitosan. Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) measurements showed that the membranes were nanoporous with pores in the range of 13-10nm. In spite of the low water flux (64 Lm(-2) h(-1)), the membranes successfully removed 98%, 84% and 70% respectively of positively charged dyes like Victoria Blue 2B, Methyl Violet 2B and Rhodamine 6G, after a contact time of 24h. The removal of dyes was expected to be driven by the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged CNCs and the positively charged dyes. PMID:25129796

  18. Selective removal of the violet color produced by anthocyanins in procyanidin-rich unfermented cocoa extracts.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C; Giusti, M Monica

    2011-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is rich in procyanidins, a large portion of which degrades during the natural fermentation process of producing cocoa powder. Recent advances in technology have enabled scientists to produce unfermented cocoa powder, preserving the original profile of procyanidins present in cocoa and allowing for the development of highly concentrated procyanidin-rich extracts. During this process, the anthocyanins naturally present in unfermented cocoa remain intact, producing a violet color in the final extract. The objective of this study was to selectively remove the violet color in procyanidin-rich extracts produced from unfermented cocoa powder, while maintaining the stability and composition of procyanidins present in the matrix. Several processing parameters, including pH fluctuations, enzymatic treatments, and the addition of potassium meta-bisulfite, were explored to influence the color of procyanidin-rich extracts throughout a 60-d shelf life study. The addition of potassium meta-bisulfite (500 ppm) was found to be the most effective means of removing the violet color present in the treated extracts (L*= 71.39, a*= 8.44, b*= 9.61, chroma = 12.79, and hue = 48.8˚) as compared to the control (L*= 52.84, a*= 11.08, b*= 2.24, chroma = 11.28, and hue = 11.4˚). The use of potassium meta-bisulfite at all treatment levels (200, 500, and 1000 ppm) did not show any significant detrimental effects on the stability, composition, or amount of procyanidins present in the extracts over the shelf life period as monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC-MS. This research will enable the food industry to incorporate highly concentrated procyanidin-rich extracts in food products without influencing the color of the final product. PMID:22417537

  19. Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary in Near-Infrared and Violet Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaics of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator in violet (top panel) and near-infrared (bottom panel) light. The four images that make up each of these mosaics were taken within a few minutes of each other. Sunlight at 757 nanometers (near-infrared) penetrates deep into Jupiter's troposphere before being absorbed or scattered by clouds to the Galileo spacecraft. This wavelength reveals the features of the lower visible cloud deck. Sunlight at 415 nanometers (violet) is a scattered or absorbed to varying degrees in different parts of Jupiter's atmosphere depending on the types and concentrations of cloud particles and chemicals that color Jupiter's atmosphere. The near-infrared mosaic primarily shows cloud features. The violet mosaic has three distinct regions: it is brightest at the latitude of the jet (horizontally across the center of the mosaic), moderately bright north of the jet, and dark and patchy south of the jet.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. Defect-engineered GaN:Mg nanowire arrays for overall water splitting under violet light

    SciTech Connect

    Kibria, M. G.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.; Trudeau, M. L.; Guo, H.

    2015-03-16

    We report that by engineering the intra-gap defect related energy states in GaN nanowire arrays using Mg dopants, efficient and stable overall neutral water splitting can be achieved under violet light. Overall neutral water splitting on Rh/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} co-catalyst decorated Mg doped GaN nanowires is demonstrated with intra-gap excitation up to 450 nm. Through optimized Mg doping, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency of GaN nanowires reaches ∼43% at 375–450 nm, providing a viable approach to extend the solar absorption of oxide and non-oxide photocatalysts.

  1. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R.

    2014-12-08

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  2. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M.

    2013-12-15

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

  3. Oxidation preventative capping layer for deep-ultra-violet and soft x-ray multilayers

    DOEpatents

    Prisbrey, Shon T.

    2004-07-06

    The invention uses iridium and iridium compounds as a protective capping layer on multilayers having reflectivity in the deep ultra-violet to soft x-ray regime. The iridium compounds can be formed in one of two ways: by direct deposition of the iridium compound from a prepared target or by depositing a thin layer (e.g., 5-50 angstroms) of iridium directly onto an element. The deposition energy of the incoming iridium is sufficient to activate the formation of the desired iridium compound. The compounds of most interest are iridium silicide (IrSi.sub.x) and iridium molybdenide (IrMo.sub.x).

  4. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Aurelien; Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  5. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry, which damages the mechanical properties of the fibers. PMID:22055328

  6. Dye removal by immobilised fungi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Couto, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Dyes are widely used within the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, textile and leather industries. This has resulted in the discharge of highly coloured effluents that affect water transparency and gas solubility in water bodies. Furthermore, they pose a problem because of their carcinogenicity and toxicity. Therefore, removal of such dyes before discharging them into natural water streams is essential. For this, appropriate treatment technologies are required. The treatment of recalcitrant and toxic dyes with traditional technologies is not always effective or may not be environmentally friendly. This has impelled the search for alternative technologies such as biodegradation with fungi. In particular, ligninolytic fungi and their non-specific oxidative enzymes have been reported to be responsible for the decolouration of different synthetic dyes. Thus, the use of such fungi is becoming a promising alternative to replace or complement the current technologies for dye removal. Processes using immobilised growing cells seem to be more promising than those with free cells, since the immobilisation allows using the microbial cells repeatedly and continuously. This paper reviews the application of fungal immobilisation to dye removal. PMID:19211032

  7. Fully resonant four-wave mixing spectroscopy of pentacene and dye molecules in condensed phases

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.C.

    1985-07-01

    Four-wave mixing spectroscopy (FWM) including coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and coherent Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CSRS) have been studied for pentacene doped in naphthalene crystals at low temperatures (4.5 to 35 K) in order to investigate nonlinear optical behavior of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility, X. Further, its application to study of cresyl violet perchlorate embedded in polyacrylic acid and in polyvinyl carbazole has been examined. Separate abstracting and indexing has been completed for the two papers.

  8. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  9. Optical characterization of azo dye-based electro-optic polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferm, Paul M.; Horn, Keith A.; Beeson, Karl W.; McFarland, Michael J.; Schwind, David R.; Yardley, James T.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the photochemistry and optical properties of an azo dye-based electro- optic (EO) copolymer, methacrylate-bound Disperse Red 1/methylmethacrylate (MA1). We present a complete picture of the optical properties of the copolymer at wavelengths ranging from 200 nm to 1800 nm with detection sensitivity over 6 orders of magnitude. We describe intrinsic measurements of absorption loss and also describe how temperature and radiation affect absorption loss. Photochemical investigations reveal details concerning photodelineation of waveguides in MA1. Irreversible photodegradation of the azo chromophore proceeds with both visible and ultra-violet radiation and a quantum yield of 2 X 10-5 is found for 475 nm radiation in MA1.

  10. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

  11. An analysis on effecting factors of ultra-violet imaging appliance in corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Yang, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Bi, Jiangang

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the operating principle of daylight UV imagers was introduced first, emphasizing the SBUV(solar blind UV) technology, which utilizes the fact that ultra violet between 240nm~280nm is being absorbed by the ozone so that signals detected on earth in this spectral range originate on earth. And then several influencing factors were explained, including observation distance, observing angle, imager gain settings and environmental conditions. Experimental data measured in the UHV(ultra high-voltage) DC converter station in Changzhi, Shanxi, China were analyzed using SRA(single regression analysis) method, and mathematical equations with acceptable deviation were calculated, with simulating curves plotted. The results show that environmental conditions including humidity and temperature, observation distance and imager gain settings all contribute to the measuring result, exhibiting as exponential function and convex function respectively. Concluded from the above analysis and calculation, observing conditions of a clear observing angle at the same observation distance with mediate gain settings on days of low humidity were recommended. This conclusion may guide further ultra-violet imaging appliance in high-voltage electrical devices corona discharge sensing.

  12. Fluorine-doped zinc oxide thin films: influence of precursor flow rate on violet luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, Anusha; Dakshnamoorthy, Arivuoli

    2015-06-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films were deposited by the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition method with variable precursor flow rates (0.5-2.5 ml/min). X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure of the derived FZO nanocrystalline thin films. Extensive crystallinity analysis of the film deposited at 1 ml/min was done by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Field emission scanning electron microscope images apparent the gradual evolution from spherical grains and hexagonal platelet like surface morphology with increased flow rate. Optical transparency and photoluminescence (PL) are strongly influenced by flow rate. PL intensity and transparency increase with decreased flow rate. The optical bandgap was tuned significantly by increase in flow rate and especially tuned the PL emission from violet to UV. High intense violet PL observed at flow rate of 1 ml/min and radiative transition of electrons from zinc vacancies level to the conduction band were found. Crystallinity, growth rate and roughness increase with increased flow rate.

  13. Bright, efficient, and color-stable violet ZnSe-based quantum dot light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aqiang; Shen, Huaibin; Zang, Shuaipu; Lin, Qingli; Wang, Hongzhe; Qian, Lei; Niu, Jinzhong; Song Li, Lin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, highly stable violet-blue emitting ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs have been synthesized by a novel ``low temperature injection and high temperature growth'' method. The resulting nearly monodisperse ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs exhibit excellent characteristics such as a high color saturation (typical spectral full width at half-maximum between 12 and 20 nm), good emission tunability in the violet-blue range of wavelengths from 400 to 455 nm, a high absolute PL quantum yield (up to 83%), and superior chemical and photochemical stability. By employing ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) as emitters with a fully solution processable method, bright, efficient, and color-stable violet Cd-free quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) with maximum luminance up to 2632 cd m-2 and a peak EQE of 7.83% have been demonstrated successfully. Considering the factors of the photopic luminosity function, the brightness and efficiency results of such violet QD-LEDs not only represent a 12-fold increase in device efficiency and an extraordinary 100 times increase in luminance compared with previous Cd-free QD-LEDs but also can be much superior to the best performance (1.7%) of their Cd-based violet counterparts. These results demonstrate significant progress in short-wavelength QD-LEDs and shed light on the acceleration of commercial application of environmentally-friendly violet QD-based displays and lighting.In this paper, highly stable violet-blue emitting ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs have been synthesized by a novel ``low temperature injection and high temperature growth'' method. The resulting nearly monodisperse ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs exhibit excellent characteristics such as a high color saturation (typical spectral full width at half-maximum between 12 and 20 nm), good emission tunability in the violet-blue range of wavelengths from 400 to 455 nm, a high absolute PL quantum yield (up to 83%), and superior chemical and photochemical stability. By employing ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) as emitters with a fully solution processable method, bright, efficient, and color-stable violet Cd-free quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) with maximum luminance up to 2632 cd m-2 and a peak EQE of 7.83% have been demonstrated successfully. Considering the factors of the photopic luminosity function, the brightness and efficiency results of such violet QD-LEDs not only represent a 12-fold increase in device efficiency and an extraordinary 100 times increase in luminance compared with previous Cd-free QD-LEDs but also can be much superior to the best performance (1.7%) of their Cd-based violet counterparts. These results demonstrate significant progress in short-wavelength QD-LEDs and shed light on the acceleration of commercial application of environmentally-friendly violet QD-based displays and lighting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06593j

  14. Production of antibodies for selective detection of malachite green and the related triphenylmethane dyes in fish and fishpond water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei-Chun; Fang, Jim-Min; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Wang, Da-Ming; Huang, Yi-Lin; Liu, Liang-Yirn; Chen, Pen-Heng; Chang, Tong-Hsuan

    2007-10-31

    This study provides a practical method for production of the antibodies against malachite green (MG) and its primary metabolite leucomalachite green (LMG). Two ELISA kits are constructed with the MG and LMG antibodies for detection of the residual MG and LMG in fish muscle and fishpond water. The detection limit is established at the level of 0.05 microg/L for both MG and LMG. Our ELISA kits show the advantages of good specificity, high sensitivity, and convenience in rapid screening of MG and LMG residues. The sample of fishpond water, without extraction or prior preparation, is directly assayed by the ELISA kit. More then 80 fish samples can be simultaneously tested in a kit. The toxic crystal violet and its metabolite leucocrystal violet of illegal use in aquaculture are detected by our prepared MG and LMG antibodies, whereas the antibodies do not cross-react with common antibiotics, sulfonamides, and benzene derivatives. PMID:17924699

  15. Dye-sensitized polyoxometalate for visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junkuo; Miao, Jianwei; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Zhao, Yang; Lev, Ovadia; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-08-28

    A simple and facile one-step method for the synthesis of an organic dye-functionalized polyoxometalate (POM) hybrid with visible-light photo-response was reported. The POM hybrid was fully characterized via single crystal XRD, powder XRD, FTIR and elemental analysis. The reaction of the organic dye with inorganic salts gave the dye-functionalized POM (MoBB3), in which the POM cluster was formed in situ. The electronic absorption peak of this hybrid was successfully extended beyond 680 nm. Photoelectrochemical measurement indicated that MoBB3 was photoresponsive under visible-light illumination, suggesting that it is an n-type (electron conductive) semiconducting material. This result might offer a method for the design of novel organic dye-functionalized POMs for photoelectric applications. PMID:26200796

  16. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13 V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed. PMID:26564241

  17. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-11-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13 V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f-5d transitions of the Ce3+ ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed.

  18. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13 V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f-5d transitions of the Ce(3+) ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed. PMID:26564241

  19. Conformation and chirality in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, John L.; Zhao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    High helical twisting powerchiral additives are required for an expanding variety of liquid crystal displays and devices. Molecular conformation plays a critical role in determining the helical twisting power, HTP, of chiral additives. We studied additives based on an isosorbide benzoate ester core. Molecular modeling revealed two low energy states with very different conformations for this core The ultra-violet absorption and NMR spectra show two stable isosorbide conformers These spectra reveal how the relative populations of these two conformations change with temperature and how this is related to the helical twisting power. Conformation changes can explain many of the observed anomalous responses of HPT to temperature.

  20. Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Laat, F.

    1966-01-01

    Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

  1. Stimulus-responsiveness and methyl violet release behaviors of poly(NIPAAm-co-AA) hydrogels chemically crosslinked with β-cyclodextrin polymer bearing methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Gao, Jun; Liu, Ruina; Zhao, Sanping

    2016-06-16

    To fabricate thermo- and pH-sensitive hydrogels functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) moieties, β-CD polymer bearing methacrylate (CDP-g-GMA) used as a reactive and functional crosslinker was synthesized, and then copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) in aqueous solution via UV-initiated free radical polymerization. The stimulus-responsiveness of the resultant hydrogels has been carried out by measuring the swelling ratio at different temperatures and pH values. The results showed that the thermo- and pH-sensitivities of the produced hydrogels were significantly dependent on the compositions of the hydrogels, and the dual sensitivities exhibited good reversible process. The interior morphology observed by SEM exhibited that the pore size of the hydrogels could be tailored by pH of the local medium. Using a water-soluble cationic dye methyl violet (MV) as a model drug, MV loading and release profiles of the hydrogels as potential drug controlled release carriers were evaluated. The MV release rate from CD-functionalized hydrogels was much slower than that from the hydrogel without β-CDs at both pH 2.0 and pH 7.4. The release of MV from CD-functionalized hydrogels at pH 2.0 was faster than that at pH 7.4, the release kinetics of MV from the CD-functionalized hydrogels displayed a sustained release profile, and the release mechanism followed Fickian diffusion. PMID:27152631

  2. Light controlled drug delivery containers based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres.

    PubMed

    Petriashvili, Gia; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Chubinidze, Ketevan

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a novel, light activated drug delivery containers, based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres. Upon exposure to UV/violet light, the spiropyran molecules entrapped inside the nematic liquid crystal micro spheres, interconvert from the hydrophobic, oil soluble form, to the hydrophilic, water soluble merocyanine one, which stimulates the translocation of the merocyanine molecules across the nematic liquid crystal-water barrier and results their homogeneous distribution throughout in an aqueous environment. Light controllable switching property and extremely high solubility of spiropyran in the nematic liquid crystal, promise to elaborate a novel and reliable vehicles for the drug delivery systems. PMID:26977353

  3. Light controlled drug delivery containers based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres

    PubMed Central

    Petriashvili, Gia; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Chubinidze, Ketevan

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel, light activated drug delivery containers, based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres. Upon exposure to UV/violet light, the spiropyran molecules entrapped inside the nematic liquid crystal micro spheres, interconvert from the hydrophobic, oil soluble form, to the hydrophilic, water soluble merocyanine one, which stimulates the translocation of the merocyanine molecules across the nematic liquid crystal-water barrier and results their homogeneous distribution throughout in an aqueous environment. Light controllable switching property and extremely high solubility of spiropyran in the nematic liquid crystal, promise to elaborate a novel and reliable vehicles for the drug delivery systems. PMID:26977353

  4. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  5. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  6. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  7. Localized surface plasmon-influenced fluorescence decay in dye-doped metallo-dielectric opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Dipak; Vijaya, R.

    2016-01-01

    Well-ordered opaline photonic crystals are grown by inward growing self-assembly method from Rhodamine B dye-doped polystyrene colloids. Subsequent to self-assembly, the crystals are infiltrated with gold nanoparticles of 40 nm diameter. Measurements of the stopband features and photoluminescence intensity from these crystals are supplemented by fluorescence decay time analysis. The fluorescence decay times from the dye-doped photonic crystals before and after the infiltration are dramatically different from each other. A lowered fluorescence decay time was observed for the case of gold infiltrated crystal along with an enhanced emission intensity. Double-exponential decay nature of the fluorescence from the dye-doped crystal gets converted into single-exponential decay upon the infiltration of gold nanoparticles due to the resonant radiative process resulting from the overlap of the surface plasmon resonance with the emission spectrum. The influence of localized surface plasmon due to gold nanoparticles on the increase in emission intensity and decrease in decay time of the emitters is established.

  8. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

    2010-01-01

    Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints. PMID:21189984

  9. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  10. Characteristics of nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cells using food dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinnezhad, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared using various food dyes. Food dyes are economically superior to organometallic dyes since they are nontoxic and inexpensive. The spectrophotometric evaluation of chosen food dyes in solution and on a TiO2 substrate show that the dyes form J-aggregation on the photoelectrode substrate. Oxidation of potential measurements for used food dyes ensured an energetically permissible and thermodynamically favorable charge transfer throughout the continuous cycle of a photo-electric conversion. The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on food dyes was studied. The results illustrate that the dye containing carboxylic acid and sulfonic acid as the acceptor group gave the maximum conversion efficiency 4.20%.

  11. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  12. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

  13. PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

  14. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  15. Violet-Pigmented Pseudomonads With Antifungal Activity From the Rhizosphere of Beans

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, W. A.; Papavizas, G. C.

    1963-01-01

    Bean rhizosphere bacteria antagonistic to four root-infecting fungi and an antibiotic produced by these bacteria were studied. The bacteria were violet-pigmented gram-negative rods, probably belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. The antibiotic, which was localized largely in the bacterial cell mass, was easily extracted with acetone. It was selectively active against a wide variety of plant-pathogenic and saprophytic fungi tested in vitro but was relatively inactive against bacteria. The compound, partially purified by chromatography, was soluble in all organic solvents tried, but nearly insoluble in water. It demonstrated no characteristic ultraviolet- or visible-absorption spectrum and was chemically unidentified. The antagonistic bacteria or crude antibiotic applied to buried buckwheat segments suppressed the colonization of this substrate by Rhizoctonia spp. The data suggested that the bacteria or the antibiotic may play a role in the suppression of root-infecting fungi in soil. PMID:16349643

  16. Complementary ion and extreme ultra-violet spectrometer for laser-plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Doria, D.; Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Ehrentraut, L.; Stiel, H.; Steinke, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W.; Priebe, G.

    2009-10-15

    Simultaneous detection of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) and ion emission along the same line of sight provides comprehensive insight into the evolution of plasmas. This type of combined spectroscopy is applied to diagnose laser interaction with a spray target. The use of a micro-channel-plate detector assures reliable detection of both XUV and ion signals in a single laser shot. The qualitative analysis of the ion emission and XUV spectra allows to gain detailed information about the plasma conditions, and a correlation between the energetic proton emission and the XUV plasma emission can be suggested. The measured XUV emission spectrum from water spray shows efficient deceleration of laser accelerated electrons with energies up to keV in the initially cold background plasma and the collisional heating of the plasma.

  17. Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Lower Solar Atmosphere During Solar Flares (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.

    2015-12-01

    The extreme ultra-violet (EUV) portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature- and density-sensitive line ratios, Doppler-shifted emission lines, nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this article I review some of the recent advances that have been made using these techniques to infer physical properties of heated plasma at footpoint and ribbon locations during the initial stages of solar flares. I primarily focus on studies that have utilised spectroscopic EUV data from Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar Dynamics Observatory/EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), and I also provide some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

  18. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K; Sharma, Ramesh C

    2013-08-01

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ~5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly. PMID:23719340

  19. A method for impregnating nylon transfer membranes with leucocrystal violet for enhancing and lifting bloody impressions.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Amy L; Brun-Conti, Leanora

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a quick and easy method for impregnating nylon transfer membranes with leucocrystal violet (LCV) for the purpose of lifting and enhancing impressions made in blood. A stamp that would simulate fine detail found in fingerprints or footwear was used to create impressions on a variety of substrates. Four different LCV formulations were tested to determine the effectiveness of the prepared membranes in lifting and enhancing the impressions. Further investigation involved the feasibility of using the LCV membranes in the field by studying the shelf life and storage of the impregnated membranes and the longevity of the lifted impressions. One of the formations studied demonstrated superior lifting and enhancing capabilities, as well as a prolonged shelf life and a resilience of the lifted impressions, thus proving LCV to be an extremely valuable technique. PMID:15171168

  20. 22 nm node contact hole formation in extreme ultra-violet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Jin; Kim, Kwan-Hyung; Park, Hyeong-Ryeol; Yeo, Jun-Yeob; Kim, Jai-Soon; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2008-03-01

    Patterning of contact hole is always the most difficult process among many types of pattern formations. Specially for the Extreme Ultra-Violet Lithography (EUVL), it will be even more difficult to make perfectly circled contact hole due to the shadow effect. The shape of contact hole will be elliptical because the vertical axis opening is different from the horizontal axis opening. We studied this behavior for 22 nm node contact hole patterns. We varied the pitch of the regular contact hole array. The dependency of the position and density is studied for the random array. In addition to that the thickness of the absorber and the reflectivity of the multilayer are varied to see non-circular contact hole. In order to make desired circular contact hole with uniform width, direction dependent mask bias is applied in addition to the normal optical proximity correction.

  1. Ultra-violet degradation behavior of polymeric backsheets of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei

    This study is designed to understand the ultra-violet (UV) degradation of polymeric backsheets used in PV modules. Commercial photovoltaic backsheets from four suppliers were UV-aged for up to 3000 hours. The aged samples were tested using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), shrinkage rate test, color measurements, UV-Vis-NIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dielectrical tests to study the microstructural, color, chemical and electrical properties. Yellowness Index (YI) and Delta E were used to quantify the color changes which were found in strong correlation with FTIR results. The characters of the surface cracks generated were found to be affected by degree of UV degradation and polymer chain alignment of the backsheets. Electrical properties were not significantly affected by UV irradiation. The results suggest insufficient UV aging time designated in current PV module test standard. A longer aging time is recommended for quality assurance.

  2. Bias Selectable Dual Band AlGaN Ultra-violet Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Miko, Laddawan; Franz, David; Guan, Bing; Stahle, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Bias selectable dual band AlGaN ultra-violet (UV) detectors, which can separate UV-A and UV-B using one detector in the same pixel by bias switching, have been designed, fabricated and characterized. A two-terminal n-p-n photo-transistor-like structure was used. When a forward bias is applied between the top electrode and the bottom electrode, the detectors can successfully detect W-A and reject UV-B. Under reverse bias, they can detect UV-B and reject UV-A. The proof of concept design shows that it is feasible to fabricate high performance dual-band UV detectors based on the current AlGaN material growth and fabrication technologies.

  3. A novel vacuum ultra violet lamp for metastable rare gas experiments.

    PubMed

    Daerr, Heiner; Kohler, Markus; Sahling, Peter; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Arabi-Hashemi, Ariyan; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus; Kalinowski, Martin B

    2011-07-01

    We report on a new design of a vacuum ultra violet (VUV) lamp for direct optical excitation of high laying atomic states, e.g., for excitation of metastable rare gas atoms. The lamp can be directly mounted to ultra-high vacuum vessels (p ≤ 10(-10)mbar). It is driven by a 2.45 GHz microwave source. For optimum operation, it requires powers of ~20 W. The VUV light is transmitted through a magnesium fluoride window, which is known to have a decreasing transmittance for VUV photons with time. In our special setup, after a run-time of the VUV lamp of 550 h the detected signal continuously decreased to 25% of its initial value. This corresponds to a lifetime increase of two orders of magnitude compared to previous setups or commercial lamps. PMID:21806171

  4. Analysis of observational data from Extreme Ultra-Violet Camera onboard Chang'E-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; He, Han; He, Fei; Chen, Bo; Feng, Jian-Qing; Ping, Jin-Song; Shen, Chao; Xu, Rong-Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Xin

    2016-02-01

    The Extreme Ultra-Violet Camera (hereafter EUVC) is a scientific payload onboard the lander of the Chang'E-3 (hereafter CE-3) mission launched on December 1st, 2013. Centering on a spectral band around 30.4 nm, EUVC provides the global images of the Earth's plasmasphere from the meridian view, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 R_{oplus} in 150 × 150 pixels and a cadence of 10 minutes. Along with the data being publicly released online, some unsettled issues in the early stage have been clarified, including the geometrical preparations, the refined approach on the coefficient K for the background, and the alignment among the images. A demo of data after all the above processes is therefore presented as a guidance for users who are studying the structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere.

  5. Gentian Violet: A 19th Century Drug Re-Emerges in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Maley, Alexander M.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an anti-typranosomal, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this paper is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy, and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century. Given that GV is well tolerated, effective and inexpensive, its use in dermatology is predicted to increase. PMID:24118276

  6. Strong room-temperature blue-violet photoluminescence of multiferroic BaMnF4.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Weng, Yakui; Wu, Zhangting; Wang, Jinlong; Wu, Lingzhi; Ni, Zhenhua; Xu, Qingyu; Dong, Shuai

    2016-01-21

    BaMnF4 microsheets have been prepared using a hydrothermal method. Strong room-temperature blue-violet photoluminescence has been observed (an absolute luminescence quantum yield of 67%) with two peaks located at 385 nm and 410 nm. More interestingly, photon self-absorption phenomenon has been observed, leading to an unusual abrupt decrease in the luminescence intensity at a wavelength of 400 nm. To understand the underlying mechanism of such emission, the electronic structure of BaMnF4 has been studied using first principles calculations. The observed two peaks are attributed to electron transitions between the upper-Hubbard bands of the Mn's t2g orbitals and the lower-Hubbard bands of the Mn's eg orbitals. The Mott gap mediated d-d orbital transitions may provide additional degrees of freedom to tune the photon generation and absorption in ferroelectrics. PMID:26687543

  7. Detection of biological warfare agents using ultra violet-laser induced fluorescence LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; Kumar, Deepak; Maini, Anil K.; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    This review has been written to highlight the threat of biological warfare agents, their types and detection. Bacterial biological agent Bacillus anthracis (bacteria causing the disease anthrax) which is most likely to be employed in biological warfare is being discussed in detail. Standoff detection of biological warfare agents in aerosol form using Ultra violet-Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) spectroscopy method has been studied. Range-resolved detection and identification of biological aerosols by both nano-second and non-linear femto-second LIDAR is also discussed. Calculated received fluorescence signal for a cloud of typical biological agent Bacillus globigii (Simulants of B. anthracis) at a location of ˜5.0 km at different concentrations in presence of solar background radiation has been described. Overview of current research efforts in internationally available working UV-LIF LIDAR systems are also mentioned briefly.

  8. 75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 62743... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010)....

  9. 75 FR 12497 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... China, 69 FR 77987 (December 29, 2004); Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004... 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November...

  10. 75 FR 25840 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68780 (December 29, 2009) (Preliminary Results). The final... the Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice is published in accordance... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Extension...

  11. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Pigment 23 (CVP-23) ] from India pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-year (Sunset) Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009) (Initiation Notice). On... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited...

  12. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...-Circumstances Review, 75 FR 52930 (August 30, 2010). Although we gave interested parties an opportunity to... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 38076 (July 1, 2010). Notification This notice serves as a... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping...

  13. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and…

  14. Terrific Trichomes (and Other Specialised Cells) in African Violets: How to Get a Lot from One Plant in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Vicki M.

    2013-01-01

    African violet (genus "Saintpaulia") was identified as a particularly suitable genus for the study of specialised plant cells in the classroom using microscopes. The techniques described here involve simple preparation without staining. The cells and structures that can be investigated include: trichomes (hairs); stomata; guard cells and

  15. 75 FR 29718 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India and the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009); See also Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India, 74 FR 56663 (November 2, 2009). \\1\\ On December 29, 2004, the...

  16. 77 FR 1463 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ...On September 6, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary intent to rescind the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ This administrative review covers Toyo Ink Mfg. America, LLC and Toyo Ink Mfg. Co., Ltd. (collectively, Toyo) for the December 1, 2009, through......

  17. HPLC Determination and MS Confirmation of Malachite Green, Gentian Violet, and Their Leuco Metabolites in Catfish Muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residues of malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), and their leuco metabolites in catfish muscle were individually determined by HPLC using visible and fluorescence detectors. This detection scheme obviated a PbO2 column that converts leuco forms to chromatic forms for visible detection, thus el...

  18. Enhanced violet photoemission of nanocrystalline fluorine doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anusha, Muthukumar; Arivuoli, D.; Manikandan, E.; Jayachandran, M.

    2015-09-01

    Highly stable fluorine doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films were prepared on corning glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) at variable deposition temperature of 360 °C, 380 °C and 420 °C. Especially, the optimum deposition temperature was investigated for high intense violet emission. The film crystallinity improved with the increasing deposition temperature and highly textured film was obtained at 420 °C. The films exhibited surface morphology variation from spherical to platelets due to deposition temperature effect, analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Higher growth rate observed at 420 °C which leads larger grains and lowest resistivity of ∼5.77 Ω cm among the deposited films which may be due to reduction in zinc vacancies and grain boundary area. Zinc vacancies are acts as electron killer centres. UV-visible spectra indicated higher transmittance (83-90%) in the visible region. Red shift of optical absorption edges associated with the increase in particle size consistent well with the XRD results. Reduced E2(high) intensity was observed in Raman spectra, for the film deposited at 380 °C which indicates decreased oxygen incorporation confirmed by PL spectra. Especially, enhanced violet emission observed at 3.06 eV for the films deposited at 380 °C due to electronic transition from the defect level of zinc vacancies to the conduction band, probably attributed to enhanced incorporation of 'F' into 'O' sites associated with increased Zn vacancies and also decreased oxygen incorporation consistent with the electrical and Raman analyses.

  19. Vacuum Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of Laboratory-Simulated Astrophysical Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. P.; Dawes, A.; Holtom, P. D.; Mukerji, R. J.; Sivaraman, B.; Webb, S. M.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Shaw, D. A.; Mason, N. J.

    Over recent years it has become clear that solid phase processes in the interstellar medium (ISM) are responsible for a significant amount of molecular formation in these regions. A combination of astronomical spectroscopy and laboratory-based simulations has greatly enhanced our understanding of those molecules which are present in the ISM and provided information on their formation mechanisms. Although infra-red spectroscopy has been widely used in these studies and is a common observational tool other spectroscopic techniques are now being developed. We have carried out a number of experiments looking at the electronic structure of simple molecular ices (such as H2O, NH3, CO, CO2, SO2 and CH4) using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) spectroscopy. In addition to complementing existing infra-red spectra, knowing the electronic structure of ices allows us to understand the processes which take place during irradiation by ultra-violet photons, a common source of ice surface modification in the interstellar medium. In our experiments we have used synchrotron beam-lines at Daresbury Laboratory (UK) and Aarhus University (Denmark) as the irradiating source providing UV light at wavelengths between 120nm and 350nm. A small ultra-high vacuum chamber with an in-built cryostat system was attached to the beam-line (for more information see Dawes, Holtom & Mason (2003)). A magnesium fluoride or calcium fluoride substrate was cooled to between 20K and 100K allowing the sample molecules to physisorb upon it. Typical ice thicknesses range from 0.1μm and 3μm, depending on the UV absorption properties of the ice involved. In this poster we present VUV spectra of several typical astrochemical molecules showing how the electronic structures of different ice systems are affected by their temperature and deposition speed. The importance of VUV spectroscopy as an astrochemical and possible observation technique will be discussed at the meeting.

  20. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY OF RED AND VIOLET MIXTURES - CHAMBER CONCENTRATION AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inhalation exposure facility was developed at the U.S. EPA, RTP, NC to conduct inhalation exposures of rodents and guinea pigs to dye mixtures used by the U.S. Army in the manufacture of smoke munitions. nitially, an evaluation of the prototype chamber aerosol homogeneity was ...