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Sample records for crystal violet dye

  1. Spectral characteristics and nonlinear studies of crystal violet dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumaran, V. Sindhu; Ramalingam, A.

    2006-03-01

    Solid-state dye-doped polymer is an attractive alternative to the conventional liquid dye solution. In this paper, the spectral characteristics and the nonlinear optical properties of the dye crystal violet are studied. The spectral characteristics of crystal violet dye doped poly(methylmethacrylate) modified with additive n-butyl acetate (nBA) are studied by recording its absorption and fluorescence spectra and the results are compared with the corresponding liquid mixture. The nonlinear refractive index of the dye in nBA and dye doped polymer film were measured using z-scan technique, by exciting with He-Ne laser. The results obtained are intercompared. Both the samples of dye crystal violet show a negative nonlinear refractive index. The origin of optical nonlinearity in the dye may be attributed due to laser-heating induced nonlinear effect.

  2. Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye using a Light Emitting Diode Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; O'Neal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple method to estimate the photocatalytic reactivity performance of spray-on titanium dioxide coatings for transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This novel technique provides a standardized method to evaluate the efficiency of photocatalytic material systems over a variety of illumination levels. To date, photocatalysis assessments have generally been conducted using mercury black light lamps. Illumination levels for these types of lamps are difficult to vary, consequently limiting their use for assessing material performance under a diverse range of simulated environmental conditions. This new technique uses an ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light emitting diode (LED) array instead of a traditional black light to initiate and sustain photocatalytic breakdown. This method was tested with a UV-resistant dye (crystal violet) applied to a titanium dioxide coated glass slide. Experimental control is accomplished by applying crystal violet to both titanium dioxide coated slides and uncoated control slides. A slide is illuminated by the UV LED array, at various light levels representative of outdoor and indoor conditions, from the dye side of the slide. To monitor degradation of the dye over time, a temperature-stabilized white light LED, whose emission spectrum overlaps with the dye absorption spectrum, is used to illuminate the opposite side of the slide. Using a spectrometer, the amount of light from the white light LED transmitted through the slide as the dye degrades is monitored as a function of wavelength and time and is subsequently analyzed. In this way, the rate of degradation for photocatalytically coated versus uncoated slide surfaces can be compared. Results demonstrate that the dye absorption decreased much more rapidly on the photocatalytically coated slides than on the control uncoated slides, and that dye degradation is dependent on illumination level. For photocatalytic activity assessment purposes, this experimental configuration and methodology minimizes many external variable effects and enables small changes in absorption to be measured. This research also compares the advantages of this innovative LED light source design over traditional mercury black light systems and non- LED lamp approaches. This novel technology begins to address the growing need for a standard method that can assess the performance of photocatalytic materials before deployment for large scale, real world use.

  3. An LED Approach for Measuring the Photocatalytic Breakdown of Crystal Violet Dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.; ONeal, Duane; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A simple technique to assess the reactivity of photocatalytic coatings sprayed onto transmissive glass surfaces was developed. This new method uses ultraviolet (UV) gallium nitride (GaN) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to drive a photocatalytic reaction (the photocatalytic breakdown of a UV-resistant dye applied to a surface coated with the semiconductor titanium dioxide); and then a combination of a stabilized white light LED and a spectrometer to track the dye degradation as a function of time. Simple, standardized evaluation techniques that assess photocatalytic materials over a variety of environmental conditions, including illumination level, are not generally available and are greatly needed prior to in situ application of photocatalytic technologies. To date, much research pertaining to this aspect of photocatalysis has been limited and has focused primarily on laboratory experiments using mercury lamps. Mercury lamp illumination levels are difficult to control over large ranges and are temporally modulated by line power, limiting their use in helping to understand and predict how photocatalytic materials will behave in natural environmental settings and conditions. The methodology described here, using steady-state LEDs and time series spectroradiometric techniques, is a novel approach to explore the effect of UV light on the photocatalytic degradation of a UV resistant dye (crystal violet). GaN UV LED arrays, centered around 365 nm with an adjustable DC power supply, are used to create a small, spatially uniform light field where the steady state light level can be varied over three to four orders of magnitude. For this study, a set of glass microscope slides was custom coated with a thinly sprayed layer of photocatalytic titanium dioxide. Crystal violet was then applied to these titanium-dioxide coated slides and to uncoated control slides. The slides were then illuminated at various light levels from the dye side of the slide by the UV LED array. To monitor dye degradation on the slides over time, a temperature-stabilized white light LED was used to illuminate the opposite side of the slides. As the dye degraded, the amount of light from the white light LED transmitted through the slide was monitored with a spectrometer and subsequently analyzed to determine and compare the rate of dye degradation for photocatalytically coated versus uncoated slide surfaces. The long-term stability of the spectrometer/white light LED combination, which required only a single reference spectra to be taken for a time series sequence of several hours, enabled accurate measurements of transmitted light over time. Time series transmission curves were generated and results demonstrated that over time the transmission increased much more rapidly on the coated slides than on the control slides. This experimental configuration and methodology for photocatalytic activity measurement minimizes many external variable effects and allows low light level studies to be performed. This study also compares the advantages of this novel LED light source design to traditional mercury lamp systems and non-LED lamp approaches that have conventionally been used. The methodology and experimental design research summarized in this abstract is partly funded by the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate, and by the NASA Stennis Space Center Innovative Partnerships Program.

  4. Radiochromic leuco dye micelle hydrogels: II. Low diffusion rate leuco crystal violet gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Steven; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Radiation-sensitive hydrogels offer the capability of verifying intricate dose distributions in three-dimensional (3D) space conveniently in a single measurement with sub-millimetre spatial resolution. In this study, a new radiochromic hydrogel called leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel is introduced. Upon irradiation, LCV converts to crystal violet (CV+). Triton X-100 micelles are used to provide the required hybrid-interfacing environment to dissolve LCV. The diffusion coefficient of the LCV gel has been measured to be 0.036 ± 0.001 mm2 h-1, which is a factor of 25 times less than the standard radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) gel; LCV gels without Triton X-100 micelles have a diffusion coefficient of 0.33 ± 0.02 mm2 h-1. The LCV gel formulation contains: 1 mM LCV, 25 mM trichloroacetic acid, 4 mM Triton X-100 and 4% w/w gelatin. The primary innovative feature of this 3D hydrogel is that the radiation-induced CV+ dye is more soluble in the Triton X-100 micelles than in the surrounding water which consequently leads to more stable post-irradiation dose distributions. A dosimetric characterization revealed that the dose response is reproducible to within 1% over three separate batches, independent of energy, dose rate and dose fractionation but is affected by the temperature (~4% per °C) during irradiation. LCV micelle gels scanned optically with a yellow light source are a promising system for 3D dose verification. They may prove to be, especially, useful for scanning large volume dosimeters (i.e. 20 cm) since they are easily manufactured, transparent and near colourless prior to irradiation.

  5. Study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering of Alizarin and Crystal Violet Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Ram; Swarnkar, Raj Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plays a vital role in analytical chemistry to characterize ultra trace quantity of organic compounds and biological samples. Two mechanisms have been considered to explain the SERS effect. The main contribution arises from a huge enhancement of the local electromagnetic field close to surface roughness of the metal structures, due to the excitation of a localized surface plasmon, while a further enhancement can be observed for molecules adsorbed onto specific sites when resonant charge transfer occurs. SERS signals have been observed from adsorbates on many metallic surfaces like Ag, Au, Ni, Cu etc. Additionally, metal oxide nanoparticles also show SERS signals It has now been established that SERS of analyte material is highly dependent on the type of substrate involved. Many types of nanostructures like nanofilms, nanorods, nanospheres etc. show highly efficient SERS signals. In particular, there are two routes available for the synthesis of these nanomaterials: the chemical route and the physical route. Chemical route involves many types of reducing agents and capping agents which can interfere in origin and measurement of these signals. The physical route avoids these anomalies and therefore it is suitable for the study of SERS phenomenon. Pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is an excellent top down technique to produce colloidal solution of nanoparticles with desired shape and size having surface free from chemical contamination, which is essential requirement for surface application of nanoparticles. The present work deals with the study of SERS of Crystal violet dye and Alizarin group dye on Cu@ Cu_2O and Ag colloidal nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation. M. Fleishchmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillian Chem. Phys. Lett., 26, 163, 1974. U. Wenning, B. Pettinger, and H. Wetzel Chem. Phys. Lett., 70, 49, 1980. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, P. Ankit, M. C. Chattopadhyaya, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc., 1075, 67, 2008. S. C. Singh, R. K. Swarnkar, and R. Gopal J. Nanosci.. Nanotech., 9, 5367, 2009. R. K. Swarnkar, S. C. Singh, and R. Gopal AIP Conf. Proc., 1147, 205, 2009.

  6. Determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS: first action 2012.25.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Couëdor, Pierrick; Verdon, Eric; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    During the AOAC Annual Meeting held from September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, NV, the Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Veterinary Drug Residues reviewed data for the method for determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS, previously published in the Journal of Chromatography A 1218, 1632-1645 (2006). The method data were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) found in SMPR 2009.001, published in AOAC's Official Methods of Analysis, 19th Ed. (2012). The ERP determined that the data were acceptable, and the method was approved AOAC Official First Action. The method uses acetonitrile to isolate the analyte from the matrix. Then determination is conducted by LCIMS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. Accuracy ranged from 100.1 to 109.8% for samples fortified at levels of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/kg. Precision ranged from 2.0 to 10.3% RSD for the intraday samples and 1.9 to 10.6% for the interday samples analyzed over 3 days. The described method is designed to accurately operate in the analytical range from 0.5 to 2 microg/kg, where the minimum required performance limit for laboratories has been fixed in the European Union at 2.0 microg/kg for these banned substances and their metabolites. Upper levels of concentrations (1-100 microg/kg) can be analyzed depending on the different optional calibrations used. PMID:24282960

  7. Crystal violet reactions of coagulase negative staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, R; Burdess, D; Smith, S

    1994-01-01

    Twenty four reference strains and 112 clinical isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were examined for their reactions in the crystal violet test. Some species gave a white reaction and others a purple reaction. Results were consistent and reproducible and each species gave only one pattern of crystal violet reaction. Within the limited variety of species represented in the clinical isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and S haemolyticus gave crystal violet purple reactions, in contrast to S epidermidis, which always gave a white reaction. Investigations suggested that the mechanism of the crystal violet test in S haemolyticus may be similar to that previously described in S aureus. Further work is needed to characterise the ability of crystal violet to modify S epidermidis and other central nervous system species. The crystal violet reaction, which has strong associations with invasiveness, phage group susceptibilities, colonisation persistence abilities, and nosocomial origin in S aureus may also be useful in studies of CNS disease. PMID:8163706

  8. IncP-1? plasmids of Comamonas sp. and Delftia sp. strains isolated from a wastewater treatment plant mediate resistance to and decolorization of the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Stolze, Yvonne; Eikmeyer, Felix; Wibberg, Daniel; Brandis, Gerrit; Karsten, Christina; Krahn, Irene; Schneiker-Bekel, Susanne; Viehöver, Prisca; Barsch, Aiko; Keck, Matthias; Top, Eva M; Niehaus, Karsten; Schlüter, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The application of toxic triphenylmethane dyes such as crystal violet (CV) in various industrial processes leads to large amounts of dye-contaminated sludges that need to be detoxified. Specific bacteria residing in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are able to degrade triphenylmethane dyes. The objective of this work was to gain insights into the genetic background of bacterial strains capable of CV degradation. Three bacterial strains isolated from a municipal WWTP harboured IncP-1? plasmids mediating resistance to and decolorization of CV. These isolates were assigned to the genera Comamonas and Delftia. The CV-resistance plasmid pKV29 from Delftia sp. KV29 was completely sequenced. In addition, nucleotide sequences of the accessory regions involved in conferring CV resistance were determined for plasmids pKV11 and pKV36 from the other two isolates. Plasmid pKV29 contains typical IncP-1? backbone modules that are highly similar to those of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids that confer antibiotic resistance, degradative capabilities or mercury resistance. The accessory regions located between the conjugative transfer (tra) and mating pair formation modules (trb) of all three plasmids analysed share common modules and include a triphenylmethane reductase gene, tmr, that is responsible for decolorization of CV. Moreover, these accessory regions encode other enzymes that are dispensable for CV degradation and hence are involved in so-far-unknown metabolic pathways. Analysis of plasmid-mediated degradation of CV in Escherichia coli by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight MS revealed that leuco crystal violet was the first degradation product. Michler's ketone and 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde appeared as secondary degradation metabolites. Enzymes encoded in the E. coli chromosome seem to be responsible for cleavage of leuco crystal violet. Plasmid-mediated degradation of triphenylmethane dyes such as CV is an option for the biotechnological treatment of sludges contaminated with these dyes. PMID:22653947

  9. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Bumpus, J A; Brock, B J

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N'',N''-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N''-tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N''-trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus. An unexpected result was the finding that substantial degradation of crystal violet also occurred in nonligninolytic (nitrogen-sufficient) cultures of P. chrysosporium, suggesting that in addition to the lignin-degrading system, another mechanism exists in this fungus which is also able to degrade crystal violet. PMID:3389809

  10. Analysis of incurred crystal violet in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): comparison between the analysis of crystal violet as an individual parent and leucocrystal violet and as total crystal violet after oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Tarbin, J A; Stubbings, G; Kay, J; Sharman, M

    2012-01-01

    Due to on-going concern about the occurrence of triphenylmethane dye residues in fish destined for human consumption, a depletion study of crystal violet in salmon was carried out. Atlantic salmon less than 12 months old were exposed to crystal violet in fresh water at 15°C and subsequently sampled at 1, 7, 14, 28, 63 and 91 days after exposure. The salmon were then analysed by two analytical methods. In the first method, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) was used to oxidise leucocrystal violet to its parent form. Total parent crystal violet was then analysed by LC-MS/MS. In the second method, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet were analysed individually by LC-MS/MS without oxidation. Both methods gave comparable results for total crystal violet concentrations, with a correlation of r(2)=0.69. Statistical treatment for 88 incurred salmon samples showed no significant difference between the two sets of results with t=1.68 and t(crit)=1.99. Up to 98% of crystal violet was metabolised to its leuco form in the salmon after 1 day of exposure and could be detected at significant concentrations (approximately 20 µg kg(-1)) 91 days after exposure. The depletion data also suggest that crystal violet has a half-life of approximately 15-16 days in salmon. PMID:22043964

  11. Biodegradation of crystal violet by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.; Brock, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N',N''- hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,N',N',N'' -pentamethylpararosaniline, N,N,N',N'' -tetramethylpararosaniline, and N,N',N'' -trimethylpararosaniline) formed by sequential N-demethylation of the parent compound. Metabolite formation also occurred when crystal violet was incubated with the extracellular fluid obtained from ligninolytic cultures of this fungus, provided that an H2O2-generating system was supplied. This, as well as the fact that a purified ligninase catalyzed N-demethylation of crystal violet, demonstrated that biodegradation of crystal violet by this fungus is dependent, at least in part, upon its lignin-degrading system. In addition to crystal violet, six other triphenylmethane dyes (pararosaniline, cresol red, bromphenol blue, ethyl violet, malachite green, and brilliant green) were shown to be degraded by the lignin-degrading system of this fungus.

  12. TOXICITY OF AN ANTHRAQUINONE VIOLET DYE MIXTURE FOLLOWING INHALATION EXPOSURE, INTRACHEAL INSTILLATION, OR GAVAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthraquinone dyes in a variety of functions from drug formulations fabric colorative to area markings as might be used of the military. he effects of a prototype violet dye mixture (VDM) consisting of: Disperse Red 11 (DR11) 1,4-diamino-2-methoxy-anthraquinone and Disperse Blue ...

  13. Insight into biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal violet onto Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2012-06-01

    Biosorption performance of pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for removal of crystal violet (CV) from its aqueous solutions was investigated. To this end, the influence of operational parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied employing a batch experimental setup. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high correlation coefficients ( R 2 > 0.99) at different temperatures. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 78.22 mg g-1 at 293 K. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 58.96 kJ mol- 1 , indicating chemisorption nature of the ongoing biosorption process. A thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and exothermic nature of the biosorption process. Owing to its low cost and high dye uptake capacity, PLP has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  14. Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

  15. BIODEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of crystal violet (N,N,N',N',N",N"-hexamethylpararosaniline) in ligninolytic (nitrogen-limited) cultures of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance of crystal violet and by the identification of three metabolites (N,N,...

  16. Adsorption of Crystal Violet to the Silica-Water Interface Monitored by Evanescent Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Adsorption of Crystal Violet to the Silica-Water Interface Monitored by Evanescent Wave Cavity Ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) has been used to investigate the adsorption of crystal violet (CV+ ) to a charged silica

  17. Exposure to Crystal Violet, Its Toxic, Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Effects on Environment and Its Degradation and Detoxification for Environmental Safety.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sujata; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal Violet (CV), a triphenylmethane dye, has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine as a biological stain, as a textile dye in textile processing industries and also used to provide a deep violet color to paints and printing ink. CV is also used as a mutagenic and bacteriostatic agent in medical solutions and antimicrobial agent to prevent the fungal growth in poultry feed. Inspite of its many uses, CV has been reported as a recalcitrant dye molecule that persists in environment for a long period of time and pose toxic effects. It acts as a mitotic poison, potent carcinogen and a potent clastogene promoting tumor growth in some species of fish. Thus, CV is regarded as a biohazard substance. Although, there are several physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation and ion-pair extraction reported for the removal of CV, but these methods are insufficient for the complete removal of CV from industrial wastewaters and also produce large quantity of sludge containing secondary pollutants. However, biological methods are regarded as cost-effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, but these methods also have certain limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop such eco-friendly and cost-effective biological treatment methods, which can effectively remove the dye from industrial wastewaters for the safety of environment, as well as human and animal health. PMID:26613989

  18. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-09-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning.

  19. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning. PMID:26412101

  20. Crystal Violet Lactone Salicylaldehyde Hydrazone Zn(II) Complex: a Reversible Photochromic Material both in Solution and in Solid Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Li, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jing; Liu, Lu; Wang, Lili; Hou, Hongwei; Tong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Crystal violet lactone (CVL) is a classic halochromic dye which has been widely used as chromogenic reagent in thermochromic and piezochromic systems. In this work, a very first example of CVL-based reversible photochromic compound was developed, which showed distinct color change upon UV-visible light irradiation both in solution and in solid matrix. Moreover, metal complex of CVL salicylaldehyde hydrozone was facilely synthesized, exhibiting reversible photochromic properties with good fatigue resistance. It was served as promising solid material for photo-patterning. PMID:26412101

  1. [Active carbon from Thalia dealbata residues: its preparation and adsorption performance to crystal violet].

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Yi; Yang, Min; Xiao, Ji-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yan, Xiang-Jun; Tian, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-01

    By using phosphoric acid as activation agent, active carbon was prepared from Thalia dealbata residues. The BET specific surface area of the active carbon was 1174.13 m2 x g(-1), micropore area was 426.99 m2 x g(-1), and average pore diameter was 3.23 nm. An investigation was made on the adsorption performances of the active carbon for crystal violet from aqueous solution under various conditions of pH, initial concentration of crystal violet, contact time, and contact temperature. It was shown that the adsorbed amount of crystal violet was less affected by solution pH, and the adsorption process could be divided into two stages, i. e., fast adsorption and slow adsorption, which followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. At the temperature 293, 303, and 313 K, the adsorption process was more accordance with Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 409.83, 425.53, and 438.59 mg x g(-1), respectively. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the randomness of crystal violet molecules increased. PMID:24066559

  2. Fish erythrocytes as biomarkers for the toxicity of sublethal doses of an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kaur K; Kaur A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate poikilocytosis in Labeo rohita (an important food fish) as an early indicator of stress due to an azo dye, Basic Violet-1 (CI: 42535). This dye was observed to be very toxic to test fish (96 h LC50 as0.45 mg/L dye). Fish were given short-term (96 h) and subchronic (150 days) exposures to the dye, and poikilocytosis was recorded under light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Light microscopy helped in identification of micronuclei along with irregularities, notches, blebs, lobes, crenation, clumps, chains, spherocytes, vacuolation, and necrosis in erythrocytes. However, SEM indicated shrinkage, oozing of cytoplasm, and several new abnormal shapes including marginal foldings, discocytes, keratocytes, dacrocytes, degmacytes, acanthocytes, echinocytes, protuberances, stomatocytes, drepanocytes, holes in the membrane, stippling/spicules, crescent-shaped cells, triangular cells, and pentagonal cells. Earlier studies speculated changes in the membrane to be responsible for clumping and chaining of erythrocytes, whereas the present SEM study clearly indicates that oozing out of cytoplasm is also responsible for the formation of chains and clumps. This study also shows that erythrocytes exhibit pathological symptoms before the appearance of other external symptoms such as abnormal behavior or mortality of fish. There was a dose- and duration-dependent increase; therefore, poikilocytosis, especially echinocytes, spherocytes, and clumps, can act as a biomarker for the stress caused by azo dyes.

  3. Modification of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by ?-Cyclodextrin in decoloration of ethyl violet dye

    PubMed Central

    Velusamy, Ponnusamy; Pitchaimuthu, Sakthivel; Rajalakshmi, Subramanian; Kannan, Nagarathinam

    2012-01-01

    The photocatalytic decoloration of an organic dye, ethyl violet (EV), has been studied in the presence of TiO2 and the addition of ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD) with TiO2 (TiO2-?-CD) under UV-A light irradiation. The different operating parameters like initial concentration of dye, illumination time, pH and amount of catalyst used have also been investigated. The photocatalytic decoloration efficiency is more in the TiO2-?-CD/UV-A light system than TiO2/UV-A light system. The mineralization of EV has been confirmed by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measurements. The complexation patterns have been confirmed with UV–Visible and FT-IR spectral data and the interaction between TiO2 and ?-CD have been characterized by powder XRD analysis and UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PMID:25685468

  4. Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) dye from aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16) by ultraviolet radiation (UV), ultrasonic irradiation (US), UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz) plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%), US (<6%) and US/H2O2(<15%) processes were negligible for this kind of dye. Pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to dyestuffs concentrations was found to fit all the experimental data. PMID:23369268

  5. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes. PMID:26599130

  6. Investigation of the effect of magnetic particles on the Crystal Violet adsorption onto a novel nanocomposite based on ?-carrageenan-g-poly(methacrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mostafa; Vardini, Mohammad Taghi; Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-20

    A novel nanocomposite hydrogel prepared by incorporating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into the ?-carrageenan-g-poly (methacrylic acid) with in situ polymerization and was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and VSM. Synthesized nanocomposite was used to adsorb Crystal Violet (CV) (cationic dye) in aqueous solution in a batch system. The research studies showed that the adsorption of CV can be impressed as a function of contact time, initial concentration of CV, pH and molar ratio of ?-carrageenan to poly(methacrylic acid). CV adsorption tests disclosed that it only takes 15min to reach the equilibrium and adsorption capacity for this dye was 28.24mgg(-1). Langmuir isotherm for equilibrium adsorption data was fitted well and the pseudo-second-order model can describe the adsorption kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters of ?G°, ?H° and ?S° showed the endothermic nature of adsorption and a spontaneous process. PMID:26572412

  7. Aqueous photofate of crystal violet under simulated and natural solar irradiation: Kinetics, products, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Lianhong; Wang, Qingeng

    2016-01-01

    In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of an illegal veterinary drug, crystal violet, were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in the aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process under simulated sunlight were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe(2+), Ca(2+), [Formula: see text] , and [Formula: see text] , of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design. The degradation processes of crystal violet conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics, with different rate constants under different conditions. Reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and superoxide anion participated in the indirect photolysis process, leading to much higher decolorization efficiencies than those of direct photolysis and hydrolysis. Contrasting to simulated irradiation, solar irradiation led to complete decolorization. Sixty-four products were identified by high resolution liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, elucidating relatively complete mineralization through photolysis. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculations of the frontier electron density, transformation pathways were proposed as singlet oxygen addition, N-demethylation, hydroxyl addition, decomposition of conjugated structure, the removal of benzene ring and the ring-opening reaction. As a result, small products generated as carboxylic acids, alcohols and amines, which were not likely to cause severe hazards to the environment. This study provided both a reference for photodegradation of crystal violet and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane veterinary drug under environmental conditions. PMID:26497275

  8. Partial degradation mechanisms of malachite green and methyl violet B by Shewanella decolorationis NTOU1 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-H; Chang, C-F; Liu, S-M

    2010-05-15

    This work demonstrated that Shewanella decolorationis NTOU1 decolorized 200 mg l(-1) of crystal violet, malachite green, or methyl violet B within 2-11h under anaerobic conditions at 35 degrees C. The initial color removal rate of malachite green was highest, while that of methyl violet was lowest. GC/MS analyses of the intermediate compounds produced during and after decolorization of malachite green and methyl violet B suggested that biodegradation of these dyes involved reduction to leuco form, N-demethylation, and reductive splitting of the triphenyl rings. The number of N-methylated groups of these dyes might have influenced decolorization rates and the reductive splitting of the triphenyl rings of these dyes. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial test data showed that malachite green and methyl violet B solution (100 mg l(-1)) were toxic. Toxicity of the dyes decreased after their decolorization, but further incubation resulted in increased toxicity. PMID:20060225

  9. SERS active Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanorods in electromagnetic wave absorption and crystal violet detection.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Shiv Brat; Kulkarni, Ajit R

    2014-11-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of Fe nanorods by the chemical reduction of FeCl3 (aq) using NaBH4 in the presence of glycerol as template followed by annealing of the product at 500°C in the presence of H2 gas flow. Subsequently, its surface has been modified by silica followed by silver nanoparticles to form silica coated Fe (Fe@SiO2) and Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure employing the Stöber method and silver mirror reaction respectively. XRD pattern of the products confirmed the formation of bcc phase of iron and fcc phase of silver, though silica remained amorphous. FESEM images established the growth of iron nanorods from the annealed product and also formation of silica and silver coating on its surface. The appearance of the characteristics bands in FTIR confirmed the presence of SiO2 on the Fe surface. Magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated the ferromagnetic behavior of as prepared iron nanorods, Fe@SiO2 and silver encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructures. All the samples exhibited strong microwave absorption property in the high frequency range (10GHz), though it is superior for Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 (-14.7dB) compared with Fe@SiO2 (-9.7dB) nanostructures of the same thickness. The synthesized Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure also exhibited the SERS phenomena, which is useful in the detection of the carcinogenic dye crystal violet (CV) upto the concentration of 10(-10)M. All these findings clearly demonstrate that the Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure could efficiently be used in the environmental remediation. PMID:25262081

  10. Leuco-crystal-violet micelle gel dosimeters: II. Recipe optimization and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, A. T.; Alexander, K. M.; Olding, T.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, recipe optimization of Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) micelle gels made with the surfactant Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) and the chemical sensitizer 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) was aided by a two-level three-factor designed experiment. The optimized recipe contains 0.75?mM LCV, 17.0?mM CTAB, 120?mM TCE, 25.0?mM tri-chloro acetic acid (TCAA), 4?wt% gelatin and ~96?wt% water. Dose sensitivity of the optimized gel is 1.5 times higher than that of Jordan’s standard LCV micelle gel. Spatial integrity of the 3D dose distribution information in 1L phantoms filled with this recipe is maintained for??>120?d. Unfortunately, phantoms made using the optimized recipe showed dose-rate dependence (14% difference in optical attenuation at the peak dose using electron beam irradiations at 100 and 400?MU?min-1). Further testing suggests that the surfactant CTAB is the cause of this dose rate behaviour.

  11. Leuco-crystal-violet micelle gel dosimeters: II. Recipe optimization and testing.

    PubMed

    Nasr, A T; Alexander, K M; Olding, T; Schreiner, L J; McAuley, K B

    2015-06-21

    In this study, recipe optimization of Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) micelle gels made with the surfactant Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) and the chemical sensitizer 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) was aided by a two-level three-factor designed experiment. The optimized recipe contains 0.75 mM LCV, 17.0 mM CTAB, 120 mM TCE, 25.0 mM tri-chloro acetic acid (TCAA), 4 wt% gelatin and ~96 wt% water. Dose sensitivity of the optimized gel is 1.5 times higher than that of Jordan's standard LCV micelle gel. Spatial integrity of the 3D dose distribution information in 1L phantoms filled with this recipe is maintained for >120 d. Unfortunately, phantoms made using the optimized recipe showed dose-rate dependence (14% difference in optical attenuation at the peak dose using electron beam irradiations at 100 and 400 MU min(-1)). Further testing suggests that the surfactant CTAB is the cause of this dose rate behaviour. PMID:26020119

  12. Leuco-crystal-violet micelle gel dosimeters: I. Influence of recipe components and potential sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Nasr, A T; Alexander, K; Schreiner, L J; McAuley, K B

    2015-06-21

    Radiochromic leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel dosimeters are promising three-dimensional radiation dosimeters because of their spatial stability and suitability for optical readout. The effects of surfactant type and surfactant concentration on dose sensitivity of LCV micelle gels are tested, demonstrating that dose sensitivity and initial colour of the gel increases with increasing Triton x-100 (Tx100) concentration. Using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) in place of Tx100 produces gels that are nearly colourless prior to irradiation, but reduces the dose sensitivity. The separate effects of Tri-chloro acetic acid concentration and pH are investigated, revealing that controlling the pH near 3.6 is crucial for achieving high dose sensitivity. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated species on dose sensitivity is tested using 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE), chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol hemihydrate. TCE gives the largest improvement in dose sensitivity and is recommended for use in micelle gel dosimeters because it is less volatile and safer to use than chloroform. Preliminary experiments on a new gel containing CTAB as the surfactant and TCE show that this new gel gives a dose sensitivity that is 24% higher than that of previous LCV micelle gels and is nearly colourless prior to irradiation. PMID:26020840

  13. Leuco-crystal-violet micelle gel dosimeters: I. Influence of recipe components and potential sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, A. T.; Alexander, K.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2015-06-01

    Radiochromic leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gel dosimeters are promising three-dimensional radiation dosimeters because of their spatial stability and suitability for optical readout. The effects of surfactant type and surfactant concentration on dose sensitivity of LCV micelle gels are tested, demonstrating that dose sensitivity and initial colour of the gel increases with increasing Triton x-100 (Tx100) concentration. Using Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) in place of Tx100 produces gels that are nearly colourless prior to irradiation, but reduces the dose sensitivity. The separate effects of Tri-chloro acetic acid concentration and pH are investigated, revealing that controlling the pH near 3.6 is crucial for achieving high dose sensitivity. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated species on dose sensitivity is tested using 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE), chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol hemihydrate. TCE gives the largest improvement in dose sensitivity and is recommended for use in micelle gel dosimeters because it is less volatile and safer to use than chloroform. Preliminary experiments on a new gel containing CTAB as the surfactant and TCE show that this new gel gives a dose sensitivity that is 24% higher than that of previous LCV micelle gels and is nearly colourless prior to irradiation.

  14. Quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet and its use to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, S.; Lim, Y. C.; Kishen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Phagocytosis is a complex process involving attachment, ingestion and intracellular processing of bacteria by phagocytes. A great difficulty in the evaluation of this process is to differentiate between attachment of the particles to the cell surface and internalization of the particles by the cells. Various techniques have been used to differentiate internalized and surface-attached bacteria in cultured cells, but only a few permit differentiations between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. In this study the quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet on acridine orange stained bacterial biofilm and planktonic bacterial cells is used to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria within macrophages. Method: One week old Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was grown on perspex and glass substrates in All-Culture medium (nutrient-rich condition) and phosphate buffered saline (nutrient-deprived condition). As model systems, human monocytic (THP-1) and histiocytic (U937) cell lines were used. These cell lines were incubated with the biofilm bacteria for 4 hrs in CO II incubator at 37 °C. The cells and bacteria were stained with acridine orange and quenched with crystal violet to distinguish between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. Results: The presence of green-fluorescing internalized bacteria was detected within the macrophages under the planktonic, nutrient-rich and nutrient-deprived biofilm conditions. All infecting bacteria take up acridine orange and fluoresced green, crystal violet quenched the fluorescence of extra-cellular adhering bacteria so that only fluorescent intracellular bacteria would be visible under fluorescent light microscopy.

  15. Aggregation behavior and chromonic liquid crystal properties of an anionic monoazo dye Viva R. Horowitz,1

    E-print Network

    Collings, Peter

    Aggregation behavior and chromonic liquid crystal properties of an anionic monoazo dye Viva R the aggregation process and chromonic liquid crystal phase of the anionic monoazo dye Sunset Yellow FCF. The x undergoing a phase transition to an orientationally ordered chromonic liquid crystal phase at high dye

  16. Aggregation Behavior and Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Derived from Naphthalenecarboxylic Acid

    E-print Network

    Collings, Peter

    Aggregation Behavior and Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Derived from Naphthalenecarboxylic and chromonic liquid crystal of the anionic compound Bordeaux dye, a product of the sulfonation liquid crystals is available in the review article by Lydon.1 The properties of chromonic liquid crystals

  17. Photo-isomerization fronts in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Gavilan, Marcel G. Clerc

    Photo-isomerization fronts in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals V. Odent,1, * M. G. Clerc,1 C study of the photo-isomerization dynamics in dye-doped nematic crystals is reported, which shows that, the dyes undergo a photo-isomerization transition; that is, molecular confor- mational changes are induced

  18. Spatial angle dependent lasing from a dye-doped two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Spatial angle dependent lasing from a dye-doped two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal made of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals D. Luo,1 H. T. Dai,2 H. V. Demir,1,3,4 X. W. Sun,1,2* H. Z. Yang angle dependent lasing from a dye- doped two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC) holographic polymer

  19. Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal Ying demonstrate a direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC codes: (230.3720) Liquid crystal devices; (160, 3710) Materials References and links 1. V. I. Kopp, Z. Q

  20. Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal Ying demonstrate a direction controllable linearly polarized laser from a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC codes: (230.3720) Liquid-crystal devices, (160, 3710) Materials References and links 1. V. I. Kopp, Z. Q

  1. Photoluminescence analysis of self induced planer alignment in azo dye dispersed nematic liquid crystal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rishi Sood, Srishti Raina, K. K.

    2014-04-24

    We have developed azo dye doped nematic liquid crystal complex for advanced photonic liquid crystal display technology aspects. Disperse orange azo dye self introduced planer alignment in the nematic liquid crystal without any surface anchoring treatment. Planer alignment was characterized by optical polarizing microscopy. The electro-optical switching response of dye disperse planer aligned nematic cell was investigated as a function of applied voltage with the help of photoluminescence spectrophotometer for the tuning of photoluminescence contrast.

  2. Synthesis, linear optical, non-linear optical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of dye-doped semi-organic NLO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesha Bamini, N.; Vidyalakshmy, Y.; Choedak, Tenzin; Kejalakshmy, N.; Muthukrishnan, P.; Ancy, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Organic laser dyes Coumarin 485, Coumarin 540 and Rhodamine 590 Chloride were used to dope potassium acid phthalate crystals (KAP). Dye-doped KAP crystals with different dye concentrations such as 0.01 mM, 0.03 mM, 0.05 mM, 0.07 mM and 0.09 mM (in the KAP growth solution) were grown. The linear optical, non-linear optical, mechanical and thermal characterizations of dye-doped KAP crystals were studied and compared to understand the effect of dye and dye concentration on the KAP crystal. Absorption and emission studies of KAP and dye-doped KAP single crystals indicated the inclusion of the dye into the KAP crystal lattice. The effect of dye and its concentration on the SHG efficiency of the KAP crystal was studied using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. It was observed that the absorption maximum wavelength and concentration of the dye used for doping the KAP single crystal decided the SHG efficiency of the dye-doped KAP single crystals. The mechanical hardness of the dye-doped and undoped (pure) KAP single crystals were studied using the Vickner’s microhardness test. It was observed that doping the KAP crystals with the laser dyes changed them from softer material to harder material. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with laser dyes.

  3. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows. PMID:26192469

  4. Crystal violet as an i-motif structure probe for reversible and label-free pH-driven electrochemical switch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi Yuan; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2014-06-15

    A simple pH-induced electrochemical switch based on an i-motif structure is developed by using crystal violet as a selective electrochemical probe for the i-motif structure. Thiol-modified cytosine-rich single-strand oligonucleotide (C-rich ssDNA) can be self-assembled on the gold electrode surface via gold-sulfur interaction. Crystal violet is employed as an electrochemical probe for the i-motif structure because of its capability of binding with the i-motif structure through an end-stacking mode. In acidic aqueous solution, crystal violet may approach the electrode surface owing to the formation of the i-motif structure, resulting in an obvious signal, so-called "ON" state. Whereas in neutral or basic aqueous solution, the i-motif structure unfolds to dissociative single strand, which causes crystal violet to leave from the electrode surface, and a weak signal is obtained, so-called "OFF" state. In addition, in the range of pH 4.6-7.3, the increase in current has a good linear relationship (R=0.989) with pH value in the testing solutions. This pH-driven electrochemical switch has the advantages of simplicity, sensitivity, high selectivity, and good reversibility. Furthermore, it provides a possible platform for pH measurement. PMID:24699211

  5. Use of dye to distinguish salt and protein crystals under microcrystallization conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosenza, Larry (Inventor); Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Gester, Thomas E. (Inventor); Hamrick, David T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An improved method of screening crystal growth conditions is provided wherein molecules are crystallized from solutions containing dyes. These dyes are selectively incorporated or associated with crystals of particular character thereby rendering crystals of particular character colored and improving detection of the dyed crystals. A preferred method involves use of dyes in protein solutions overlayed by oil. Use of oil allows the use of small volumes of solution and facilitates the screening of large numbers of crystallization conditions in arrays using automated devices that dispense appropriate solutions to generate crystallization trials, overlay crystallization trials with an oil, provide appropriate conditions conducive to crystallization and enhance detection of dyed (colored) or undyed (uncolored) crystals that result.

  6. Extractive biodecolorization of triphenylmethane dyes in cloud point system by Aeromonas hydrophila DN322p.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Ren, Suizhou; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun

    2013-07-01

    The biological treatment of triphenylmethane dyes is an important issue. Most microbes have limited practical application because they cannot completely detoxicate these dyes. In this study, the extractive biodecolorization of triphenylmethane dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila DN322p was carried out by introducing the cloud point system. The cloud point system is composed of a mixture of nonionic surfactants (20 g/L) Brij 30 and Tergitol TMN-3 in equal proportions. After the decolorization of crystal violet, a higher wet cell weight was obtained in the cloud point system than that of the control system. Based on the results of thin-layer chromatography, the residual crystal violet and its decolorized product, leuco crystal violet, preferred to partition into the coacervate phase. Therefore, the detoxification of the dilute phase was achieved, which indicated that the dilute phase could be discharged without causing dye pollution. The extractive biodecolorization of three other triphenylmethane dyes was also examined in this system. The decolorization of malachite green and brilliant green was similar to that of crystal violet. Only ethyl violet achieved a poor decolorization rate because DN322p decolorized it via adsorption but did not convert it into its leuco form. This study provides potential application of biological treatment in triphenylmethane dye wastewater. PMID:23008002

  7. Aggregation in Two Dye Systems That Form Chromonic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, Peter J.; Horowitz, Viva R.; Tomasik, Michelle R.

    2006-03-01

    X-ray scattering and various optical techniques are utilized to study the aggregation process and aggregate structure for two water-soluble dyes that form chromonic liquid crystal phases. The x-ray measurements indicate that the molecules stack in columns with a cross-section approximately equal to the area of a single molecule. The optical measurements point to an aggregation process that occurs at all concentrations, with the distribution of aggregate size shifting to larger and larger aggregates as the concentration is increased. A simple theory based on the law of mass action and an isodesmic aggregation process is in excellent agreement with the experimental data, yielding a value for the ``bond energy'' between the molecules in an aggregate.

  8. A nano-patterned photonic crystal laser with a dye-doped liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Doo-Hyun; Morris, Stephen M.; Lorenz, Alexander; Castles, Flynn; Butt, Haider; Gardiner, Damian J.; Qasim, Malik M.; Wallikewitz, Bodo; Hands, Philip J. W.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Coles, Harry J.; Friend, Richard H.

    2013-07-01

    Covering a nano-patterned titanium dioxide photonic crystal (PC) within a well-oriented film of dye-doped liquid crystal (LC), a distributed feedback laser is constructed whereby the emission characteristics can be manipulated in-situ using an electric field. This hybrid organic-inorganic structure permits simultaneous selectivity of both the beam pattern and laser wavelength by electrical addressing of the LC director. In addition, laser emission is obtained both in the plane and normal to the PC. Along with experimental data, a theoretical model is presented that is based upon an approximate calculation of the band structure of this birefringent, tuneable laser device.

  9. Expansion of the scope of AOAC first action method 2012.25 - single-laboratory validation of triphenylmethane dye and leuco metabolite analysis in shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and salmon by LC-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to conducting a collaborative study of AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood, a...

  10. A new rapid colourimetric method for testing Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility to isoniazid and rifampicin: a crystal violet decolourisation assay

    PubMed Central

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new and accurate method for the detection of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates using a crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA). Fifty-five M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from culture stocks stored at -80ºC were tested. After bacterial inoculation, the samples were incubated at 37ºC for seven days and 100 µL of CV (25 mg/L stock solution) was then added to the control and sample tubes. The tubes were incubated for an additional 24-48 h. CV (blue/purple) was decolourised in the presence of bacterial growth; thus, if CV lost its colour in a sample containing a drug, the tested isolate was reported as resistant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and agreement for INH were 92.5%, 96.4%, 96.1%, 93.1% and 94.5%, respectively, and 88.8%, 100%, 100%, 94.8% and 96.3%, respectively, for RIF. The results were obtained within eight-nine days. This study shows that CVDA is an effective method to detect M. tuberculosis resistance to INH and RIF in developing countries. This method is rapid, simple and inexpensive. Nonetheless, further studies are necessary before routine laboratory implementation. PMID:24676667

  11. Surface Binding and Organization of Sensitizing Dyes on Metal Oxide Single Crystal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, Bruce

    2010-06-04

    Even though investigations of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductors in solar cells has dominated research on dye-sensitized semiconductors over the past two decades. Single crystal electrodes represent far simpler model systems for studying the sensitization process with a continuing train of studies dating back more than forty years. Even today single crystal surfaces prove to be more controlled experimental models for the study of dye-sensitized semiconductors than the nanocrystalline substrates. We analyzed the scientific advances in the model sensitized single crystal systems that preceded the introduction of nanocrystalline semiconductor electrodes. It then follows the single crystal research to the present, illustrating both their striking simplicity of use and clarity of interpretation relative to nanocrystalline electrodes. Researchers have employed many electrochemical, photochemical and scanning probe techniques for studying monolayer quantities of sensitizing dyes at specific crystallographic faces of different semiconductors. These methods include photochronocoulometry, electronic spectroscopy and flash photolysis of dyes at potential-controlled semiconductor electrodes and the use of total internal reflection methods. In addition, we describe the preparation of surfaces of single crystal SnS2 and TiO2 electrodes to serve as reproducible model systems for charge separation at dye sensitized solar cells. This process involves cleaving the SnS2 electrodes and a photoelectrochemical surface treatment for TiO2 that produces clean surfaces for sensitization (as verified by AFM) resulting in near unity yields for electron transfer from the molecular excited dyes into the conduction band.

  12. On the circular polarization of fluorescence from dyes dissolved in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Monika; Chambers, Martin; Grell, Martin

    2001-10-01

    The sense of circular polarization of the fluorescence from dyes dissolved in chiral nematic liquid crystals (CNLCs) with a photonic stopband overlapping the dye emission (`resonance regime') displays a peculiar reversal as a function of wavelength, which so far is not satisfactorily explained. We systematically study this phenomenon and show that theories based on the guest/host alignment of the fluorescent dye in the CNLC matrix are not adequate in the resonance regime. We instead propose a consistent explanation of sign reversal based on the description of CNLCs as one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals.

  13. Random lasers in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, LongWu; Deng, LuoGen

    2012-12-01

    We report on the observation of random lasers for the first time in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) containing nano-sized liquid crystal droplets and silver nanoparticles. The dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal containing silver nanoparticles film is exposed by a collimated 532 nm Nd: YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser beam, so that it is quickly cured. Under the excitation of a frequency-doubled Nd: YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm, random lasing from dye-doped PDLCs containing Ag nanoparticles is observed as a result of cooperative effect due to light scattering of nano-sized liquid crystal droplets and the local field enhancement capabilities around silver nanoparticles. We show that the threshold of the random lasing is about 0.95 ?J/pulse which is lower than the lasing threshold of dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing nano-sized liquid crystal droplets. The linewidth of the lasing peaks is shown to be 0.2 nm. We also propose a possible mechanism to explain the random lasing from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals containing silver nanoparticles.

  14. Cavity-enhanced frequency doubling from 795nm to 397.5nm ultra-violet coherent radiation with PPKTP crystals in the low pump power regime.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Han, Yashuai; Bai, Jiandong; He, Jun; Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate a simple, compact and cost-efficient diode laser pumped frequency doubling system at 795 nm in the low power regime. In two configurations, a bow-tie four-mirror ring enhancement cavity with a PPKTP crystal inside and a semi-monolithic PPKTP enhancement cavity, we obtain 397.5nm ultra-violet coherent radiation of 35mW and 47mW respectively with a mode-matched fundamental power of about 110mW, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 32% and 41%. The low loss semi-monolithic cavity leads to the better results. The constructed ultra-violet coherent radiation has good power stability and beam quality, and the system has huge potential in quantum optics and cold atom physics. PMID:25607194

  15. Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    controllable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a photo-induced alignment of the dye-doped liquid-481 (2004). 3. S. C. Kim, S. E. Lee, and E. S. Kim, "Optical implementation of real-time incoherent 3D. Mondol, F. J. Castaño, and H. I. Smith, "Scanning-spatial-phase alignment for zone

  16. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

  17. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

  18. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

  19. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

  20. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a dark green powder or crystals having metallic luster. (b) Arsenic...brown, then to green, and finally to blue. (d) Insoluble matter. Not to exceed 0.25 percent when tested by the...

  1. Light-induced Anchoring Evolution in Nematic Phase of Liquid Crystal Doped with Azo-dye

    E-print Network

    Reznikov, Yuri

    Light-induced Anchoring Evolution in Nematic Phase of Liquid Crystal Doped with Azo-dye D of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine We report an experimental study of light-induced anchoring evolution of azo results we considered the gliding effect as a result of light-induced anisotropic adsorption

  2. Enhancement of the fluorescence of triphenylmethane dyes caused by their interaction with nanoparticles from ?-diketonate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-08-01

    We have studied the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Malachite Green and Crystal Violet in aqueous and alcoholic-aqueous solutions in which nanoparticles from Ln(III) and Sc(III) diketonates are formed at concentrations of complexes in a solution of 5-30 ?M. We have shown that, if the concentrations of the dyes in the solution are lower than 0.5 ?M, dye molecules are incorporated completely into nanoparticles or are precipitated onto their surface. The fluorescence intensity of these incorporated and adsorbed Malachite Green and Crystal Violet molecules increases by several orders of magnitude compared to the solution, which takes place because of a sharp increase in the fluorescence quantum yields of these dyes and at the expense of the sensitization of their fluorescence upon energy transfer from ?-diketonate complexes entering into the composition of nanoparticles. We have shown that, if there is no concentration quenching, the values of the fluorescence quantum yield of the Crystal Violet dye incorporated into nanoparticles and adsorbed on their surface vary from 0.06 to 0.13, i.e., are close to the fluorescence quantum yield of this dye in solid solutions of sucrose acetate at room temperature. The independence of the fluorescence quantum yield of Crystal Violet on the morphology of nanoparticles testifies to a high binding constant of complexes and the dye. The considerable fluorescence quantum yields of triphenylmethane dyes in nanoparticles and sensitization of their fluorescence by nanoparticle-forming complexes make it possible to determine the concentration of these dyes in aqueous solutions by the luminescent method in the range of up to 1 nM.

  3. Dye-concentration-dependent lasing behaviors and spectral characteristics of cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongyang; Yang, Can; Li, Wensong; Chen, Lujian; Wang, Xiaozhong; Cai, Zhiping

    2014-06-01

    The laser behavior and spectral changes occurring in cholesteric liquid crystals with varying dye-doped concentrations were investigated when pumped at 532 nm. It was found that the long-wavelength band edge and the laser line exhibit a blue shift over 21 nm with increasing dye concentration. The circularly polarized fluorescence spectra were examined, and the location of the sense reversion of circular polarization was determined to coincide well with the discrete lasing lines. The blue shift can be ascribed to the decrease in average refractive index and pitch of the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals. The dependence of the slope efficiency and threshold energy on the dye concentration can be attributed to the shift in photonic stopband and the change in penetration depth of excitation. The temperature and incident angle of pumping beam also have a significant impact on the lasing properties. The optimal dye concentration is found to be 0.5 wt% at 30.5 °C with an incident angle of 10°. The laser emission located at 601.4 nm with slope efficiency of 4 % was achieved above the threshold energy of 14.3 ?J.

  4. Determination of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuco-metabolites in fish by HPLC-VIS detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Chen, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Guo-Min; Wang, Xiong; Guo, Qi; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Dan; Deng, Jian

    2013-01-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with visible detection (HPLC-VIS) for the determination of malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), leucomalachite green (LMG), and leucocrystal violet (LCV) in fish has been developed after clean-up through an immunoaffinity column (IAC). Residues were simultaneously extracted from fish muscle with acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer. The leuco-forms, LMG and LCV, were oxidized quantitatively to the chromic CV and MG by reaction with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone. Extracts were then purified on an IAC which prepared by immobilizing the anti-MG-CV antibodies by the sol-gel method. Finally, the eluents were analyzed by HPLC-VIS. The limits of detection were 0.15, 0.1, 0.18 and 0.14ng/g for MG, CV, LMG and LCV, respectively. The average recoveries in samples fortified with MG, CV, LMG and LCV over the range 0.5-10ng/g were from 71.6% to 96.8% with RSDs of 5.1-12.3% (n=6). This novel method was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring. PMID:23286983

  5. Enhancement in ferroelectric, pyroelectric and photoluminescence properties in dye doped TGS crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Nidhi; Goel, Neeti; Singh, B.K.; Gupta, M.K.; Kumar, Binay

    2012-06-15

    Pure and dye doped (0.1 and 0.2 mol%) Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. A pyramidal coloring pattern, along with XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the dye doping. Decrease in dielectric constant and increase in Curie temperature (T{sub c}) were observed with increasing doping concentration. Low absorption cut off (231 nm) and high optical transparency (>90%) resulting in large band gap was observed in UV-VIS studies. In addition, strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed in which the relative intensity were found to be reversed as a result of doping. In P-E hysteresis loop studies, a higher curie temperature and an improved and more uniform figure of merit over a large region of the ferroelectric phase were observed. The improved dielectric, optical and ferroelectric/pyroelectric properties make the dye doped TGS crystals better candidate for various opto- and piezo-electronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Dye doping in TGS crystal resulted in hourglass morphology, increased hyper-luminescence intensity, improved T{sub c} and figure of merit. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amaranth dye doping in TGS crystals resulted in hourglass morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping resulted in enhancement of Curie temperature from 49 to 53 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cut off (230 nm) and wider transmittance window observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High and uniform figure of merit in ferroelectric phase was obtained.

  6. Heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled biomineralizaiton proteins in calcite crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Biominerals are highly ordered crystals mediated by organic matters especially proteins in organisms. However, how specific proteins are distributed inside biominerals are not well understood. In the present study, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to label extracted proteins from the shells of bivalve Pinctada fucata. By confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observe a heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled proteins inside synthetic calcite at the microscale. Proteins from the prismatic calcite layers accumulate at the edge of crystals while proteins from the nacreous aragonite layers accumulate at the center of crystals. Raman and X-ray powder diffraction show that both the proteins cannot alter the crystal phase. Scanning electron microscope demonstrates both proteins are able to affect the crystal morphology. This study may provide a direct approach for the visualization of protein distributions in crystals by small-molecule dye-labelled proteins as the additives in the crystallization process and improve our understanding of intracrystalline proteins distribution in biogenic calcites. PMID:26675363

  7. Heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled biomineralizaiton proteins in calcite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Biominerals are highly ordered crystals mediated by organic matters especially proteins in organisms. However, how specific proteins are distributed inside biominerals are not well understood. In the present study, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to label extracted proteins from the shells of bivalve Pinctada fucata. By confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observe a heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled proteins inside synthetic calcite at the microscale. Proteins from the prismatic calcite layers accumulate at the edge of crystals while proteins from the nacreous aragonite layers accumulate at the center of crystals. Raman and X-ray powder diffraction show that both the proteins cannot alter the crystal phase. Scanning electron microscope demonstrates both proteins are able to affect the crystal morphology. This study may provide a direct approach for the visualization of protein distributions in crystals by small-molecule dye-labelled proteins as the additives in the crystallization process and improve our understanding of intracrystalline proteins distribution in biogenic calcites. PMID:26675363

  8. Capillary electrophoresis of chitooligosaccharides in acidic solution: simple determination using a quaternary-ammonium-modified column and indirect photometric detection with crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Anraku, Nobuhiro; Kato, Ryo

    2010-02-01

    Five chitosan oligosaccharides were separated in acidic aqueous solution by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with indirect photometric detection using a positively coated capillary. Electrophoretic mobility of the chitooligosaccharides (COSs) depended on the number of monomer units in acidic aqueous solution, similar to other polyelectrolyte oligomers. The separation was developed in nitric acid aqueous solution at pH 3.0 with 1 mM Crystal Violet, using a capillary positively coated with N-trimethoxypropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride. The limit of the detection for chitooligosaccharides with two to six saccharide chains was less than 5 microM. CE determination of an enzymatically hydrolyzed COS agreed with results from HPLC. PMID:20004627

  9. Modified spontaneous emission spectra of laser dye in inverse opal photonic crystals Henry P. Schriemer,* Henry M. van Driel,

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    Modified spontaneous emission spectra of laser dye in inverse opal photonic crystals Henry P crystals made of inverse opals in titania (TiO2). We identify stop bands with large relative widths of 15 constants 15,16 . These so-called air-sphere crystals, or inverse opals, interact so strongly with light

  10. Molecular Assembly and Liquid Crystal Properties of a Near-IR Absorbing Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collings, Peter; Mills, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    The molecules of the near-IR absorbing dye IR-806 spontaneously assemble in water at very low concentrations, forming a liquid crystal phase at room temperature when the concentration is above 0.6 wt%. Unlike most chromonic liquid crystal systems, macroscopic phase separation between the isotropic and liquid crystal phases is not observed. Also unlike most chromonic liquid crystal systems, the absorption spectrum of IR-806 changes dramatically as the concentration increases and molecular assembly proceeds. Analysis of the absorption spectra provides evidence of an isodesmic assembly process at an extremely low concentration, followed by a second non-isodesmic assembly process at a higher concentration just before the liquid crystal phase appears.

  11. Aggregation behavior and chromonic liquid crystal properties of an anionic monoazo dye.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Viva R; Janowitz, Lauren A; Modic, Aaron L; Heiney, Paul A; Collings, Peter J

    2005-10-01

    X-ray scattering and various optical techniques are utilized to study the aggregation process and chromonic liquid crystal phase of the anionic monoazo dye Sunset Yellow FCF. The x-ray results demonstrate that aggregation involves pi-pi stacking of the molecules into columns, with the columns undergoing a phase transition to an orientationally ordered chromonic liquid crystal phase at high dye concentration. Optical absorption measurements on dilute solutions reveal that the aggregation takes place at all concentrations, with the average aggregation number increasing with concentration. A simple theory based on the law of mass action and an isodesmic aggregation process is in excellent agreement with the experimental data and yields a value for the "bond" energy between molecules in an aggregate. Measurements of the birefringence and order parameter are also performed as a function of temperature in the chromonic liquid crystal phase. The agreement between these results and a more complicated theory of aggregation is quite reasonable. Overall, these results both confirm that the aggregation process for some dyes is isodesmic and provide a second example of a well-characterized chromonic system. PMID:16383405

  12. Aggregation behavior and chromonic liquid crystal properties of an anionic monoazo dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Viva R.; Janowitz, Lauren A.; Modic, Aaron L.; Heiney, Paul A.; Collings, Peter J.

    2005-10-01

    X-ray scattering and various optical techniques are utilized to study the aggregation process and chromonic liquid crystal phase of the anionic monoazo dye Sunset Yellow FCF. The x-ray results demonstrate that aggregation involves ?-? stacking of the molecules into columns, with the columns undergoing a phase transition to an orientationally ordered chromonic liquid crystal phase at high dye concentration. Optical absorption measurements on dilute solutions reveal that the aggregation takes place at all concentrations, with the average aggregation number increasing with concentration. A simple theory based on the law of mass action and an isodesmic aggregation process is in excellent agreement with the experimental data and yields a value for the “bond” energy between molecules in an aggregate. Measurements of the birefringence and order parameter are also performed as a function of temperature in the chromonic liquid crystal phase. The agreement between these results and a more complicated theory of aggregation is quite reasonable. Overall, these results both confirm that the aggregation process for some dyes is isodesmic and provide a second example of a well-characterized chromonic system.

  13. Aggregation behavior and chromonic liquid crystal properties of an anionic monoazo dye

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Viva R.; Janowitz, Lauren A.; Modic, Aaron L.; Heiney, Paul A.; Collings, Peter J.

    2005-10-01

    X-ray scattering and various optical techniques are utilized to study the aggregation process and chromonic liquid crystal phase of the anionic monoazo dye Sunset Yellow FCF. The x-ray results demonstrate that aggregation involves {pi}-{pi} stacking of the molecules into columns, with the columns undergoing a phase transition to an orientationally ordered chromonic liquid crystal phase at high dye concentration. Optical absorption measurements on dilute solutions reveal that the aggregation takes place at all concentrations, with the average aggregation number increasing with concentration. A simple theory based on the law of mass action and an isodesmic aggregation process is in excellent agreement with the experimental data and yields a value for the 'bond' energy between molecules in an aggregate. Measurements of the birefringence and order parameter are also performed as a function of temperature in the chromonic liquid crystal phase. The agreement between these results and a more complicated theory of aggregation is quite reasonable. Overall, these results both confirm that the aggregation process for some dyes is isodesmic and provide a second example of a well-characterized chromonic system.

  14. Polarization-controlled contrasted images using dye-doped nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Porras Aguilar, R; Ramirez-San-Juan, J C; Baldovino-Pantaleon, O; May-Arrioja, D; Arroyo Carrasco, M L; Iturbe-Castillo, M D; Sánchez-de-la-Llave, D; Ramos-Garcia, R

    2009-03-01

    We explore the polarization dependence of the nonlinear response of a planar nematic liquid crystal cell doped with 1% wt of methyl red dye. The results obtained show that the refractive index change can be switched from a positive value to a negative one as the polarization of the beam changes from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the rubbing direction. This property is exploited in a phase contrast system, where a dynamic phase filter is photoinduced in a liquid crystal cell placed in the system's Fourier plane. Real-time contrast inversion in the resulting images is demonstrated. PMID:19259179

  15. Adsorption kinetics of methyl violet onto perlite.

    PubMed

    Do?an, Mehmet; Alkan, Mahir

    2003-01-01

    This study examines adsorption kinetics and activation parameters of methyl violet on perlite. The effect of process parameters like contact time, concentration of dye, temperature and pH on the extent of methyl violet adsorption from solution has been investigated. Results of the kinetic studies show that the adsorption reaction is first order with respect to dye solution concentration with activation energy of 13.2 kJ mol(-1). This low activation energy value indicates that the adsorption reaction is diffusion controlled. The activation parameters using Arrhenius and Eyring equations have been calculated. Adsorption increases with increase of variables such as contact time, initial dye concentration, temperature and pH. PMID:12685751

  16. Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF 2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchovski, J. T.; Haltakov, I. V.; Lyutskanov, V. L.

    1996-04-01

    A crystal growth method for growing UV grade CaF 2 crystals from fluorspar has being developed using purified Bulgarian fluorspar mixed with 2% PbF 2. Excimer laser damage characteristics of the grown crystals were performed in a specially designed laboratory system into a high pressure camera. It was found that the fluorine mixture does not change, neither on the outer surface of the crystals nor in the bulk even after 3500 h of contact; no color centers were observed on the windows of the XeCl laser and that there are no remarkable differences between the surface and the bulk damage thresholds. Thus, the grown crystals of CaF 2 are suitable for manufacturing windows for excimer lasers and for other optical elements used in UV and vacuum UV spectra regions.

  17. Epitaxial growth of two-dimensional cyanine dye single crystals by adsorption at a pre-conditioned fatty acid monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Knoll, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption of water-soluble cyanine dyes (pseudoisocyanine, PIC and "stains all", SA) to monomolecular layers of arachidic acid (AA) at the water-air interface in a Langmuir trough. Upon adsorption the dye molecules organize themselves and form two-dimensional J-aggregates that can easily be observed and characterized in the fluorescence microscope. We show that AA can be "conditioned" by the adsorption of PIC in a lateral order that can be read-out after desorption of this first dye, by the adsorption of another dye, SA in our case. We interpret this memory effect as being caused by a structural and/or orientational modification of the AA monolayer that controls in addition to an electrostatic contribution, details of the crystal morphology and in this sense is a first example of epitaxial growth of two-dimensional organic crystals.

  18. Efficient removal of crystal violet using Fe3O4-coated biochar: the role of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modeling study their adsorption behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Azim Khan, Rashid; Du, Jingting; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biochar shows great promise for use in adsorbing pollutants. However, a process for enhancing its adsorption capacity and re-collection efficiency is yet to be further developed. Hence, in this study, we developed a type of biochar coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (i.e., magnetic biochar (MBC)) and assessed its use for crystal violet (CV) adsorption as well as its recycling potential. The coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which was not only on the surface, but also in the interior of biochar, performed two functions. Firstly, it produced a saturation magnetization of 61.48?emu/g, which enabled the biochar being efficiently re-collected using a magnet. Secondly, it significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity of the biochar (from 80.36 to 99.19?mg/g). The adsorption capacity of the MBC was determined to be the largest by so far (349.40?mg/g) for an initial CV concentration of 400?mg/L, pH of 6.0, and temperature of 40?°C, and the adsorption capacity of re-collected MBC was 73.31?mg/g. The adsorption of CV by the MBC was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic physical process in which the intraparticle diffusion was the limiting step. These findings inspire us to use other similar materials to tackle the menace of pollutions. PMID:26220603

  19. Efficient removal of crystal violet using Fe3O4-coated biochar: the role of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modeling study their adsorption behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Azim Khan, Rashid; Du, Jingting; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Biochar shows great promise for use in adsorbing pollutants. However, a process for enhancing its adsorption capacity and re-collection efficiency is yet to be further developed. Hence, in this study, we developed a type of biochar coated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (i.e., magnetic biochar (MBC)) and assessed its use for crystal violet (CV) adsorption as well as its recycling potential. The coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which was not only on the surface, but also in the interior of biochar, performed two functions. Firstly, it produced a saturation magnetization of 61.48?emu/g, which enabled the biochar being efficiently re-collected using a magnet. Secondly, it significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity of the biochar (from 80.36 to 99.19?mg/g). The adsorption capacity of the MBC was determined to be the largest by so far (349.40?mg/g) for an initial CV concentration of 400?mg/L, pH of 6.0, and temperature of 40?°C, and the adsorption capacity of re-collected MBC was 73.31?mg/g. The adsorption of CV by the MBC was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic physical process in which the intraparticle diffusion was the limiting step. These findings inspire us to use other similar materials to tackle the menace of pollutions.

  20. Linear polarization rotators based on dye-doped liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chia-Yi; Tsai, Hong-Yi; Wang, Yi-Hong; Huang, Chong-Ming; Lo, Kuang-Yao; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2010-05-01

    Linear polarization rotator is fabricated by a single-side homogenously aligned dye-doped liquid crystal cell and linear variable neutral density filter (LVNDF). When a pump beam passing through the transmittance-linear region of LVNDF irradiates on the untreated surface, the surface LC director in the irradiation region is photoaligned into a continuous twist from 0° to 90°. Consequently, the bulk director gradually transits from a homogeneous to twist orientation. This device is capable of rotating the polarization of an input linearly polarized light depending on the beam position, exhibiting a large continuous twist region (5.6 mm) and high contrast ratio (˜1000:1).

  1. Pigment violet 19 - a test case to define a simple method to simulate the vibronic structure of absorption spectra of organic pigments and dyes in solution.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Benoît; Liégeois, Vincent; Zutterman, Freddy

    2015-02-01

    A typical quinacridone pigment, PV19, has been used to analyze the impact of several computational parameters on the UV/vis absorption band shape in solution, simulated using density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory levels of approximation. These encompass, (i) the choice of exchange-correlation functional, (ii) the basis set, (iii) the method for non-equilibrium optimization of the excited state geometry, (iv) the approach for evaluating the vibronic band structure, (v) the peak broadening, and (vi) the scaling of the harmonic vibrational frequencies. Among these, the choice of exchange-correlation functional is certainly of the most importance because it can drastically modify the spectral shape. In the case of PV19, the M05-2X and to a lesser extent CAM-B3LYP XC functionals are the most efficient to reproduce the vibronic structure, confirming the important role of exact Hartree-Fock exchange. Still, these functionals are not the most reliable to predict the excitation energies and oscillator strengths, for which M05, a functional with less HF exchange, performs better. For evaluating the vibronic structure, the simple gradient method, where only one step of geometry optimization of the excited state is carried out and the gradients are used to evaluate the Huang-Rhys factors as well as to determine the excited state geometries produces a spectrum that is very similar to the ones obtained with the more involved Duschinsky and geometry methods, opening the way to a fast simulation of the UV/vis absorption spectra of pigments and dyes. Then, the effect of scaling the calculated vibrational frequencies to account for anharmonicity effects as well as for limitation of the method also impacts the shape of the vibronic spectrum and this effect depends on the method used to determine the Huang-Rhys factors. Indeed, scaling the vibrational frequencies by a factor which is typically smaller than 1.0 results in a relative decrease of the 0-1 peak intensity with respect to the 0-0 band when optimizing the geometry of the excited state whereas the effect is opposite and magnified if using the gradient method. PMID:25501947

  2. Aggregation Properties and Liquid Crystal Phase of a Dye Based on Naphthalenetetracarboxylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasik, Michelle; Collings, Peter

    2007-03-01

    R003 is a dye produced for thin film optical components by Optiva, Inc.^1 made from the sulfonation of the dibenzimidazole derivative of naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid. Its molecular structure is very different from the aggregating food dye previously investigated in our laboratory^2 and R003 forms a liquid crystal phase at significantly lower concentrations. We have performed polarizing microscopy, absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction experiments in order to determine the phase diagram and aggregate structure. In addition, we have included both translational and orientational entropy in the theoretical analysis of the aggregation process, and have used a more realistic lineshape in analyzing the absorption data. Our results indicate that the ``bond energy'' for molecules in an aggregate is even larger than for the previously studied dye and that the aggregate structure has a cross-sectional area equal to two or three molecular areas rather than one.^1Lazarev, P., N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, SID Int. Symp. Digest of Tech. Papers, San Jose, California, June XXXII, 571 (2001).^2V. R. Horowitz, L. A. Janowitz, A. L. Modic, P. A. Heiney, and P. J. Collings, Phys. Rev. E 72, 041710 (2005).

  3. Influence of the layer thickness and concentration of dye molecules on the emission amplification in cholesteric liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alaverdyan, R B; Gevorgyan, A A; Chilingaryan, A D; Chilingaryan, Yu S

    2008-05-31

    The propagation of light through a planar layer of a cholesteric liquid crystal doped with dye molecules is considered. The features of the emission spectra of the crystal are studied both in the absence and presence of dielectric boundaries. The increase in the emission intensity is investigated for different layer thicknesses and different concentrations of dye molecules. It is shown that an anomalously strong increase in the emission intensity with the diffraction intrinsic polarisation takes place in the case of a comparatively small crystal thickness and a relatively low concentration of dye molecules. The obtained results can be used for the development of miniature lasers with the circular polarisation of the fundamental radiation mode. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Liu, Quan; Xuan, Li; Chen, Linsen

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate single-mode laser operation in dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission gratings. The gratings are fabricated in cells made from specifically chosen glass substrates to decrease the refractive index difference between the waveguide core layer and cladding layer. The phase separation degree of liquid crystal after holographic recording is further optimized to confine only the lowest propagation mode in the device. The mode selection mechanism is explained under the framework of the waveguide distributed feedback (DFB) theory. The wavelength of single-mode lasing can be tuned between 620 and 660 nm by varying the grating period. Our results show the HPDLC technique could provide single-mode organic DFB lasers in a tunable, simple, and large-area manner.

  5. Optical phase conjugation in azo-dye doped chiral liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinski, Pawel; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-10-15

    We report on optical phase conjugation phenomenon observed in chiral nematic liquid crystal showing band gap type Bragg reflection. The phase conjugate to the signal beam is observable only in the small temperature interval when the Bragg condition is fulfilled and only for circularly polarized light. The optical phase conjugation signals were observed at low cw laser light intensities (<100 mW/cm{sup 2}, {lambda} = 532 nm). Estimated value of third order optical susceptibility {chi}{sup (3)} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2} is attributed to enhancement due to photoisomerisation of azo-dye (disperse red 1) inducing molecular reorientation process of liquid crystal molecules.

  6. Light-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal Denis Fedorenko,1,* Kostyantyn Slyusarenko,1

    E-print Network

    Reznikov, Yuri

    of the easy axis of dye-doped nematic liquid crystal on an aligning polymer surface. The observed drift reorientation of polymer fragments and LC molecules are considered as possible mechanisms of the glidingLight-induced gliding of the easy orientation axis of a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal Denis

  7. Biodecolorization and biodegradation potential of recalcitrant triphenylmethane dyes by Coriolopsis sp. isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Hui; Yien Ting, Adeline Su

    2015-03-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes (TPM) are recalcitrant colorants brought into the environment. In this study, a lesser-known white rot fungus Coriolopsis sp. (1c3), isolated from compost of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm, was explored for its decolorization potential of TPM dyes. The isolate 1c3 demonstrated good decolorization efficiencies in the treatment of Crystal Violet (CV; 100 mg l(-1)), Methyl Violet (MV; 100 mg l(-1)) and Cotton Blue (CB; 50 mg(-1)), with 94%, 97% and 91%, within 7, 7 and 1 day(s), respectively. Malachite Green (MG; 100 mg l(-1)) was the most recalcitrant dye, with 52% decolorization after 9 days. Dye removal by 1c3 was presumably via biosorption, whereby the process was determined to be influenced by fungal biomass, initial dye concentrations and oxygen requirements. Biodegradation was also a likely mechanism responsible for dye removal by 1c3, occurred as indicated by the reduction of dye spectra peaks. Detection of laccase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities further substantiate the possible occurrence of biodegradation of TPM dyes by 1c3. PMID:25527986

  8. Reduction of azo dyes by intestinal anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Egan, M

    1978-03-01

    Reduction of seven azo dyes (amaranth, Ponceau SX, Allura Red, Sunset Yellow, tartrazine, Orange II, and methyl orange) was carried out by cell suspensions of predominant intestinal anaerobes. It was optimal at pH 7.4 in 0.4 M phosphate buffer and inhibited by glucose. Flavin mononucleotide caused a marked enhancement of azo reduction by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Other electron carriers, e.g., methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, phenosafranin, neutral red, crystal violet, flavin adenine dinucleotide, menadione, and Janus Green B can replace flavin mononucleotide. These data suggest that an extracellular shuttle is required for azo reduction. PMID:25047

  9. Analytical and preparative chromatographic procedures for obtaining pure cresyl violet and cresyl red from commercial cresyl violet.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, M N; Ortiz, C S

    2015-04-01

    Cresyl violet and cresyl red, components of commercial cresyl violet acetate, were separated and purified using preparative column liquid chromatography. The stationary phase was silica gel and gradient elution was carried out using chloroform:methanol. The purified dyes were obtained in high yield; 51% of the original lot was recovered as cresyl violet and 40% as cresyl red. Separated materials were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy; UV-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectra also were obtained for samples of pure cresyl violet and cresyl red. The colored constituents of the commercial dye lot were identified using thin layer chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Both methodologies were suitable for routine testing; reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography is an appropriate tool for quality control and high resolution identification of these compounds. PMID:25358291

  10. Nanoparticles assembled by aptamers and crystal violet for arsenic(iii) detection in aqueous solution based on a resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuangen; Zhan, Shenshan; Xing, Haibo; He, Lan; Xu, Lurong; Zhou, Pei

    2012-10-01

    Aptamer-assembled nanomaterials have captured much attention from the field of analytical chemistry in recent years. Although they have been regarded as a promising tool for heavy metal monitoring, report involving aptamer-based biosensors for arsenic detection are rare. Herein we developed a highly sensitive and selective aptamer biosensor for As(iii) detection based on a Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS) spectral assay. Prior to As(iii) detection, we firstly assembled a variety of nanoparticles with different sizes via controlling the concentration of arsenic-binding aptamers in crystal violet (CV) solutions. The results of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and scanning probe microscope (SPM) testified that the introduction of As(iii) had indeed changed the size of nanoparticles, which caused a great variation in the RRS intensity at 310 nm. In the presence of 100 ppb As(iii), a maximum decline in the ratio of RRS intensity was achieved for large nanoparticles assembled from 200 nM of aptamers and CV molecules, where the average size of nanoparticles had decreased from 273 nm to 168 nm. In the case of small nanoparticles, the maximum increase ratio of the RRS intensity was obtained when the concentration of aptamer was over 600 nM. Combined with an RRS spectral assay, an effective biosensor has been developed for As(iii) detection, using the above large and small nanoparticles as the target recognition element. The present biosensor has a detection limit as low as 0.2 ppb, a dynamic range from 0.1 ppb to 200 ppb, and high selectivity over other metal ions. Such an efficient biosensor will play an important role in environmental detection.

  11. Security devices based on liquid crystals doped with a colour dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco-Vela, C.; Quintana, X.; Otón, E.; Geday, M. A.; Otón, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Liquid crystal properties make them useful for the development of security devices in applications of authentication and detection of fakes. Induced orientation of liquid crystal molecules and birefringence are the two main properties used in security devices. Employing liquid crystal and dichroic colorants, we have developed devices that show, with the aid of a polarizer, multiple images on each side of the device. Rubbed polyimide is used as alignment layer on each substrate of the LC cell. By rubbing the polyimide in different directions in each substrate it is possible to create any kind of symbols, drawings or motifs with a greyscale; the more complex the created device is, the more difficult is to fake it. To identify the motifs it is necessary to use polarized light. Depending on whether the polarizer is located in front of the LC cell or behind it, different motifs from one or the other substrate are shown. The effect arises from the dopant colour dye added to the liquid crystal, the induced orientation and the twist structure. In practice, a grazing reflection on a dielectric surface is polarized enough to see the effect. Any LC flat panel display can obviously be used as backlight as well.

  12. Highly Efficient Plastic Crystal Ionic Conductors for Solid-state Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Daesub; Kim, Dong Young; Jo, Seong Mu; Armel, Vanessa; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Kim, Dongho; Jang, Sung-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    We have developed highly efficient, ambient temperature, solid-state ionic conductors (SSICs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by doping a molecular plastic crystal, succinonitrile (SN), with trialkyl-substituted imidazolium iodide salts. High performance SSICs with enhanced ionic conductivity (2–4?mScm?1) were obtained. High performance solid-state DSSCs with power conversion efficiency of 7.8% were fabricated using our SSICs combined with unique hierarchically nanostructured TiO2 sphere (TiO2-SP) photoelectrodes; these electrodes have significant macroporosity, which assists penetration of the solid electrolyte into the electrode. The performance of our solid-state DSSCs is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported thus far for cells using plastic crystal-based SSICs, and is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art DSSCs which use ionic liquid type electrolytes. This report provides a logical strategy for the development of efficient plastic crystal-based SSICs for DSSCs and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24343425

  13. Behaviors of random laser in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fengfeng; Bian, Huanting; Pei, Yanbo; Hou, Chunfeng; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-01-01

    Random lasing in the nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) with a high doping concentration of the laser dye was observed and characterized. With increasing the pump energy after the occurrence of the random laser (RL), the RL intensity first increases gradually to a maximum, then drops sharply to zero, accompanied by the gradual enhancement of scattering manifested by the growth of far-field diffraction rings of the transmitted pump beam in number. The threshold energy per unit pump area, slope efficiency, and maximal output intensity of the NLC RL depend heavily and nonmonotonically on the pump angle. A model involving the pump pulse induced molecular reorientation in NLCs leading to the pump angle dependent enhancement of scattering is proposed to explain the pump angle dependent properties of RLs.

  14. Toxic textile dyes accumulate in wild European eel Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Belpaire, Claude; Reyns, Tim; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-11-01

    Dyes are used to stain inks, paints, textile, paper, leather and household products. They are omnipresent, some are toxic and may threaten our environment, especially aquatic ecosystems. The presence of residues of sixteen dyes (triarylmethanes, xanthenes, phenothiazines and phenoxazines) and their metabolites was analyzed in muscle tissue samples of individual yellow-phased European eels (Anguilla anguilla) from 91 locations in Belgian rivers, canals and lakes sampled between 2000 and 2009 using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eel was contaminated by dyes in 77% of the sites. Malachite Green, Crystal Violet and Brilliant Green were present in 25-58% of the samples. Dye occurrence was related to the distribution of textile and dye production industries. This field study is the first large-scale survey to document the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife. Considering the annual amounts of dyes produced worldwide and the unintentional spillage during their use, our observations warrant additional research in other parts of the world. The presence of these highly toxic dyes in the European eel may form an additional threat to this critically endangered species. The contaminated eels should be considered as not suitable for consumption. PMID:26291760

  15. Effect of metal ions and redox mediators on decolorization of synthetic dyes by crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131).

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Shikha; Nill, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different metal ions and two redox mediators on laccase activity and laccase-catalyzed decolorization of five synthetic dyes was investigated in vitro using crude laccase from a novel white rot fungus Peniophora sp. (NFCCI-2131). The fungus effectively decolorized crystal violet and brilliant green on malt extract agar medium. Laccase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Cd(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Na(+) Ca(2+), and Cu(2+). Among the different dyes tested, highest decolorization of crystal violet (96.30 %) was obtained in the presence of 1 mM ABTS followed by 86.01 % by HBT. The results conspicuously indicated that laccase from Peniophora sp. has the potential for color removal from textile dye effluent even in the presence of toxic metal ions. PMID:25293639

  16. Aggregation behavior and chromonic liquid crystal phase of a dye derived from naphthalenecarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Michelle R; Collings, Peter J

    2008-08-14

    Polarizing microscopy, X-ray scattering, and absorption spectroscopy are used to investigate the aggregation process and chromonic liquid crystal of the anionic compound Bordeaux dye, a product of the sulfonation of the dibenzimidazole derivative of naphthalenetetracarboxylic acid. Polarizing microscopy reveals that the liquid crystal phase forms at room temperature when the concentration is only about 6 wt%, a value lower than what is found in many aggregating systems. The X-ray results indicate that the aggregation is via columns, with a cross-sectional area about 2.5 times larger than the individual molecule. Absorption spectroscopy shows a significant change in the absorption spectrum due to aggregation, which is nicely explained by a simple theory of isodesmic aggregation and excitonic coupling between the molecules in an aggregate. The "stacking free energy change" for a molecule in an aggregate relative to a molecule in solution is estimated to be about 9 kBT, a larger value than that found in the one other system where it has been estimated. PMID:18646804

  17. Directional Fluorescence Spectra of Laser Dye in Opal and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals Lydia Bechger,* Peter Lodahl, and Willem L. Vos

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    Directional Fluorescence Spectra of Laser Dye in Opal and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals Lydia polystyrene opals and alumina inverse opals are studied, allowing us to compare direct and inverted structures emission was first reported in refs 6 and 7: titania inverse opals doped with laser dye showed a broadband

  18. Photodegradation of crystal violet in TiO(2) suspensions using UV-vis irradiation from two microwave-powered electrodeless discharge lamps (EDL(-2)): products, mechanism and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yongming; Fang, Jiande; Liu, Xiaowen; Xu, Zhencheng; Ren, Xiuwen; Sun, Cheng; Yang, Shaogui; Ren, Qian; Ding, Youchao; Yu, Kai; Wang, Lianhong; Wei, Zhongbo

    2011-01-30

    Aqueous crystal violet (CV) solutions containing P25-TiO(2) photocatalyst were irradiated with ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) light from two microwave-powered electrodeless discharge lamps (EDL(-2)). The results demonstrated that approximately 94.4% of CV was effectively removed after 3 min of irradiation, with a pseudo-first order kinetic constant of 0.838 min(-1). According to 32 kinds of products, a five-step degradation pathway of CV was proposed. Further investigations showed that (1) three kinds of N-demethylated products and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone (DLBP) were the main intermediates; (2) malachite green (MG) and leuco-crystal violet could not be generated by N-demethylation and phototransformation reactions, respectively; (3) bis(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)methanone preferentially generated via decomposition of the conjugated structure of CV could be further N-demethylated into DLBP. Moreover, the unique degradation pathways of CV and MG were ascribed to the different substituents on the conjugated structures. Additionally, the cost and kinetic constant of different processes was also evaluated, and the results indicated the feasibility of this method for treatment of CV in field situations. PMID:21095059

  19. Nonlinear optical refraction of the dye-doped E7 thermotropic liquid crystal at the nematic-isotropic phase transition

    E-print Network

    Vinicius M. Lenart; Gerson K. da Cruz; Sergio L. Gómez; Rozane F. Turchiello; Ivan H. Bechtold; Andre A. Vieira; Hugo Gallardo

    2013-04-16

    It is known that the doping of liquid crystal with dyes usually changes the physical properties of the host, like the transition temperatures and the optical absorption among others. In this work we report a study of the nonlinear optical refraction of a dye doped sample of the E7 thermotropic liquid crystal by the Z-scan technique. It was found that the nonlinear refraction of the sample is higher than the undoped one, diverging at the clearing point. Close to the N-I transition, the nonlinear birefringence is characterized by a critical exponent that seams to confirm the tricritical hypothesis of the nature of the N-I phase transition, being independent of the doping.

  20. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food...Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg....

  1. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food...Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg....

  2. Cumulative Birefringence Effects of Nanosecond Laser Pulses in Dye-Doped Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Boyd, Robert W.; Lepeshkin, Nick; Marshall, Kenneth L.

    New cumulative effects in laser-induced birefringence have been observed under 10-Hz-pulse-repetition-rate, nanosecond-duration laser irradiation of azo-dye-doped planar-nematic liquid crystal layers at incident intensities I ~ 1-10 MW/cm2. An irradiation geometry with the incident polarization parallel to the nematic director was used. his geometry does not permit a first-order electric field induced reorientation of the nematic molecules, allowing us to exclude its contribution to the nonlinear response. New laser-induced birefringence effects with a buildup time of several seconds to minutes manifest themselves in: • the appearance of a polarization component perpendicular to the nematic director; • two different modes of spatial pattern formation with different patterns for parallel and perpendicular polarization: (1) At I ~ 1-5 MW/cm2, the perpendicular polarization component forms a four-leaf-clover (a Maltese-like cross) spatial pattern in the far-field from the initial Gaussian spatial intensity distribution. The incident, parallel polarization component forms a round spot with a single ring spatial pattern. (2) At higher incident intensities (I ~ 5-10 MW/cm2), a second regime of pattern formation is observed in the form of high definition patterns and only for the polarization component parallel to the nematic director.

  3. Violet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus causing violet root rot, Helicobasidium brebissonii (anamorph Rhizoctonia crocorum), is widely distributed in Europe and North America but is rarely of much economic importance on alfalfa. The disease has also been reported in Australia, Argentina, and Iran. The disease is characterized b...

  4. Synthesis and analysis of nickel dithiolene dyes in a nematic liquid crystal host. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    SciTech Connect

    Lippa, I.

    1999-03-01

    The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) can be employed to evaluate the Omega Laser system for optimum firing capabilities. This device utilizes a nickel dithiolene infrared absorbing liquid crystal dye dissolved in a liquid crystal host medium (Merck E7). Three nickel dithiolene dyes were characterized for both their solubility in the E7 host and their infrared spectral absorption.

  5. Dye-sensitized nanoarrays with discotic liquid crystals as interlayer for high-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yueqin; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Yiwang

    2014-10-22

    The well-aligned and highly uniform one-dimensional ZnO with organic dyes core/shell (ZNs) and ZnO with dyes and liquid crystals core/double-shells nanoarrays (ZNLs) with controllable lengths were fabricated as electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). Ditetrabutylammonium cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II) dye (N719) was presented to reduce the surface defects of ZnO nanoarrays (NAs). In addition, the shell modification could decrease the electron injection barrier between ZnO and active layer, thereby facilitating electron injection effectively and forming a direct electron transport channel into the cathode. Due to the orientation of nanoarrays and the self-organization of 3,6,7,10,11-pentakis(hexyloxy)-2-hydroxytriphenylene liquid crystals (LCs) in liquid crystalline mesophase and isotropic phase transition, the components of active layer would be driven rearrange and infiltrate among the interspaces of nanoarrays more orderly. The increased interfacial contact between cathode and active layer would benefit charge generation, transportation and collection. On the basis of these advantages, it was found the N719 shell and N719/LCs double-shells modifications of ZnO NAs could boost the photovoltaic performance of PSCs with the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.3% and 8.0%, respectively. PMID:25269148

  6. Dynamical studies of the mechanisms for optical nonlinearities of methyl-red dye doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-08-24

    Dynamical grating diffraction experiments and reflection/transmission polarization spectroscopy have been conducted on azo-dye doped Blue-Phase Liquid Crystal (BPLC) to investigate the mechanisms responsible for laser induced refractive index changes. The underlying mechanisms for the transient grating diffraction components are attributed to thermal indexing and lattice distortion, whereas the persistent component is due to lattice distortion/expansion caused by laser excited dye molecule isomerization. These mechanisms were distinguishable by their response dynamics and gave rise to the observed reflection spectra and photonic bandgap shift, polarization dependency and optical activity. Some preliminary studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using these mechanisms for coherent holographic and direct image writing operations. PMID:26368144

  7. Structural insight into the interactions between a cationic dye and an anionic surfactant in crystals of 9-aminoacridinium dodecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Artur; Trzybi?ski, Damian

    2014-11-01

    9-Aminoacridinium dodecyl sulfate, a salt consisting of a cationic dye and an anionic surfactant, was synthesized and structurally characterized. In the crystal packing, dodecyl sulfate anions interact via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions to form monolayers. These monolayers have a corrugated surface in which shallow and deep grooves are distinguishable. 9-Aminoacridinium cations form ?-stacking columns, which are located in these grooves, and interact with dodecyl sulfate monolayers via N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The monolayers of dodecyl sulfate ions observed in the crystal structure of the title compound represent a new type of self-assembled monolayers of this surfactant in the crystals.

  8. Biological removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous solution by Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Török, Anamaria; Buta, Erzsébet; Indolean, Cerasella; Tonk, Szende; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Majdik, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and develop a phytoremediation method for the removal of two triphenylmethane dyes (crystal violet and malachite green) using an aquatic plant, Lemna minor. The effects of operational parameters such as aquatic plant quantity, initial dye concentration, initial pH of the solutions and temperature of the medium were studied in order to determine the optimum phytoremediation conditions. The plant's photosynthetic pigments were determined quantitatively in order to detect the plant's response to abiotic stress. During the phytoremediation experiments the parallel sub-processes (phytosorption, phytoextraction, phytodegradation) were observed and analysed. The mechanisms of phytoremediation were studied using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that the plant tolerated high concentrations (300 mg/L) of dyes, and was able to remove from the environment and accumulate in its cells the dyes up to a significant percentage (crystal violet was removed by about 80% and malachite green by 90%). PMID:26085430

  9. Plant-mediated synthesis of silver-nanocomposite as novel effective azo dye adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satapathy, Mantosh Kumar; Banerjee, Priya; Das, Papita

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of textile effluent is a globally alarming issue nowadays. In order to address this problem, a cost-effective and environment-friendly technique for adsorption of toxic dyes has been introduced in this research. Firstly in this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) having antibacterial efficacy, had been carried out using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica as reducing as well as capping agent. This research idea was further extended for the development and application of a novel method of preparation of silver-nanocomposite using synthesized microwave-assisted AgNPs with soil as a novel nanocomposite to adsorb hazardous dyes. However, this nanocomposite was found to possess higher efficiency and adsorption capacity in comparison to soil as adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye under same experimental conditions. Additionally, it was also observed that use of this Ag-nanocomposite as adsorbent helped in achieving about 97.2 % removal of crystal violet dye from the effluent solution.

  10. DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of enhanced nonlinear optical responses of methyl-red-doped blue-phase liquid crystals by application of a DC field. We have observed strong multi-order nonlinear grating diffractions characterized by a nonlinear index coefficient n(2)?0.5??cm(2)/W using unfocused CW laser power of ?1??mW and a DC field of a few V/?m. The underlying mechanisms are crystalline lattice and director axis reorientations by torques exerted by the DC field and photo-excited dye molecules. PMID:25531608

  11. [Study on decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes by DTT].

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Liu, Da-Wei; Ren, Sui-Zhou; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes by DTT was researched. For malachite green, content of DTT in reaction system was optimized to investigate the quantitative relation between DTT and malachite green and the decolorization capacity of DTT was confirmed. Effect of pH of reaction system on reducibility of DTT was explored. The results indicated 4 mol malachite green could be decolorized by 1 mol DTT averagely within 1 min, when pH of the reaction system was above 5. The decolorization rate was up to 97%. Decolorization product of malachite mreen was corroborated to be its leuco form by HPLC analysis. Some insoluble compounds, which could be the complex products of leuco malachite green with DTT, were formed during the decolorization reaction. Decolorization of crystal violet, brilliant green and basic fuchsin by DTT was tested further, and the decolorization rates were all above 85%, which suggested DTT was a broad-spectrum decolorization agent for triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:22624380

  12. Spatial and spectral distributions of emission from dye-doped photonic crystals in reflection and transmission geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Munige Srinivas; Vijaya, Ramarao; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Premaratne, Malin

    2012-01-01

    Spectral distribution of emission was measured in a large angular range (8 deg to 180 deg) around a self-assembled photonic crystal synthesized from colloids of Rhodamine-B dye-doped polystyrene. Its comparison with the emission from the same dye-doped colloids in a liquid suspension provides a better understanding of the anisotropic propagation of light within the structure due to its pseudo-gap properties. The spontaneous emission is suppressed by 40% in the presence of the stop band over a large bandwidth (˜50%) of the first-order bandgap in the ?L direction, due to the appropriate choice of the colloidal diameter. Spectral shifts in the spontaneous emission spectrum occur with the variation in the detection angle. The inevitable disorder in the self-assembled crystals and the resultant effect on emission was modeled by comparing the experimentally obtained reflection spectrum with the band structure calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method to exclude finite-size effects. Reflection and transmission are complementary because of the absence of strong absorptive effects. The extent of redistribution in the emission from a photonic crystalline environment with respect to a homogeneous emitter is significant in the spectral and spatial domains.

  13. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

  14. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b) Uses and restrictions. (1) The...

  16. Surface-enhanced resonance hyper-Raman scattering and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering of dyes adsorbed on silver electrode and silver colloid: a comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wu-Hu; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Yu, Nai-Teng

    1999-10-01

    Surface-enhanced resonance hyper-Raman scattering (SERHRS) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) of three dyes, rhodamine 6G, crystal violet and basic fuchsin, are studied comparatively on electrochemically roughened silver electrode and silver colloid, respectively. All three dyes show a better SERHRS efficiency on the silver colloid than on the silver electrode, a phenomenon just opposite to what we have recently observed for pyridine and pyrazine [Chem. Phys. Lett. 305 (1999) 303]. These results suggest that the efficiency of SEHRS depends not only on the active surfaces employed (colloidal metals versus roughened electrodes) but also on the types of the adsorbed molecules.

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of Acid Violet 43.

    PubMed

    Fiume, M Z

    2001-01-01

    Acid Violet 43 is an anthraquinone color that may be used as a colorant in cosmetic formulations that are hair dyes, colors, and coloring rinses. Batches of Acid Violet 43 that are certified to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) specifications are termed Ext. D & C Violet No. 2. Hair dyes and colors containing Acid Violet 43 are considered coal tar ingredients and, as such, routinely bear a caution statement regarding potential skin irritation and instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation in any given individual. Expected concentrations of use are less than or equal to 1%. Impurities include anthracenedione derivatives, p-toluidine, and p-toluidine sulfonic acid, as well as heavy metals. Based on extensive safety test data, the U.S. FDA has established specifications (including limits on impurities) for Ext. D & C Violet No. 2 that allow its use in any cosmetic. It is the certified color (Ext. D & C Violet No. 2) that has been evaluated in the following safety tests. Oral toxicity tests do not demonstrate significant acute toxicity. In a short-term dermal toxicity study using guinea pigs and a subchronic dermal toxicity study using rabbits, no signs of systemic toxicity and no significant local skin reactions were noted. This ingredient was not genotoxic in bacterial assays, nor was it carcinogenic when applied to mouse skin at a 1% concentration. Accordingly, Acid Violet 43 was determined to be safe for use in hair dye formulations, when impurities are limited as follows: < or = 18% volatile matter (at 135 degrees C) and chlorides and sulfates (calculated as sodium salts); < or = 0.4% water-insoluble matter; < or = 0.2% 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.2% 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione; < or = 0.1% p-toluidine; < or = 0.2% p-toluidine sulfonic acids, sodium salts; < or = 1% subsidiary colors; < or = 20 ppm lead (as Pb); < or = 3 ppm arsenic (as As); < or = 1 ppm mercury (as Hg); and with > or = 80% total color. PMID:11766130

  18. Toxicity induced by Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Liu, Hong-Cui; Ou, Wen-Bin; Eilers, Grant; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Meng, Fan-Guo; Li, Chun-Qi; Li, Yong-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 are classified as carcinogenic dyes in the European textile ecology standard, despite insufficient toxicity data. In this study, the toxicity of these dyes was assessed in a zebrafish model, and the underlying toxic mechanisms were investigated. Basic Violet 14 and Direct Red 28 showed acute toxicity with a LC50 value at 60.63 and 476.84 µg ml(-1) , respectively, whereas the LC50 of Acid Red 26 was between 2500 and 2800 µg ml(-1) . Treatment with Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 resulted in common developmental abnormalities including delayed yolk sac absorption and swimming bladder deflation. Hepatotoxicity was observed in zebrafish treated with Basic Violet 14, and cardiovascular toxicity was found in zebrafish treated with Acid Red 26 at concentrations higher than 2500 µg ml(-1) . Basic Violet 14 also caused significant up-regulation of GCLC gene expression in a dose-dependent manner whereas Acid Red 26 induced significant up-regulation of NKX2.5 and down-regulation of GATA4 at a high concentration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Basic Violet 14, Direct Red 28 and Acid Red 26 induce developmental and organ-specific toxicity, and oxidative stress may play a role in the hepatotoxicity of Basic Violet 14, the suppressed GATA4 expression may have a relation to the cardiovascular toxicity of Acid Red 26. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25727789

  19. Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    on cholesteric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1331-1333 (1994). 4. M. H. Lu, "Bistable reflective cholesteric liquid crystal display," J. Appl. Phys., 81, 1063-1066 (1997). 5. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang. Capurso, "Single-substrate cholesteric liquid crystal displays by colloidal self-assembly," Appl. Phys

  20. Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A. J.; Grimes, C. A.; Mallouk, T. E.

    2012-03-12

    A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport (see picture) and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

  1. IncP-1? Plasmid pGNB1 Isolated from a Bacterial Community from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Mediates Decolorization of Triphenylmethane Dyes?

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1? plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the ?-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the ?-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1? plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

  2. IncP-1-beta plasmid pGNB1 isolated from a bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant mediates decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Andreas; Krahn, Irene; Kollin, Florian; Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Schneiker, Susanne; Pühler, Alfred

    2007-10-01

    Plasmid pGNB1 was isolated from bacteria residing in the activated sludge compartment of a wastewater treatment plant by using a transformation-based approach. This 60-kb plasmid confers resistance to the triphenylmethane dye crystal violet and enables its host bacterium to decolorize crystal violet. Partial sequencing of pGNB1 revealed that its backbone is very similar to that of previously sequenced IncP-1beta plasmids. The two accessory regions of the plasmid, one located downstream of the replication initiation gene trfA and the other located between the conjugative transfer modules Tra and Trb, were completely sequenced. Accessory region L1 contains a transposon related to Tn5501 and a gene encoding a Cupin 2 conserved barrel protein with an unknown function. The triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and a truncated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene that is flanked by IS1071 and another putative insertion element were identified in accessory region L2. Subcloning of the pGNB1 tmr gene demonstrated that this gene is responsible for the observed crystal violet resistance phenotype and mediates decolorization of the triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet, malachite green, and basic fuchsin. Plasmid pGNB1 and the associated phenotype are transferable to the alpha-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gamma-proteobacterium Escherichia coli. This is the first report of a promiscuous IncP-1beta plasmid isolated from the bacterial community from a wastewater treatment plant that harbors a triphenylmethane reductase gene. The pGNB1-encoded enzyme activity is discussed with respect to bioremediation of sewage polluted with triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:17675426

  3. Effective removal of cationic dyes using carboxylate-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Han; Zhou, Yanmei; Yu, Fang; Wang, Enze; Min, Yinghao; Huang, Qi; Pang, Lanfang; Ma, Tongsen

    2015-12-01

    A novel carboxylate-functionalized adsorbent (CNM) based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was prepared and adsorptive removal of multiple cationic dyes (crystal violet, methylene blue, malachite green and basic fuchsin) were investigated. The maximum cationic dyes uptakes ranged from 30.0 to 348.9mgg(-1) following the order of: CNM>CNCs>raw cellulose. Furthermore, the removal of crystal violet by CNM was investigated representatively where kinetics, thermodynamics and isotherm analysis were employed to explain in-depth information associated with the adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model and thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Meanwhile, isothermal study demonstrated a monolayer adsorption behavior following the Langmuir model with a calculated maximum absorption capacity of 243.9mgg(-1), which is higher than those of many other reported adsorbents. These findings prefigure the promising potentials of CNM as a versatile adsorbent for the efficient removal of cationic dyes from wastewater. PMID:26298027

  4. Polyamide as an efficient sorbent for simultaneous interface-free determination of three Sudan dyes in saffron and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Iman; Barfi, Behruz; Payrovi, Moazameh; Feizy, Javid; Sheibani, Hojat A; Miri, Mina; Ghollasi Moud, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    With polyamide (PA) as an efficient sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of Sudan dyes II, III and Red 7B from saffron and urine, their determination by HPLC was performed. The optimum conditions for SPE were achieved using 7 mL methanol/water (1:9, v/v, pH 7) as the washing solvent and 3 mL tetrahydrofuran for elution. Good clean-up and high (above 90%) recoveries were observed for all the analytes. The optimized mobile phase composition for HPLC analysis of these compounds was methanol-water (70:30, v/v). The SPE parameters, such as the maximum loading capacity and breakthrough volume, were also determined for each analyte. The limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), linear ranges and recoveries for the analytes were 4.6-6.6 microg/L, 13.0-19.8 microg/L, 13.0-5000 microg/L (r2>0.99) and 92.5%-113.4%, respectively. The precisions (RSDs) of the overall analytical procedure, estimated by five replicate measurements for Sudan II, III and Red 7B in saffron and urine samples were 2.3%, 1.8% and 3.6%, respectively. The developed method is simple and successful in the application to the determination of Sudan dyes in saffron and urine samples with HPLC coupled with UV detection. PMID:25958664

  5. A chemometric-assisted method for the simultaneous determination of malachite green and crystal violet in water based on absorbance-pH data generated by a homemade pH gradient apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Yuan, Xuejie; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao; Shi, Jiahua; Wang, Yali; Chen, Yuewen; Gao, Shufang

    2015-11-01

    An attractive method of generating second-order data was developed by a dropping technique to generate pH gradient simultaneously coupled with diode-array spectrophotometer scanning. A homemade apparatus designed for the pH gradient. The method and the homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in water samples. The absorbance-pH second-order data of MG or CV were obtained from the spectra of MG or CV in a series of pH values of HCl-KCl solution. The second-order data of mixtures containing MG and CV that coexisted with interferents were analyzed using multidimensional partial least-squares with residual bilinearization. The method and homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine MG and CV in fish farming water samples and in river ones with satisfactory results. The presented method and the homemade apparatus could serve as an alternative tool to handle some analysis problems. PMID:26057094

  6. Conducting glasses recovered from thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastes for dye-sensitized solar cell cathodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C; Chang, F-C; Peng, C Y; Wang, H Paul

    2015-12-01

    Transparent conductive glasses such as thin film transistor (TFT) array and colour filter glasses were recovered from the TFT-liquid crystal display panel wastes by dismantling and sonic cleaning. Noble metals (i.e. platinum (Pt)) and indium tin oxide (ITO) are generally used in the cathode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). To reduce the DSSC cost, Pt was replaced with nano nickel-encapsulated carbon-shell (Ni@C) nanoparticles, which were prepared by carbonization of Ni(2+)-?-cyclodextrin at 673?K for 2?h. The recovered conductive glasses were used in the DSSC electrodes in the substitution of relatively expensive ITO. Interestingly, the efficiency of the DSSC having the Ni@C-coated cathode is as high as 2.54%. Moreover, the cost of the DSSC using the recovered materials can be reduced by at least 24%. PMID:25399759

  7. Dyes in Liquid Crystals: Experimental and Computational Studies of a Guest–Host System Based on a Combined DFT and MD Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mark T; Abbott, Laurence C; Cowling, Stephen J; Goodby, John W; Moore, John N

    2015-01-01

    Practical applications of guest–host liquid crystal systems are critically dependent on the alignment of the guest species within the liquid crystal host. UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy shows that the 1,5-dihydroxy-2,6-bis-(4-propylphenyl)-9,10-anthraquinone dye aligns within the E7 nematic host, giving an experimental dichroic ratio of 9.40 and dye order parameter of 0.74. This alignment was modelled by using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) computational approaches that do not require the input of experimental data. Time-dependent DFT calculations show that the electronic transition dipole moment is highly aligned with the long molecular axis of the dye. Fully atomistic MD simulations show that the long axis of the dye is less highly aligned within the E7 host, indicating that this contribution limits the overall dye alignment and, thereby, the potential practical applications of this particular system. Importantly, this study demonstrates an experimental and combined DFT and MD computational approach that may be applied generally to guest–host systems, providing a potential route to their rational design. PMID:26031244

  8. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b)...

  9. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet. 21.111 Section 21.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a...

  10. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b)...

  11. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentian violet. 21.111 Section 21.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b)...

  14. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet. 21.111 Section 21.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3107 - Carbazole violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbazole violet. 73.3107 Section 73.3107 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3107 Carbazole violet. (a) Identity. The color additive is carbazole violet (Pigment Violet 23) (CAS Reg. No. 6358-30-1, Colour Index No. 51319). (b)...

  16. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet. 21.111 Section 21.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a...

  17. 27 CFR 21.111 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet. 21.111 Section 21.111 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....111 Gentian violet. (a) Gentian violet (methyl violet, methylrosaniline chloride) occurs as a...

  18. Degradation of textile dyes mediated by plant peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Shaffiqu, T S; Roy, J Jegan; Nair, R Aswathi; Abraham, T Emilia

    2002-01-01

    The peroxidase enzyme from the plants Ipomea palmata (1.003 IU/g of leaf) and Saccharum spontaneum (3.6 IU/g of leaf) can be used as an alternative to the commercial source of horseradish and soybean peroxidase enzyme for the decolorization of textile dyes, mainly azo dyes. Eight textiles dyes currently used by the industry and seven other dyes were selected for decolorization studies at 25-200 mg/L levels using these plant enzymes. The enzymes were purified prior to use by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion exchange and gel permeation chromatographic techniques. Peroxidase of S. spontaneum leaf (specific activity of 0.23 IU/mg) could completely degrade Supranol Green and Procion Green HE-4BD (100%) dyes within 1 h, whereas Direct Blue, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G and Chrysoidine were degraded >70% in 1 h. Peroxidase of Ipomea (I. palmata leaf; specific activity of 0.827 U/mg) degraded 50 mg/L of the dyes Methyl Orange (26%), Crystal Violet (36%), and Supranol Green (68%) in 2-4 h and Brilliant Green (54%), Direct Blue (15%), and Chrysoidine (44%) at the 25 mg/L level in 1 to 2 h of treatment. The Saccharum peroxidase was immobilized on a hydrophobic matrix. Four textile dyes, Procion Navy Blue HER, Procion Brilliant Blue H-7G, Procion Green HE-4BD, and Supranol Green, at an initial concentration of 50 mg/L were completely degraded within 8 h by the enzyme immobilized on the modified polyethylene matrix. The immobilized enzyme was used in a batch reactor for the degradation of Procion Green HE-4BD and the reusability was studied for 15 cycles, and the half-life was found to be 60 h. PMID:12396133

  19. Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ta; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Yu, Jui-Hao; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Lee, Chun-Hong; Jau, Hung-Chang; Lee, Ming-Chang; Chen, Yung-Jui; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-05-01

    This investigation reports observations of optical bistability in a silicon nitride (SiN) micro-ring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal cladding. The refractive index of the cladding can be changed by switching the liquid crystal between nematic (NLC) and photo-induced isotropic (PHI) states by. Both the NLC and the PHI states can be maintained for many hours, and can be rapidly switched from one state to the other by photo-induced isomerization using 532 nm and 408 nm addressing light, respectively. The proposed device exhibits optical bistable switching of the resonance wavelength without sustained use of a power source. It has a 1.9 nm maximum spectral shift with a Q-factor of over 10000. The hybrid SiN- LC micro-ring resonator possesses easy switching, long memory, and low power consumption. It therefore has the potential to be used in signal processing elements and switching elements in optically integrated circuits. PMID:23669955

  20. Effect of single walled carbon nanotubes on the threshold voltage of dye based photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Manik, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being widely used in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices as their usage has been reported to enhance the device efficiency along with other related parameters. In this work we have studied the energy (Ec) effect of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the threshold voltage (Vth) and also on the trap states of dye based photovoltaic devices. SWCNT is added in a series of dyes such as Rose Bengal (RB), Methyl Red (MR), Malachite Green (MG) and Crystal Violet (CV). By analysing the steady state dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics Vth and Ec is estimated for the different devices with and without addition of SWCNT. It is observed that on an average for all the dyes Vth is reduced by about 30% in presence of SWCNT. The trap energy Ec also reduces in case of all the dyes. The relation between Vth, Ec and total trap density is discussed. From the photovoltaic measurements it is seen that the different photovoltaic parameters change with addition of SWCNT to the dye based devices. Both the short circuit current density and fill factor are found to increase for all the dye based devices in presence of SWCNT.

  1. Plasma-Assisted Synthesis of High-Mobility Atomically Layered Violet Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Lai, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Ching-Hung; Medina, Henry; Su, Teng-Yu; Ouyang, Hao; Chen, Tai-Hsiang; Liang, Jenq-Horng; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus have demonstrated outstanding properties due to electron confinement as the thickness is reduced to atomic scale. Among the phosphorus allotropes, black phosphorus, and violet phosphorus possess layer structure with the potential to be scaled down to atomically thin film. For the first time, the plasma-assisted synthesis of atomically layered violet phosphorus has been achieved. Material characterization supports the formation of violet phosphorus/InN over InP substrate where the layer structure of violet phosphorus is clearly observed. The identification of the crystal structure and lattice constant ratifies the formation of violet phosphorus indeed. The critical concept of this synthesis method is the selective reaction induced by different variations of Gibbs free energy (?G) of reactions. Besides, the Hall mobility of the violet phosphorus on the InP substrate greatly increases over the theoretical values of InP bulk material without much reduction in the carrier concentration, suggesting that the mobility enhancement results from the violet phosphorus layers. Furthermore, this study demonstrates a low-cost technique with high compatibility to synthesize the high-mobility atomically layered violet phosphorus and open the space for the study of the fundamental properties of this intriguing material as a new member of the fast growing family of 2D crystals. PMID:26070035

  2. Fluorescence screening of leucomalachite green and leucogentian violet residues in catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tripheylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and gentian violet (GV) are effective fungicides, ectoparasiticides and disinfectants in aquaculture. This practice may leave toxic residues in seafood which is not allowed by FDA and many regulatory agencies worldwide. In this work, residues of their me...

  3. Light-controlled electric Freedericksz threshold in dye doped liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchetti, L.; Catani, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-05-28

    We report the results of measurements of the threshold of Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal doped by Methyl-red. We show that in case of dc field the threshold voltage can decrease or increase depending on the light dose, due to the light-induced desorption and adsorption of charge complexes from and on the irradiated surface, that has been recently demonstrated. This effect has the potential to be exploited in optical devices such as liquid crystal microlenses and spatial light modulators.

  4. Use of dye tracing to determine ground-water movement to Mammoth Crystal Springs, Sylvan Pass area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Susong, David D.

    2006-01-01

    At the request of and in cooperation with the Geology Program at Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation of the Sylvan Pass area in June 2005 to determine the relation between surface water and ground-water flow to Mammoth Crystal Springs. Results of a dye-tracing investigation indicate that streamflow lost into talus deposits on Sylvan Pass enters the ground-water system and moves to the southeast to discharge at Mammoth Crystal Springs. Ground-water travel times to the springs from a distance of 1.45 miles and a vertical relief of 500 feet were less than 1 day, indicating apparent rates of movement of at least 8,000 feet per day, values that are similar to those in karst aquifers. Peak dye concentrations were reached about 2 days after dye injection, and transit time of most of the dye mass through the system was about 3 weeks. High permeability and rapid travel times within this aquifer also are indicated by the large variation in springflow in response to snowmelt runoff and precipitation, and by the high concentration of suspended sediment (turbidity) in the water discharging into the spring-fed lake.

  5. Method for colorimetric detection of double-stranded nucleic acid using leuco triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shigehiko; Sano, Sotaro; Takahashi, Koji; Jikihara, Takaaki

    2015-03-15

    Because loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) can amplify substantial amounts of DNA under isothermal conditions, its applications for simple genetic testing have attracted considerable attention. A positive LAMP reaction is indicated by the turbidity caused by by-products or by the color change after adding a metallochromic indicator to the reaction solution, but these methods have certain limitations. Leuco crystal violet (LCV), a colorless dye obtained after sodium sulfite treatment of crystal violet (CV), was used as a new colorimetric method for detecting LAMP. LCV is reconverted into CV through contact with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Therefore, the positive reaction of LAMP is indicated by color change from colorless to violet. The assay is sensitive enough to detect LAMP products, with a detection limit of 7.1 ng/?l for dsDNA. It is also highly selective to dsDNA, and interference with single-stranded DNA and deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) is not observed. LCV facilitates direct colorimetric detection of the main product rather than a by-product of the LAMP reaction; therefore, this method can be used under various reaction conditions such as those with added pyrophosphatase in solution. This colorimetric LAMP detection method using LCV is useful for point-of-care genetic testing given its simplicity. PMID:25575759

  6. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive manganese violet is a violet pigment obtained by reacting phosphoric acid, ammonium dihydrogen...and manganese dioxide at temperatures above 450 °F. The pigment is a manganese ammonium pyrophosphate complex having the...

  7. Production and delivery of violet solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The expansion of conventional violet cells from laboratory numbers to pilot line numbers is described. The basic properties of a violet cell are discussed. The close interaction of all the process steps is emphasized.

  8. Flight qualification test results for violet cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    The violet solar cell has been submitted to a flight qualification program. The tasks included in this program were: to define the violet cell's electrical output from -100 C to +100 C; to determine the violet cell's degradation under 2 MeV, 1 MeV and .3 MeV proton irradiation, under a high humidity environment and under ultraviolet light; to thermal cycle two similar modules of violet cells; to flight qualify a full size violet cell panel for the IMP-J flight; and to obtain a primary balloon-flown standard of the violet cell type. The results of these tests demonstrate that the violet cell is fully qualified for space flight use with no further development work. The tests show that the violet cell offers a power increase of at least twenty-one per cent over presently available commercial cells.

  9. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity...Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity...Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity...Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity...Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in...

  13. Laser-pointer-induced self-focusing effect in hybrid-aligned dye-doped liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Aihara, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Motoi; Mamiya, Jun-ichi; Priimagi, Arri; Shishido, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optics deals with phenomena where “light controls light”; e.g., there is mediation by an intensity-dependent medium through which light propagates. This field has attracted much attention for its immense potential in applications dependent on nonlinear processes, such as frequency conversion, multiple-photon absorption, self-phase modulation, and so on. However, such nonlinearities are typically only observed at very high light intensities and thus they require costly lasers. Here, we report on a self-focusing effect induced with a 1?mW handheld laser pointer. We prepared polymer-stabilized dye-doped liquid crystals, in which the molecular director orientation gradually changes from homeotropic at one surface to homogeneous at the other. This is referred to as hybrid alignment. In such films, the threshold intensity needed to form diffraction rings was reduced by a factor of 8.5 compared to that in conventional homeotropic cells, which enabled the induction of the self-focusing effect with a laser pointer. PMID:25944052

  14. Laser-pointer-induced self-focusing effect in hybrid-aligned dye-doped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Aihara, Yosuke; Kinoshita, Motoi; Mamiya, Jun-Ichi; Priimagi, Arri; Shishido, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    Nonlinear optics deals with phenomena where “light controls light” e.g., there is mediation by an intensity-dependent medium through which light propagates. This field has attracted much attention for its immense potential in applications dependent on nonlinear processes, such as frequency conversion, multiple-photon absorption, self-phase modulation, and so on. However, such nonlinearities are typically only observed at very high light intensities and thus they require costly lasers. Here, we report on a self-focusing effect induced with a 1?mW handheld laser pointer. We prepared polymer-stabilized dye-doped liquid crystals, in which the molecular director orientation gradually changes from homeotropic at one surface to homogeneous at the other. This is referred to as hybrid alignment. In such films, the threshold intensity needed to form diffraction rings was reduced by a factor of 8.5 compared to that in conventional homeotropic cells, which enabled the induction of the self-focusing effect with a laser pointer.

  15. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000 Food and... Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate scientific data to be safe...

  16. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000 Food and... Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate scientific data to be safe...

  17. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000 Food and... Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate scientific data to be safe...

  18. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000 Food and... Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate scientific data to be safe...

  19. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000 Food and... Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate scientific data to be safe...

  20. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000...Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate...

  1. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000...Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate...

  2. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet. 589.1000 Section 589.1000...Food or Feed § 589.1000 Gentian violet. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet has not been shown by adequate...

  3. Bichromophoric Dyes for Wavelength Shifting of Dye-Protein Fluoromodules

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ha H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Brotherton, Wendy L.; Schmidt, Brigitte F.; Zanotti, Kimberly J.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Dye-protein fluoromodules consist of fluorogenic dyes and single chain antibody fragments that form brightly fluorescent noncovalent complexes. This report describes two new bichromophoric dyes that extend the range of wavelengths of excitation or emission of existing fluoromodules. In one case, a fluorogenic thiazole orange (TO) was attached to an energy acceptor dye, Cy5. Upon binding to a protein that recognizes TO, red emission due to efficient energy transfer from TO to Cy5 replaces the green emission observed for monochromophoric TO bound to the same protein. Separately, TO was attached to a coumarin that serves as an energy donor. The same green emission is observed for coumarin-TO and TO bound to a protein, but efficient energy transfer allows violet excitation of coumarin-TO, versus longer wavelength, blue excitation of monochromophoric TO. Both bichromophores exhibit low nanomolar KD values for their respective proteins, >95% energy transfer efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yields. PMID:25679477

  4. Pulsed electric linear dichroism of triphenylmethane dyes adsorbed on montmorillonite K10 in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kiwamu; Sasai, Ryo

    2000-05-01

    Electric linear dichroism (ELD) spectra of two cationic triphenylmethane dyes, crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG), bound to sodium montmorillonite K10 (MK-10) were studied at 20 C in aqueous media at two mixing ratios, D/S, of 0.10 and 0.24 in the 700- to 400 nm wavelength region and in the applied electric field strength range between 0 and 3 kV/cm. The specific parallel and perpendicular dichroism ({Delta}A{sub {parallel}}/A and {Delta}A{sub {perpendicular}}/A) spectra of dye-adsorbed MK-10 suspension were measured at a fixed field strength with an apparatus equipped with a 512-channel photodiode array detector. By changing the field strength over a wide range, a series of the reduced dichroism values of the bound dyes were measured at a fixed wavelength. By fitting these dichroism values to theoretical orientation functions, the intrinsic reduced dichroism ({Delta}A/A){sub int} spectra at the limiting high fields (ELD spectrum) were determined for CV and MG bound to MK-10. No appreciable difference was observed at the two D/S values. The ELD spectra of these bound dyes are undulatory but never constant, throughout their absorption region; thus, the dye plane does not lie flatly either on the surface or between layers of MK-10 particle.

  5. Inhalation toxicology of red and violet mixtures. Chamber concentration and particle-size distribution report

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, M.A.; Davies, D.W.

    1991-07-01

    An inhalation exposure facility was developed at the U.S. EPA, RTP, NC to conduct inhalation exposures of rodents and guinea pigs to dye mixtures used by the U.S. Army in the manufacture of smoke munitions. Initially, an evaluation of the prototype chamber aerosol homogeneity was conducted to determine the uniformity and reproducibility of the concentration and particle size of dye aerosol throughout the breathing zone of the test animals. The three dyes, DR11, SR1, and DB3, were chemically analyzed for purity and optically examined for size and shape. All pure dyes appeared to be stable at room temperature except DB3, which decomposes if not stored at 4 C. The particle size ranges varied for each pure dye and structures were either amorphous (azo dye) or crystalline (anthraquinone dyes). The bulk red and violet dye mixtures were analyzed for composition. The chemical analysis of the relative composition of each dye mixture, collected by cascade impactor sampling, revealed fractionation of the mixtures into component dyes.

  6. Photoinduced reordering in thin azo-dye films and light-induced reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid-crystal easy axis.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, V G; Pasechnik, S V; Dubtsov, A V

    2012-07-01

    We theoretically study the kinetics of photoinduced reordering triggered by linearly polarized (LP) reorienting light in thin azo-dye films that were initially illuminated with LP ultraviolet pumping beam. The process of reordering is treated as a rotational diffusion of molecules in the light intensity-dependent mean-field potential. The two-dimensional diffusion model which is based on the free energy rotational Fokker-Planck equation and describes the regime of in-plane reorientation is generalized to analyze the dynamics of the azo-dye order parameter tensor at varying polarization azimuth of the reorienting light. It is found that, in the photosteady state, the intensity of LP reorienting light determines the scalar order parameter (the largest eigenvalue of the order parameter tensor), whereas the steady state orientation of the corresponding eigenvector (the in-plane principal axis) depends solely on the polarization azimuth. We show that, under certain conditions, reorientation takes place only if the reorienting light intensity exceeds its critical value. Such threshold behavior is predicted to occur in the bistability region provided that the initial principal axis lies in the polarization plane of reorienting light. The model is used to interpret the experimental data on the light-induced azimuthal gliding of the liquid-crystal easy axis on photoaligned azo-dye substrates. PMID:23005436

  7. Photoinduced reordering in thin azo-dye films and light-induced reorientation dynamics of the nematic liquid-crystal easy axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, Alexei D.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Dubtsov, A. V.

    2012-07-01

    We theoretically study the kinetics of photoinduced reordering triggered by linearly polarized (LP) reorienting light in thin azo-dye films that were initially illuminated with LP ultraviolet pumping beam. The process of reordering is treated as a rotational diffusion of molecules in the light intensity-dependent mean-field potential. The two-dimensional diffusion model which is based on the free energy rotational Fokker-Planck equation and describes the regime of in-plane reorientation is generalized to analyze the dynamics of the azo-dye order parameter tensor at varying polarization azimuth of the reorienting light. It is found that, in the photosteady state, the intensity of LP reorienting light determines the scalar order parameter (the largest eigenvalue of the order parameter tensor), whereas the steady state orientation of the corresponding eigenvector (the in-plane principal axis) depends solely on the polarization azimuth. We show that, under certain conditions, reorientation takes place only if the reorienting light intensity exceeds its critical value. Such threshold behavior is predicted to occur in the bistability region provided that the initial principal axis lies in the polarization plane of reorienting light. The model is used to interpret the experimental data on the light-induced azimuthal gliding of the liquid-crystal easy axis on photoaligned azo-dye substrates.

  8. Toxicity of imine-iminium dyes and pigments: electron transfer, radicals, oxidative stress and other physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2014-08-01

    Although conjugation is well known as an important contributor to color, there is scant recognition concerning involvement of imine and iminium functions in the physiological effects of this class of dyes and pigments. The group includes the dyes methylene blue, rhodamine, malachite green, fuchsin, crystal violet, auramine and cyanins, in addition to the pigments consisting of pyocyanine, phthalocyanine and pheophytin. The physiological effects consist of both toxicity and beneficial aspects. The unifying theme of electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress is used as the rationale in both cases. Toxicity is frequently prevented or alleviated by antioxidants. The apparent dichotomy of methylene blue action as both oxidant and antioxidant is rationalized based on similar previous cases. This mechanistic approach may have practical benefit. This review is important in conveying, for the first time, a unifying mechanism for toxicity based on electron transfer-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress arising from imine-iminium. PMID:24852913

  9. Low-cost and effective phenol and basic dyes trapper derived from the porous silica coated with hydrotalcite gel.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yu Fei; Lin, Wei Gang; Gao, Ling; Yang, Jin; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Jia Yuan; Wei, Feng; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jian Hua

    2011-06-15

    Novel low-cost and effective adsorbents of phenol and basic dyes were made by coating amorphous silica with hydrotalcite (HT) gel followed by soaking in alkaline solution, and the surface basic-acidic properties of resulting composites were evaluated by CO(2)-TPD, Hammett indicator method and NH(3)-TPD, respectively. Both BET surface area and microporous surface area of the composites were increased after they were soaked with alkaline solution; meanwhile the center of pore size distribution was changed from 9 to 3-4 nm. These composites efficiently captured phenol in gaseous and liquid phases, superior to mesoporous silica such as MCM-48 or SBA-15 and zeolite NaY, and the equilibrium data of gaseous adsorption could be well fitted to Freundlich model. These modified silicas also exhibited high adsorption capacity forward basic dyes such as crystal violet (CV) and leuco-crystal violet (LCV), reaching the adsorption equilibrium within 1 h and offering a new material for environment protection. PMID:21458822

  10. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  11. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

  12. Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The IMP-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

  13. Results from the IMP-J violet solar cell experiment and violet cell balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-J violet solar cell experiment was flown in an orbit with mild thermal cycling and low hard-particle radiation. The results of the experiment show that violet cells degrade at about the same rate as conventional cells in such an orbit. Balloon flight measurements show that violet solar cells produce approximately 20% more power than conventional cells.

  14. A 1D anionic lanthanide coordination polymer as an adsorbent material for the selective uptake of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Du, Pei-Yao; Li, Hui; Fu, Xin; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin

    2015-08-14

    A 1D anionic lanthanide coordination polymer {[(CH(3))(2)NH(2)] [(H(2)abtc)(2)Ho(H(2)O)]}n () (H(4)abtc = 3,3',5,5'-azobenzene-tetracarboxylic acid) has been synthesized under hydrothermal reaction conditions. The protonated [(CH(3))(2)NH(2)](+) is generated from decomposed DMA during the reaction, and balances the negative charge of the framework. The as-obtained samples were characterized using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and TGA. Interestingly, 1 can selectively capture cationic dye molecules from mixtures of dye molecules containing different charges in aqueous solutions. Furthermore, 1 exhibits a different adsorption efficiency toward different cationic dyes (crystal violet, rhodamine B, safranine T and methylene blue). Among the studied dyes, methylene blue has a higher adsorption efficiency in comparison to the others. Thus, complex 1 could serve as a good candidate material for the selective removal of cationic dyes during the treatment of wastewater. PMID:26151472

  15. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  19. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring

  20. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  1. Heterologous expression and characterization of laccase 2 from Coprinopsis cinerea capable of decolourizing different recalcitrant dyes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Hu; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong; Wang, Rong-Tan

    2014-01-01

    The gene (CcLcc2) encoding laccase from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea Okayama-7 #130 was synthesized by polymerase chain reaction-based two-step DNA synthesis, and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant protein was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and nickel nitrilotriacetic acid chromatography. The molecular mass of CcLcc2 was estimated to be 54 kDa by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH and temperature for laccase catalysis for the oxidation of 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) were 2.6 and 45 °C, respectively. The Km values of the enzyme towards the substrates ABTS, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and guaiacol were 0.93, 1.02 and 28.07 mmol·L?1, respectively. The decolourization of methyl orange, crystal violet and malachite green, commonly used in the textile industry, was assessed. The decolourization percentage of crystal violet and malachite green was 80% after 4 h of reaction, and that of methyl orange was 50% at 4 h. These results show that the CcLcc2 has enormous potential for the decolourization of highly stable triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:26019510

  2. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350 degrees C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model producing the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics. PMID:16626729

  3. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H.

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  4. Resonant Rayleigh scattering for the determination of trace amounts of mercury (II) with thiocyanate and basic triphenylmethane dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Liu, Z.; Zhou, G.

    1998-05-01

    Intense resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) appears when mercury (II) reacts with thiocyanate and a basic triphenylmethane dye (BTPMD), such as crystal violet (CV), ethyl violet (EV), brilliant green (BG), malachite green (MG) or indine green (IG), to form an ion-association complex of the type (BTPMD){sub 2}[Hg(SCN){sub 4}]. The characteristics of RRS spectra of the ion-association complexes and suitable conditions for the reactions were investigated. The intensity of RRS is directly proportional to the concentration of mercury (II) in the range of 0--2.0 {micro}g/25 ml. The RRS methods have very high sensitivities for determination of mercury (II); their detection limits are between 1.68 ng/ml and 6.00 ng/ml on different dye systems. The effects of foreign ions and ways to improve the selectivity were studied. The new highly sensitive methods for the determination of trace amounts of mercury based on the RRS of the ion-association complexes have been developed.

  5. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  6. Effect of crystallization of Cu?ZnSnSxSe?-x counter electrode on the performance for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongli; Kou, Dongxing; Chang, Zhixian; Zhou, Wenhui; Zhou, Zhengji; Wu, Sixin

    2014-12-10

    Cu2ZnSnSxSe4-x (CZTSSe) counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are commonly developed with porous structures, but their high surface area could also retard electron transport processes owing to the abundant grain boundaries. Herein, we employed a convenient solution method and a rapid heating process to prepare well crystalline CZTSSe CEs in DSSCs. The influence of crystallization of CZTSSe film on DSSCs performances was discussed in depth. The thermogravimetric analysis, phase morphology, conductivity, and electrochemical characteristics of CZTSSe films were performed. It is found that the rapid heating process is beneficial to the formation of well crystalline film with large grains. As the porosity and grain boundaries in the bulk film are dramatically reduced with the enhanced crystallization, the charge transport process is gradually improved. Using cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, we propose that the accelerating charge transport is of great importance to the photovoltaic performances of DSSCs due to their superior electrocatalytic activities. As the highest cell efficiency was achieved, well crystalline CZTSSe is an efficient CE catalytic material. PMID:25382857

  7. Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures: chemical characterization of combusted inventory red and violet smoke mixes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, I.B.; Buchanan, M.V.; Moneyhun, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Red and violet smoke grenades (Grenade, Hand, Smoke, M18) were combusted within canvas tents and the combustion products were sampled and analyzed. Uncombusted red and violet smoke mixes from the same lots used to fill the combusted grenades were also analyzed. Approximately ten percent of the major dye component of the red smoke mix, methylaminoanthraquinone (MAA) was converted to aminoanthraquinones (1-AA and 2-AA). The violet smoke mix was formulated to contain 1,4-diamino-2,3-dihydroanthraquinone (DAA) and MAA. Upon combustion the DAA was converted almost completely to diaminoanthraquinone (DAA) which was a minor constituent of the uncombusted mix. As in the combusted red smoke mix, it was found that MAA was partially converted to aminoanthraquinones.

  8. Spontaneous crystalization and aggregation of DCNP pyrazoline-based organic dye as a way to tailor random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyprych, K.; Sznitko, L.; Morawski, O.; Miniewicz, A.; Rau, I.; Mysliwiec, J.

    2015-03-01

    The 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (DCNP) compound is showing versatile optical features including nonlinear optical effects, photoluminescence and stimulated emission resulting from its molecular design as well as polar alignment in crystal lattice. We present detailed studies carried out for the DCNP compound on a photoluminescence phenomenon, showing that its emission properties are strongly different for molecular and aggregated forms. Experiments have proved that stimulated emission can occur only from the crystaline form of DCNP and the precipitation of it from a solution leads to the constitution of gain and different, random feedback mechanisms depending on aggregate size. The immobilization of DCNP crystals and the controlled crystalization in a viscous biopolymeric matrix have been utilized to generate random micro-cavities, that support weak light localization and coherent random laser emission.

  9. Cataphoretic assembly of cationic dyes and deposition of carbon nanotube and graphene films.

    PubMed

    Su, Y; Zhitomirsky, I

    2013-06-01

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of thin films from aqueous solutions of crystal violet (CV) dyes. The films contained rod-like particles with a long axis oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface. The proposed deposition mechanism involved cataphoresis of cationic CV(+) species, base generation in the cathodic reactions, and charge neutralization at the electrode surface. The assembly of rod-like particles was governed by ?-? interactions of polyaromatic CV molecules. The deposition kinetics was studied by quartz crystal microbalance. CV dyes allowed efficient dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene in water at relatively low CV concentrations. The feasibility of cathodic EPD of MWCNT and graphene from aqueous suspensions, containing CV, has been demonstrated. The deposition yield was investigated at different CV concentrations and deposition voltages. The relatively high deposition yield of MWCNT and graphene indicated that CV is an efficient dispersing, charging, and film forming agent for EPD. Electron microscopy data showed that at low CV concentrations in MWCNT or graphene suspensions and low deposition voltages, the films contained mainly MWCNT or graphene. The increase in the CV concentration and/or deposition voltage resulted in enhanced co-deposition of CV. The EPD method developed in this investigation paves the way for the fabrication of advanced nanocomposites by cathodic electrodeposition. PMID:23540434

  10. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of dye residues in aquaculture products: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud-Pessel, D; Couëdor, P; Verdon, E

    2011-03-25

    A method is described for the identification and the quantitative determination of the triphenylmethane dyes, malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), brilliant green (BG) and leuco malachite green (LMG) and leuco crystal violet (LCV). The analytes were isolated from the matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile. Determination was performed using LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionisation. 4 different deuterated internal standards were introduced to improve the quantitative performance of the method. The method has been validated in line with the EU criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC in accordance with the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) set at 2 ?gkg(-1) for the sum of MG and LMG. For all the monitored compounds, accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision were determined at each level of fortification (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 2.0 ?gkg(-1)). Decision limits CC? and detection capabilities CC? were calculated according to the standard ISO 11843-2. A study on the applicability of the method was conducted on various aquacultured species with the aim to assess the matrix effects. The presence of residues of leuco brilliant green in fish has also been confirmed from experimental study performed on trout treated with brilliant green, using LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. PMID:21310421

  11. Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension peroxidase: purification, characterization and application for dye decolorization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductase enzymes produced by most organisms. In this study, a peroxidase was purified from Hevea brasiliensis cell suspension by using anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose), affinity chromatography (Con A-agarose) and preparative SDS-PAGE. The obtained enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 70 kDa. Surprisingly, this purified peroxidase also had polyphenol oxidase activity. However, the biochemical characteristics were only studied in term of peroxidase because similar experiments in term of polyphenol oxidase have been reported in our pervious publication. The optimal pH of the purified peroxidase was 5.0 and its activity was retained at pH values between 5.0–10.0. The enzyme was heat stable over a wide range of temperatures (0–60°C), and less than 50% of its activity was lost at 70°C after incubation for 30 min. The enzyme was completely inhibited by ?-mercaptoethanol and strongly inhibited by NaN3; in addition, its properties indicated that it was a heme containing glycoprotein. This peroxidase could decolorize many dyes; aniline blue, bromocresol purple, brilliant green, crystal violet, fuchsin, malachite green, methyl green, methyl violet and water blue. The stability against high temperature and extreme pH supported that the enzyme could be a potential peroxidase source for special industrial applications. PMID:23402438

  12. Analysis and Characterization of Dye-Based Black Matrix Film of Low Dielectric Constant Containing Phthalocyanine and Perylene Dyes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woosung; Choi, Jun; Kim, Se Hun; Park, Jongseung; Kim, Jae Pil

    2015-01-01

    For liquid crystal display black matrices of low dielectric constant, greenish zinc phthalocyanine dye and reddish perylene dye exhibiting high solubility and thermal stability were employed to fabricate dye-based black matrices. The spectral, optical, thermal and dielectric properties of the dye-based black matrices were tested, and the surfaces of them were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The dye-based black matrices had sufficiently low dielectric constants and showed satisfactory thermal stability and weaker light absorption property compared with black matrices containing carbon black, due to the low solubility of the dyes and dye aggregations after a post-baking process. PMID:26328348

  13. The nonlinear refraction sign turned to reverse by intercalating cresyl violent dye into layered titanate nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Chunsheng; Wen, Puhong; Kong, Xingang; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Feng, Qi

    2011-02-01

    Solid-state dye-doped materials are an attractive alternative to conventional liquid dye solution. In this study, the spectral characteristics of dye cresyl violet before and after intercalating into layered titanate nanosheets and forming a nanohybrid thin film were investigated by measuring absorption and fluorescence spectra. In addition, their nonlinear optical properties were studied using single beam z-scan technique under irradiation of low power continuous wave (CW) produced by DPSS laser with a wavelength of 532 nm. The nonlinear studying results reveal that the dye cresyl violet in solution has a negative nonlinear refractive index, but it reverses to positive after the dye is intercalated into layered titanate nanosheets with a negative nonlinear refractive index forming CV/HTO nanohybrid thin film. This method can provide a way to turn to reverse nonlinear refraction sign of the materials.

  14. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...data to be safe for use in animal feed. Use of gentian violet in animal feed causes the feed to be...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), in the...is intended for use as a new animal drug and is subject to...

  15. 21 CFR 589.1000 - Gentian violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...data to be safe for use in animal feed. Use of gentian violet in animal feed causes the feed to be...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), in the...is intended for use as a new animal drug and is subject to...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... extent that such other impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash (at 600 °C), not... substances, not more than 6 percent. pH of filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally for...

  17. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish

    E-print Network

    Yokoyama, Shozo

    Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish Takashi Tadaa , Ahmet Altuna. Many other species switched to violet vision and, then again, some avian species switched back to UV vision. These UV and violet vision are medi- ated by short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments

  18. Orientation and electronic structure of ion exchanged dye molecules on mica: An X-ray absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Caseri, W.R.; Haehner, G.

    1998-02-15

    Dye molecules are frequently used to determine the specific surface area and the ion exchange capacity of high-surface-area materials such as mica. The organic molecules are often considered to be planar and to adsorb in a flat orientation. In the present study the authors have investigated the orientation and electronic structure of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) on muscovite mica, prepared by immersing the substrates for extended periods into aqueous solutions of the dyes of various concentrations. The K{sup +} ions of the mica surface are replaced by the organic cations via ion exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that only one amino group is involved in the interaction of CV and MG with the muscovite surface, i.e., certain resonance structures are abolished upon adsorption. With near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy a significant tilt angle with respect to the surface was found for all investigated species. A flat orientation, as has often been proposed before, can effectively be ruled out. Hence, results are in marked contrast to the often quoted orientation and suggest that the specific surface areas determined with dyes may, in general, be overestimated.

  19. Synthesis and utilization of a novel carbon nanotubes supported nanocables for the adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-09-01

    Using multiwalled carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) as mechanical support and glucose as carbon resource, a hydrothermal carbonization route was designed for the synthesis of MWCNTs@carbon nanocables with tunable diameter and length. MWCNTs are firstly used as templates for the formation of carbon-rich composite nanocables, and the diameter of the nanocables could be tailored through adjusting the hydrothermal time or the ratio of MWCNTs and glucose. Owing to abundant superficial oxygen-containing functional groups, porous surface and remarkable reactivity, the as-synthesized nanocables are capable of efficiently adsorbing cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). Furthermore, the optimum adsorption conditions, kinetics, adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics of dyes were studied systematically. Additionally, the maximum adsorption capacities calculated from data analysis (298.5 mg/g for MB and 228.3 mg/g for CV) are significant higher than those of raw MWCNTs and some other adsorbents reported previously, which provides strong evidence for using MWCNTs@carbon nanocables as adsorbent to remove dyes from aqueous solutions.

  20. Influence of hole injection layer and work function of cathode on the performance of light-emitting liquid crystal cells with fluorescent dye-doped nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Michinori; Horiuchi, Takao; Watanabe, Kyoko; Nose, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the properties of rubrene-doped nematic-liquid-crystal cells to help determine the appropriate structure and material of electrodes for inducing light emission. In particular, we addressed the influence of the insertion of a hole injection layer (HIL) and the work function of the cathode on device performance. As a result, the employment of a HIL and a lower-work-function material was revealed to be effective in obtaining higher luminance and external quantum efficiency. We concluded that this improvement is caused by the facilitated carrier injection on the HIL and cathode surface, as is true for common organic light-emitting diodes.

  1. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  2. Fluorescence enhancement of dyes embedded in nanoparticles of Lu, Eu, Al, and Sc diketonates of different composition and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, L. Yu.; Sveshnikova, E. B.; Ermolaev, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have studied the effect of central ions (Lu(III), Eu(III), Sc(III), and Al(III)), organic ligands (2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone (NTA) and p-phenylbenzoyltrifluoroacetone (PhBTA)), and their concentration in a water-alcohol solution on the fluorescence of ?-diketonate complexes formed and nanoparticles (NPs) generated by the self-assembly of these complexes. The fluorescence quenching of ligands of the complexes of nanoparticles because of the introduction of molecules of dyes, such as Nile Blue (NB), Lissamine Rhodamine RB-200 (RB), and Crystal Violet (CV), in these nanoparticles is investigated, and the NP-sensitization of the fluorescence of these dyes is explored. The dependence of the intensity of the NP-sensitized fluorescence of NB on its concentration in nanoparticles consisting of complexes that differ in composition and concentration is studied. By analyzing this dependence for the nanoparticles consisting of Sc(NTA)3, the size of the studied nanoparticles is evaluated. It is shown that the nature of this dependence is determined by a competition of two processes: the migration of the excitation energy over complexes to dyes and the migration of the excitation energy of dyes to impurities or dimer of dyes. The size of nanoparticles is compared to the estimated values of the exciton diffusion length and the critical radius of energy transfer from complexes to NB. An energy transfer of close to 100% from the nanoparticles formed of 10 ?M of Sc(NTA)3 to 50 nM of NB molecules embedded therein is observed. The introduction of NB molecules into nanoparticles leads to a 200-fold increase in fluorescence intensity compared to their direct excitation in solution.

  3. An Optical Sensing System Using Liquid Crystal Cells and a Corner Cube Prism Coated with Dye Films for Simultaneous Detection of an Electric Field and Decomposition Products of SF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Marenori; Sato, Susumu

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a multisensing system for simultaneously detecting an electric field and a small quantity of decomposition products generated from an electric discharge in SF6.The sensor head consists of a twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal (LC) cell, sandwiched between two cholesteric LC cells and a corner cube prism coated with thin dye films.The electric field can be detected as changes in retardations induced in the TN LC cells by an electric field at a wavelength of a selective reflection band of the cholesteric LC.Simulated and experimental results for the relationship between the sensitivity to the electric field and the thickness of the TN LC cell are discussed. The decomposition products can also be detected as spectral changes of methyl orange dye films deposited on the surfaces of the corner cube prism at different wavelength regions outside the selective reflection band.

  4. EPR and LC-MS studies on the mechanism of industrial dye decolorization by versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera adusta.

    PubMed

    Baratto, Maria Camilla; Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Pogni, Rebecca; Basosi, Riccardo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms of industrial dye transformation by versatile peroxidase were elucidated. Purified versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera adusta was able to decolorize different classes of dyes including azo and phthalocyanines, but unable to transform any of the anthraquinones tested. Kinetic constants for selected dyes were determined and the transformation products were analyzed by EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The EPR and MS analyses of the enzymatic decolorization products showed the cleavage of the azo bond in azo dyes and the total disruption of the phthalocyaninic ring in phthalocyanine dyes. The EPR analysis on two copper-containing dyes, reactive violet 5 (azo) and reactive blue 72 (phthalocyanine), showed that the transformation can or not break the metal-ion coordination bond according the dye nature. The role of the catalytic Trp172 in the dye transformation by a long-range electron transfer pathway was confirmed and the oxidation mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:25567062

  5. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  6. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  7. 75 FR 14468 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...731-TA-1060-1061 (Review)] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India AGENCY: United...countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India and the antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and...

  8. Mutagenicity testing of some commonly used dyes.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T; Fulk, G E; Andrews, A W

    1981-10-01

    Seventeen commonly used dyes and 16 of their metabolites or derivatives were tested in the Salmonella-mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutagens active with and without added Aroclor-induced rat liver microsome preparations (S9) were 3-aminopyrene, lithol red, methylene blue (USP), methyl yellow, neutral red, and phenol red. Those mutagenic only with S9 activation were 4-aminopyrazolone, 2,4-dimethylaniline, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, methyl red, and 4-phenyl-azo-1-naphthylamine. Orange II was mutagenic only without added S9. Nonmutagenic azo dyes were allura red, amaranth, ponceau R, ponceau SX, sunset yellow, and tartrazine. Miscellaneous dyes not mutagenic were methyl green, methyl violet 2B, and nigrosin. Metabolites of the azo dyes that were not mutagenic were 1-amino-2-naphthol hydrochloride, aniline, anthranilic acid, cresidine salt, pyrazolone T,R-amino salt (1-amino-2-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic disodium salt), R-salt, Schaeffer's salt (2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt), sodium naphthionate, sulfanilamide, and sulfanilic acid. 4-Amino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid sodium salt was also not mutagenic. Fusobacterium sp. 2 could reductively cleave methyl yellow to N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine which was then activated to a mutagen. PMID:7039509

  9. Optical study and ruthenizer (II) N3 dye-sensitized solar cell application of ZnO nanorod-arrays synthesized by combine two-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Mohammad Ramzan; Haque, Fozia Z.

    2015-10-01

    Highly dense ZnO nanorod-arrays were successfully synthesized with uniform c-axis growth by using combine two-step process: sol-gel spin coating followed by the aqueous solution growth method. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorod-arrays were investigated. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that ZnO nanorod arrays exhibit wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak with high crystallinity. Nanorods of 3-4 ?m length and 500 nm diameter, with surface roughness ˜20 nm were observed. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopic results revealed the presence of E 2 peak ˜438 cm-1 which again corroborated the existence of wurtzite crystal structures assigned to ZnO. The optical transmittance spectrum indicated that the transmittance of more than 80% was observed in the visible and infrared (IR) regions with the optical band-gap energy ˜3.35 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks in ultra-violet (382.0 nm) and green region (524.9 nm), which specified good-quality crystallite formation containing high density of surface defects, zinc interstitials and oxygen-vacancies. Ruthenizer (II) N3-dye loaded sensitized solar cell test illustrated that the uniform ZnO nanorod-arrays as working electrode with a short circuit current density of 3.99 mA/cm2, fill factor ˜50% and overall power conversion efficiency (?) ˜1.36% might be a promising electrode material of dye sensitized solar cell application.

  10. Determination of Triphenylmethane Dyes and Their Metabolites in Salmon, Catfish, and Shrimp by LC-MS/MS Using AOAC First Action Method 2012.25: Collaborative Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marilyn J; Andersen, Wendy C

    2015-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood. Fourteen laboratories from the United States, Canada, and the European Union member states participated in the study including national and state regulatory laboratories, university and national research laboratories, and private analytical testing laboratories. A variety of LC-MS/MS instruments were used for the analysis. Each participating laboratory received blinded test samples in duplicate of salmon, catfish, and shrimp consisting of negative control matrix; matrix fortified with residues at 0.42, 0.90, and 1.75 ?g/kg; and samples of incurred matrix. The analytical results from each participating laboratory were evaluated for both quantitative residue determination and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Results from statistical analysis showed that this method provided excellent trueness (generally ?90% recovery) and precision (RSDr generally ?10%, HorRat<1). The Study Directors recommend Method 2012.25 for Final Action status. PMID:26025133

  11. Biosorption potential of synthetic dyes by heat-inactivated and live Lentinus edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Gabriela Gregolin; Ruiz, Suelen Pereira; Caetano, Wilker; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Matioli, Graciette

    2014-12-01

    Lentinus edodes CCB-42 was immobilized in loofa sponges and applied to the biosorption of the synthetic dyes congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet. Live immobilized microorganisms achieved average decolorations of congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet of 97.8, 99.7 and 90.6 %, respectively. The loofa sponge was the support and the coadjuvant promoting dye adsorption. The biosorption conditions were optimized for each dye, yielding 30 °C, pH 5.0 and a 12 h reaction time for congo red; 25 °C, pH 3.0 and 36 h for bordeaux red; and 25 °C, pH 8.0 and 24 h for methyl violet. Operational stability was evaluated over five consecutive cycles, with both bordeaux red and congo red exhibiting decolorations above 90 %, while the decoloration of methyl violet decreased after the third cycle. In the sixth month of storage, congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet had decolorations of 93.1, 79.4 and 73.8 %, respectively. Biosorption process best fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. Maximum biosorption capacity of heat-treated L. edodes immobilized in loofa sponge was determined as 143.678, 500.00 and 381.679 mg/g for congo red, bordeaux red and methyl violet, respectively. Treatment with immobilized L. edodes reduced the phytotoxicity of the medium containing dyes. FT-Raman experiments suggested the occurrence of interactions between loofa sponge fibers, L. edodes and dye. L. edodes CCB-42 immobilized in loofa sponges represents a promising new mode of treatment of industrial effluents. PMID:25267474

  12. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed. PMID:22748361

  13. Brief history of the Martian 'violet haze' problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A brief but thorough survey of the literature on the Martian 'violet haze' problem is presented. It is evident that both the normal lack of contrast of the surface features in violet light and their occasional appearance are phenomena intrinsic to Mars. Models involving simple uniform layers of scattering or absorbing materials are inadequate to account for the observations. We suggest that the role of haze has historically been misinterpreted. The blank disk of Mars in violet light occurs when the atmosphere is relatively free of haze. The formation of optically thin white hazes over the bright areas increases the contrast and produces 'blue clearing.'

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure, and vibrational and Mssbauer spectra of a new

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Dominic

    . The dark-violet crystals of the new salt have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and IR températures 400­450 °C, et à pression 25­ 32 MPa. Les cristaux violets foncés du nouveau sel ont été

  15. Venus in Violet and Near Infrared Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These images of the Venus clouds were taken by Galileo's Solid State Imaging System February 13,1990, at a range of about 1 million miles. The smallest detail visible is about 20 miles. The two right images show Venus in violet light, the top one at a time six hours later than the bottom one. They show the state of the clouds near the top of Venus's cloud deck. A right to left motion of the cloud features is evident and is consistent with westward winds of about 230 mph. The two left images show Venus in near infrared light, at the same times as the two right images. Sunlight penetrates through the clouds more deeply at the near infrared wavelengths, allowing a view near the bottom of the cloud deck. The westward motion of the clouds is slower (about 150 mph) at the lower altitude. The clouds are composed of sulfuric acid droplets and occupy a range of altitudes from 30 to 45 miles. The images have been spatially filtered to bring out small scale details and de-emphasize global shading. The filtering has introduced artifacts (wiggly lines running north/south) that are faintly visible in the infrared image. The Galileo Project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; its mission is to study Jupiter and its satellites and magnetosphere after multiple gravity assist flybys at Venus and Earth.

  16. Continuous-wave violet generation at 373.5 nm by frequency-doubled power-scaled near-infrared emitting Pr:YAlO3 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibrich, Martin; Jelínková, Helena

    2013-10-01

    We report on a continuous-wave Pr:YAlO3 laser operating at a wavelength of 373.5 nm in a power-scaled resonator arrangement. Violet light generation has been achieved by intracavity frequency doubling of the near-infrared emitting Pr:YAP laser at a fundamental wavelength of 747 nm. For active medium pumping, two GaN laser diodes providing up to 1 W of output power each at 448 nm were used. By employing BBO crystal as a nonlinear medium, more than 46 mW of violet radiation has been obtained.

  17. Facile preparation of stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 "Maya Violet" pigment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-11-01

    Maya Blue pigment has attracted considerable attention owing to their extraordinary stability. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the study of Maya Blue-like pigments. Inspired by Maya Blue, a stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 (PAL/MV@SiO2) "Maya Violet" pigment was fabricated via adsorption of MV by PAL, and then deposition of a layer of SiO2 on the surface by polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The weight ratio of MV to PAL is as high as 10%. The pigments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and a variety of analytical techniques, e.g., Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta potential. The results indicate that MV molecules are fixed onto the exterior surface, the grooves and at the entrances of the channels of PAL. The PAL/MV@SiO2 pigment shows excellent stability against chemical attacks, e.g., 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH and various organic solvents. Different from Maya Blue, grinding and heating treatment are virtually ineffective in improving stability of the PAL/MV pigment. CTAB and the SiO2 layer formed on the surface of PAL/MV contribute greatly to the improved stability of the pigment due to shielding effect. The optimal CTAB/TEOS/ammonia/H2O molar ratio for the surface modification of PAL/MV is 0.24/1/2.89/495. PMID:26196708

  18. Tunable blue-violet Cr3+:LiCAF + BiBO compact laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestre, H.; Torregrosa, A. J.; Capmany, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present a compact continuous wave (CW) external-cavity tunable Cr3+:LiCaAlF6 (Cr:LiCAF) laser which is intracavity frequency doubled using a BiB3O6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal to obtain tunable blue-violet radiation. The generated second harmonic (SH) can be tuned by means of either angular or temperature variation of the nonlinear crystal. We have obtained SH radiation between 390-415 nm and a maximum output power of 34 mW at 400 nm. Future improvements on the SH tuning range and output power are addressed in the text. Our results may be applied in the design of compact tunable composite external-cavity solid-state lasers.

  19. Poly (Acrylamide-co-Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel Induced by Glow-Discharge Electrolysis Plasma and Its Adsorption Properties for Cationic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Yang, Gege; Pan, Yuanpei; Lu, Quanfang; Yang, Wu; Gao, Jinzhang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(AM-co-AA)) hydrogel was prepared in an aqueous solution by using glow-discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP) induced copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA), in which N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a crosslinker. A mechanism for the synthesis of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel was proposed. To optimize the synthesis condition, the following parameters were examined in detail: the discharge voltage, discharge time, the content of the crosslinker, and the mass ratio of AM to AA. The results showed that the optimum pH range for cationic dyes removal was found to be 5.0-10.0. The P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel exhibits a very high adsorption potential and the experimental adsorption capacities for Crystal violet (CV) and Methylene blue (MB) were 2974.3 mg/g and 2303.6 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel for cationic dyes was also discussed.

  20. Directly hydrothermal growth of single crystal Nb3O7(OH) nanorod film for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Yun; Yang, Dongjiang; Li, Yibing; Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Porun; Wood, Barry J; Zhao, Huijun

    2012-03-22

    Hydrothermal growth of high crystallinity Nb(3) O(7) (OH) single crystal nanorod film onto FTO substrate is directly used as the photoanode for DSSCs without calcination. The resultant DSSCs possess an impressive overall efficiency of 6.77%, the highest among all reported DSSCs assembled by niobium oxide-based photoanodes. PMID:22354561

  1. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  2. Monitoring cell proliferation in vitro with different cellular fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Zolnierowicz, Joanna; Ambrozek-Latecka, Magdalena; Kawiak, Jerzy; Wasilewska, Danuta; Hoser, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    There are few methods for quantifying cell proliferation. Those tests describe the proliferation kinetics of a cell population, but they do not report the history of single cells, the number and frequency of cell divisions, or the precursor cell frequency. Cell-tracking assays based on dilution of the green fluorescent protein labelling dye, CFSE, has become the standard for monitoring cell proliferation. Other labelling dyes, e.g. CellTrace Violet and CellVue Claret, are also used for the same purpose. This study aimed to compare these three cell labelling methods for analysing the kinetics of cell viability, proliferation, and precursor cell frequency. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Concanavalin A (ConA) were used as a model system. After labelling with a cell-tracking dye cells were divided into groups with and without ConA stimulation. From the 5th to 8th day, cells were collected and analysed with flow cytometry. Cell viability was not significantly different between labelled and unlabelled cells that received ConA stimulation. The proliferative fraction, proliferation index, and nonproliferative fraction were not significantly different among lymphocytes labelled with different dyes. Precursor cell frequency was also similar among cells labelled with the three cell-tracing dyes. The practical conclusion from our observations is that the results from cells labelled with different tracers may be compared directly and discussed jointly. PMID:24203624

  3. crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Fen; Wang, Qingpu; Tao, Xutang; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xingyu; Liu, Zhaojun; Shen, Hongbin; Lan, Weixia; Gao, Liang; Gao, Zeliang; Zhang, Junjie; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2014-08-01

    An eye-safe Raman laser is realized with BaTeMo2O9 (BTM) nonlinear crystal for the first time. By using a diode-end-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser as the pumping source, the BTM crystal converts the fundamental laser at 1,342 nm to first-Stokes laser at 1,531 nm successfully. With an incident power of 10.8 W and a pulse repetition rate of 25 kHz, the average output power at 1,531 nm is obtained to be 0.83 W, corresponding to a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 7.7 %. The pulse width is 11 ns, and the peak power is 3.0 kW.

  4. 75 FR 26716 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit...countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results...

  5. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  6. Widely tunable nonlinear liquid crystal-based photonic crystals I. C. Khooa

    E-print Network

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    , 9]. In particular, experiments with methyl-red dye doped or Fullerene C60 doped liquid crystals [9Widely tunable nonlinear liquid crystal-based photonic crystals I. C. Khooa , Yana Zhanga , A studies of 1-D and 2-d tunable nonlinear photonic crystals made of liquid crystal or liquid crystal

  7. Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Morshedi, Dina; Mohammadi, Zeinab; Akbar Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi; Aliakbari, Farhang

    2013-12-01

    The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges. In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions. The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal. The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red. However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions. Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal. Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant. The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was not detected after treating cell cultures with the decolorized solutions. Accordingly, by integrating biological and biophysicochemical processes, proteinaceous nanofibrils can be promising candidates for treatment of colored wastewaters. Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils. PMID:23999142

  8. Expansion of the Scope of AOAC First Action Method 2012.25--Single-Laboratory Validation of Triphenylmethane Dye and Leuco Metabolite Analysis in Shrimp, Tilapia, Catfish, and Salmon by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Wendy C; Casey, Christine R; Schneider, Marilyn J; Turnipseed, Sherri B

    2015-01-01

    Prior to conducting a collaborative study of AOAC First Action 2012.25 LC-MS/MS analytical method for the determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes (malachite green, crystal violet, and brilliant green) and their metabolites (leucomalachite green and leucocrystal violet) in seafood, a single-laboratory validation of method 2012.25 was performed to expand the scope of the method to other seafood matrixes including salmon, catfish, tilapia, and shrimp. The validation included the analysis of fortified and incurred residues over multiple weeks to assess analyte stability in matrix at -80°C, a comparison of calibration methods over the range 0.25 to 4 ?g/kg, study of matrix effects for analyte quantification, and qualitative identification of targeted analytes. Method accuracy ranged from 88 to 112% with 13% RSD or less for samples fortified at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ?g/kg. Analyte identification and determination limits were determined by procedures recommended both by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission. Method detection limits and decision limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.24 ?g/kg and 0.08 to 0.54 ?g/kg, respectively. AOAC First Action Method 2012.25 with an extracted matrix calibration curve and internal standard correction is suitable for the determination of triphenylmethane dyes and leuco metabolites in salmon, catfish, tilapia, and shrimp by LC-MS/MS at a residue determination level of 0.5 ?g/kg or below. PMID:26024871

  9. 75 FR 52930 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India to determine whether Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) is the...

  10. Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet

    E-print Network

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Planar super-oscillatory lens for sub-diffraction optical needles at violet wavelengths Guanghui) and axial long depth of focus (DOF) of 15l using a planar SOL at a violet wavelength of 405 nm. This sub

  11. Diploma, 1974 Cancellation of ultra-violet infinities in one loop gravity

    E-print Network

    Korepin, Vladimir

    Diploma, 1974 Cancellation of ultra-violet infinities in one loop gravity V. E. Korepin C.N. Yang [simultaneously with G. t'Hooft M. Veltman] that on mass shell ultra-violet divergences cancel. The text below

  12. EXISTENCE OF SOLUTIONS TO A CORROSION MODEL CLAIRE CHAINAIS-HILLAIRET AND INGRID VIOLET

    E-print Network

    Violet, Ingrid

    EXISTENCE OF SOLUTIONS TO A CORROSION MODEL CLAIRE CHAINAIS-HILLAIRET AND INGRID VIOLET Abstract.Chainais Hillairet and I.Violet The system of partial differential equations (1), (4), (7) is the steady-state drift

  13. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling...The label of the color additive shall conform to...

  18. Propagation and chimeral characterization of two reverse pinwheel flowering African violet clones 

    E-print Network

    Sandall, Sharon Katrina

    2002-01-01

    in the African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Using two reverse chimeras found in a population of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. 'Silver Summit', determination of the number of histogen layers in the African violet apical meristem was studied. Based on what...

  19. Decolorization of Anthraquinonic Dyes from Textile Effluent Using Horseradish Peroxidase: Optimization and Kinetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž.; Prlainovi?, Nevena Ž.; Stefanovi?, Andrea B.; Žuža, Milena G.; ?i?kari?, Dragana Z.; Mijin, Dušan Ž.; Kneževi?-Jugovi?, Zorica D.

    2015-01-01

    Two anthraquinonic dyes, C.I. Acid Blue 225 and C.I. Acid Violet 109, were used as models to explore the feasibility of using the horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) in the practical decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes in wastewater. The influence of process parameters such as enzyme concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, dye concentration, and pH was examined. The pH and temperature activity profiles were similar for decolorization of both dyes. Under the optimal conditions, 94.7% of C.I. Acid Violet 109 from aqueous solution was decolorized (treatment time 15?min, enzyme concentration 0.15?IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.4?mM, dye concentration 30?mg/L, pH 4, and temperature 24°C) and 89.36% of C.I. Acid Blue 225 (32?min, enzyme concentration 0.15?IU/mL, hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.04?mM, dye concentration 30?mg/L, pH 5, and temperature 24°C). The mechanism of both reactions has been proven to follow the two substrate ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition, revealing the formation of a nonproductive or dead-end complex between dye and HRP or between H2O2 and the oxidized form of the enzyme. Both chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon values showed that there was a reduction in toxicity after the enzymatic treatment. This study verifies the viability of use of horseradish peroxidase for the wastewaters treatment of similar anthraquinonic dyes. PMID:25685837

  20. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis for acid red 119 dye decolourisation.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shailesh R; Dave, Riddhi H

    2009-01-01

    Studies were carried out to isolate Acid red 119 (AR-119) resistant and decolourising bacteria from dye contaminated soil and water samples. Six morphologically distinct bacterial isolates resistant to 100 ppm AR-119 dye were isolated directly from the soil and waste contaminated with azo dyes. The most efficient isolate, which showed decolourisation zone of 44 mm on 100 ppm AR-119 containing plate was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis SRDD. Gradual adaptation increased the efficiency of the isolate and within 7h of incubation it showed decolourisation up to 1000 ppm of AR-119 dye in liquid medium. Addition of 300 ppm of AR-119 in each step in ongoing dye decolourisation flask gave more than 90% decolourisation of 300 ppm AR-119 in time as short as 1.25 h. The developed B. thuringiensis showed 50-60% decolourisation of 5000 ppm AR-119 in 7d of incubation. This organism was also able to remove more than 98%, 92%, 95% and 95% colour of C.I. Acid brown 14, C.I. Acid black 210, C.I. Acid violet 90 and C.I. Acid yellow 42 azo dyes at 100 ppm concentration in 24h, respectively. When the developed isolate was studied for bioremediation of actual azo dye contaminated waste it removed 70% colour from the waste in 24h. The developed B. thuringiensis exhibited excellent resistance and decolourisation ability to AR-119 and other acid azo dyes. PMID:18590958

  1. CD133+ human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells are resistant to staining with fluorescent dyes used for analysis of ABC transporter activities.

    PubMed

    Gisina, A M; Lupatov, A Yu; Karalkin, P A; Mainovskaya, O A; Petrov, L O; Sidorov, D V; Frank, G A; Yarygin, K N

    2014-11-01

    Flow cytometry measurement of the expression of surface marker CD133 simultaneously with the analysis of fluorescent dye exclusion was performed in order to develop new methods for detection of cancer stem cell populations in tumor tissue samples from patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. No correlation was found between the count of CD133(+) cancer cells and the volume of the "population" formed from cells actively pumping off the fluorescent dye. On the other hand, the fluorescence distribution plot showed predominant location of CD133(+) cancer cells among cells stained with neither DyeCycle Violet DNA-binding dye, nor rhodamine 123 mitochondrial dye. These cells did not show the properties of the classical "side population", because they did not shift to the area of stained cell after treatment with ionic channel blocker verapamil. PMID:25403403

  2. Cancellation of ultra-violet infinities in one loop gravity

    E-print Network

    V. E. Korepin

    2009-05-13

    This is a historical note. In 1974 I was an undergraduate student of L.D. Faddeev. I was working on quantum gravity [without matter] in one loop approximation. I discovered [simultaneously with G. t'Hooft M. Veltman] that on mass shell ultra-violet divergences cancel. The submission is a translation of the Diploma.

  3. 75 FR 29719 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing...Countervailing Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77995 (December...order to be revoked. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the...

  4. 75 FR 27815 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...731-TA-1060 and 1061 (Review) Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations...countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India would be likely to lead...antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 from China and India would be...

  5. 75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India. The review...parties to comment. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results...

  6. 75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing...countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India for the period January 1...December 31, 2007. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results...

  7. 76 FR 24855 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India for the period...Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988...

  8. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Violet: A High-Agility Nanosatellite for Demonstrating

    E-print Network

    Peck, Mason A.

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 092407 1 Violet: A High-Agility Nanosatellite University, Ithaca, NY, 14850 Violet is a highly agile nanosatellite whose primary mission CMGs, Violet is capable of hosting guest investigators' steering algorithms for a variety of CMG

  9. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  10. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  11. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29... § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...

  12. Australasian Mycologist 24 (1) 2005 7 A NEW VIOLET SPECIES OF INOCYBE (AGARICALES) FROM URBAN

    E-print Network

    Matheny, P. Brandon

    Australasian Mycologist 24 (1) 2005 7 A NEW VIOLET SPECIES OF INOCYBE (AGARICALES) FROM URBAN and Land Management, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983, Australia. ABSTRACT A violet species. violaceocaulis is proposed to accommodate this species that is characterised by the violet to lilac colour

  13. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29... § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...

  14. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29... § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...

  18. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SWEET-SMELLING PARMA VIOLET CULTIVARS (VIOLACEAE): WIDE INTRASPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION,

    E-print Network

    ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SWEET-SMELLING PARMA VIOLET CULTIVARS (VIOLACEAE): WIDE INTRASPECIFIC, France Parma violets are reputed for their double, fragrant flowers and have been cultivated that the Parma violet cultivars have their origin within Viola alba and that they are best included

  19. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  20. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  1. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29... § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...

  2. Possible Violet Widowfinch in Botswana? Marc Herremans & 2Wendy D. Borello

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    Possible Violet Widowfinch in Botswana? l Marc Herremans & 2Wendy D. Borello l Royal Museum), and tentatively identified it as a Violet Widow- finch Vidua incognitalv'iLroai; also because the bird fiued of Loon's comprehensive notc on thc exi\\tence and taxonomic m) \\tcry that the Violet Widowfinch still

  3. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  4. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section... Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as safe and effective for any veterinary drug use in food animals...

  5. UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO SUBJECT: CODE VIOLET VIOLENT SITUATION Procedure No: EP-08-015

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO SUBJECT: CODE VIOLET ­ VIOLENT SITUATION Procedure No: EP-08-015 PROCEDURE STATEMENT Code Violet will be initiated for serious situations involving any individual(s) exhibiting and provide assistance as needed. B. Code Violet Response 1. Any person witness to a violent incident

  6. Modeling the Violet Spectral Region of Cool Stars: Line and Continuous Opacity

    E-print Network

    Modeling the Violet Spectral Region of Cool Stars: Line and Continuous Opacity C. Ian Short Armagh of continuous absorption opacity is necessary to fit the violet flux in late­type stars. Subject headings 1991a). This achievement holds out the promise that the blue­violet spectral region of late­type stars

  7. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 ...Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and...Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as...

  8. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 ...Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and...Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as...

  9. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section...Rulings and Decisions § 500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and...Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as...

  10. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section...Rulings and Decisions § 500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and...Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as...

  11. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 ...Rulings and Decisions § 500.29 Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and...Administration has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as...

  12. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section...Rulings and Decisions § 500.30 Gentian violet for animal drug use. The Food and...Administration (FDA) has determined that gentian violet is not generally recognized as...

  13. Geastrum episcopale: a new noticeable species with red-violet exoperidium.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Francisco; Papinutti, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    A new species, Geastrum episcopale, is described from Argentina. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of fresh and dry basidiomata are provided along with photographs of microscopic elements, such as spores, capillitium, calcium oxalate crystals, and exo- and endoperidium surfaces. This fungus is typical of the genus in its morphology and ecology but clearly differs from every known species. This species can be distinguished easily by the red-violet (to magenta) exoperidium and the lilac endoperidium. Specimens were collected on wet soil composed of a superficial layer of ca. 5 cm leaf litter and 15 cm of particulate and melanized lignocellulosic material (pH 6.5) under Eugenia uruguayensis and Nectandra sp. PMID:19623933

  14. ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qichang; Li, Yafeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ding, Kai; Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires arrays were homoepitaxial grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal (GZOSC), which have the advantages of high conductivity, high carrier mobility and high thermal stability. When it was employed as a photoanode in the DSSCs, the cell exhibited a 1.44% power-conversion efficiency under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5G). The performance is superior to our ZnO nanowires/FTO based DSSCs under the same condition. This enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the perfect interface between the ZnO nanowires and the GZOSC substrate that contributes to lower carrier scattering and recombination rates compared with that grown on traditional FTO substrate. PMID:26099568

  15. Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent at carbon-felt cathode.

    PubMed

    Sirés, Ignasi; Guivarch, Elodie; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2008-06-01

    Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ +H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used as a model among them to study the influence of some experimental parameters on the decay kinetics, COD removal and current efficiency. The results in such electro-Fenton system are explained in terms of the many parasitic reactions involving .OH. Higher efficiency values are obtained with rising organic content and decreasing applied current. The first stage of the mineralization process, involving aromatic by-products, leads to fast decoloration as well as quick initial COD removal that fit well to a pseudo-first-order kinetics. At prolonged electrolysis time, the mineralization rate and efficiency decrease due to the formation of hardly oxidizable compounds and the enhancement of wasting reactions. Solutions of all four TPMs are quickly degraded following a pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The absolute rate constant (kTPM) for their reaction with .OH increases in the order MeGdyes with initial COD ca. 1000 mg l(-1) is totally depolluted with efficiency near 100% at the beginning of the treatment. A general scheme for the mineralization of TPMs is proposed. PMID:18486964

  16. Suppression of NF-?B activation by gentian violet promotes osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Vikulina, T; Arbiser, J L; Weitzmann, M N

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal mass is regulated by the coordinated action of bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. Accelerated rates of bone resorption relative to bone formation lead to net bone loss and the development of osteoporosis, a devastating disease that predisposes the skeleton to fractures. Bone fractures are associated with significant morbidity and in the case of hip fractures, high mortality. Gentian violet (GV), a cationic triphenylmethane dye, has long been used as an antifungal and antibacterial agent and is presently under investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic and antiangiogenic agent. However, effects on bone cells have not been previously reported and the mechanisms of action of GV, are poorly understood. In this study we show that GV suppresses receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts, but paradoxically stimulates the differentiation of MC3T3 cells into mineralizing osteoblasts. These actions stem from the capacity of GV to suppress activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signal transduction pathway that is required for osteoclastogenesis, but inhibitory to osteoblast differentiation and activity. Our data reveal that GV is an inhibitor of NF-?B activation and may hold promise for modulation of bone turnover to promote a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, favorable to gain of bone mass. PMID:25056540

  17. Liquid-Crystal Photoalignment by Super Thin Azo Dye Layer Xihua LI, Vladimir M. KOZENKOV, Fion Sze-Yan YEUNG, Peizhi XU, Vladimir G. CHIGRINOV and Hoi-Sing KWOK

    E-print Network

    of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay azo dye molecular layer is proposed. The basic idea of this method is to form a very neat textile azo dye SD-1 layer. This new method includes the formation of a very neat ``textile knitwear'' and can

  18. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  19. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  20. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  1. Photoporation and cell transfection using a violet diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, L.; Agate, B.; Comrie, M.; Ferguson, R.; Lake, T. K.; Morris, J. E.; Carruthers, A. E.; Brown, C. T. A.; Sibbett, W.; Bryant, P. E.; Gunn-Moore, F.; Riches, A. C.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2005-01-01

    The introduction and subsequent expression of foreign DNA inside living mammalian cells (transfection) is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. We direct a compact 405 nm laser diode source into an inverted optical microscope configuration and expose cells to 0.3 mW for 40 ms. The localized optical power density of ~1200 MW/m2 is six orders of magnitude lower than that used in femtosecond photoporation (~104 TW/m2). The beam perforates the cell plasma membrane to allow uptake of plasmid DNA containing an antibiotic resistant gene as well as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Successfully transfected cells then expand into clonal groups which are used to create stable cell lines. The use of the violet diode laser offers a new and simple poration technique compatible with standard microscopes and is the simplest method of laser-assisted cell poration reported to date.

  2. Photonic band-gap modulation of blue phase liquid crystal (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2015-10-01

    Blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) are self-assembled 3D photonic crystals exhibiting high susceptibility to external stimuli. Two methods for the photonic bandgap tuning of BPs were demonstrated in this work. Introducing a chiral azobenzene into a cholesteric liquid crystal could formulate a photoresponsive BPLC. Under violet irradiation, the azo dye experiences trans-cis isomerization, which leads to lattice swelling as well as phase transition in different stages of the process. Ultrawide reversible tuning of the BP photonic bandgap from ultraviolet to near infrared has been achieved. The tuning is reversible and nonvolatile. We will then demonstract the electric field-induced bandgap tuning in polymer-stabilized BPLCs. Under different BPLCs material preparation conditions, both red-shift and broadening of the photonic bandgaps have been achieved respectively. The stop band can be shifted over 100 nm. The bandwidth can be expanded from ~ 30 nm to ~ 250 nm covering nearly the full visible range. It is believed that the developed approaches could strongly promote the use of BPLC in photonic applications.

  3. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  4. Blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals as thermotropic photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoin, P.

    2000-07-01

    The study of dye-doped low pitch cholesteric liquid crystals in their blue phases as an example of tunable ``weak'' photonic crystals is proposed and demonstrated. The presence of the blue phases in cholesterics can be tuned with temperature, and this allows for an easy in situ comparison of the emission and/or absorption of the dyes with or without an enwrapping lattice of disclination lines. The fluorescence emission of the dyes is shown to be affected by the presence of the blue phases. Although unlikely to be suitable for real applications (due to the natural low refractive index contrast), these systems may represent unique examples of tunable photonic crystals. It is proposed that single crystals of dye-doped blue phases should provide a very interesting testing ground for the study of optical emission anisotropies which can, on the other hand, be controlled by an external parameter.

  5. THE FLUORESCENCE EFFICIENCIES OF THE CN VIOLET BANDS IN COMETS

    SciTech Connect

    Schleicher, David G.

    2010-10-15

    We have carried out calculations of the fluorescent equilibrium of the CN molecule in the solar radiation field as a function of heliocentric radial velocity and distance. The detailed rotational line intensities of the CN violet 0-0 band have been recalculated for radial velocities between -60 and +60 km s{sup -1} and at 10 distances in steps of {radical}2 from 0.25 to 5.7 AU. Comparisons with observed CN violet 0-0 band profiles yield reasonable agreement and remaining discrepancies are well understood. Based on the derived equilibrium rotational level populations of the ground state, 1-1 band rotational line intensities were also calculated. Total band fluorescence efficiencies for the violet {Delta}{nu} = 0 sequence are tabulated for the above range of distances and velocities, permitting the interpolation to any given comet's observational circumstances. These fluorescence efficiencies, L/N, or 'g-factors', needed to reduce CN emission band fluxes to CN abundances, are also accessible via a Web-based service. The values at any heliocentric distance vary by about a factor of two with varying velocities, but the specific structure of this variation with velocity changes dramatically with distance.

  6. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  7. Chromonic liquid crystalline properties of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xuxia; Park, Jung; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2009-03-01

    As a new class of lyotropic liquid crystals, chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) can self-assemble into an ordered complex fluid, potentially useful for organic solar cells. Different from common amphiphilic lyotropic mesophases, CLCs have no optimum aggregation size, which implies the order parameter increases with concentration. We used capillary flow and magnetic field to induce alignment in chromonic dyes and studied the aggregation behavior by Vis-spectroscopy, the phase behavior by POM and DSC, and the order distribution by Raman Scattering. We also investigated how the molecular structures influence the structures of mesogens and the morphology in the dried film which will further influence the charge mobility in the solar cells.

  8. Vacuum ultra-violet and ultra-violet scintillation light detection by means of silicon photomultipliers at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, A.; Bertoni, R.; Boffelli, F.; Bonesini, M.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Montanari, C.; Prata, M. C.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Simonetta, M.; Spanu, M.; Torti, M.; Zani, A.

    2015-07-01

    We tested the performance of two types of silicon photomultipliers, AdvanSiD ASD-NUV-SiPM3S-P and Hamamatsu 3×3 MM-50 UM VUV2, both at room (300 K) and at liquid nitrogen (77 K) temperature: breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, signal shape, gain and dark counts rate have been studied as function of temperature. The response of the devices to ultra-violet light is also studied.

  9. Color-sensitive photoconductivity of nanostructured ZnO/fast green dye hybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    Nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by sol gel method have been investigated in conductivity and photoconductivity measurements in view of applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The absorption of ZnO film sensitized by Fast Green dye (FGF) has been studied by UV spectroscopy which indicates that after the dye is adsorbed on the ZnO electrode, its absorption spectra showed red-shift in the peak position compared to the absorbance spectra of dye in ethanol. The films, in which dye molecules are located within the ZnO crystals, are found to show higher sensitivity to illumination with visible light in photoconductivity measurements due to a high proportion of surface dye molecules are being excited by ?-electrons acting as sensitizers.

  10. Application of photoacoustic, photothermal and fluorescence spectroscopies in signal enhancement and the kinetics, chemistry and photophysics of several dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Isak, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Modified photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies are applied in analytical studies of liquid and solid systems. Quenching of benzophenone by potassium iodide is used to demonstrate application of time resolved photothermal spectroscopies in study of fast (submicrosecond) deexcitation processes. Inherently weak X-ray photoacoustic signals at a synchrotron are enhanced by the introduction of a volatile liquid into a gas-microphone photoacoustic cell. Traditionally, photoacoustic signals have been detected either by gas coupling with a microphone or with a piezoelectric detector. However, optically detected photoacoustic signals have been used in the determination of physical properties of a liquid sample system and are successfully applied to the study of deexcitation processes of a number of dye molecules. Photothermal beam deflection photoacoustic (PBDPA), fluorescence and absorbance measurements are utilized to study the chemistry and photophysics of cresyl violet in aqueous, aqueous micellar and methanolic solutions. A concentration dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of cresyl violet is investigated. Aspects of chemistry and photophysics relating to potential use of several diazo dyes as photothermal sensitizing dyes in photodynamic therapy are explored experimentally and discussed. Photothermal beam deflection, fluorescence and absorbance measurements are again utilized. The dyes are found to have a number of interesting chemical and photophysical properties. They are also determined to be ideal photothermal sensitizing dye candidates.

  11. Adsorption of dyes onto carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Nakamura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Kazuoki; Kabayama, Mineaki; Tamura, Takamichi; Tanada, Seiki

    2002-10-01

    Organic wastes have been burned for reclamation. However, they have to be recycled and reused for industrial sustainable development. Carbonaceous materials were produced from coffee grounds by microwave treatment. There are many phenolic hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of carbonaceous materials. The base consumption of the carbonaceous materials was larger than that of the commercially activated carbon. The carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were applied to the adsorbates for the removal of basic dyes (methylene blue and gentian violet) in wastewater. This result indicated that the adsorption of dyes depended upon the surface polar groups on the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, the Freundlich constants of isotherms for the adsorption of methylene blue and gentian violet onto the carbonaceous materials produced from coffee grounds were greater than those for adsorption onto activated carbon or ceramic activated carbon. The interaction was greatest between the surface or porosity of the carbonaceous materials and methylene blue and gentian violet. The microwave treatment would be useful for the carbonization of organic wastes to save energy. PMID:12702420

  12. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. Emission Spectra and Lifetimes of R6G Dye on Silica-Coated Titania Powder

    E-print Network

    Vos, Willem L.

    by the ubiquitously present molecular oxygen, results in the degradation of the dye.4 Since the electron transfer rate) in the form of photonic crystals, with an insulating layer. Photonic crystals are three-dimensional composites variation of the refractive index, the crystals possess a photonic band structure, which can lead

  1. Ultra-violet Behavior of Bosonic Quantum Membranes

    E-print Network

    Michio Kaku

    1999-07-05

    We treat the action for a bosonic membrane as a sigma model, and then compute quantum corrections by integrating out higher membrane modes. As in string theory, where the equations of motion of Einstein's theory emerges by setting $\\beta = 0$, we find that, with certain assumptions, we can recover the equations of motion for the background fields. Although the membrane theory is non-renormalizable on the world volume by power counting, the investigation of the ultra-violet behavior of membranes may give us insight into the supersymmetric case, where we hope to obtain higher order M-theory corrections to 11 dimensional supergravity.

  2. Ultra-violet Behavior of Bosonic Quantum Membranes

    E-print Network

    Kaku, M

    2000-01-01

    We treat the action for a bosonic membrane as a sigma model, and then compute quantum corrections by integrating out higher membrane modes. As in string theory, where the equations of motion of Einstein's theory emerges by setting equations of motion for the background fields. Although the membrane theory is non-renormalizable on the world volume by power counting, the investigation of the ultra-violet behavior of membranes may give us insight into the supersymmetric case, where we hope to obtain higher order M-theory corrections to 11 dimensional supergravity.

  3. Development and validation of a fast monoclonal based disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites in fish.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Connolly, Lisa; Stevenson, Paul; Stead, Sara; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-07-18

    Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic agents that have been used for treatment and prevention of diseases in fish. These dyes are metabolized into reduced leuco forms (LMG, LCV, LBG) that can be present in fish muscles for a long period. Due to the carcinogenic properties they are banned for use in fish for human consumption in many countries including the European Union and the United States. HPLC and LC-MS techniques are generally used for the detection of these compounds and their metabolites in fish. This study presents the development of a fast enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method as an alternative for screening purposes. A first monoclonal cell line producing antibodies to MG was generated using a hybridoma technique. The antibody had good cross-reactivates with related chromatic forms of triphenylmethane dyes such as CV, BG, Methyl Green, Methyl Violet and Victoria Blue R. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to develop a fast (20 min) disequilibrium ELISA screening method for the detection of triphenylmethanes in fish. By introducing an oxidation step with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) during sample extraction the assay was also used to detect the presence of the reduced metabolites of triphenylmethanes. The detection capability of the assay was 1 ng g(-1) for MG, LMG, CV, LCV and BG which was below the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) for the detection method of total MG (sum of MG and LMG) set by the Commission Decision 2004/25/EC (2 ng g(-1)). The mean recoveries for fish samples spiked at 0.5 MRPL and MRPL levels with MG and LMG were between 74.9 and 117.0% and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation between 4.7 and 25.7%. The validated method allows the analysis of a batch of 20 samples in two to three hours. Additionally, this procedure is substantially faster than other ELISA methods developed for MG/LMG thus far. The stable and efficient monoclonal cell line obtained is an unlimited source of sensitive and specific antibody to MG and other triphenylmethanes. PMID:21645659

  4. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-TAM dyes, 2,2-(2-(pyridinyl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethyl indoline) derivatives and unusual stability of 4-pyridinyl compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, So-Young; Keum, Sam-Rok

    2013-09-01

    The solid-state structures and unequivocal stereochemistries of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes 2,2?-(2-(pyridin-4 or 3-yl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives were established by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the EE isomer was formed for the 4-pyridinyl compound, whereas the 3-pyridinyl compound formed ZE isomers. In addition, the latter have a so-called three-bladed propeller conformation, whereas the former possess a Y-shaped conformation. These pyridine-based LTAM compounds stack to form a dimer, adopting either an orthorhombic, with Pcmn space group, or monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group in the crystal unit cell.

  5. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-TAM dyes, 2,2-(2-(pyridinyl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethyl indoline) derivatives and unusual stability of 4-pyridinyl compound.

    PubMed

    Ma, So-Young; Keum, Sam-Rok

    2013-09-01

    The solid-state structures and unequivocal stereochemistries of isomeric pyridine-based leuco-triarylmethane (LTAM) dyes 2,2'-(2-(pyridin-4 or 3-yl)propane-1,3-diylidene)bis(5-chloro-1,3,3-trimethylindoline) derivatives were established by X-ray crystallography. Surprisingly, the EE isomer was formed for the 4-pyridinyl compound, whereas the 3-pyridinyl compound formed ZE isomers. In addition, the latter have a so-called three-bladed propeller conformation, whereas the former possess a Y-shaped conformation. These pyridine-based LTAM compounds stack to form a dimer, adopting either an orthorhombic, with Pcmn space group, or monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group in the crystal unit cell. PMID:23735204

  6. Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: Experiment and model Previous Abstract | Next Abstract | Issue Table of Contents

    E-print Network

    Reznikov, Yuri

    Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: Experiment and model Previous Abstract |GZipped PS View MyArticles Evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematics: Experiment was carried out to describe the evolution of light-induced anchoring in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals (LCs

  7. Multicolor photonic crystal laser array

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy B; Brener, Igal; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2015-04-28

    A multicolor photonic crystal laser array comprises pixels of monolithically grown gain sections each with a different emission center wavelength. As an example, two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers comprising broad gain-bandwidth III-nitride multiple quantum well axial heterostructures were fabricated using a novel top-down nanowire fabrication method. Single-mode lasing was obtained in the blue-violet spectral region with 60 nm of tuning (or 16% of the nominal center wavelength) that was determined purely by the photonic crystal geometry. This approach can be extended to cover the entire visible spectrum.

  8. Crystal structure of an aerobic FMN-dependent azoreductase (AzoA) from Enterococcus faecalis q

    E-print Network

    Zhijie, Liu

    -ray crystal structure; Gene expression Aromatic azo dyes are a major group of dyestuffs used in cosmetics, and cosmetics. These microflora play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics including azo dyes

  9. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  10. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  11. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1331. [PubMed Abstract] Rauscher GH, Shore D, Sandler DP. Hair dye use and risk of adult acute ... 10):1448–1454. [PubMed Abstract] Lin J, Dinney CP, Grossman HB, Wu X. Personal permanent hair dye ...

  12. 75 FR 34699 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ...Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing...countervailing duty order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23(CVP-23) from India. See Antidumping...we received a request from Meghmani Pigments requesting an administrative review...

  13. 75 FR 25209 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...Administration A-533-838 Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Administrative...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India for the period...initiated the review with respect to Meghmani Pigments (Meghmani) based on its request...

  14. Irrigation Effects on the Spread of Corynespora Leaf Spot on African Violets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African violet cultivars have had severe leaf spot epidemics caused by Corynespora cassiicola in recent years. Unfortunately, little information has been published on the relationship between African violets and C. cassiicola. Mist, drip, and ebb and flow irrigation systems were studied to determi...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of...restrictions. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive shall conform to...

  17. 76 FR 24855 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004). On January 28... order. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 5137 (January... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Rescission of Administrative...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  8. 75 FR 10759 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Initiation of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 from India with respect to Meghmani Pigments. EFFECTIVE DATE: March 9, 2010. FOR...

  9. 75 FR 13257 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...International Trade Administration [C-533-839] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of the Expedited Five-year...review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 (CVP-23) [[Page 13258

  10. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  11. The significance of azo-reduction in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Chung, K T

    1983-04-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in textile, printing, cosmetic, drug and food-processing industries. They are also used extensively in laboratories as either biological stains or pH indicators. The extent of such use is related to the degree of industrialization. Since intestinal cancer is more common in highly industrialized countries, a possible connection may exist between the increase in the number of cancer cases and the use of azo dyes. Azo dyes can be reduced to aromatic amines by the intestinal microflora. The mutagenicity of a number of azo dyes is reviewed in this paper. They include Trypan Blue, Ponceau 3R, Pinceau 2R, Methyl Red, Methyl Yellow, Methyl Orange, Lithol Red, Orange I, Orange II, 4-Phenylazo-Naphthylamine, Sudan I, Sudan IV, Acid Alizarin Violet N, Fast Garnet GBC, Allura Red, Ponceau SX, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Citrus Red No. 2, Orange B, Yellow AB, Carmoisine, Mercury Orange, Ponceau S, Versatint Blue, Phenylazophenol, Evan's Blue and their degraded aromatic amines. The significance of azo reduction in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of azo dyes is discussed. PMID:6339890

  12. Venus as Viewed Through Violet and Near Infrared Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    These two Galileo images of Venus show the global structure of cloud patterns at two different depths in the upper cloud layers. The large bluish image, taken through the violet filter, shows patterns at the very top of Venus' main sulfuric acid haze layer. The subsolar point is to the right, not far from the limb; the atmospheric flow runs to the left from there. The small red image, taken through a near infrared filter, shows the cloud patterns several miles below the visible cloud tops. The colors shown are artificial; the images were enhanced at the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, Arizona. The Galileo Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. The violet and ultraviolet opacity problem for carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hollis R.; Luttermoser, Donald G.; Faulkner, Danny R.

    1988-01-01

    The paper considers the longstanding problem of the 'violet opacity' in cool carbon stars by testing, through synthetic spectra, many new and previously suggested opacity sources, based on currently available model atmospheres for carbon stars and M giant stars. While several bound-free edges of neutral metals are important opacity sources, those of Na I at at 2413 A, Mg I at 2514 A, and particularly Ca I at 2940 A are especially significant. Collectively, thousands of atomic lines are important, and the enormous line of Mg I at 2852 A influences the spectrum well into the visible. The pseudocontinuum of C3 and the photoionization continuum of CH both play noticeable but secondary roles. Synthetic spectra form the carbon star models with and without polyatomic molecules fit nicely the collected observations of the well-observed carbon star TX Psc.

  14. Transient transfection of mammalian cells using a violet diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Mapa, Maria Leilani; Angus, Liselotte; Ploschner, Martin; Dholakia, Kishan; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate the first use of the violet diode laser for transient mammalian cell transfection. In contrast to previous studies, which showed the generation of stable cell lines over a few weeks, we develop a methodology to transiently transfect cells with an efficiency of up to ~40%. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells are exposed to a tightly focused 405-nm laser in the presence of plasmid DNA encoding for a mitochondrial targeted red fluorescent protein. We report transfection efficiencies as a function of laser power and exposure time for our system. We also show, for the first time, that a continuous wave laser source can be successfully applied to selective gene silencing experiments using small interfering RNA. This work is a major step towards an inexpensive and portable phototransfection system.

  15. 75 FR 12497 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...A-533-838, A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India and the People's Republic...antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from India and the People's...Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of...

  16. 75 FR 36630 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...Administration A-570-892 Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of...

  17. 75 FR 29718 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India and the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...A-533-838, A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India and the People's Republic...antidumping duty orders on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India and the People's...2, 2009); See also Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India, 74 FR...

  18. 75 FR 25840 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from the People's Republic...November 30, 2008. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of...

  19. 76 FR 55003 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...Administration [A-570-892] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP 23) from the People's Republic...Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From the People's Republic of...

  20. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 84, 123504 (2013) Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale

    E-print Network

    Bellan, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 84, 123504 (2013) Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging November 2013; published online 12 December 2013) An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has-resolved fast imaging of extreme ultra-violet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation is useful to understand mag- netic

  1. Advanced Cd(II) complexes as high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Qiang, Liang Sheng; Wei, Li Guo; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin; Wang, Yu Lei

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on two new complexes with the general formula [Cd3(IBA)3(Cl)2(HCOO)(H2O)]n (1) and {[Cd1.5(IBA)3(H2O)6]·3.5H2O}n (2), which can be synthesized by the reaction of Cd(II) with rigid linear ligand 4-HIBA containing imidazolyl and carboxylate functional groups [4-HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that complex 1 is a 2D "wave-like" layer structure constructed from trinuclear units and complex 2 is just a mononuclear structure. Surprisingly, both complexes 1 and 2 appear as a 3D supramolecular network via intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. What's more, due to their strong UV-visible absorption, 1 and 2 can be employed as co-sensitizers in combination with N719 to enhance dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. Both of them could overcome the deficiency of the ruthenium complex N719 absorption in the region of ultraviolet and blue-violet, and the charge collection efficiency is also improved when 1 and 2 are used as co-sensitizers, which are all in favor of enhancing the performance. The DSSC devices using co-sensitizers of 1/N719 and 2/N719 show an overall conversion efficiency of 8.27% and 7.73% with a short circuit current density of 17.48 mA cm(-2) and 17.39 mA cm(-2), and an open circuit voltage of 0.75 V and 0.74 V, respectively. The overall conversion efficiency is 27.23% and 18.92% higher than that of a device solely sensitized by N719 (6.50%). Consequently, the prepared complexes are high efficiency co-sensitizers for enhancing the performance of N719 sensitized solar cells. PMID:26419745

  2. Biodegradation of leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes by Sphingomonas sp. CM9.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Liguan; Du, Hongwei; Jiang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qiong; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-09-01

    A leuco derivatives of triphenylmethane dyes degrading bacterium, strain CM9, was isolated from an aquafarm field. Based on morphology, physiologic tests, 16S rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic characteristics, it was identified as Sphingomonas sp. This strain was capable of degrading leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet and leucobasic fuchsin completely. The relationship between bacterium growth and LMG degradation suggested that strain CM9 could use LMG as the sole source of carbon. The most LMG degradation activity of CM9 crude extract was observed at pH 7.0 and at 30°C. Many metal ions had little inhibition effect on the degradation activity of the crude extract. CM9 also showed strong decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes to their leuco derivatives. GC/MS analysis detected two novel metabolic products, methylbenzene and 4-aminophenol, during the LMG degradation by CM9. PMID:21188476

  3. Visible light assisted degradation of organic dye using Ag3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanabal, R.; Velmathi, S.; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-01

    The study of visible light photodegradation of organic dye Methylene Blue (MB) have been investigated using silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) as a photocatalyst which is good efficient material for photocatalytic reaction. The simple ion-exchange method is used to prepare Ag3PO4. The structure of the material have been confirmed using X-ray diffraction which shows cubic structure of Ag3PO4. The functional group of the Ag3PO4 has been verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bandgap of Ag3PO4 is calculated using kubelka-munk function from the ultra violet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the absorption of Ag3PO4 starts from 470 nm. Under simulated visible light irradiation, Ag3PO4 catalyst exhibits good catalytic ability for degrading MB dye.

  4. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  5. A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Min-Jian; Xie, Ya-Bo; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework, (Me2NH2)2[Zn2L1.5bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H4L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH3)2NH2+, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acid Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO3.

  6. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  7. Ultra-Violet Infinities and Counterterms in Higher Dimensional Yang-Mills

    E-print Network

    David C. Dunbar; Nicolaus W. P. Turner

    2002-09-29

    In this letter we investigate the ultra-violet behaviour of four-point one-loop gluon amplitudes in dimensions greater than four coupled to various particles types. We discuss the structure of the counterterms and their inherent symmetries.

  8. Characteristics of Kiso Ultra-Violet Excess Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Akihiko Tomita; Tsutomu T. Takeuchi; Tadashi Usui; Mamoru Saito

    1997-08-15

    We examined the general characteristics of the Kiso Ultra-violet Excess Galaxies (KUGs). We present for the first time the quantitative expressions for the criteria of the KUGs; the boundary color separating the KUGs from the non-KUGs is (B-V)_{T} = 0.74 and the KUG degrees of UV strength are found to correlate with the mean (B-V)_{T} colors. We investigate the nature of the KUGs, a sample of blue galaxy population, and show that (1) about a half of the KUGs are spiral galaxies with Sb to Scd, (2) the KUGs are biased to late-type galaxies and include early-type galaxies with young star populations, and (3) the KUGs are preferably found among less luminous galaxies with log L(B) < 10. The KUGs also contain the post-starburst galaxies, many of which are found among the blue galaxy population at intermediate redshifts. The analysis of the far-infrared data shows that a typical present-to-past star formation rate for a KUG is 0.4.

  9. Mosaic of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (Violet Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Great Red Spot of Jupiter as seen through the violet (404 nm) filter of the Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images that have been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top. The mosaic was taken over a 75 second interval beginning at universal time 4 hours, 18 minutes, 8 seconds on June 26, 1996. The Red Spot is 20,000 km long and has been followed by observers on Earth since the telescope was invented 300 years ago. It is a huge storm made visible by variations in the composition of the cloud particles. The Red Spot is not unique, but is simply the largest of a class of long-lived vortices, some of which are visible in the lower part of the image. The range is 1.76 million kilometers.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  10. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  11. Fluorescence switch of dye-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal based on acid-base vapors or light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Shang, Y. L.; Song, Y. L.; Jiang, L.

    2011-03-01

    The acid-base vapors/light double responsive dye-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated by sacrificial template method and a subsequent infiltration of spiropyran derivative dye molecules. The fluorescence of ring-open dye molecules infiltrated in PCs can be switched on/off based on different fluorescence properties of spiropyran dye under stimuli of acid-base vapors or light, when PCs with suitable stopband were selected. The fluorescence switch behavior based on PCs has potential applications in data storage, color displays, chemical and biological sensors.

  12. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  13. Investigation on efficient adsorption of cationic dyes on porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tong; Guo, Song; Zeng, Changfeng; Wang, Chongqing; Zhang, Lixiong

    2015-07-15

    We report here the preparation of porous magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres for efficient removal of cationic dyes by a simple polymerization-induced phase separation method. Characterizations by various techniques indicate that the microspheres show porous structures and magnetic properties. They can adsorb methylene blue with high efficiency, with adsorption capacity increasing from 263 to 1977 mg/g as the initial concentration increases from 5 to 300 mg/L. Complete removal of methylene blue can be obtained even at very low concentrations. The equilibrium data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm models, exhibiting a maximum adsorption capacity of 1990 mg/g. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial pH and reaches a maximum at pH 8, revealing an electrostatic interaction between the microspheres and the methylene blue molecules. The microspheres also show high adsorption capacities for neutral red and gentian violet of 1937 and 1850 mg/g, respectively, as well as high efficiency in adsorption of mixed-dye solutions. The dye-adsorbed magnetic polyacrylamide microspheres can be easily desorbed, and can be repeatedly used for at least 6 cycles without losing the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity and efficiency of the microspheres are much higher than those of reported adsorbents, which exhibits potential practical application in removing cationic dyes. PMID:25797927

  14. Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hwan; Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control , Department of Biotechnology and Department of Biomedical Sciences , Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 ; Kim, Nam Doo; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Gyoonhee; Sim, Taebo; KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •FAK signaling cascade in cancer cells is profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B. •Methyl violet 2B identified by virtual screening is a novel allosteric FAK inhibitor. •Methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity. •Methyl violet 2B suppresses strongly the proliferation of cancer cells. •Methyl violet 2B inhibits focal adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells. -- Abstract: The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1 nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion/migration/invasion of tumor cells.

  15. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  16. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  17. Investigation of ultra violet (UV) resistance for high strength fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, M. A.; Dingwall, Brenda; Gupta, A.; Seyam, A. M.; Mock, G.; Theyson, T.

    Ultra long duration balloons (ULDB), currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), requires the use of high strength fibers in the selected super-pressure pumpkin design. The pumpkin shape balloon concept allows clear separation of the load transferring functions of the major structural elements of the pneumatic envelope, the tendons and the film. Essentially, the film provides the gas barrier and transfers only local pressure load to the tendons. The tendons, in the mean time, provide the global pressure containing strength. In that manner, the strength requirement for the film only depends on local parameters. The tendon is made of p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO) fibers, which is selected due to its high strength to weight ratio when compared to other high performance, commercially available, fibers. High strength fibers, however, are known to degrade upon exposure to light, particularly at short wavelengths. This paper reports the results of an investigation of the resistance of four commercial high strength fibers to ultra violet (UV) exposure. The results indicate that exposing high strength fibers in continuous yarn form to UV led to serious loss in strength of the fibers except for Spectra® fibers. The adverse changes in mechanical behavior occurred over short duration of exposure compared to the 100 day duration targeted for these missions. UV blocking finishes to improve the UV resistance of these fibers are being investigated. The application of these specially formulated coatings is expected to lead to significant improvement of the UV resistance of these high performance fibers. In this publication, we report on the mechanical behavior of the fibers pre- and post-exposure to UV, but without application of the blocking finishes.

  18. Non-Carbon Dyes For Platic Scintillators- Report

    SciTech Connect

    Teprovich, J.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Gaillard, J.; Sexton, L.; Washington, A.; Ward, P.; Velten, J.

    2015-10-19

    Scintillation based detectors are desirable for many radiation detection applications (portal and border monitoring, safeguards verification, contamination detection and monitoring). The development of next generation scintillators will require improved detection sensitivity for weak gamma ray sources, and fast and thermal neutron quantification. Radiation detection of gamma and neutron sources can be accomplished with organic scintillators, however, the single crystals are difficult to grow for large area detectors and subject to cracking. Alternatives to single crystal organic scintillators are plastic scintillators (PS) which offer the ability to be shaped and scaled up to produce large sized detectors. PS is also more robust than the typical organic scintillator and are ideally suited for deployment in harsh real-world environments. PS contain a mixture of dyes to down-convert incident radiation into visible light that can be detected by a PMT. This project will evaluate the potential use of nano-carbon dyes in plastic scintillators.

  19. Soybean peroxidase-mediated degradation of an azo dye– a detailed mechanistic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peroxidases are emerging as an important class of enzymes that can be used for the efficient degradation of organic pollutants. However, detailed studies identifying the various intermediates produced and the mechanisms involved in the enzyme-mediated pollutant degradation are not widely published. Results In the present study, the enzymatic degradation of an azo dye (Crystal Ponceau 6R, CP6R) was studied using commercially available soybean peroxidase (SBP) enzyme. Several operational parameters affecting the enzymatic degradation of dye were evaluated and optimized, such as initial dye concentration, H2O2 dosage, mediator amount and pH of the solution. Under optimized conditions, 40 ppm dye solution could be completely degraded in under one minute by SBP in the presence of H2O2 and a redox mediator. Dye degradation was also confirmed using HPLC and TOC analyses, which showed that most of the dye was being mineralized to CO2 in the process. Conclusions Detailed analysis of metabolites, based on LC/MS results, showed that the enzyme-based degradation of the CP6R dye proceeded in two different reaction pathways- via symmetric azo bond cleavage as well as asymmetric azo bond breakage in the dye molecule. In addition, various critical transformative and oxidative steps such as deamination, desulfonation, keto-oxidation are explained on an electronic level. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses confirmed that the end products in both pathways were small chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:24308857

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  2. Microfluidic dye laser intracavity absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galas, J. C.; Peroz, C.; Kou, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The authors report absorption measurements on low concentration analytes using a microfluidic dye laser. The laser cavity is made of two gold mirrors coated on the end faces of two optical fibers inserted in a chip. Rhodamine 6G dye molecules dissolved in ethanol are used for laser amplification and absorption measurements are done with methylene blue dye solutions. When optically pumped with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532nm wavelength, the device shows a laser output emission at 565nm and a high sensitivity of the lasing output to the losses in the cavity, in good agreement with the results of numerical calculations.

  3. Global Ultra-Violet Ionosphere-Thermosphere Observatory (GUVITO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, N.; Crowley, G.; Christensen, A. B.; Paxton, L. J.; Robichaud, J.; Barry, M. A.; Bust, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    UV spectrographic imagers such as SSUSI and GUVI provide measurements of the aurora, ionospheric electron density, ionospheric bubbles, and thermospheric temperature, composition, and density. These imagers have been a key element of the Air Force DMSP program, but to accommodate new satellite concepts and maintain flexibility in the choice of new space systems and launch options, lighter weight and more capable UV instruments are needed to replace the current series of SSUSI sensors. Here we describe a technological alternative to the currently flying SSUSI sensors. It is a spectrographic imaging capability known as the “Global Ultra-Violet Ionosphere-Thermosphere Observatory” (GUVITO) sensor and associated software. GUVITO improves upon current instruments by being smaller in size, weight and power but with improved functionality. The GUVITO sensor represents an upgrade of the SSUSI and GUVI sensors in terms of scan mirror functionality and reliability, sensor functionality, mass, and power requirements. In particular, this improved functionality is expected to lead to enhanced capability in observing ionospheric bubbles, which are thought to cause scintillation and serious technological challenges for communications, navigation and surveillance systems. Initial development and risk reduction activities are currently funded by AFRL through a SBIR Phase II contract. The enhanced reliability and performance of the GUVITO sensor system is achieved with flight heritage components, concepts, software, hardware and is guided by key personnel experienced with both the SSUSI and GUVI hardware, software and operations. GUVITO would meet DoD priority requirements in ionospheric density, scintillation, and satellite drag, meet NPOESS IORD-II requirements for space environment Environmental Data Records (EDRs), maintain current DMSP capability, ensure long-term continuity of space environmental monitoring and leverage new technology development for future operational systems. The existing SSUSI/GUVI design consists of a scanning imaging spectrograph with a cross-track scanning mirror at the input to an off-axis parabaloid telescope which feeds a Rowland Circle spectrograph. A toroidal grating disperses the wavelength and focuses the UV photons onto a two-dimensional photon-counting detector. The detector is effectively divided into a number of spatial elements along the spacecraft track and into a number of spectral bins cross-track over the range of 115 nm to 180 nm. Full spectral information can be collected for each spatial element, but it is sufficient to save and telemeter only the spectral bins associated with selected emission lines and bands. These are mission-selectable. We find that a minimum number of colors is five, corresponding to the most significant key products that we will provide. This presentation will demonstrate and discuss some of the GUVITO capabilities in detail, together with assimilation techniques that could be used for ionospheric specification.

  4. A Fresh Look at the Crystal Violet Lab with Handheld Camera Colorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Theodore R.; Knutson, Cassandra M.; Mozzetti, Abbie R.; Campos, Antonio R.; Haynes, Christy L.; Penn, R. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Chemical kinetic experiments to determine rate laws are common in high school and college chemistry courses. For reactions involving a color change, rate laws can be determined experimentally using spectrophotometric or colorimetric equipment though this equipment can be cost prohibitive. Previous work demonstrated that inexpensive handheld camera…

  5. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Print and Share (615 KB) En Español Hair dye is used to color your hair. Hair relaxers are used to make ...

  6. A photoproduct with 13-cis retinal generated by irradiation with violet light in the octopus retina.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, K; Kito, Y

    1985-01-01

    The photoconversion between rhodopsin (R) and metarhodopsin (MR) was investigated in the retina of Octopus ocellatus by measurements of the fast photovoltage (FPV) in conjunction with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Following conversion of most of R to MR by short-term exposure to an intense violet light, a large vitreous negative FPV due to photon absorption by MR was observed with an orange test flash. By continuing the exposure to the same violet light, however, the negative FPV became very small, though long-term irradiation with blue-green light produced a recovery. With the violet light exposure a substance other than R and MR is produced, which hardly contributes to FPV generation. Analysis of retinal isomers with HPLC show that such an exposure produces a substance with 13-cis retinal as its chromophore and that it was significantly reduced after exposure to blue-green light. PMID:4024475

  7. Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Furey, John S.; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system. PMID:17617670

  8. Dielectric and thermal effects on the optical properties of natural dyes: a case study on solvated cyanin.

    PubMed

    Malc?o?lu, Osman Bari?; Calzolari, Arrigo; Gebauer, Ralph; Varsano, Daniele; Baroni, Stefano

    2011-10-01

    The optical properties of the flavylium state of the cyanin dye are simulated numerically by combining Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and linear-response time-dependent density functional theory calculations. The spectrum of the dye calculated in the gas phase is characterized by two peaks in the yellow and in the blue (green and violet), using a GGA-PBE (hybrid-B3LYP) DFT functional, which would bring about a greenish (bright orange) color incompatible with the dark purple hue observed in nature. Describing the effect of the water solvent through a polarizable continuum model does not modify qualitatively the resulting picture. An explicit simulation of both solvent and thermal effects using ab initio molecular dynamics results instead in a spectrum that is compatible with the observed coloration. This result is analyzed in terms of the spectroscopic effects of the molecular distortions induced by thermal fluctuations. PMID:21905678

  9. Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

  10. MIUR-Cofin 2002 project Si-based photonic crystals

    E-print Network

    with Erbium, dyes, liquid crystals and colloidal quantum dots in order to obtain active media with an emissionMIUR-Cofin 2002 project Si-based photonic crystals: technology, optical properties and theory the fabrication technologies of Si-based photonic crystals of different dimensionalities (2D, waveguide 2D, 3D

  11. Determination of leucomalachite green, leucocrystal violet and their chromic forms using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ju, Saiqin; Deng, Jian; Cheng, Jianlin; Xiao, Ni; Huang, Kaihui; Hu, Canhui; Zhao, Haiqing; Xie, Jin; Zhan, Xiaozhu

    2015-10-15

    A novel spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet (LCV), malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of the second-order calibration. Residues of LMG, LCV, MG and CV were simultaneously extracted from fish and shrimp muscle with acetonitrile. The non-fluorescent CV and MG were then reduced to the corresponding fluorescent LMG and LCV by reacting with sodium borohydride. After preconcentration with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique, the extracts were analyzed by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration methods based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithms. The limits of detection obtained were 2.21-2.65 ng g(-1) by PARAFAC and 2.30-2.86 ng g(-1) by ATLD, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the four analytes in grass carp and shrimp samples with recoveries of 90.53-103.03% for PARAFAC and 90.40-102.75% for ATLD. The accuracy of this novel method was also verified by high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:25952896

  12. 75 FR 23239 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...International Trade Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...antidumping duty order on CVP 23 from India. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  13. 75 FR 26716 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... FR 977 (January 7, 2010). This administrative review covers the period January 1, 2007 through... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on carbazole violet pigment 23 (CVP-23) from India....

  14. 75 FR 23239 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on CVP 23 from India. See Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68038 (December 22, 2009... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

  15. 75 FR 29718 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India and the People's Republic of China: Continuation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009); See also Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India, 74 FR 56663 (November 2, 2009). \\1\\ On December 29, 2004, the Department... 2010). See also Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from China and India; Determinations, 75 FR 27815 (May...

  16. Valorization of agricultural wastes as dye adsorbents: characterization and adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Luisa A; Cuevas, Fernando A; Contreras, Elsa G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the valorization of agricultural waste, wheat straw (WS) and corn cob leaves (CCLs) as textile dye adsorbents. Physico-chemical and superficial characteristics of the agricultural wastes, together with the interactions with the CI Basic Violet 4 (BV4) dye, were investigated by means of the determination of the isotherm adsorption at different temperatures. The morphological characterization showed that the solid surface is coarse with a low pore level. However, through Fourier transformed infrared analysis, the presence of carboxylic and hydroxylic acid groups and hydrophobic methyl groups was detected. The concentration of acid groups is determined by the Boehm method and was found to be 1.00 and 0.89?meq/g for WS and CCLs, respectively. The point zero charge for each adsorbent was 5.76 and 4.08. Adsorption experimental data presented a better-fit Langmuir model, indicating that adsorption occurred in a monolayer with preferential interaction. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 70.0-89.0 and 47.0-68.0?mg/g for CCLs and WS, respectively. The thermodynamic analysis of the Langmuir parameter b showed that the adsorption of the BV4 dye is spontaneous and exothermic with adsorption energies of 14.43 and 5.58?KJ/mol for CCLs and WS, respectively. PMID:25655393

  17. Dye-sensitized polyoxometalate for visible-light-driven photoelectrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junkuo; Miao, Jianwei; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Zhao, Yang; Lev, Ovadia; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-08-28

    A simple and facile one-step method for the synthesis of an organic dye-functionalized polyoxometalate (POM) hybrid with visible-light photo-response was reported. The POM hybrid was fully characterized via single crystal XRD, powder XRD, FTIR and elemental analysis. The reaction of the organic dye with inorganic salts gave the dye-functionalized POM (MoBB3), in which the POM cluster was formed in situ. The electronic absorption peak of this hybrid was successfully extended beyond 680 nm. Photoelectrochemical measurement indicated that MoBB3 was photoresponsive under visible-light illumination, suggesting that it is an n-type (electron conductive) semiconducting material. This result might offer a method for the design of novel organic dye-functionalized POMs for photoelectric applications. PMID:26200796

  18. Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Laat, F.

    1966-01-01

    Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

  19. Ultra-violet Sensing Characteristic and Field Emission Properties of Vertically Aligned Aluminum Doped Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Musa, M. Z.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-05-25

    Ultra-violet (UV) sensing behavior and field emission characteristic have been investigated on vertically aligned aluminum (Al) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays prepared using sol-gel immersion method. Uniform and high coverage density of ZnO nanorod arrays have been successfully deposited on seeded-catalyst coated substrates. The synthesized nanorods have diameter sizes between 50 nm to 150 nm. The XRD spectra show Al doped ZnO nanorod array has high crystallinity properties with the dominancy of crystal growth along (002) plane or c-axis. UV photoresponse measurement indicates that Al doped ZnO nanorod array sensitively detects UV light as shown by conductance increment after UV illumination exposure. The nanorod array shows good field emission properties with low turn on field and threshold field at 2.1 V/{mu}m and 5.6 V/{mu}m, respectively. The result suggested that Al doped ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by low-cost sol-gel immersion method show promising result towards fabrication of multi applications especially in UV photoconductive sensor and field emission displays.

  20. Proof of ultra-violet finiteness for a planar non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    E-print Network

    Sudarshan Ananth; Stefano Kovacs; Hidehiko Shimada

    2007-07-31

    This paper focuses on a three-parameter deformation of N=4 Yang-Mills that breaks all the supersymmetry in the theory. We show that the resulting non-supersymmetric gauge theory is scale invariant, in the planar approximation, by proving that its Green functions are ultra-violet finite to all orders in light-cone perturbation theory.

  1. Adaptive evolutionary paths from UV reception to sensing violet light by epistatic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; Jia, Huiyong; Yang, Hui; Koyama, Takashi; Faggionato, Davide; Liu, Yang; Starmer, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reception is useful for such basic behaviors as mate choice, foraging, predator avoidance, communication, and navigation, whereas violet reception improves visual resolution and subtle contrast detection. UV and violet reception are mediated by the short wavelength–sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (?max) at ~360 nm and ~395 to 440 nm, respectively. Because of strong nonadditive (epistatic) interactions among amino acid changes in the pigments, the adaptive evolutionary mechanisms of these phenotypes are not well understood. Evolution of the violet pigment of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, ?max = 423 nm) from the UV pigment in the amphibian ancestor (?max = 359 nm) can be fully explained by eight mutations in transmembrane (TM) I–III segments. We show that epistatic interactions involving the remaining TM IV–VII segments provided evolutionary potential for the frog pigment to gradually achieve its violet-light reception by tuning its color sensitivity in small steps. Mutants in these segments also impair pigments that would cause drastic spectral shifts and thus eliminate them from viable evolutionary pathways. The overall effects of epistatic interactions involving TM IV–VII segments have disappeared at the last evolutionary step and thus are not detectable by studying present-day pigments. Therefore, characterizing the genotype-phenotype relationship during each evolutionary step is the key to uncover the true nature of epistasis. PMID:26601250

  2. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Volatile...restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No...consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d...label of the color additive and any mixtures...

  7. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...any veterinary drug use in food animals and is a new animal drug subject to section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. FDA has determined that...violet is not exempted from new animal drug status under the...

  8. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug...recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), unless it is intended for use as a new animal drug, in which case it...

  9. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Gentian violet for use in animal feed. The Food and Drug...recognized as safe for use in animal feed and is a food additive...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), unless it is intended for use as a new animal drug, in which case it...

  10. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...any veterinary drug use in food animals and is a new animal drug subject to section 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. FDA has determined that...violet is not exempted from new animal drug status under the...

  11. UltraViolet Detectors for Astrophysics, Present and Future Melville P. Ulmer

    E-print Network

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    Ultra­Violet Detectors for Astrophysics, Present and Future Melville P. Ulmer Department of Physics and Astronomy Manijeh Razeghi and Erwan Bigan Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Northwestern University ABSTRACT Astronomical instruments for the study of UV astronomy have been developed

  12. Adaptive evolutionary paths from UV reception to sensing violet light by epistatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Altun, Ahmet; Jia, Huiyong; Yang, Hui; Koyama, Takashi; Faggionato, Davide; Liu, Yang; Starmer, William T

    2015-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reception is useful for such basic behaviors as mate choice, foraging, predator avoidance, communication, and navigation, whereas violet reception improves visual resolution and subtle contrast detection. UV and violet reception are mediated by the short wavelength-sensitive (SWS1) pigments that absorb light maximally (?max) at ~360 nm and ~395 to 440 nm, respectively. Because of strong nonadditive (epistatic) interactions among amino acid changes in the pigments, the adaptive evolutionary mechanisms of these phenotypes are not well understood. Evolution of the violet pigment of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, ?max = 423 nm) from the UV pigment in the amphibian ancestor (?max = 359 nm) can be fully explained by eight mutations in transmembrane (TM) I-III segments. We show that epistatic interactions involving the remaining TM IV-VII segments provided evolutionary potential for the frog pigment to gradually achieve its violet-light reception by tuning its color sensitivity in small steps. Mutants in these segments also impair pigments that would cause drastic spectral shifts and thus eliminate them from viable evolutionary pathways. The overall effects of epistatic interactions involving TM IV-VII segments have disappeared at the last evolutionary step and thus are not detectable by studying present-day pigments. Therefore, characterizing the genotype-phenotype relationship during each evolutionary step is the key to uncover the true nature of epistasis. PMID:26601250

  13. 75 FR 33243 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 977 (January 7, 2010... Administrative Review, 75 FR 26716 (May 12, 2010). Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by this order is... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

  14. 75 FR 25209 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... in Part, and Deferral of Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010... Review, 75 FR 10759 (March 9, 2010). In this notice we indicated that we would be conducting the changed... International Trade Administration A-533-838 Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission...

  15. 75 FR 977 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Pigment 23 from India, 69 FR 77995 (December 29, 2004) (CVP-23 Order). On December 1, 2008, the Department... Pigment 23 from India, 69 FR 67321 (November 17, 2004), and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR at 67321....

  16. 75 FR 38076 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Pigment 23 from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 68038... Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77988 (December 29, 2004...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). The Department intends to issue...

  17. 75 FR 29719 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Continuation of Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    .... See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India, 69 FR 77995 (December... Pigment 23 from China and India; Determinations, 75 FR 27815 (May 18, 2010). Scope of the Order The... (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009). As...

  18. 75 FR 34699 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Investigation; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 74 FR 62743 (December 1, 2009). On December 31... Initiation of Administrative Review, 75 FR 4770 (January 29, 2010). Rescission of Countervailing Duty... International Trade Administration Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 from India: Rescission of Countervailing...

  19. 75 FR 27815 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and India; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on November 2, 2009 (74 FR 56663) and determined on February 5, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR 14468, March 25,2010). The... [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-437 and 731-TA-1060 and 1061 (Review) Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From China and...

  20. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...color additive, D&C Violet No. 2, may be safely used for coloring absorbable meniscal tacks made from poly (L-lactic acid) at a level not to exceed 0.15 percent by weight of the tack material. (5) Authorization for these uses...

  1. Integumental reddish-violet coloration owing to novel dichromatic chromatophores in the teleost fish, Pseudochromis diadema.

    PubMed

    Goda, Makoto; Ohata, Mihoko; Ikoma, Hayato; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Sugimoto, Masazumi; Fujii, Ryozo

    2011-08-01

    In the reddish-violet parts of the skin of the diadema pseudochromis Pseudochromis diadema, we found novel dichromatic chromatophores with a reddish pigment and reflecting platelets. We named these novel cells 'erythro-iridophores'. In standard physiological solution, erythro-iridophores displayed two hues, red and dark violet when viewed with an optical microscope under ordinary transmission light and epi-illumination optics, respectively. Under transmission electron microscopy, however, we observed no typical red chromatosomes, i.e., erythrosomes, in the cytoplasm. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of the pigment eluted from the erythro-iridophores indicated that carotenoid is the main pigment generating the reddish color. Furthermore, when the irrigating medium was a K(+)-rich saline solution, the color reflected from the erythro-iridophores changed from dark violet to sky blue, but the red coloration remained. The motile activities of the erythro-iridophores may participate in the changes in the reddish-violet shades of the pseudochromis fish. PMID:21501419

  2. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall conform to the... color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2- -5-methyl-benzenesulfonic... avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of volatile matter (at 135 °C) and chlorides and...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall conform to the... color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2- -5-methyl-benzenesulfonic... avoided by good manufacturing practice: Sum of volatile matter (at 135 °C) and chlorides and...

  4. 21 CFR 500.30 - Gentian violet for animal drug use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for animal drug use. 500.30 Section 500.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions §...

  5. 21 CFR 500.29 - Gentian violet for use in animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentian violet for use in animal feed. 500.29 Section 500.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and...

  6. Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

    2003-03-01

    Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

  7. Consequences of Ultra-Violet Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Spider Silk

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wee Loong; Goh, Kheng Lim

    2015-01-01

    The outstanding combination of high tensile strength and extensibility of spider silk is believed to contribute to the material’s toughness. Thus, there is great interest in engineering silk for biomedical products such as suture or implants. Additionally, over the years, many studies have also sought to enhance the mechanical properties of spider silk for wider applicability, e.g., by irradiating the material using ultra-violet radiation. However, the limitations surrounding the use of ultra-violet radiation for enhancing the mechanical properties of spider silk are not well-understood. Here, we have analyzed the mechanical properties of spider silk at short ultra-violet irradiation duration. Specimens of spider silk were subjected to ultra-violet irradiation (254-nm wavelength, i.e. UVC) for 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively, followed by tensile test to rupture to determine the strength (maximum stress), extensibility (rupture strain), and toughness (strain energy density to rupture). Controls, i.e., specimens that did not received UVC, were also subjected to tensile test to rupture to determine the respective mechanical properties. One-way analysis of variance reveals that these properties decrease significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing irradiation duration. Among the three mechanical parameters, the strength of the spider silk degrades most rapidly; the extensibility of the spider silk degrades the slowest. Overall, these changes correspond to the observed surface modifications as well as the bond rupture between the peptide chains of the treated silk. Altogether, this simple but comprehensive study provides some key insights into the dependence of the mechanical properties on ultra-violet irradiation duration. PMID:26378587

  8. Consequences of Ultra-Violet Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Spider Silk.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wee Loong; Goh, Kheng Lim

    2015-01-01

    The outstanding combination of high tensile strength and extensibility of spider silk is believed to contribute to the material's toughness. Thus, there is great interest in engineering silk for biomedical products such as suture or implants. Additionally, over the years, many studies have also sought to enhance the mechanical properties of spider silk for wider applicability, e.g., by irradiating the material using ultra-violet radiation. However, the limitations surrounding the use of ultra-violet radiation for enhancing the mechanical properties of spider silk are not well-understood. Here, we have analyzed the mechanical properties of spider silk at short ultra-violet irradiation duration. Specimens of spider silk were subjected to ultra-violet irradiation (254-nm wavelength, i.e. UVC) for 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively, followed by tensile test to rupture to determine the strength (maximum stress), extensibility (rupture strain), and toughness (strain energy density to rupture). Controls, i.e., specimens that did not received UVC, were also subjected to tensile test to rupture to determine the respective mechanical properties. One-way analysis of variance reveals that these properties decrease significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing irradiation duration. Among the three mechanical parameters, the strength of the spider silk degrades most rapidly; the extensibility of the spider silk degrades the slowest. Overall, these changes correspond to the observed surface modifications as well as the bond rupture between the peptide chains of the treated silk. Altogether, this simple but comprehensive study provides some key insights into the dependence of the mechanical properties on ultra-violet irradiation duration. PMID:26378587

  9. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  10. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  11. Dye sensitization of photoconductivity of polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryaev, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The DC photoconductivity of powder silicon samples with organic dyes applied to the surface of microcrystals was studied. Effective sensitization of photoconductivity in the absorption band of the dyes in the visible part of the spectrum was found.

  12. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E-sensitized solar cells, the excited ERDs must be able to efficiently transfer energy to the sensitizing dyes, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3

  13. Modeling the efficiency of Frster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons

  14. Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-02-01

    We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

  15. Lasing from fluorescent protein crystals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heon Jeong; Gather, Malte C; Song, Ji-Joon; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2014-12-15

    We investigated fluorescent protein crystals for potential photonic applications, for the first time to our knowledge. Rod-shaped crystals of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were synthesized, with diameters of 0.5-2 ?m and lengths of 100-200 ?m. The crystals exhibit minimal light scattering due to their ordered structure and generate substantially higher fluorescence intensity than EGFP or dye molecules in solutions. The magnitude of concentration quenching in EGFP crystals was measured to be about 7-10 dB. Upon optical pumping at 485 nm, individual EGFP crystals located between dichroic mirrors generated laser emission with a single-mode spectral line at 513 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of protein crystals as novel optical elements for self-assembled, micro- or nano-lasers and amplifiers in aqueous environment. PMID:25607090

  16. Multi-wavelength laser from dye-doped cholesteric polymer films

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    . Williams, and B. J. Eggleton, "Multi-wavelength synchronous pulse burst generation with a wavelength between oscillation peak and valley, each oscillation functions as a photonic band gap for generating is generated. Results indicate that the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal polymer film is a good candidate

  17. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of ?-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  18. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

  19. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  20. Albanian violets of the section Melanium, their morphological variability, genetic similarity and their adaptations to serpentine or chalk soils.

    PubMed

    S?omka, Aneta; Godzik, Barbara; Szarek-?ukaszewska, Gra?yna; Shuka, Lulëzim; Hoef-Emden, Kerstin; Bothe, Hermann

    2015-02-01

    Violets of the section Melanium from Albanian serpentine and chalk soils were examined for their taxonomic affiliations, their ability to accumulate heavy metals and their colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region showed that all the sampled six Albanian violets grouped between Viola lutea and Viola arvensis, but not with Viola tricolor. The fine resolution of the ITS sequences was not sufficient for a further delimitation of the Albanian violets within the V. lutea-V. arvensis clade. Therefore, the Albanian violets were classified by a set of morphological characters. Viola albanica, Viola dukadjinica and Viola raunsiensis from serpentine soils as well as Viola aetolica from a chalk meadow were unambiguously identified, whereas the samples of Viola macedonica showed high morphological variability. All the violets, in both roots and shoots contained less than or similar levels of heavy metals as their harboring soils, indicating that they were heavy metal excluders. All the violets were strongly colonized by AMF with the remarkable exception of V. albanica. This violet lived as a scree creeper in shallow serpentine soil where the concentration of heavy metals was high but those of P, K and N were scarce. PMID:25462973

  1. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  2. PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

  3. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  4. Improving optical absorptivity of natural dyes for fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatzadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Efficient and cheap dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using natural dyes from Pastinaca sativa and Beta vulgaris. Natural dyes are environmentally and economically superior to ruthenium-based dyes because they are nontoxic and cheap. However, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural dyes is low. One way to improve the DSSC performance is to enhance the absorptivity of extracted dyes. We investigated the influence of various factors in the extraction process, such as utilization of different extraction approaches, the acidity of extraction solvent, and different compounds of solvents on the optical absorption spectra. It was found that we could considerably enhance the optical absorptivity of dye and consequently the performance of DSSC by choosing a proper mixture of ethanol and water for extracting solvent and also the acidity of dye solution.

  5. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  6. Dyeing of Jute with Reactive Dyes: Optimisation of the Process Variables and Assessment of Colourfastness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, A. K.; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Guha Roy, T. K.

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the studies on the effect of dye concentration, electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH of the dye solution and material to liquor ratio (MLR) on colour strength and other colour parameters after being dyed of jute fabrics with reactive dyes, namely, Turquoise blue, Lemon Yellow, Red CN colours. The dye absorption increases with increase in electrolyte (common salt) concentration, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, soda ash concentration, pH and decreases with increase of MLR. Colour fastness to wash, light and rubbing for the dyed samples has been studied and reported. It is observed that reactive dye gives overall good colour fastness to both washing and rubbing. But the light fastness has been found to be moderate only, due to the UV-light initiated fading of jute fibre itself change of the colour substrate, ie, undyed material. This colour fastness has been significantly resolved by post treatment with 1 % benzotriazole.

  7. Trend towards low cost, low power, ultra-violet (UV) based biological agent detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickenberger, David

    2005-11-01

    Ultra-violet fluorescence remains a corner stone technique for the detection of biological agent aerosols. Historically, these UV based detectors have employed relatively costly and power demanding lasers that have influenced the exploitation of the technology to wider use. Recent advancements from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Solid-state Ultra Violet Optical Sources (SUVOS) program has changed this. The UV light emitting diode (LED) devices based on Gallium Nitride offer a unique opportunity to produce small, low power, and inexpensive detectors. It may, in fact, be possible to extend the SUVOS technology into detectors that are potentially disposable. This report will present ongoing efforts to explore this possibility. It will present candidate UV fluorescence based detector designs along with the biological aerosol responses obtained from these designs.

  8. Violet laser power sensor based on micro-fiber coated with methyl blue-functionalized reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhengwen; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Bing; Yu, Jianhui; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Jieyuan; Luo, Yunhan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Lu, Huihui

    2014-05-01

    A novel all fiber-optic power sensor of violet laser based on methyl blue-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (MB-rGO) film coated on a microfiber (MF) was proposed. The experiments show that when the violet laser illuminating onto the MB-rGO film with power variation from 0.03mw to 12.8mw, the transmitted optical power of the MF changes with a relative variation of ~2.7dB. The novel power sensor of violet laser possesses a sensitivity of ~0.22dB/mw in 1550nm. Furthermore, the MB-rGO-based all fiber-optic violet power sensor is easy to fabricate, compatible with fiberoptic systems and possesses high potentiality in photonics applications such as all fiber-optic broadband sensors, switches and modulators.

  9. Acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside in purple-violet flowers of Moricandia arvensis (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Kato, Kazuhisa; Sato, Motoki; Ito, Shun; Muraoka, Hiroki; Takahata, Yoshihito; Ogawa, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    A new acylated anthocyanin was isolated as a major pigment, along with a known anthocyanin (Moricandia arvensis anthocyanin 1: MAA-1), from a strain of Moricandia arvensis (Code No. MOR-ARV-3) with purple-violet flowers, and identified as cyanidin 3-O-[2-O-(2-O-(4-O-(6-O-(4-O-(?-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-?-glucopyranosyl)-trans-sinapoyl)-?-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-?-glucopyranoside]. PMID:25924529

  10. Spectral enhancement of leucocrystal violet treated footwear impression evidence in blood.

    PubMed

    Spence, Lindsay; Asmussen, Gary

    2003-03-27

    The results presented demonstrate the capacity for spectral enhancement to substantially improve the forensic examination of footwear impressions in blood treated with leucocrystal violet (LCV). The UV-Vis absorption spectra were generated of (i) an aqueous solution of leucocrystal violet, (ii) leucocrystal violet in 3% H(2)O(2), (iii) LCV working solution and (iv) whole blood added to LCV working solution. The resultant fluorescence emission spectra were subsequently generated (lambda(ex)=630nm, lambda(em)=661-900nm). The results indicate that the UV-Vis absorption spectra of an unbuffered solution of whole blood with LCV working solution produces a strong absorbance curve with a maxima at 630nm. Subsequent excitation at this wavelength and generation of the emission spectrum in the fluorescence mode indicates that a solution of whole blood added to LCV working solution is an extremely weak fluorophore. Therefore, to enable an adequate and timely enhancement of blood impression evidence treated with LCV utilising either visible fluorescence or infrared luminescence requires (i) selection of the most appropriate excitation wavelength (lambda(ex)) and emission wavelength (lambda(em)) with extremely narrow band pass filters, which in the absence of substrate matrix interference is excitation at 630nm producing the emission maxima at 665nm and (ii) a visual enhancement system such as a CCD colour IR video camera with image integration. PMID:12711191

  11. A violet emission in ZnS:Mn,Eu: Luminescence and applications for radiation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Liu, Xiao-tang

    2014-03-14

    We prepared manganese and europium co-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Mn,Eu) phosphors and used them for radiation detection. In addition to the red fluorescence at 583?nm due to the d-d transition of Mn ions, an intense violet emission at 420?nm is newly observed in ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. The emission is related to Eu{sup 2+} doping but only appears at certain Eu{sup 2+} concentrations. It is found that the intensity of the 420?nm violet fluorescence is X-ray does-dependent, while the red fluorescence of 583?nm is not. The ratio of fluorescence intensities at 420?nm and 583?nm has been monitored as a function of X-ray doses that exposed upon the ZnS:Mn,Eu phosphors. Empirical formulas are provided to estimate the doses of applied X-ray irradiation. Finally, possible mechanisms of X-ray irradiation induced fluorescence quenching are discussed. The intense 420?nm emission not only provides a violet light for solid state lighting but also offers a very sensitive method for radiation detection.

  12. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-10-14

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:26428071

  13. Dye alignment in luminescent solar concentrators: II. Horizontal alignment for energy harvesting in linear polarizers

    SciTech Connect

    Mulder, Carlijn L.; Reusswig, Phil D.; Beyler, A. P.; Kim, Heekyung; Rotschild, Carmel; Baldo, Marc

    2010-04-26

    We describe Linearly Polarized Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LP-LSCs) to replace conventional, purely absorptive, linear polarizers in energy harvesting applications. As a proof of concept, we align 3-(2-Benzothiazolyl)-N,N-diethylumbelliferylamine (Coumarin 6) and 4-dicyanomethyl-6-dimethylaminostiryl-4H-pyran (DCM) dye molecules linearly in the plane of the substrate using a polymerizable liquid crystal host. We show that up to 38% of the photons polarized on the long axis of the dye molecules can be coupled to the edge of the device for an LP-LSC based on Coumarin 6 with an order parameter of 0.52.

  14. Induction, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Manganese Peroxidase from Irpex lacteus CD2 and Its Application in the Decolorization of Different Types of Dye

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xing; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is the one of the important ligninolytic enzymes produced by lignin-degrading fungi which has the great application value in the field of environmental biotechnology. Searching for new MnP with stronger tolerance to metal ions and organic solvents is important for the maximization of potential of MnP in the biodegradation of recalcitrant xenobiotics. In this study, it was found that oxalic acid, veratryl alcohol and 2,6-Dimehoxyphenol could stimulate the synthesis of MnP in the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2. A novel manganese peroxidase named as CD2-MnP was purified and characterized from this fungus. CD2-MnP had a strong capability for tolerating different metal ions such as Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ as well as organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, DMSO, ethylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, butanediol and glycerin. The different types of dyes including the azo dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B), anthraquinone dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue R), indigo dye (Indigo Carmine) and triphenylmethane dye (Methyl Green) as well as simulated textile wastewater could be efficiently decolorized by CD2-MnP. CD2-MnP also had a strong ability of decolorizing different dyes with the coexistence of metal ions and organic solvents. In summary, CD2-MnP from Irpex lacteus CD2 could effectively degrade a broad range of synthetic dyes and exhibit a great potential for environmental biotechnology. PMID:25412169

  15. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.; Hohman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Injection locking was applied to a cavity-dumped coaxial flashlamp pumped dye laser in an effort to obtain nanosecond duration pulses which have both high energy and narrow-linewidth. In the absence of an injected laser pulse, the cavity-dumped dye laser was capable of generating high energy (approx. 60mJ) nanosecond duration output pulses. These pulses, however, had a fixed center wavelength and were extremely broadband (approx. 6nm FWHM). Experimental investigations were performed to determine if the spectral properties of these outputs could be improved through the use of injection-locking techniques. A parametric study to determine the specific conditions under which the laser could be injection-locked was also carried out. Significant linewidth reduction to 0.0015nm) of the outputs was obtained through injection-locking but only at wavelengths near the peak lasing wavelength of the dye. It was found, however; that by inserting weakly dispersive tuning elements in the laser cavity, these narrow-linewidth outputs could be obtained over a wide (24nm) tuning range. Since the tuning elements had low insertion losses, the tunability of the output was obtained without sacrificing output pulse energy.

  16. Nonlinear doped liquid crystals for dynamic holographic displays (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yikai

    2015-10-01

    We study nonlinear performances of doped liquid crystals employing azo dye (DR1) and quantum dots. The nonlinear mechanisms include thermal effect, space-charge induced electric field, photo-isomerization, and optical-field induced molecular polarization. Our preliminary investigations reveal that these doped liquid crystals are dominated by different nonlinear mechanisms. In particular, we find that For dye-doped LC, the response time is generally robust to temperature variation but the diffraction efficiency is temperature-sensitive. Whereas, the QD-doped LC remains robust for both characteristics around room temperature. We also demonstrate dynamic holographic displays using these doped liquid crystals at a video rate of 60 Hz.

  17. Studies on decolorization of reactive blue 19 textile dye by Coprinus plicatilis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies were carried on the decolorization of the textile dye reactive blue 19 (RB 19) by a novel isolate of Coprinus plicatilis (C. plicatilis) fungi. We describe an in vitro optimization process for decolorization and its behavior under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature and substrate concentration. Results The optimal conditions for decolorization were obtained in media containing intermediate concentrations of ammonium oxalate and glucose (10 g/L) as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, at 26°C and pH?=?5.5. Maximum decolorization efficiency against RB 19 achieved in this study was around 99%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric analyses, before and after decolorization, suggest that decolorization was due to biodegradation. Conclusions This effect was associated with laccase enzyme displaying good tolerance to a wide range of pH values, salt concentrations and temperatures, suggesting a potential role for this organism in the remediation of real dye containing effluents. In conclusion, laccase activity in C. plicatilis was firstly described in this study. PMID:24565535

  18. Secondary dye testing of the lacrimal system.

    PubMed

    Becker, B B

    1993-02-01

    Using the Olympus PF-22 angioscope to examine the inferior meatus during secondary dye testing of the lacrimal system, I evaluated the efficacy of the secondary dye test to localize partial or functional obstruction of the upper or lower lacrimal excretory system. Secondary dye testing was positive (dye present in the nose) in 12 of 13 lacrimal systems (92%) with functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction, in 7 of 8 (89%) with involutional ectropion, and in 4 of 5 (80%) with facial nerve palsy. Secondary dye testing was negative in the 1 lacrimal system with canalicular stenosis and in 5 of the 6 (83%) with punctal stenosis. Secondary dye testing is helpful in differentiating punctal or canalicular stenosis from functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction; however, it cannot help differentiate ectropion or facial nerve palsy from functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. PMID:8446360

  19. Grating cavity dual wavelength dye laser.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Nava, Oscar Javier; Rodríguez-Montero, Ponciano; Iturbe-Castillo, M David; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos Gerardo

    2011-02-14

    We report simultaneous dual wavelength dye laser emission using Littman-Metcalf and Littrow cavity configurations with minimum cavity elements. Dual wavelength operation is obtained by laser operation in two optical paths inside the cavity, one of which uses reflection in the circulating dye cell. Styryl 14 laser dye operating in the 910 nm to 960 nm was used in a 15%:85% PC/EG solvent green pumped with a Q-switched doubled Nd3+:YAG laser. PMID:21369171

  20. Visualization of regional cerebrospinal fluid flow with a dye injection technique in focal arachnoid pathologies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Masaaki; Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Morishige, Mizuki; Yamada, Naoto; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-05-01

    Surgical lysis of the thickened arachnoid membrane is the first choice of treatment in spinal arachnoid pathologies that cause flow disturbances or blockage of CSF. However, it is important to consider that while extensive lysis of the arachnoid may temporarily provide a wide pathway for CSF, an extensive lytic procedure may later cause secondary adhesion. Thus, it is ideal for the proper extent of the arachnoid lysis to be determined after careful analysis of regional CSF flow. The authors report their limited experience with intraoperative visualization of CSF flow in spinal arachnoid pathologies. Two patients with a dorsal arachnoid web (DAW) with cervical syringomyelia and 1 patient with focal adhesive arachnoiditis causing edema of the spinal cord were surgically treated at the authors' institution between 2007 and 2013. In all cases, the presence of a DAW or focal adhesive arachnoiditis was suspected from the findings on MRI, namely 1) an indentation on the upper thoracic spinal cord and 2) syringomyelia and/or edema of the spinal cord above the indentation. Exploratory surgery disclosed a transversely thickened arachnoid septum on the dorsal side of the indented cord. To prove blockage of the CSF by the septum and to decide on the extent of arachnoid lysis, regional CSF flow around the arachnoid septum was visualized by subarachnoid injection of gentian violet solution close to the web. Injected dye stagnated just close to the arachnoid septum in all cases, and these findings documented CSF blockage by the septum. In 2 cases, a 2-minute observation showed that the injected dye stayed close to the web without diffusion. The authors performed not only resection of the web itself but also lysis of the thickened arachnoid on both sides of the spinal cord to make a CSF pathway on the ventral side. In the third case, the dye stagnated close to the web at first but then diffused through the nerve root to the ventral CSF space. The lysis procedure was completed after exclusive removal of the dorsal web. Postoperative MR images confirmed reduction of the syrinx and/or improvement of the edema in all cases, suggesting that the extent of arachnoid lysis was optimal in each case. No adverse effect was observed after subarachnoid injection of gentian violet. The authors believe that their technique of visualizing regional CSF flow will be helpful to decide the optimal extent of lysis in some local arachnoid pathologies. PMID:25679234

  1. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, E. M.; Hafez, H. S.; Bakir, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k = 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 × 10-3 min-1 for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100 mW cm-2, reveals highly stable DSSCs.

  2. Photostability of low cost dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural and synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Abdou, E M; Hafez, H S; Bakir, E; Abdel-Mottaleb, M S A

    2013-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of some natural pigments as well as synthetic dyes to act as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Anthocyanin dye extracted from rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flowers, the commercially available textile dye Remazole Red RB-133 (RR) and merocyanin-like dye based on 7-methyl coumarin are tested. The photostability of the three dyes is investigated under UV-Vis light exposure. The results show a relatively high stability of the three dyes. Moreover, the photostability of the solid dyes is studied over the TiO2 film electrodes. A very low decolorization rates are recorded as; rate constants k=1.6, 2.1 and 1.9×10(-3)min(-1) for anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. The stability results favor selecting anthocyanin as a promising sensitizer candidate in DSSCs based on natural products. Dyes-sensitized solar cells are fabricated and their conversion efficiency (?) is 0.27%, 0.14% and 0.001% for the anthocyanin, RR and coumarin dyes, respectively. Moreover, stability tests of the sealed cells based on anthocyanin and RR dyes are done under continuous light exposure of 100mWcm(-2), reveals highly stable DSSCs. PMID:23832227

  3. Tunable ultraviolet co-doped dye laser of Pyrromethene 597 and Rhodamine 610

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhenzhong; Sun, Yanling; Ma, Lin; Liu, Jifang

    2015-12-01

    The laser performance of Pyrromethene 597 (PM597) and Rhodamine 610 mixture is studied. A wide tuning range from 580 to 655?nm is achieved. The laser linewidth obtained is less than 0.1?nm. The highest conversion efficiency of 42.5% is obtained at 600?nm. Using a beta-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal to frequency double the dye laser into ultraviolet (UV), a tuning range from 296 to 324?nm is obtained. The peak conversion efficiency from the dye laser to the UV laser is 9.7% and the highest UV laser output energy is 9.51 mJ at 301.25?nm. To the best of our knowledge, the tuning range and the conversion efficiency are the best under the same condition so far. All our results indicate that high laser performance can be achieved using a laser dyes’ mixture.

  4. Structural and spectral comparisons between isomeric benzisothiazole and benzothiazole based aromatic heterocyclic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Ge; Wang, Yue-Hua; Tao, Tao; Qian, Hui-Fen; Huang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A pair of isomeric heterocyclic compounds, namely 3-amino-5-nitro-[2,1]-benzisothiazole and 2-amino-6-nitrobenzothiazole, are used as the diazonium components to couple with two N-substituted 4-aminobenzene derivatives. As a result, two pairs of isomeric aromatic heterocyclic azo dyes have been produced and they are structurally and spectrally characterized and compared including single-crystal structures, electronic spectra, solvatochromism and reversible acid-base discoloration, thermal stability and theoretically calculations. It is concluded that both benzisothiazole and benzothiazole based dyes show planar molecular structures and offset ?-? stacking interactions, solvatochromism and reversible acid-base discoloration. Furthermore, benzisothiazole based aromatic heterocyclic dyes exhibit higher thermal stability, larger solvatochromic effects and maximum absorption wavelengths than corresponding benzothiazole based ones, which can be explained successfully by the differences of their calculated isomerization energy, dipole moment and molecular band gaps.

  5. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the appropriate amount of tracers was found according to the flowrate of the spring. The amount of dye is very important for the consistency of the results and the applicability of the tests. For example if the amount of tracer that is estimated is found to be inadequate, any field readings and data could be lost. Most importantly tracer dye is costly and hard to prepare, transport and will follow a torturous path through the cave to the underground river.

  6. Two-Photon Absorption Spectrum of a Single Crystal Cyanine-like Honghua Hu,

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Two-Photon Absorption Spectrum of a Single Crystal Cyanine-like Dye Honghua Hu, Dmitry A. Fishman Vegas, New Mexico 87701, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The two-photon absorption (2PA) spectrum of an organic single crystal is reported. The crystal is grown by self

  7. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains...

  8. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains...

  9. Dye lasers. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-08-01

    Studies on dye laser theory, design, components, optical systems, and frequency range are presented in approximately 96 citations. Abstracts on lasing dyes, pumping, tuning, excitation, molecular structure, and modulation are included. Studies on dye laser use in spectroscopy are covered.

  10. Conformation and chirality in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, John L.; Zhao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    High helical twisting powerchiral additives are required for an expanding variety of liquid crystal displays and devices. Molecular conformation plays a critical role in determining the helical twisting power, HTP, of chiral additives. We studied additives based on an isosorbide benzoate ester core. Molecular modeling revealed two low energy states with very different conformations for this core The ultra-violet absorption and NMR spectra show two stable isosorbide conformers These spectra reveal how the relative populations of these two conformations change with temperature and how this is related to the helical twisting power. Conformation changes can explain many of the observed anomalous responses of HPT to temperature.

  11. Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary in Near-Infrared and Violet Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mosaics of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator in violet (top panel) and near-infrared (bottom panel) light. The four images that make up each of these mosaics were taken within a few minutes of each other. Sunlight at 757 nanometers (near-infrared) penetrates deep into Jupiter's troposphere before being absorbed or scattered by clouds to the Galileo spacecraft. This wavelength reveals the features of the lower visible cloud deck. Sunlight at 415 nanometers (violet) is a scattered or absorbed to varying degrees in different parts of Jupiter's atmosphere depending on the types and concentrations of cloud particles and chemicals that color Jupiter's atmosphere. The near-infrared mosaic primarily shows cloud features. The violet mosaic has three distinct regions: it is brightest at the latitude of the jet (horizontally across the center of the mosaic), moderately bright north of the jet, and dark and patchy south of the jet.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Photographer : JPL Range : 6.5 million kilometers (4 million miles) Six violet images of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 6.5 million kilometers (4 million miles) Six violet images of Jupiter makes the mosaic photo, showing the Great Red Spot as a swirling vortex type motion. This motion is also seen in several nearby white clouds. These bright white clouds and the Red Spot are rotating in a counter clockwise direction, except the peculiar filimentary cloud to the right of the Red Spot is going clockwise. The top of the picture shows the turbulence from the equatorial jet and more northerly atmospheric currents. The smallest clouds shown are only 70 miles (120 km) across.

  13. Defect-engineered GaN:Mg nanowire arrays for overall water splitting under violet light

    SciTech Connect

    Kibria, M. G.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.; Trudeau, M. L.; Guo, H.

    2015-03-16

    We report that by engineering the intra-gap defect related energy states in GaN nanowire arrays using Mg dopants, efficient and stable overall neutral water splitting can be achieved under violet light. Overall neutral water splitting on Rh/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} co-catalyst decorated Mg doped GaN nanowires is demonstrated with intra-gap excitation up to 450?nm. Through optimized Mg doping, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency of GaN nanowires reaches ?43% at 375–450?nm, providing a viable approach to extend the solar absorption of oxide and non-oxide photocatalysts.

  14. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R.

    2014-12-08

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  15. Defect-engineered GaN:Mg nanowire arrays for overall water splitting under violet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibria, M. G.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Zhao, S.; Trudeau, M. L.; Guo, H.; Mi, Z.

    2015-03-01

    We report that by engineering the intra-gap defect related energy states in GaN nanowire arrays using Mg dopants, efficient and stable overall neutral water splitting can be achieved under violet light. Overall neutral water splitting on Rh/Cr2O3 co-catalyst decorated Mg doped GaN nanowires is demonstrated with intra-gap excitation up to 450 nm. Through optimized Mg doping, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency of GaN nanowires reaches ˜43% at 375-450 nm, providing a viable approach to extend the solar absorption of oxide and non-oxide photocatalysts.

  16. Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M.

    2013-12-15

    An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

  17. Oxidation preventative capping layer for deep-ultra-violet and soft x-ray multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Prisbrey, Shon T.

    2004-07-06

    The invention uses iridium and iridium compounds as a protective capping layer on multilayers having reflectivity in the deep ultra-violet to soft x-ray regime. The iridium compounds can be formed in one of two ways: by direct deposition of the iridium compound from a prepared target or by depositing a thin layer (e.g., 5-50 angstroms) of iridium directly onto an element. The deposition energy of the incoming iridium is sufficient to activate the formation of the desired iridium compound. The compounds of most interest are iridium silicide (IrSi.sub.x) and iridium molybdenide (IrMo.sub.x).

  18. Long range surface plasmon resonance and enhanced fluorescence near the ultra-violet vacuum cutoff limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosbie, Stephen; Zerulla, Dominic

    2012-04-01

    Reported is the observation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR), long range SPR and surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence at 204 nm, close to the vacuum cut-off limit. The development of deep ultra-violet plasmonics is challenging as it requires alternative materials and design considerations compared to traditional visible devices. However, it offers inherent advantages, including improved sensitivity to local refractive index changes and applicability to bio-sensing. In this wavelength region the amplified near fields enhance the absorption and fluorescence of electronic transitions. In particular, this is demonstrated by the measurement of intrinsic fluorescence from low concentration organic impurities in reagent grade water.

  19. Optimization of nanoparticle structure for improved conversion efficiency of dye solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Norani Muti; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella

    2014-10-24

    Heavy dye loading and the ability to contain the light within the thin layer (typically ?12 ?m) are the requirement needed for the photoelectrode material in order to enhance the harvesting efficiency of dye solar cell. This can be realized by optimizing the particle size with desirable crystal structure. The paper reports the investigation on the dependency of the dye loading and light scattering on the properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials by comparing 4 different samples of TiO{sub 2} in the form of nanoparticles and micron-sized TiO{sub 2} aggregates which composed of nanocrystallites. Their properties were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UVVis spectroscopy while the performance of the fabricated test cells were measured using universal photovoltaic test system (UPTS) under 1000 W/cm{sup 2} intensity of radiation. Nano sized particles provide large surface area which allow for greater dye adsorption but have no ability to retain the incident light in the TiO{sub 2} film. In contrast, micron-sized particles in the form of aggregates can generate light scattering allowing the travelling distance of the light to be extended and increasing the interaction between the photons and dye molecules adsorb on TiO{sub 2}nanocrystallites. This resulted in an improvement in the conversion efficiency of the aggregates that demonstrates the close relation between light scattering effect and the structure of the photolectrode film.

  20. Effects of pH of Dyes on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Shoji; Iino, Hiroshi; Kukita, Koudai; Kaminosono, Kaoru

    Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dyes and synthesized dyes in which rear metal was not contained. Effects of pH of dyes on the characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were also examined. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 2.5 was 0.10 point larger than that of the solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 4.0. It was also found that the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated using red-perilla dye with a pH of 3.1 was 0.10 point larger than that of the solar cell fabricated using red-perilla dye with a pH of 5.8. The results are discussed on the bases of the molecular structure of mainly contained dye and the optical absorption spectra.

  1. Hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Passoni, Luca; Ghods, Farbod; Docampo, Pablo; Abrusci, Agnese; Martí-Rujas, Javier; Ghidelli, Matteo; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Binda, Maddalena; Guarnera, Simone; Li Bassi, Andrea; Casari, Carlo Spartaco; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2013-11-26

    In this work we demonstrate hyperbranched nanostructures, grown by pulsed laser deposition, composed of one-dimensional anatase single crystals assembled in arrays of high aspect ratio hierarchical mesostructures. The proposed growth mechanism relies on a two-step process: self-assembly from the gas phase of amorphous TiO2 clusters in a forest of tree-shaped hierarchical mesostructures with high aspect ratio; oriented crystallization of the branches upon thermal treatment. Structural and morphological characteristics can be optimized to achieve both high specific surface area for optimal dye uptake and broadband light scattering thanks to the microscopic feature size. Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells fabricated with arrays of hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures on FTO-glass sensitized with D102 dye showed a significant 66% increase in efficiency with respect to a reference mesoporous photoanode and reached a maximum efficiency of 3.96% (among the highest reported for this system). This result was achieved mainly thanks to an increase in photogenerated current directly resulting from improved light harvesting efficiency of the hierarchical photoanode. The proposed photoanode overcomes typical limitations of 1D TiO2 nanostructures applied to ss-DSC and emerges as a promising foundation for next-generation high-efficiency solid-state devices comprosed of dyes, polymers, or quantum dots as sensitizers. PMID:24180577

  2. Dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves (Lawsonia inermis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Qaiser, Summia; Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Shahid, Muhammad; Zuber, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    Dyeing behavior of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Lawson dye extracted from henna leaves has been investigated. Cotton and dye powder are irradiated to different absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. The dyeing parameters such as dyeing time, electrolyte (salt) concentration and mordant concentrations using copper and iron as mordants are optimized. Dyeing is performed using un-irradiated and irradiated cotton with dye solutions and their color strength values are evaluated in CIE Lab system using Spectraflash -SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organization (ISO) have been employed to investigate the colourfastness properties such as colourfastness to light, washing and rubbing of irradiated dyed fabric. It is found that gamma ray treatment of cotton dyed with extracts of henna leaves has significantly improved the color strength as well as enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  3. Eco-Friendly Dyeing of Cotton with Indigo Dye By Electrochemical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, H. Gurumallesh; Sarala, K.; Babu, S. Ananda; Savitha, K. U.

    2011-07-01

    Eco-friendly dyeing of cotton was performed in two step process; (i) enzymatic pre-treatment of grey cotton fabric and (ii) Electrochemical dyeing of the pre-treated cotton fabric with indigo. The enzymatic pre-treatment was done in three methods; (i) amylase treatment only, (ii) amylase and hydrogen peroxide treatment and (iii) single bath method. The dyeing was carried out with the pre-treated cotton fabric. The reduction of indigo dye by electrochemical method was initiated by applying potential. Then the dyeing was carried out different concentrations of dye, glucose and NaOH. Conventional method of dyeing was also carried out and compared with the electrochemical method. Dyeability was measured by computer colour matching (CCM) GretagMacbeth colour eye 2180UV instrument.

  4. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  5. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    PubMed

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures. PMID:19515485

  6. Photolysis of smoke dyes on soils

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.L. . Environmental Research Lab.); Weber, E.J.; Baughman, G.L. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-06-01

    Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. Initially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemically protected. The average mean depths of photolysis ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 mm for outdoor studies and from 0.42 to 0.73 mm for lab studies. The magnitude of the mean depths of photolysis suggests that photo-degradation of the dyes occurs through indirect photochemical processes. Photolysis products for only two of the dyes could be identified. Photolysis of Disperse Red 9 resulted in the formation of 1-aminoanthraquinone, whereas Solvent Yellow 33 photo-degraded to give 2-carboxyquinoline and phthalic anhydride. Reaction mechanisms involving sensitized photo-oxidation by singlet oxygen are consistent with the formation of these reaction products.

  7. Dye-doped cholesteric lasers: Distributed feedback and photonic bandgap lasing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilchishin, Igor P.; Tikhonov, Eugene A.

    2015-05-01

    A review of authors' contributions to dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) lasers started from the pioneer authors' paper of 1980 in which the experimental realization of the first CLC laser is presented. Both distributed feedback (DFB) and photonics band edge lasing models are discussed for different experimental conditions. A detailed study and analysis of basic characteristics of steroidal CLC lasers with low liquid crystal optical birefringence is considered with respect to the DFB model. The manifestation of a planar texture quality and mutual orientations of directors on the substrates influencing on the lasing characteristics in steroidal CLCs have been shown and described. The reversible phototuning of the CLC laser wavelength by trans-cis transitions of photoactive components is realized. Reasons for two theoretical models' coexistence for the description of dye-doped CLC lasing is considered.

  8. Crystallization Screens Crystallization Optimization

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    a local start-up company into an established business with a glo- bal distribution network. We deliver crystallization. High quality reagents and excellent customer service help the researcher to find tailor of tools for protein crystallization. High quality reagents and excellent customer service help

  9. Tailoring of UV/violet plasmonic properties in Ag, and Cu coated Al concaves arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norek, Ma?gorzata; W?odarski, Maksymilian; St?pniowski, Wojciech J.

    2014-09-01

    UV plasmonics is of particular interest because of large variety of applications, where the higher energy plasmon resonances would advance scientific achievements, including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with UV excitation, ultrasensitive label-free detection of important biomolecules absorbing light in the UV, or the possibility for exerting control over photochemical reactions. Despite its potential, UV plasmonics is still in its infancy, mostly due to difficulties in fabrication of reproducible nanostructured materials operating in this high energy range. Here, we present a simple electrochemical method to fabricate regular arrays of aluminum concaves demonstrating plasmonic properties in UV/violet region. The method enables the preparation of concaves with well-controlled geometrical parameters such as interpore distance (Dc), and therefore, well controllable plasmon resonances. Moreover, the patterning is suitable for large scale production. The UV/violet properties of Al concaves can be further fine-tuned by Ag and Cu metals. The refractive index sensitivity (RIS) increases after the metals deposition as compared to RIS of pure Al nanohole arrays. The highest RIS of 404 nm/RIU was obtained for Cu coated Al nanoconcaves with the Dc = 460.8 nm, which is similar or better than the RIS values previously reported for other nanohole arrays, operating in visible/near IR range.

  10. Enhanced violet photoemission of nanocrystalline fluorine doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anusha, Muthukumar; Arivuoli, D.; Manikandan, E.; Jayachandran, M.

    2015-09-01

    Highly stable fluorine doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films were prepared on corning glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) at variable deposition temperature of 360 °C, 380 °C and 420 °C. Especially, the optimum deposition temperature was investigated for high intense violet emission. The film crystallinity improved with the increasing deposition temperature and highly textured film was obtained at 420 °C. The films exhibited surface morphology variation from spherical to platelets due to deposition temperature effect, analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Higher growth rate observed at 420 °C which leads larger grains and lowest resistivity of ?5.77 ? cm among the deposited films which may be due to reduction in zinc vacancies and grain boundary area. Zinc vacancies are acts as electron killer centres. UV-visible spectra indicated higher transmittance (83-90%) in the visible region. Red shift of optical absorption edges associated with the increase in particle size consistent well with the XRD results. Reduced E2(high) intensity was observed in Raman spectra, for the film deposited at 380 °C which indicates decreased oxygen incorporation confirmed by PL spectra. Especially, enhanced violet emission observed at 3.06 eV for the films deposited at 380 °C due to electronic transition from the defect level of zinc vacancies to the conduction band, probably attributed to enhanced incorporation of 'F' into 'O' sites associated with increased Zn vacancies and also decreased oxygen incorporation consistent with the electrical and Raman analyses.

  11. Photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Harima, Yutaka

    2012-12-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on organic dyes adsorbed on oxide semiconductor electrodes, such as TiO(2), ZnO, or NiO, which have emerged as a new generation of sustainable photovoltaic devices, have attracted much attention from chemists, physicists, and engineers because of enormous scientific interest in not only their construction and operational principles, but also in their high incident-solar-light-to-electricity conversion efficiency and low cost of production. To develop high-performance DSSCs, it is important to create efficient organic dye sensitizers, which should be optimized for the photophysical and electrochemical properties of the dyes themselves, with molecular structures that provide good light-harvesting features, good electron communication between the dye and semiconductor electrode and between the dye and electrolyte, and to control the molecular orientation and arrangement of the dyes on a semiconductor surface. The aim of this Review is not to make a list of a number of organic dye sensitizers developed so far, but to provide a new direction in the epoch-making molecular design of organic dyes for high photovoltaic performance and long-term stability of DSSCs, based on the accumulated knowledge of their photophysical and electrochemical properties, and molecular structures of the organic dye sensitizers developed so far. PMID:22807392

  12. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-11-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13?V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed.

  13. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13?V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed. PMID:26564241

  14. A novel violet/blue light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Shenwei; Mu, Guangyao; Yin, Xue; Ou, Kai; Yi, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth silicates are highly efficient materials for silicon-based light sources. Here we report a novel light-emitting device based on Ce2Si2O7. Intense violet/blue electroluminescence was observed, with a turn-on voltage of about 13?V. The violet/blue emission is attributed to 4f-5d transitions of the Ce(3+) ions in Ce2Si2O7, which are formed by interfacial reaction of CeO2 and Si. Electroluminescence and photoluminescence mechanisms of the Ce2Si2O7 light-emitting device are also discussed. PMID:26564241

  15. Intense violet and blue light emission from Si nanowires fabricated via solid-liquid-solid growth from amorphous Si films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2015-08-01

    Violet and blue luminescent Si nanowires were fabricated by annealing an amorphous Si film on a Ni-coated Si substrate via solid-liquid-solid growth. The fabricated Si nanowires have an average diameter of 50 nm. The wire stem is composed of a crystalline Si core of several nanometers and an amorphous oxide sheath. The Si nanowires are capable of emitting strong violet and blue luminescence in the spectral region ranging from 380 to 500 nm, which has a very short decay time of tens of nanoseconds, and is remarkably different in spectral region and luminescence time from the luminescence emitted by Si nanocrystals.

  16. Local thermal resonance control of GaInP photonic crystal membrane cavities using ambient gas cooling

    E-print Network

    Sokolov, Sergei; Yüce, Emre; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaelle; De Rossi, Alfredo; Mosk, Allard P

    2015-01-01

    We perform a spatially dependent tuning of a GaInP photonic crystal cavity using a continuous wave violet laser. Local tuning is obtained by laser heating of the photonic crystal membrane. The cavity resonance shift is measured for different pump positions and for two ambient gases: helium and nitrogen. The use of high-conducting gas in combination with low-conducting semiconductor leads to a resonance control with a spatial resolution better than 4 microns.

  17. Shock wave diagnostics using fluorescent dye probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banishev, Alexandr; Christensen, James; Dlott, Dana

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent probes are highly developed, and have found increasing use in a wide variety of applications. We have studied shock compression of various materials with embedded dye probes used as high speed probes of pressure and temperature. Under the right conditions, dye emission can be used to make a map of the pressure distribution in shocked microstructured materials with high time (1 ns) and space (1 micrometer) resolution. In order to accomplish this goal, we started by studying shock compression of PMMA polymer with rhodamine 6G dye (R6G), as a function of shock pressure and shock duration. We observed the shock-induced spectral redshift and the shock-induced intensity loss. We investigated the fundamental mechanisms of R6G response to pressure. We showed that the time response of a dye probe is limited by its photophysical behavior under shock. We developed superemissive ultrafast dye probes by embedding R6G in a silica nanoparticle. More recently, we have searched for dye probes that have better responses. For instance, we have found that the dye Nile Red embedded in the right polymer matrix has 1.7 times larger pressure-induced redshift than R6G.

  18. Spectroscopic Investigation of Ce(3+) Doped Fluoride Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Donald H.; Armagan, Guzin; Marsh, Waverly; Barnes, James; Chai, B. H. T.

    1995-01-01

    Doping of the trivalent rare-earth cerium ion into fluoride crystals is of interest in producing turnable ultra-violet solid state lasers. These lasers are desirable for many applications in medicine, industry, and scientific research, including remote sensing. High absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of the dipole allowed 4f-5d transitions show promise in cerium as a laser ion in crystals. Several research groups have already reported the observation of stimulated emission of cerium in LiYF4, LiSrAlF6, and LiCaAlF6. However, the color center formation in the crystals due to the excited state absorption of ultra-violet pump light adds difficulty to achieving laser action. We have investigated the spectroscopic properties of cerium such as absorption and emission spectra, and lifetimes in four different fluoride crystals, including LiCaAlF6, LiSrAlF6, KyF4 and LiYF4. We have derived the polarized absorption and stimulated emission cross sections from transmission and fluorescence emission measurements for each of the host crystals. we have measured the lifetime of the lowest 5d level; moreover, investigated the temperature dependence of this lifetime and color center formation. Our results on absorption and stimulated emission cross sections for LiCaAlF6 and LiSrAlF6 are similar to the results already published.

  19. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30°C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye. PMID:26585007

  20. A Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takeshi; Sasaki, Miho; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2015-11-01

    The dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) protein from Vibrio cholerae (VcDyP) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and its DyP activity was assayed by monitoring degradation of a typical anthraquinone dye, reactive blue 19 (RB19). Its kinetic activity was obtained by fitting the data to the Michaelis-Menten equation, giving kcat and Km values of 1.3 ± 0.3 s(-1) and 50 ± 20 ?M, respectively, which are comparable to those of other DyP enzymes. The enzymatic activity of VcDyP was highest at pH 4. A mutational study showed that two distal residues, Asp144 and Arg230, which are conserved in a DyP family, are essential for the DyP reaction. The crystal structure and resonance Raman spectra of VcDyP indicate the transfer of a radical from heme to the protein surface, which was supported by the formation of the intermolecular covalent bond in the reaction with H2O2. To identify the radical site, each of nine tyrosine or two tryptophan residues was substituted. It was clarified that Tyr129 and Tyr235 are in the active site of the dye degradation reaction at lower pH, while Tyr109 and Tyr133 are the sites of an intermolecular covalent bond at higher pH. VcDyP degrades RB19 at lower pH, while it loses activity under neutral or alkaline conditions because of a change in the radical transfer pathway. This finding suggests the presence of a pH-dependent switch of the radical transfer pathway, probably including His178. Although the physiological function of the DyP reaction is unclear, our findings suggest that VcDyP enhances the DyP activity to survive only when it is placed under a severe condition such as being in gastric acid. PMID:26431465

  1. Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption incorporate 2­3 nm thick InGaN/GaN quantum structures tuned for operation in violet to near-UV spectral region

  2. Multicolor fluorescence enhancement from a photonics crystal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhriyal, A.; Lu, M.; Huang, C. S.; Schulz, S.; Cunningham, B. T.

    2010-09-01

    A photonic crystal substrate exhibiting resonant enhancement of multiple fluorophores has been demonstrated. The device, fabricated uniformly from plastic materials over a ˜3×5 in.2 surface area by nanoreplica molding, utilizes two distinct resonant modes to enhance electric field stimulation of a dye excited by a ? =632.8 nm laser (cyanine-5) and a dye excited by a ? =532 nm laser (cyanine-3). Resonant coupling of the laser excitation to the photonic crystal surface is obtained for each wavelength at a distinct incident angle. Compared to detection of a dye-labeled protein on an ordinary glass surface, the photonic crystal surface exhibited a 32× increase in fluorescent signal intensity for cyanine-5 conjugated streptavidin labeling, while a 25× increase was obtained for cyanine-3 conjugated streptavidin labeling. The photonic crystal is capable of amplifying the output of any fluorescent dye with an excitation wavelength in the 532 nmdyes within a single imaged area, such as gene expression microarrays.

  3. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY OF RED AND VIOLET MIXTURES - CHAMBER CONCENTRATION AND PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inhalation exposure facility was developed at the U.S. EPA, RTP, NC to conduct inhalation exposures of rodents and guinea pigs to dye mixtures used by the U.S. Army in the manufacture of smoke munitions. nitially, an evaluation of the prototype chamber aerosol homogeneity was ...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL TOXIC RELEASES FROM LEATHER INDUSTRY DYEING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study focused on the organic dyes released to the environment in the wastewaters from leather dyeing operations. Basically, three types of dyes--acid, basic, and direct--are used, although the number of different dyes are well over 50, and the number of formulations used at a...

  5. Organic Dye Behavior in PEG Block Copolymer Nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    of light Measure the emission spectrum of the sample to determine dye behavior in the particles Nile red of block copolymers To find the optimal concentrations of fluorescent dyes in the nanoparticles To study(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(- caprolactone) #12;Fluorescent dyes Objective: Encapsulate fluorescent dyes

  6. Biology of the Blues: The Snails behind the Ancient Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhart, Carol

    2001-11-01

    Three species of marine snails were used in the ancient Mediterranean dye industry. Colorless dye precursors, sulfur-containing indole derivatives, are secreted by the hypobranchial gland of these animals. The several functions of this gland and other aspects of the lives of the snails that are interesting and relevant to the dye industry are described and the chemistry of dye production is summarized.

  7. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

  8. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 5. Rhodamines.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodamines were first produced in the late 19(th) century, when they constituted a new class of synthetic dyes. These compounds since have been used to color many things including cosmetics, inks, textiles, and in some countries, food products. Certain rhodamine dyes also have been used to stain biological specimens and currently are widely used as fluorescent probes for mitochondria in living cells. The early history and current biological applications are sketched briefly and an account of the ambiguities, complications and confusions concerning dye identification and nomenclature are discussed. PMID:26529223

  9. Preferred Molecular Orientation of Coumarin 343 on TiO2 Surfaces: Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    McCree-Grey, Jonathan; Cole, Jacqueline M; Evans, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The dye···TiO2 interfacial structure in working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is known to influence its photovoltaic device performance. Despite this, direct and quantitative reports of such structure remain sparse. This case study presents the application of X-ray reflectometry to determine the preferred structural orientation and molecular packing of the organic dye, Coumarin 343, adsorbed onto amorphous TiO2. Results show that the dye molecules are, on average, tilted by 61.1° relative to the TiO2 surface, and are separated from each other by 8.2 Å. These findings emulate the molecular packing arrangement of a monolayer of Coumarin 343 within its crystal structure. This suggests that the dye adsorbs onto TiO2 in one of its lowest energy configurations; that is, dye···TiO2 self-assembly is driven more by thermodynamic rather than kinetic means. Complementary DSC device tests illustrate that this interfacial structure compromises photovoltaic performance, unless a suitably sized coadsorbant is interdispersed between the Coumarin 343 chromophores on the TiO2 surface. PMID:26159229

  10. Twisted Cyanines: A Non-Planar Fluorogenic Dye with Superior Photostability and its Use in a Protein-Based Fluoromodule

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Nathaniel I.; Pham, Ha; Waggoner, Alan S.; Armitage, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The cyanine dye thiazole orange (TO) is a well-known fluorogenic stain for DNA and RNA, but this property precludes its use as an intracellular fluorescent probe for non-nucleic acid biomolecules. Further, as is the case with many cyanines, the dye suffers from low photostability. Here we report the synthesis of a bridge-substituted version of TO named ?-CN-TO, where the central methine hydrogen of TO is replaced by an electron withdrawing cyano group, which was expected to decrease the susceptibility of the dye toward singlet oxygen-mediated degradation. An X-ray crystal structure shows that ?-CN-TO is twisted drastically out of plane, in contrast to TO, which crystallizes in the planar conformation. ?-CN-TO retains the fluorogenic behavior of the parent dye TO in viscous glycerol/water solvent, but direct irradiation and indirect bleaching studies showed that ?-CN-TO is essentially inert to visible light and singlet oxygen. In addition, the twisted conformation of ?-CN-TO mitigates non-specific binding and fluorescence activation by DNA and a previously selected TO-binding protein and exhibits low background fluorescence in HeLa cell culture. ?-CN-TO was then used to select a new protein that binds and activates fluorescence from the dye. The new ?-CN-TO/protein fluoromodule exhibits superior photostability to an analogous TO/protein fluoromodule. These properties indicate that ?-CN-TO will be a useful fluorogenic dye in combination with specific RNA and protein binding partners for both in vitro and cell-based applications. More broadly, structural features that promote nonplanar conformations can provide an effective method for reducing nonspecific binding of cationic dyes to nucleic acids and other biomolecules. PMID:23252842

  11. The visible spectrum stretching from red to violet is only a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.The whole spectrum extends from the shortest wavelength gamma rays to the

    E-print Network

    The visible spectrum stretching from red to violet is only a small part of the electromagnetic wavelengths in millionths of a metre (micrometres). Violet light has a wavelength of 0.4 micrometres and red

  12. Natural Dye Extracted from Vitex negundo as a Potential Alternative to Synthetic Dyes for Dyeing of Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Swamy, Venkataramanappa; Gowda, Kurikempanadoddi Ninge; Sudhakar, Rajagopal

    2015-06-01

    Since the last decade, the application of natural dyes on textile material has been gaining popularity all over the world, possibly because of the increasing awareness of issues concerning the environment, ecology and pollution control. The present paper investigates extraction of natural dye from leaves of the plant Vitex negundo, which is an abundant, cheap, and readily available agricultural by-product. Water extracts from V. negundo was used to dye silk fabrics. Optimum extraction conditions included pH 9, duration 120 min, and temperature 90 °C. Optimum dyeing conditions included dyeing pH 5 and duration of 60 min. Potash alum, tannic and tartaric acid were used as mordants, all of which are benign to human health and the environment. Color strength and color coordinates in terms of L*, a*, b*, C, and h were examined. A range of shades were obtained when fabrics were dyed with different mordants and mordanting techniques. The extracted dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were found to be lower than the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The dyed silk fabrics showed acceptable fastness properties and were also found to possess antibacterial activity. It can be concluded that the abundantly available agricultural by-product V. negundo has great potential to be effectively utilized as a natural dye for silk.

  13. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  15. Fabrication of SnO2-Reduced Graphite Oxide Monolayer-Ordered Porous Film Gas Sensor with Tunable Sensitivity through Ultra-Violet Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shipu; Sun, Fengqiang; Yang, Shumin; Pan, Zizhao; Long, Jinfeng; Gu, Fenglong

    2015-03-01

    A new graphene-based composite structure, monolayer-ordered macroporous film composed of a layer of orderly arranged macropores, was reported. As an example, SnO2-reduced graphite oxide monolayer-ordered macroporous film was fabricated on a ceramic tube substrate under the irradiation of ultra-violet light (UV), by taking the latex microsphere two-dimensional colloid crystal as a template. Graphite oxide sheets dispersed in SnSO4 aqueous solution exhibited excellent affinity with template microspheres and were in situ incorporated into the pore walls during UV-induced growth of SnO2. The growing and the as-formed SnO2, just like other photocatalytic semiconductor, could be excited to produce electrons and holes under UV irradiation. Electrons reduced GO and holes adsorbed corresponding negative ions, which changed the properties of the composite film. This film was directly used as gas-sensor and was able to display high sensitivity in detecting ethanol gas. More interestingly, on the basis of SnO2-induced photochemical behaviours, this sensor demonstrated tunable sensitivity when UV irradiation time was controlled during the fabrication process and post in water, respectively. This study provides efficient ways of conducting the in situ fabrication of a semiconductor-reduced graphite oxide film device with uniform surface structure and controllable properties.

  16. Fabrication of SnO?-reduced graphite oxide monolayer-ordered porous film gas sensor with tunable sensitivity through ultra-violet light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shipu; Sun, Fengqiang; Yang, Shumin; Pan, Zizhao; Long, Jinfeng; Gu, Fenglong

    2015-01-01

    A new graphene-based composite structure, monolayer-ordered macroporous film composed of a layer of orderly arranged macropores, was reported. As an example, SnO2-reduced graphite oxide monolayer-ordered macroporous film was fabricated on a ceramic tube substrate under the irradiation of ultra-violet light (UV), by taking the latex microsphere two-dimensional colloid crystal as a template. Graphite oxide sheets dispersed in SnSO4 aqueous solution exhibited excellent affinity with template microspheres and were in situ incorporated into the pore walls during UV-induced growth of SnO2. The growing and the as-formed SnO2, just like other photocatalytic semiconductor, could be excited to produce electrons and holes under UV irradiation. Electrons reduced GO and holes adsorbed corresponding negative ions, which changed the properties of the composite film. This film was directly used as gas-sensor and was able to display high sensitivity in detecting ethanol gas. More interestingly, on the basis of SnO2-induced photochemical behaviours, this sensor demonstrated tunable sensitivity when UV irradiation time was controlled during the fabrication process and post in water, respectively. This study provides efficient ways of conducting the in situ fabrication of a semiconductor-reduced graphite oxide film device with uniform surface structure and controllable properties. PMID:25758292

  17. Fabrication of SnO2-Reduced Graphite Oxide Monolayer-Ordered Porous Film Gas Sensor with Tunable Sensitivity through Ultra-Violet Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shipu; Sun, Fengqiang; Yang, Shumin; Pan, Zizhao; Long, Jinfeng; Gu, Fenglong

    2015-01-01

    A new graphene-based composite structure, monolayer-ordered macroporous film composed of a layer of orderly arranged macropores, was reported. As an example, SnO2-reduced graphite oxide monolayer-ordered macroporous film was fabricated on a ceramic tube substrate under the irradiation of ultra-violet light (UV), by taking the latex microsphere two-dimensional colloid crystal as a template. Graphite oxide sheets dispersed in SnSO4 aqueous solution exhibited excellent affinity with template microspheres and were in situ incorporated into the pore walls during UV-induced growth of SnO2. The growing and the as-formed SnO2, just like other photocatalytic semiconductor, could be excited to produce electrons and holes under UV irradiation. Electrons reduced GO and holes adsorbed corresponding negative ions, which changed the properties of the composite film. This film was directly used as gas-sensor and was able to display high sensitivity in detecting ethanol gas. More interestingly, on the basis of SnO2-induced photochemical behaviours, this sensor demonstrated tunable sensitivity when UV irradiation time was controlled during the fabrication process and post in water, respectively. This study provides efficient ways of conducting the in situ fabrication of a semiconductor-reduced graphite oxide film device with uniform surface structure and controllable properties. PMID:25758292

  18. Pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized by modified sol-gel method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pure and pre dye treated titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel and modified sol-gel methods, respectively. The pre dye treatment has improved the properties of TiO2, such as uniform dye adsorption, reduced agglomeration, improved morphology and less dye aggregation. The brazilein pigment-rich Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract was used as natural dye sensitizer for pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Low cost and environment friendly dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye showed solar light to electron conversion efficiencies of 1.09 and 1.65 %, respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2-based DSSC showed 51 % improvement in efficiency when compared to that of conventionally prepared DSSC.

  19. 75 FR 62765 - Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...Administration [A-533-838] Carbazole Violet Pigment 23 From India: Final Results of Antidumping...as amended (the Act), that Meghmani Pigments is the successor-in-interest to Alpanil...we preliminarily found that Meghmani Pigments is the successor-in-interest to...

  20. Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: a tool for assessing mosaic disease severity in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin; Eghan, Moses J; Asare-Bediako, Elvis; Buah-Bassuah, Paul K

    2012-01-01

    Violet diode laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence was used in agronomical assessment (disease severity and average yield per plant). Because cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is of economic importance, improved cultivars with various levels of affinity for cassava mosaic disease were investigated. Fluorescence data correlated with cassava mosaic disease severity levels and with the average yield per plant. PMID:22519123